USRE36615E - Use of vanadium oxide in microbolometer sensors - Google Patents

Use of vanadium oxide in microbolometer sensors Download PDF

Info

Publication number
USRE36615E
USRE36615E US08920367 US92036797A USRE36615E US RE36615 E USRE36615 E US RE36615E US 08920367 US08920367 US 08920367 US 92036797 A US92036797 A US 92036797A US RE36615 E USRE36615 E US RE36615E
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
thin film
semiconductor
iaddend
iadd
detector
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US08920367
Inventor
R. Andrew Wood
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Honeywell Inc
Original Assignee
Honeywell Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Antenna arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/06Arrays of individually energised antenna units similarly polarised and spaced apart
    • H01Q21/061Two dimensional planar arrays
    • H01Q21/062Two dimensional planar arrays using dipole aerials
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/10Radiation pyrometry using electric radiation detectors
    • G01J5/20Radiation pyrometry using electric radiation detectors using resistors, thermistors or semiconductors sensitive to radiation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/14Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength, or corpuscular radiation and specially adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation
    • H01L27/144Devices controlled by radiation
    • H01L27/146Imager structures
    • H01L27/14601Structural or functional details thereof
    • H01L27/14603Special geometry or disposition of pixel-elements, address-lines or gate-electrodes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/36Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith
    • H01Q1/38Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith formed by a conductive layer on an insulating support
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q15/00Devices for reflection, refraction, diffraction or polarisation of waves radiated from an antenna, e.g. quasi-optical devices
    • H01Q15/02Refracting or diffracting devices, e.g. lens, prism
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q19/00Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic
    • H01Q19/06Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic using refracting or diffracting devices, e.g. lens
    • H01Q19/062Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic using refracting or diffracting devices, e.g. lens for focusing
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q5/00Arrangements for simultaneous operation of antennas on two or more different wavebands, e.g. dual-band or multi-band arrangements
    • H01Q5/40Imbricated or interleaved structures; Combined or electromagnetically coupled arrangements, e.g. comprising two or more non-connected fed radiating elements
    • H01Q5/42Imbricated or interleaved structures; Combined or electromagnetically coupled arrangements, e.g. comprising two or more non-connected fed radiating elements using two or more imbricated arrays
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/06Details
    • H01Q9/065Microstrip dipole antennas
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/16Resonant antennas with feed intermediate between the extremities of the antenna, e.g. centre-fed dipole

Abstract

In a microbolometer infrared radiation sensor, a detector material (VO2) having a high thermal coefficient of resistance to increase the sensitivity of the apparatus.

Description

The U.S. Government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to the terms of a contract DAAL01-85-C-0153.

This application is a continuation, of application Ser. No. 07/035,118, filed Mar. 11, 1987, now abandoned, which is a continuation in part of Ser. No. 781,557 filed 30 Sep. 1985, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,654,622.

BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention is directed to the field of microbolometer infrared radiation sensors. Particularly described herein is the use of a new detector material (ABx) in the microbolometer sensor.

A monolithic integrated focal plane sensitive to both mm-waves (typically 94 GHz) and (typically 3-5 and 8-12 micron) IR radiation is constructed on a silicon wafer by selective anisotropic etching to fabricate microbolometer radiation sensors in a linear or two-dimensional array. Sensors intended for IR detection are coated with an IR absorbing material. Those intended for mm-wave sensing are connected to metal film antennas deposited on the surface of the silicon wafer. In this structure there is combined known silicon IC processing techniques with a rugged high-g-load-tolerant structure that permits the thermal conduction losses to approach the radiative losses of the element. Of particular importance is the combining and interspersing of millimeter wave sensors with high performance infrared sensors and electronics on the same silicon chip, and fabricating in the same processing steps.

The fabrication of novel three-dimensional microelectronic devices in a semiconductor crystal, typically silicon has been accomplished by fabricating the device through many techniques including isotropic and anisotropic etching. These techniques utilize the cystalline structure of a single crystal semiconductor. An example is the Johnson et al patent 4,472,239, "Method of Making Semiconductor Device", assigned to the same assignee as the present invention. The referenced patent shows that the technique is known to manufacture micromechanical devices by etching into single crystal silicon. The citation of this patent is provided merely as background and is not deemed as prior art to the specific invention claimed in this application.

In the prior art, such as patent 3,801,949, there has been taught an infrared sensitive solid-state imaging device which is small in size and which has a two-dimensional array of IR detector elements in an integrated microcircuit. The detector array is fabricated on a single crystal silicon substrate coated with a thin layer of electrical insulating material, such as silicon dioxide or silicon nitride. Etched openings are made in the silicon beneath the insulating layer wherever a sensing element is desired for the purpose of thermally isolating the sensing elements from their surroundings. In the present invention an integrated dual-mode IR/millimeter-wave sensor array is taught. The section of the magnetic spectrum including millimeter waves and 3-5 or 8-12 micron infrared radiation is shown in FIG. 1. The mm-waves of about 94 GHz and the 3-12 micron IR are several orders of magnitude apart in frequency and devices for sensing or detecting these two categories differ substantially. It is desired to fabricate a monolithic integrated two-dimensional focal plane array which has array elements sensitive to 3-5 and/or 8-12 micron IR and elements sensitive to mm-waves. The elements incorporate VO2. The individual integrated sensors are about 0.1 mm in size and do not effectively couple the energy from the mm-waves which are of a greater wavelength. It has been discovered that when the integrated sensor elements intended for mm-wave detection are provided with antennas (such as full wave dipoles or bow-tie type) a successful mm-wave energy coupling apparatus is achieved.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 shows a pertinent section of the electromagnetic spectrum;

FIG. 2a is one embodiment of a microsensor linear array;

FIG. 2b discloses in two-dimensional geometry one embodiment of an integrated dual-mode IR sensors and mm-wave sensors;

FIG. 3 shows a cross section of a microsensor structure;

FIG. 4 shows the front surface detail of full-wave dipole antenna integrated IR/mm-wave array;

FIGS. 5a and 5b show detail of high thermal isolation microsensor;

FIG. 6 shows the overall scanned array functional diagram;

FIGS. 7 and 8 show the dual mode sensor design using bow-tie microantenna design.

FIG. 9 shows one embodiment of a dual-mode system illustrated schematically in FIG. 6.

DESCRIPTION

Referring now to FIG. 2a there is shown a linear geometry version of a monolithic integrated dual mode IR/mm-wave microsensor linear array. Two-dimensional arrays mayb be obtained by constructing several adjacent linear arrays. A focal plane sensitive to both IR radiation (3-5 and/or 8-12 micron) and mm-waves is constructed on a semiconductor substrate wafer 10, such as monocrystalline silicon. The microsensors 12 intended for IR sensing are coated with an IR absorbing material such as a thin metal film. The microsensors 13 intended for mm-wave sensing are connected to metal film antennas 14 deposited on the surface of the silicon wafer. A two-dimensional geometry version is shown in FIG. 2b in which IR sensitive microsensor arrays 15 are formed on one surface of the silicon wafer 10 and antennas 16 are formed on the other surface of the wafer. This embodiment will be described later.

