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Method of manufacturing a memory card package

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Publication number
USRE36540E
USRE36540E US09023780 US2378098A USRE36540E US RE36540 E USRE36540 E US RE36540E US 09023780 US09023780 US 09023780 US 2378098 A US2378098 A US 2378098A US RE36540 E USRE36540 E US RE36540E
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US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
covers
package
frame
process
plastic
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US09023780
Inventor
James Farquhar
Ken Dorf
Brandt Weibezahn
Iggoni Fajardo
Charles Centofante
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Methode Electronics Inc
Original Assignee
Methode Electronics Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
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Family has litigation

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K5/00Casings, cabinets or drawers for electric apparatus
    • H05K5/02Details
    • H05K5/0256Details of interchangeable modules or receptacles therefor, e.g. cartridge mechanisms
    • H05K5/026Details of interchangeable modules or receptacles therefor, e.g. cartridge mechanisms having standardized interfaces
    • H05K5/0265Details of interchangeable modules or receptacles therefor, e.g. cartridge mechanisms having standardized interfaces of PCMCIA type
    • H05K5/0269Card housings therefor, e.g. covers, frames, PCB
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C45/00Injection moulding, i.e. forcing the required volume of moulding material through a nozzle into a closed mould; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C45/14Injection moulding, i.e. forcing the required volume of moulding material through a nozzle into a closed mould; Apparatus therefor incorporating preformed parts or layers, e.g. injection moulding around inserts or for coating articles
    • B29C45/14336Coating a portion of the article, e.g. the edge of the article
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C65/00Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C65/02Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure
    • B29C65/08Joining or sealing of preformed parts, e.g. welding of plastics materials; Apparatus therefor by heating, with or without pressure using ultrasonic vibrations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/01General aspects dealing with the joint area or with the area to be joined
    • B29C66/05Particular design of joint configurations
    • B29C66/10Particular design of joint configurations particular design of the joint cross-sections
    • B29C66/11Joint cross-sections comprising a single joint-segment, i.e. one of the parts to be joined comprising a single joint-segment in the joint cross-section
    • B29C66/112Single lapped joints
    • B29C66/1122Single lap to lap joints, i.e. overlap joints
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/01General aspects dealing with the joint area or with the area to be joined
    • B29C66/05Particular design of joint configurations
    • B29C66/302Particular design of joint configurations the area to be joined comprising melt initiators
    • B29C66/3022Particular design of joint configurations the area to be joined comprising melt initiators said melt initiators being integral with at least one of the parts to be joined
    • B29C66/30223Particular design of joint configurations the area to be joined comprising melt initiators said melt initiators being integral with at least one of the parts to be joined said melt initiators being rib-like
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C66/00General aspects of processes or apparatus for joining preformed parts
    • B29C66/50General aspects of joining tubular articles; General aspects of joining long products, i.e. bars or profiled elements; General aspects of joining single elements to tubular articles, hollow articles or bars; General aspects of joining several hollow-preforms to form hollow or tubular articles
    • B29C66/51Joining tubular articles, profiled elements or bars; Joining single elements to tubular articles, hollow articles or bars; Joining several hollow-preforms to form hollow or tubular articles
    • B29C66/54Joining several hollow-preforms, e.g. half-shells, to form hollow articles, e.g. for making balls, containers; Joining several hollow-preforms, e.g. half-cylinders, to form tubular articles
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/06Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
    • G06K19/067Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components
    • G06K19/07Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components with integrated circuit chips
    • G06K19/077Constructional details, e.g. mounting of circuits in the carrier
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29LINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS B29C, RELATING TO PARTICULAR ARTICLES
    • B29L2031/00Other particular articles
    • B29L2031/34Electrical apparatus, e.g. sparking plugs or parts thereof
    • B29L2031/3425Printed circuits
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T156/00Adhesive bonding and miscellaneous chemical manufacture
    • Y10T156/10Methods of surface bonding and/or assembly therefor
    • Y10T156/1002Methods of surface bonding and/or assembly therefor with permanent bending or reshaping or surface deformation of self sustaining lamina

Abstract

A process by which a package for a memory card is manufactured. The package comprises chiefly two stamped steel covers, (an upper and a lower cover half), each secured to a plastic frame element. The cover halves are secured by extended fingers which wrap around the plastic frame. This provides a double layer of metal at the perimeter of the frame. The two cover halves are situated so as to encapsulate the subject PCB and to affix it in its proper position. The two cover halves are then welded together using sonic welding on the plastic frame. The package has been designed to meet all PCMCIA standards, including polarizing keys and grounding points.

Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This application .Iadd.is a reissue of Ser. No. 08/348,535 filed on Dec. 1, 1994, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,490,891, which .Iaddend.is a continuation of application Ser. No. 08/092,012, filed 07/15/93, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,397,857 hereby incorporated by reference. The present invention relates generally to memory media and I/O device packages, and more particularly to a package for printed circuit boards that conforms to standards set by PCMCIA, JEDIC, ISO, etc. for peripheral devices.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Current technology computing devices are so small that there is very little room for storage devices such as a hard disk drive or I/O device. In order to expand a portable, laptop, or any other type of computer's capacity and functioning capability, manufacturers have devised "plug-in" peripheral cards in the form of printed circuit boards (PCB's) contained within an exterior package. These devices are termed "PCMCIA style peripheral devices".

The PCMCIA style devices can be used to perform the functions of software, resident memory in hardware devices, or in the place of a hard drive. The cards can be used as flash memory, to facilitate LAN networking, paging devices, and as FAX modems. They may be used in cellular telephones, PROMS, EPROMS, EEPROMS, RAMS, SRAMS, and DRAMS. In short, the cards are very versatile as well as inexpensive.

Due to the myriad possible methods to construct the interface of the memory card with the computer, the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) and comparable organizations have established certain standards for the construction of the memory cards within their containers.

Use constraints require that a PCB be sealed within a rigid package for insertion into the PC. One problem in the current art methods of fixing the card in metallic packages is that adhesives, solvents and/or epoxies are generally used to secure the two halves of the package. Since the bonding requires the adhesion of two dissimilar metals, current art processes can lead to functional problems with the card, as well as to failures of the bond.

Another disadvantage is that current art constructions use many components, leading to greater manufacturing cost, and a higher likelihood of failures.

OBJECTS, SUMMARY, AND ADVANTAGES OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a PCMCIA style peripheral device package that meets PCMCIA, JEDIC, and ISO standards. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a package that comprises few components to reduce manufacturing cost.

The present invention is a package for a peripheral device and the process by which the package is manufactured. The package comprises chiefly two stamped metal covers, (an upper and a lower cover half), each secured to a plastic frame element. The cover halves are secured by extended fingers which wrap around the plastic frame. This provides a double layer of metal at the perimeter of the frame.

The two cover halves are situated so as to encapsulate the subject PCB and to affix it in its proper position. The two cover halves are then welded together using sonic welding on the plastic frame or resistance welding on the covers. The frame has been designed to meet all PCMCIA standards, including but not limited to polarizing keys and grounding points.

Advantages of the present invention are as follows:

1. Joinder of the two package halves is accomplished without the use-of adhesives. This leads to greater reliability of the memory card.

2. Very few components are used, minimizing manufacturing costs.

3. More space for the PCB is