In FIG. 3 there is shown a cross section of a microsensor structure showing the thermal isolation configuration as taught in patent 4,472,239, above referenced. The microsensor imaging array is on a silicon chip 19, based upon anisotropic silicon etching in which a small mass, thin film radiation detector 20 is fabricated into a thermally isolated dielectric cantilever structure 21 on the surface of the silicon chip. The small mass and thermal isolation provide arrays with excellent detector sensitivity and response time. The millimeter-wave array uses planar dipole or bow-tie type antennas to couple the mm-wave radiation to the thermally integrating microsensors.

In FIG. 4 there is shown a detail of the front surface of a full-wave dipole antenna type integrated infrared/millimeter wave sensor electronically scanned linear array. Interspersed with the multielement (ex.=300) IR detector elements 12' are a plurality (ex.=10) of antenna coupled mm-wave elements 13'. Also shown in block form is a bipolar pre-amp array 30 and an FET multiplexer 31. An IR/mm-wave output signal is detected at 32. A partial cross section of FIG. 4 cut through the detector array is shown in FIG. 5a. The silicon wafer 10 also includes a dielectric layer 33 and a copper ground plane 34. A detail of one of the high thermal isolation microsensors 35 is shown in the balloon of FIG. 5b in which a resistor sensor 20 carrying dielectric cantilever 21 is thermally isolated by the etch cavity in the silicon.

A structure which is required to couple efficiently to a mm-wave radiation field must necessarily have dimensions of the order of about the wavelength, e.g. 3 millimeters at 94 GHz). In the case of an uncooled sensor, a sensitive area this large would lead to degraded responsivity or response speed due to the increased thermal mass of the sensor. We therefore require dimension of a few mils, and must therefore couple the sensor to the radiation field via an antenna structure with dimensions of the order of the wavelength. Since microsensor arrays can be conveniently fabricated on silicon substrates by photolithographic processes, we desire the antenna and any coupling waveguides to be planar in design.

The mm-wave array portion, such as shown in FIGS. 2a and 4, is further shown in FIG. 6 and consists of a silicon substrate 10', upon which we use photolithography to fabricate an array of planar microantennas 40, coupling waveguides 41 and microsensors 13, with electrical leadouts to an electronic readout circuit as shown in FIG. 6. MM-wave radiation is collected by the microantennas 40, and coupled 41 to the dissipative load of the microsensors 13, whose temperatures will rise causing the resistance to change. A low-noise electronic circuit including a column address mux.42 and a row address mux.43 monitors the resistances of the microsensor elements and provides electrical signals 44 to output circuitry dependent on the application such as target detection and recognition.

The microsensor consists of a low-mass sensor element 20 which is almost completely thermally isolated from its supporting structure as shown earlier in FIG. 3. A resistance element is fabricated on the sensor using a material whose resistance changes with temperature. Any electrical power dissipated in this sensor resistance (e.g. by direct infrared radiation on the sensor or by mm-wave radiation coupled in from an antenna) heats the sensor element 20 by an amount inversely proportional to the sensor thermal mass and thermal conductance to the supporting structure. The sensitivity of the microsensor requires a low thermal mass sensor and good thermal isolation. The dissipated heat will flow to the supporting structure with a time constant given by the sensor thermal capacity times the thermal resistance to the surroundings. This response time can be arranged to be milliseconds without sacrificing sensitivity; faster response times can be achieved by trading off sensitivity. The thin film resistance element has contacts adapted to be connected to an output circuit. The electrical output signals are obtained by the use of a readout circuit which is sensitive to resistance changes in the microsensor resistance.

The ultimate signal to noise ratio of such a microsensor is achieved by the use of a very small sensor thermal mass, and very high thermal isolation from the supporting structure. The minimum noise level possible is due to Johnson noise in the sensor load resistance, preamplifier noise and to fluctuations in the radiative and conductive power interchanged between the sensor and its surroundings. In the case of mm-wave radiation coupled electrically into a microsensor from a microantenna, the sensor may be coated with a highly reflective material so that radiation interchange noise can be reduced to a low level. In this case the noise limits would be due to a) Johnson noise, b) amplifier noise and c) thermal conduction noise.

Of particular importance is the very low conduction noise which is achieved by the excellent thermal isolation and low mass of the proposed structure. Using typical parameter values demonstrated by the prototype devices, we calculate that noise equivalent power levels of 6×10-12 watts/√Hz are expected, assuming 75% coupling efficiency to the radiative mm-wave field. This calculated figure is in close agreement with experimental data obtained on prototype devices.

Experimental Results

Prototype devices have been connected to an electronic readout circuit designed to display small resistance changes on an oscilloscope. The sensors were installed in a metal chamber that could be evacuated to vary the sensor thermal leak. Windows of ZnS and glass were available to admit IR and mm-wave radiation into the sensor chamber. A 10 Hz chopper was mounted in front of the sensor window. A 1000° K. black body IR source was used to calibrate the sensor with an IR intensity of 7×10-4 W/cm2. A sensor response of about 100 mV was observed with the sensor at atmospheric pressure, and about 400 mV with the sensor cell evacuated. A 3.2 mm (94 GHz) CW oscillator source was used to illuminate the sensor with a mm-wave intensity of about 2×10-3 w/cm2 at the sensor. The observed signal amplitude from the sensor was measured at 280 mV. The mm-wave signals increased in amplitude by about a factor of four as the cell pressure was reduced from 760 to 0.5 torr, indicating that the signal was due to the normal microsensor thermal response mechanism.

Microantenna Considerations

The properties of planar antennas lying on dielectric (e.g. Si, Si3 N4, SiO2) surfaces are quite different from antennas in homogeneous media. The principal differences are 1) the polar diagram is always heavily biased towards the dielectric, so that efficient collection of radiation is biased towards radiation incident from the dielectric side, and 2) additional peaks in the polar diagram may occur: some peaks are found along the substrate surface plane, indicating coupling to substrate surface waves which will lead to cross-talk between adjacent antennas on that surface. Although the polar diagram of a planar antenna on a dielectric substrate is heavily biased towards the dielectric, this bias can be reversed by depositing a metallic ground plane (e.g. 2000° A. copper) on the back surface of the silicon substrate as shown in FIG. 5a, so that all radiation is reflected towards the air side, and the antenna only "looks" towards the air. This arrangement is very desirable, since IR sensors receive radiation from the airside, and common reflective optics can then be used for an array of mm-wave and IR-sensors fabricated on the same silicon wafer.

An alternate modification alluded to earlier is the use of "bow-tie" antenna designs where the incident radiation is through the dielectric substrate. Our tests have shown that bow-tie antennas can be used in linear arrays to efficiently collect mm-wave radiation incident through the substrate. In this configuration the IR radiation is absorbed in the front side detector elements while the mm-wave radiation passes through the silicon wafer and is collected by the backside bow-tie antennas (FIG. 8). In this approach through-the-wafer interconnects from antenna to sensor are preferably used. This alternate approach offers good performance, with

Simple, planar geometry fabricated from metal films deposited on Si wafer surfaces.

A polar diagram heavily biased (by a factor n3), where n is the refractive index, into the dielectric, with beam width tailorable by adjustment of the bow-tie angle as shown in FIG. 8.

A resistive characteristic impedance, tailorable by adjustment of the bow-tie angle, constant over wide frequency range.

Coupling of Antenna to Microsensors

The simplest way of coupling a dipole antenna to a radiation sensor is to fabricate the sensor between the arms of the dipole and metallize the antenna to the sensor load. The antenna impedance can be matched to sensor loads in the 100 ohm range.

A High Sensitivity Detector Material

Referring again to FIG. 3 which shows a cross section of a microsensor structure there is shown a detector element 20. The requirements of a high sensitivity material for microbolometer sensor detectors are

a) high thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR)

b) low 1/f noise

c) deposited in a thin film (<1000 angstroms)

d) process compatible with microbolometer fabrication technology

e) no anomalous thermal capacity

f) film impedance compatible with microbolometer read-out circuitry (100 to 100,000 ohms).

Vanadium oxides (preferably VO2) satisfy all these requirements. Vanadium oxides have very strong changes in resistance with temperature, allowing high sensitivity microbolometer operation. The TCR is typically -0.01 to -0.04 per degree Centigrade, and much higher at the semiconductor-to-metal transition. This typical range is much higher than the TCR for the detector material permalloy (previously used) which is approximately 0.0035 per degree Centigrade. The 1/f noise can be kept low by the use of high conductivity VO2, that is, about 1000 ohms/square in 1000 angstrom films. The VO2 thin film detector 20 can be deposited directly onto the dielectric layer 21 with a chosen film impedance. This deposition is preferably by the process of ion beam sputter which permits the deposition of very thin layers using growth conditions compatible with the silicon microbridge technology. In the preferred embodiment at this time the VO2 is operated in its semiconductor phase. An increased thermal capacity occurs at the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition, but is acceptably low.

Claims (25)

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or right is claimed are defined as follows:
1. An infrared radiation detector comprising in combination:
a semiconductor body having a depression formed in a first surface of the body;
a thin film dielectric member attached to the first surface at least at one location and positioned to .[.suspend the dielectric member.]. .Iadd.be suspended .Iaddend.as a thermally isolated structure over said depression; and.[.,.].
a thin film layer of vanadium oxide .Iadd.operated in its semiconductor phase and .Iaddend.embedded in said dielectric member over said depression, said thin film layer having a high temperature coefficient of resistance; and, contacts to said thin film layer of vanadium oxide adapted to be connected to a measuring circuit.
2. The detector according to claim 1 in which the thin film layer of vanadium oxide is of a thickness <1000 angstroms.
3. The detector according to claim 1 in which the thin film layer of vanadium oxide has a resistivity on the order of 1000 ohms per square.
4. The detector according to claim 1 in which the thin film dielectric is of silicon nitride.
5. The detector according to claim 1 in which the semiconductor body is of single crystalline silicon.
6. The infrared detector according to claim 1 further comprising: an antenna member coupled to the thin film layer of vanadium oxide.
7. The detector according to claim 6 wherein the antenna member comprises a metallic conductor shaped to optimize electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength.
8. The detector according to claim 7 wherein the antenna member comprises a dipole antenna disposed upon the thin film dielectric member.
9. The detector according to claim 8 further comprising an electrically conducting ground plane disposed on a second surface of the semiconductor body opposite the first surface of the semiconductor body.
10. The detector according to claim 9, wherein the ground plane is composed of copper.
11. The detector according to claim 10, wherein the ground plane is a thickness effective to reflect radiation incident on the first surface of the semiconductor body back through the semiconductor body and toward the antenna member.
12. The detector according to claim 11, wherein the copper ground plane is approximately 2000 Angstroms thick.
13. The detector of claim 8 wherein the antenna member comprises generally a bow-tie shape and wherein the bow-tie shaped antenna is electrically coupled to the thin film layer of vanadium oxide at the center, or "knot," of the bow-tie shaped antenna.
14. An infrared radiation detector comprising in combination:
a thin film resistor of vanadium oxide .Iadd.operated in its semiconductor phase and .Iaddend.encapsulated in .Iadd.a .Iaddend.thin film dielectric;
a semiconductor body having a depression therein;
the encapsulated thin film resistor of vanadium oxide and thin film dielectric forming a thin film member bridged across the depression so that at least a major portion of the thin film resistor is out of contact with the semiconductor body; and,
contacts to said thin film resistor adapted to be connected to a measuring circuit.
15. The detector according to claim 14 in which the thin film layer of vanadium oxide is of a thickness <1000 angstroms.
16. The detector according to claim 14 in which the thin film layer of vanadium oxide has a resistivity on the order of 1000 ohms per square.
17. The detector according to claim 14 in which the thin film dielectric is of silicon nitride.
18. The detector according to claim 14 in which the semiconductor body is of single crystalline silicon.
19. An infrared radiation detector comprising in combination:
a single crystalline silicon substrate having a depression formed in a first surface of the substrate;
a thin film silicon nitride member attached to the first surface at least at one location and positioned to be suspended over said depression as a thermally isolated structure;
a thin film layer of vanadium oxide .Iadd.operated in its semiconductor phase and .Iaddend.embedded in said silicon nitride member, said thin film layer having a high temperature coefficient of resistance; and.[.,.].
contacts to said thin film layer of vanadium oxide adapted to be connected to a measuring circuit.
20. An infrared radiation detector comprising in combination:
a thin film resistor of vanadium oxide .Iadd.operated in its semiconductor phase and .Iaddend.embedded in a thin film silicon nitride member;
a silicon substrate having a depression in the major surface thereof;
the thin film resistor and the thin film silicon nitride member forming a thin film member fastened to the surface and bridged across the depression so that at least a major portion of the thin film resistor is out of contact with the substrate; and,
contacts on said thin film resistor adapted to be connected to a measuring circuit.
21. An infrared detector element comprising:
a cavity in a semiconductor structure across one surface of which is suspended a resistor of vanadium oxide .Iadd.operated in its semiconductor phase and .Iaddend.being suspended and supported by a thin film of dielectric material,
said suspension being disposed such that at least a major portion of said vanadium oxide resistor is out of substantial thermal contact with said semiconductor structure.
22. An infrared detector as set forth in claim 21 wherein said vanadium oxide resistor is a thin film resistor.
23. The infrared detector according to claim 21, further comprising an antenna member coupled to the thin film layer of vanadium oxide.
24. An infrared radiation detector element comprising a semiconductor structure having a cavity across which is suspended a highly sensitive detector material which has a thermal coefficient of resistance greater than metal, a film thickness of less than 1000 Å, and having film impedance in the range of 100 to 100,000 ohms, said detector material .Iadd.being a metal oxide semiconductor operated in its semiconductor phase and .Iaddend.disposed upon a layer of a dielectric material which supports said highly sensitive detector material so that a major portion of said highly sensitive detector material is out of contact with said semiconductor structure. .Iadd.25. A high-sensitivity infrared radiation detector comprising in combination:
a semiconductor body;
a thin film dielectric member attached to said body at least at one location and positioned to be suspended as a thermally isolated structure over said body;
a thin film layer of an oxide of vanadium operated in its semiconductor phase and embedded in said dielectric member, said thin film layer having a high temperature coefficient of resistance; and
contacts to said thin film layer being adapted to be connected to a measuring circuit. .Iaddend..Iadd.26. Apparatus of claim 25 wherein said thin film layer of an oxide of vanadium is of a thickness <1000 Angstroms.
.Iaddend..Iadd.27. Apparatus of claim 25 wherein said thin film dielectric member is of silicon nitride. .Iaddend..Iadd.28. Apparatus of claim 25 wherein said semiconductor body is of single crystalline silicon. .Iaddend..Iadd.29. A high sensitivity electromagnetic energy detector comprising in combination:
a supporting body;
a dielectric member attached to said body at least at one location and positioned to be suspended as a thermally isolated structure over said body;
a metal oxide semiconductor material supported by said dielectric member, said semiconductor material being operated in its semiconductor phase and having a high temperature coefficient of resistance; and
contacts to said semiconductor material adapted to be connected to a measuring circuit. .Iaddend..Iadd.30. Apparatus of claim 29 further characterized by said supporting body being a semiconductor. .Iaddend..Iadd.31. Apparatus of claim 29 further characterized by said dielectric member being a thin film. .Iaddend..Iadd.32. Apparatus of claim 29 further characterized by said metal oxide semiconductor material comprising oxides of vanadium. .Iaddend..Iadd.33. Apparatus of claim 32 further characterized by said metal oxide semiconductor material being a thin film. .Iaddend..Iadd.34. Apparatus of claim 30 further characterized by said dielectric member and said metal oxide semiconductor material being thin films. .Iaddend..Iadd.35. Apparatus of claim 34 further characterized by said metal oxide semiconductor material comprising oxides of vanadium. .Iaddend.
US08920367 1985-09-30 1997-08-29 Use of vanadium oxide in microbolometer sensors Expired - Lifetime USRE36615E (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US06781557 US4654622A (en) 1985-09-30 1985-09-30 Monolithic integrated dual mode IR/mm-wave focal plane sensor
US3511887 true 1987-03-11 1987-03-11
US08085243 US5450053A (en) 1985-09-30 1993-06-29 Use of vanadium oxide in microbolometer sensors
US08920367 USRE36615E (en) 1985-09-30 1997-08-29 Use of vanadium oxide in microbolometer sensors

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08920367 USRE36615E (en) 1985-09-30 1997-08-29 Use of vanadium oxide in microbolometer sensors

Related Parent Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3511887 Continuation 1987-03-11 1987-03-11
US08085243 Reissue US5450053A (en) 1985-09-30 1993-06-29 Use of vanadium oxide in microbolometer sensors

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
USRE36615E true USRE36615E (en) 2000-03-14

Family

ID=26711767

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08085243 Expired - Lifetime US5450053A (en) 1985-09-30 1993-06-29 Use of vanadium oxide in microbolometer sensors
US08920367 Expired - Lifetime USRE36615E (en) 1985-09-30 1997-08-29 Use of vanadium oxide in microbolometer sensors

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08085243 Expired - Lifetime US5450053A (en) 1985-09-30 1993-06-29 Use of vanadium oxide in microbolometer sensors

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US5450053A (en)

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6313463B1 (en) 1996-12-31 2001-11-06 Honeywell International Inc. Flexible high performance microbolometer detector material fabricated via controlled ion beam sputter deposition process
US6323486B1 (en) * 1998-07-31 2001-11-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of Commerce Method and apparatus for bias and readout of bolometers operated on a hysteretic metal-insulator transition
US6541772B2 (en) 2000-12-26 2003-04-01 Honeywell International Inc. Microbolometer operating system
US6559447B2 (en) 2000-12-26 2003-05-06 Honeywell International Inc. Lightweight infrared camera
US20030197124A1 (en) * 2000-12-26 2003-10-23 Honeywell International Inc. Camera having distortion correction
EP1384268A1 (en) * 2001-03-29 2004-01-28 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Three-dimensional metal devices highly suspended above semiconductor substrate, their circuit model, and method for manufacturing the same
US20040030383A1 (en) * 2002-06-06 2004-02-12 Havey Gary David Method and apparatus for sensory substitution, vision prosthesis, or low-vision enhancement utilizing thermal sensing
US20040084308A1 (en) * 2002-11-01 2004-05-06 Cole Barrett E. Gas sensor
US20050238080A1 (en) * 2002-04-01 2005-10-27 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Resistive thermal sensing
US20050254994A1 (en) * 2002-04-01 2005-11-17 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Thermal sensing with bridge circuitry
US20050254552A1 (en) * 2002-04-01 2005-11-17 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Thermal sensing
US20060028976A1 (en) * 2004-07-02 2006-02-09 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Apparatus and method for transmitting/receiving pilot signal in communication system using OFDM scheme
US7754492B2 (en) 2002-04-01 2010-07-13 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Thermal sensing device
US20110073877A1 (en) * 2009-09-28 2011-03-31 Nova Research, Inc. High-current/low cost read-in integrated circuit
US20130032717A1 (en) * 2011-08-04 2013-02-07 Seiko Epson Corporation Infrared detecting element and electronic device

Families Citing this family (74)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5729019A (en) * 1995-12-29 1998-03-17 Honeywell Inc. Split field-of-view uncooled infrared sensor
DE69738759D1 (en) * 1996-01-11 2008-07-24 Imc Ind Mikroelektronikcentrum Structures for temperature sensors and detectors ir
US5962909A (en) * 1996-09-12 1999-10-05 Institut National D'optique Microstructure suspended by a microsupport
US5831266A (en) * 1996-09-12 1998-11-03 Institut National D'optique Microbridge structure for emitting or detecting radiations and method for forming such microbridge structure
JP3236860B2 (en) * 1996-10-29 2001-12-10 日本電気株式会社 Method of manufacturing a thermal infrared sensor
US6337991B1 (en) 1996-11-05 2002-01-08 Corning Applied Technologies Corp. Large temperature coefficient of resistance material
JP3040356B2 (en) * 1997-01-27 2000-05-15 三菱電機株式会社 Infrared solid-state imaging device
JP2976924B2 (en) * 1997-05-19 1999-11-10 日本電気株式会社 Thin film temperature sensitive resistance material and manufacturing method thereof
GB9710843D0 (en) * 1997-05-28 1997-07-23 Secr Defence A thermal detector array
US6459084B1 (en) * 1997-05-30 2002-10-01 University Of Central Florida Area receiver with antenna-coupled infrared sensors
US5854587A (en) * 1997-06-26 1998-12-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy REx M1-x Mny O.sub.δ films for microbolometer-based IR focal plane arrays
US5900799A (en) * 1997-10-03 1999-05-04 Mcdonnell Douglas Corporation High responsivity thermochromic infrared detector
US6144030A (en) * 1997-10-28 2000-11-07 Raytheon Company Advanced small pixel high fill factor uncooled focal plane array
WO2000040938A1 (en) * 1999-01-08 2000-07-13 Sarnoff Corporation Optical detectors using nulling for high linearity and large dynamic range
US6144285A (en) * 1999-09-13 2000-11-07 Honeywell International Inc. Thermal sensor and method of making same
US6300632B1 (en) 1999-10-14 2001-10-09 The Regents Of The University Of Michigan Uncooled infrared focal plane imager and microelectromechanical infrared detector for use therein
US6576904B1 (en) 1999-11-10 2003-06-10 Itt Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc. Transition edge detector technology for high performance IR focal plane arrays
US6521477B1 (en) 2000-02-02 2003-02-18 Raytheon Company Vacuum package fabrication of integrated circuit components
US6479320B1 (en) 2000-02-02 2002-11-12 Raytheon Company Vacuum package fabrication of microelectromechanical system devices with integrated circuit components
US6690014B1 (en) 2000-04-25 2004-02-10 Raytheon Company Microbolometer and method for forming
EP1328964A4 (en) 2000-10-13 2006-09-13 Litton Systems Inc Monolithic lead-salt infrared radiation detectors
US6507021B1 (en) 2000-11-15 2003-01-14 Drs Sensors & Targeting Systems, Inc. Reference bolometer and associated fabrication methods
US6657197B2 (en) 2000-12-22 2003-12-02 Honeywell International Inc. Small profile spectrometer
US6777681B1 (en) 2001-04-25 2004-08-17 Raytheon Company Infrared detector with amorphous silicon detector elements, and a method of making it
US6563185B2 (en) * 2001-05-21 2003-05-13 The Regents Of The University Of Colorado High speed electron tunneling device and applications
US7145165B2 (en) * 2001-09-12 2006-12-05 Honeywell International Inc. Tunable laser fluid sensor
US7902534B2 (en) * 2004-09-28 2011-03-08 Honeywell International Inc. Cavity ring down system having a common input/output port
US7586114B2 (en) * 2004-09-28 2009-09-08 Honeywell International Inc. Optical cavity system having an orthogonal input
US7649189B2 (en) * 2006-12-04 2010-01-19 Honeywell International Inc. CRDS mirror for normal incidence fiber optic coupling
US20070133001A1 (en) * 2001-09-12 2007-06-14 Honeywell International Inc. Laser sensor having a block ring activity
US6816636B2 (en) * 2001-09-12 2004-11-09 Honeywell International Inc. Tunable optical filter
US7470894B2 (en) * 2002-03-18 2008-12-30 Honeywell International Inc. Multi-substrate package assembly
US7132655B2 (en) * 2002-12-02 2006-11-07 Raytheon Company Passive millimeter wave sensor using high temperature superconducting leads
US6958478B2 (en) 2003-05-19 2005-10-25 Indigo Systems Corporation Microbolometer detector with high fill factor and transducers having enhanced thermal isolation
JP4645961B2 (en) * 2003-05-27 2011-03-09 カーディオウエーブ インコーポレーテッド System and method for detecting core body temperature of the subject by infrared images, remote, noninvasive
US7170059B2 (en) * 2003-10-03 2007-01-30 Wood Roland A Planar thermal array
WO2005098380A1 (en) * 2004-04-08 2005-10-20 Tayfun Akin Ultra low-cost uncooled infrared detector arrays in cmos
US7262413B2 (en) * 2005-03-14 2007-08-28 Kauffman Christopher L Photoconductive bolometer infrared detector
US7462831B2 (en) * 2006-01-26 2008-12-09 L-3 Communications Corporation Systems and methods for bonding
US7459686B2 (en) * 2006-01-26 2008-12-02 L-3 Communications Corporation Systems and methods for integrating focal plane arrays
US7655909B2 (en) * 2006-01-26 2010-02-02 L-3 Communications Corporation Infrared detector elements and methods of forming same
US7656532B2 (en) * 2006-04-18 2010-02-02 Honeywell International Inc. Cavity ring-down spectrometer having mirror isolation
US7718965B1 (en) 2006-08-03 2010-05-18 L-3 Communications Corporation Microbolometer infrared detector elements and methods for forming same
US8080797B2 (en) * 2006-09-08 2011-12-20 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Foerderung Der Angewandten Forschung E.V. Bolometer and method of producing a bolometer
US8153980B1 (en) 2006-11-30 2012-04-10 L-3 Communications Corp. Color correction for radiation detectors
WO2008112764A1 (en) * 2007-03-12 2008-09-18 Nantero, Inc. Electromagnetic and thermal sensors using carbon nanotubes and methods of making same
US7750301B1 (en) 2007-10-02 2010-07-06 Flir Systems, Inc. Microbolometer optical cavity tuning and calibration systems and methods
US7663756B2 (en) * 2008-07-21 2010-02-16 Honeywell International Inc Cavity enhanced photo acoustic gas sensor
DE102008046319B3 (en) * 2008-08-29 2009-12-17 Technische Universität Dresden Resistive sensor for measuring e.g. temperature in industrial application, has electrodes, where chopstick shaped electrically conductive particle is dielectrophoretically aligned on substrate between electrodes
US8178842B2 (en) * 2008-10-20 2012-05-15 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Nanowire bolometer photodetector
US8198590B2 (en) * 2008-10-30 2012-06-12 Honeywell International Inc. High reflectance terahertz mirror and related method
US7864326B2 (en) 2008-10-30 2011-01-04 Honeywell International Inc. Compact gas sensor using high reflectance terahertz mirror and related system and method
US8618481B2 (en) * 2008-11-21 2013-12-31 Babak NIKOOBAKHT Use of noble metal nanoparticles as light absorbers and heat generators in thermal photodetectors, sensors and microelectromechanical devices
US8329002B1 (en) 2009-03-10 2012-12-11 4Wave, Inc. Thin films and methods and machines for forming the thin films
US7915585B2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2011-03-29 Bae Systems Information And Electronic Systems Integration Inc. Microbolometer pixel and fabrication method utilizing ion implantation
EP2264765A1 (en) 2009-06-19 2010-12-22 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Housing for an infrared radiation micro device and method for fabricating such housing
US8729474B1 (en) 2009-10-09 2014-05-20 Flir Systems, Inc. Microbolometer contact systems and methods
US9658111B2 (en) 2009-10-09 2017-05-23 Flir Systems, Inc. Microbolometer contact systems and methods
US8297837B1 (en) * 2010-04-01 2012-10-30 Angelo Gaitas Metal and semimetal sensors near the metal insulator transition regime
US8269972B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2012-09-18 Honeywell International Inc. Beam intensity detection in a cavity ring down sensor
US8437000B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2013-05-07 Honeywell International Inc. Multiple wavelength cavity ring down gas sensor
US8322191B2 (en) 2010-06-30 2012-12-04 Honeywell International Inc. Enhanced cavity for a photoacoustic gas sensor
US8765514B1 (en) 2010-11-12 2014-07-01 L-3 Communications Corp. Transitioned film growth for conductive semiconductor materials
WO2013089824A8 (en) * 2011-12-13 2016-03-31 The Board Of Regents For Oklahoma State University Nanowire thermoelectric infrared detector
US9097579B2 (en) * 2011-08-03 2015-08-04 National Chiao Tung University Electrical calibrated radiometer
JP2013209231A (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-10-10 Hitachi Ltd Glass substrate having fine structure on surface thereof
US9658155B2 (en) 2012-12-17 2017-05-23 Patrick K Brady System and method for identifying materials using a THz spectral fingerprint in a media with high water content
US9261411B2 (en) 2012-12-19 2016-02-16 Institut National D'optique Uncooled microbolometer detector and array for terahertz detection
US9494464B2 (en) 2013-02-20 2016-11-15 Battelle Energy Alliance, Llc Terahertz imaging devices and systems, and related methods, for detection of materials
DE102014008315A1 (en) 2014-05-31 2015-12-03 Albert Walenta Capacitive phase selection for dielectric micro-bolometer
US9726547B2 (en) 2014-11-25 2017-08-08 Globalfoundries Inc. Microbolometer devices in CMOS and BiCMOS technologies
RU2638381C1 (en) * 2016-07-20 2017-12-13 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Саратовский государственный технический университет имени Гагарина Ю.А." (СГТУ имени Гагарина Ю.А.) Device for visualization of infrared and terahetz radiations
CN107180888A (en) * 2017-06-29 2017-09-19 上海集成电路研发中心有限公司 Infrared detector with high resistivity and preparation method thereof
CN107393999A (en) * 2017-06-29 2017-11-24 上海集成电路研发中心有限公司 Infrared detector with vertical side wall sensitive layer and preparation method thereof

Citations (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3484611A (en) * 1967-05-16 1969-12-16 Hitachi Ltd Infrared detector composed of a sintered body of vanadium pentoxide and vanadium oxide
US3619614A (en) * 1967-12-31 1971-11-09 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd An infrared intensity detector
US3629585A (en) * 1968-12-31 1971-12-21 Philips Corp Immersed bolometer using thin film thermistors
US3693011A (en) * 1971-02-02 1972-09-19 Hughes Aircraft Co Ion implanted bolometer
US3801949A (en) * 1973-03-08 1974-04-02 Rca Corp Thermal detector and method of making the same
DE2253214A1 (en) * 1972-10-30 1974-05-22 Siemens Ag Means for measuring a temperature-radiation
US3851174A (en) * 1973-05-04 1974-11-26 Ibm Light detector for the nanosecond-dc pulse width range
US3896309A (en) * 1973-05-21 1975-07-22 Westinghouse Electric Corp Radiation detecting device
US4009516A (en) * 1976-03-29 1977-03-01 Honeywell Inc. Pyroelectric detector fabrication
US4029962A (en) * 1975-06-23 1977-06-14 Texas Instruments Incorporated Arrays for infrared image detection
US4067104A (en) * 1977-02-24 1978-01-10 Rockwell International Corporation Method of fabricating an array of flexible metallic interconnects for coupling microelectronics components
US4115692A (en) * 1977-05-04 1978-09-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Solid state readout device for a two dimensional pyroelectric detector array
US4169273A (en) * 1978-06-26 1979-09-25 Honeywell Inc. Photodetector signal processing
US4239312A (en) * 1978-11-29 1980-12-16 Hughes Aircraft Company Parallel interconnect for planar arrays
US4286278A (en) * 1977-09-01 1981-08-25 Honeywell Inc. Hybrid mosaic IR/CCD focal plane
US4317126A (en) * 1980-04-14 1982-02-23 Motorola, Inc. Silicon pressure sensor
US4354109A (en) * 1979-12-31 1982-10-12 Honeywell Inc. Mounting for pyroelectric detecctor arrays
US4365106A (en) * 1979-08-24 1982-12-21 Pulvari Charles F Efficient method and apparatus for converting solar energy to electrical energy
US4378489A (en) * 1981-05-18 1983-03-29 Honeywell Inc. Miniature thin film infrared calibration source
JPS58131525A (en) * 1982-01-31 1983-08-05 Matsushita Electric Works Ltd Infrared-ray detector
US4463493A (en) * 1981-10-14 1984-08-07 Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Method for making mask aligned narrow isolation grooves for a semiconductor device
US4472239A (en) * 1981-10-09 1984-09-18 Honeywell, Inc. Method of making semiconductor device
JPS60119426A (en) * 1983-12-01 1985-06-26 Murata Mfg Co Ltd Thin film type pyroelectric sensor array
JPS61170626A (en) * 1985-01-24 1986-08-01 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Infrared linear array element
JPS61195318A (en) * 1985-02-26 1986-08-29 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Pyroelectric type infrared detector
US4654622A (en) * 1985-09-30 1987-03-31 Honeywell Inc. Monolithic integrated dual mode IR/mm-wave focal plane sensor
US4691104A (en) * 1984-06-14 1987-09-01 Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. One-dimensional pyroelectric sensor array
US4750834A (en) * 1986-01-07 1988-06-14 D.O.M. Associates, Inc. Interferometer including stationary, electrically alterable optical masking device
US4803360A (en) * 1984-09-19 1989-02-07 U.S. Philips Corp. Infrared radiation detector with flanged semiconductor window
JPH01136035A (en) * 1987-11-24 1989-05-29 Hamamatsu Photonics Kk Pyroelectric detection element and manufacture thereof
JPH0341305A (en) * 1989-07-07 1991-02-21 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Pyroelectric device for detecting infrared ray
US5017784A (en) * 1985-03-11 1991-05-21 Savin Corporation Thermal detector
WO1991016607A1 (en) * 1990-04-26 1991-10-31 Commonwealth Of Australia, The Secretary Department Of Defence Semiconductor film bolometer thermal infrared detector
US5455421A (en) * 1985-08-13 1995-10-03 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Infrared detector using a resonant optical cavity for enhanced absorption

Patent Citations (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3484611A (en) * 1967-05-16 1969-12-16 Hitachi Ltd Infrared detector composed of a sintered body of vanadium pentoxide and vanadium oxide
US3619614A (en) * 1967-12-31 1971-11-09 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd An infrared intensity detector
US3629585A (en) * 1968-12-31 1971-12-21 Philips Corp Immersed bolometer using thin film thermistors
US3693011A (en) * 1971-02-02 1972-09-19 Hughes Aircraft Co Ion implanted bolometer
DE2253214A1 (en) * 1972-10-30 1974-05-22 Siemens Ag Means for measuring a temperature-radiation
US3801949A (en) * 1973-03-08 1974-04-02 Rca Corp Thermal detector and method of making the same
US3851174A (en) * 1973-05-04 1974-11-26 Ibm Light detector for the nanosecond-dc pulse width range
US3896309A (en) * 1973-05-21 1975-07-22 Westinghouse Electric Corp Radiation detecting device
US4029962A (en) * 1975-06-23 1977-06-14 Texas Instruments Incorporated Arrays for infrared image detection
US4009516A (en) * 1976-03-29 1977-03-01 Honeywell Inc. Pyroelectric detector fabrication
US4067104A (en) * 1977-02-24 1978-01-10 Rockwell International Corporation Method of fabricating an array of flexible metallic interconnects for coupling microelectronics components
US4115692A (en) * 1977-05-04 1978-09-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Solid state readout device for a two dimensional pyroelectric detector array
US4286278A (en) * 1977-09-01 1981-08-25 Honeywell Inc. Hybrid mosaic IR/CCD focal plane
US4169273A (en) * 1978-06-26 1979-09-25 Honeywell Inc. Photodetector signal processing
US4239312A (en) * 1978-11-29 1980-12-16 Hughes Aircraft Company Parallel interconnect for planar arrays
US4365106A (en) * 1979-08-24 1982-12-21 Pulvari Charles F Efficient method and apparatus for converting solar energy to electrical energy
US4354109A (en) * 1979-12-31 1982-10-12 Honeywell Inc. Mounting for pyroelectric detecctor arrays
US4317126A (en) * 1980-04-14 1982-02-23 Motorola, Inc. Silicon pressure sensor
US4378489A (en) * 1981-05-18 1983-03-29 Honeywell Inc. Miniature thin film infrared calibration source
US4472239A (en) * 1981-10-09 1984-09-18 Honeywell, Inc. Method of making semiconductor device
US4463493A (en) * 1981-10-14 1984-08-07 Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Method for making mask aligned narrow isolation grooves for a semiconductor device
JPS58131525A (en) * 1982-01-31 1983-08-05 Matsushita Electric Works Ltd Infrared-ray detector
JPS60119426A (en) * 1983-12-01 1985-06-26 Murata Mfg Co Ltd Thin film type pyroelectric sensor array
US4691104A (en) * 1984-06-14 1987-09-01 Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. One-dimensional pyroelectric sensor array
US4803360A (en) * 1984-09-19 1989-02-07 U.S. Philips Corp. Infrared radiation detector with flanged semiconductor window
JPS61170626A (en) * 1985-01-24 1986-08-01 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Infrared linear array element
JPS61195318A (en) * 1985-02-26 1986-08-29 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Pyroelectric type infrared detector
US5017784A (en) * 1985-03-11 1991-05-21 Savin Corporation Thermal detector
US5455421A (en) * 1985-08-13 1995-10-03 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Infrared detector using a resonant optical cavity for enhanced absorption
US4654622A (en) * 1985-09-30 1987-03-31 Honeywell Inc. Monolithic integrated dual mode IR/mm-wave focal plane sensor
US4750834A (en) * 1986-01-07 1988-06-14 D.O.M. Associates, Inc. Interferometer including stationary, electrically alterable optical masking device
JPH01136035A (en) * 1987-11-24 1989-05-29 Hamamatsu Photonics Kk Pyroelectric detection element and manufacture thereof
JPH0341305A (en) * 1989-07-07 1991-02-21 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Pyroelectric device for detecting infrared ray
WO1991016607A1 (en) * 1990-04-26 1991-10-31 Commonwealth Of Australia, The Secretary Department Of Defence Semiconductor film bolometer thermal infrared detector

Non-Patent Citations (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
A. Tanaka, et al., Infrared Linear Image Sensor using a Poly Si pn Junction Diode Array, 33 Infrared Phys., 229 236, 1992. *
A. Tanaka, et al., Infrared Linear Image Sensor using a Poly-Si pn Junction Diode Array, 33 Infrared Phys., 229-236, 1992.
E. Bassous, Fabrication of Novel Three Dimensional Microstructures by the Anisotropic Etching of(100) and (110) Silicon, 10 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 1178 1185, 1978 (FF). *
E. Bassous, Fabrication of Novel Three Dimensional Microstructures by the Anisotropic Etching of(100) and (110) Silicon, 10 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 1178-1185, 1978 (FF).
H. Elabd & W.F. Kosonocky, Theory and Measurements of Photoresponse for Thin Film Pd 2 Si and PtSi Infrared Schottky Barrier Detectors with Optical Cavity, 43 RCA Review, 569 588, 1982. *
H. Elabd & W.F. Kosonocky, Theory and Measurements of Photoresponse for Thin Film Pd2 Si and PtSi Infrared Schottky-Barrier Detectors with Optical Cavity, 43 RCA Review, 569-588, 1982.
K.C. Liddiard, Thin Film Resistance Bolometer IR Detectors II, Infrared Phys., vol. 26, No. 1, 43 49, 1986. *
K.C. Liddiard, Thin Film Resistance Bolometer IR Detectors, Infrared Phys., vol. 24, No. 1, 57 64, 1984. *
K.C. Liddiard, Thin Film Resistance Bolometer IR Detectors, Infrared Phys., vol. 24, No. 1, 57-64, 1984.
K.C. Liddiard, Thin-Film Resistance Bolometer IR Detectors--II, Infrared Phys., vol. 26, No. 1, 43-49, 1986.
Kurt E. Peterson, Dynamic Micromechanics on Silicon: Techniques and Devices, 10, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 1241 1250, 1978. *
Kurt E. Peterson, Dynamic Micromechanics on Silicon: Techniques and Devices, 10, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 1241-1250, 1978.
Kurt Peterson & Anne Shartel, Micromechanical Accelerometer Integrated with MOS Detection Circuitry, IBM Research Facility, 1980. *
M. Okuyama, et al., Si Monolithic Integrated Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor Using PbTiO 3 Thin Film, 6. International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 71 78, 1985. *
M. Okuyama, et al., Si-Monolithic Integrated Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor Using PbTiO3 Thin Film, 6. International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 71-78, 1985.
Suzuki, et al, An Infrared Detector Using Poly Silicon p n Junction Diode, Tech Digest of 9th Sensor Symposium, 71 74, 1990. *
Suzuki, et al, An Infrared Detector Using Poly-Silicon p-n Junction Diode, Tech Digest of 9th Sensor Symposium, 71-74, 1990.
W.F. Kosonosky, et al., 160 ×244 Element PtSi Schottky-Barrier IR-CCD Image Sensor, vol. Ed-32, No. 8, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 1564-1573, Aug., 1985.
W.F. Kosonosky, et al., 160 244 Element PtSi Schottky Barrier IR CCD Image Sensor, vol. Ed 32, No. 8, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 1564 1573, Aug., 1985. *

Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6313463B1 (en) 1996-12-31 2001-11-06 Honeywell International Inc. Flexible high performance microbolometer detector material fabricated via controlled ion beam sputter deposition process
US6322670B2 (en) 1996-12-31 2001-11-27 Honeywell International Inc. Flexible high performance microbolometer detector material fabricated via controlled ion beam sputter deposition process
US6495070B1 (en) 1996-12-31 2002-12-17 Honeywell International Inc. Flexible high performance microbolometer detector material fabricated via controlled ion beam sputter deposition process
US6323486B1 (en) * 1998-07-31 2001-11-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of Commerce Method and apparatus for bias and readout of bolometers operated on a hysteretic metal-insulator transition
US6541772B2 (en) 2000-12-26 2003-04-01 Honeywell International Inc. Microbolometer operating system
US6559447B2 (en) 2000-12-26 2003-05-06 Honeywell International Inc. Lightweight infrared camera
US20030197124A1 (en) * 2000-12-26 2003-10-23 Honeywell International Inc. Camera having distortion correction
US6661010B2 (en) 2000-12-26 2003-12-09 Honeywell International Inc. Microbolometer operating system
US7365326B2 (en) 2000-12-26 2008-04-29 Honeywell International Inc. Camera having distortion correction
US20090321637A1 (en) * 2000-12-26 2009-12-31 Honeywell International Inc. Camera having distortion correction
EP1384268A1 (en) * 2001-03-29 2004-01-28 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Three-dimensional metal devices highly suspended above semiconductor substrate, their circuit model, and method for manufacturing the same
EP1384268A4 (en) * 2001-03-29 2007-05-09 Korea Advanced Inst Sci & Tech Three-dimensional metal devices highly suspended above semiconductor substrate, their circuit model, and method for manufacturing the same
US7833800B2 (en) 2002-04-01 2010-11-16 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Thermal sensing with bridge circuitry
US20050254994A1 (en) * 2002-04-01 2005-11-17 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Thermal sensing with bridge circuitry
US20050238080A1 (en) * 2002-04-01 2005-10-27 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Resistive thermal sensing
US7754492B2 (en) 2002-04-01 2010-07-13 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Thermal sensing device
US7473030B2 (en) 2002-04-01 2009-01-06 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Thermal sensing
US7473031B2 (en) * 2002-04-01 2009-01-06 Palo Alto Research Center, Incorporated Resistive thermal sensing
US20050254552A1 (en) * 2002-04-01 2005-11-17 Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Thermal sensing
US7308314B2 (en) 2002-06-06 2007-12-11 Advanced Medical Electronics Method and apparatus for sensory substitution, vision prosthesis, or low-vision enhancement utilizing thermal sensing
US20040030383A1 (en) * 2002-06-06 2004-02-12 Havey Gary David Method and apparatus for sensory substitution, vision prosthesis, or low-vision enhancement utilizing thermal sensing
US20040084308A1 (en) * 2002-11-01 2004-05-06 Cole Barrett E. Gas sensor
US20060028976A1 (en) * 2004-07-02 2006-02-09 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Apparatus and method for transmitting/receiving pilot signal in communication system using OFDM scheme
US20110073877A1 (en) * 2009-09-28 2011-03-31 Nova Research, Inc. High-current/low cost read-in integrated circuit
US20130032717A1 (en) * 2011-08-04 2013-02-07 Seiko Epson Corporation Infrared detecting element and electronic device
US9285274B2 (en) * 2011-08-04 2016-03-15 Seiko Epson Corporation Infrared detecting element and electronic device

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US5450053A (en) 1995-09-12 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Takayama et al. Preparation and characteristics of pyroelectric infrared sensors made of c‐axis oriented La‐modified PbTi03 thin films
US6297511B1 (en) High frequency infrared emitter
US5914497A (en) Tunable antenna-coupled intersubband terahertz (TACIT) detector
US6222454B1 (en) Non-contacting temperature sensing device
US5825029A (en) Bolometric detection device for millimeter and sub-millimeter waves and a method for manufacturing this device
US6565254B2 (en) Infrared sensing element and temperature measuring device
US5302024A (en) Monolithic microwave power sensor using a heat sensing diode junction
US6198098B1 (en) Microstructure for infrared detector and method of making same
US20050082480A1 (en) Infrared camera system
US6111254A (en) Infrared radiation detector
Whatmore et al. Ferroelectric materials for thermal IR sensors state-of-the-art and perspectives
Choi et al. A silicon-thermopile-based infrared sensing array for use in automated manufacturing
US4782377A (en) Semiconducting metal silicide radiation detectors and source
US6392233B1 (en) Optomechanical radiant energy detector
US4593456A (en) Pyroelectric thermal detector array
US5171733A (en) Antenna-coupled high Tc superconducting microbolometer
Putley The detection of sub-mm radiation
US20110147869A1 (en) Integrated infrared sensors with optical elements, and methods
US5404146A (en) High-gain broadband V-shaped slot antenna
US6144030A (en) Advanced small pixel high fill factor uncooled focal plane array
Rutledge et al. Imaging antenna arrays
US4869598A (en) Temperature-sensitive multiple-layer thin film superconducting device
US5645349A (en) Noncontact active temperature sensor
Luukanen et al. A superconducting antenna-coupled hot-spot microbolometer
US5686779A (en) High sensitivity temperature sensor and sensor array

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12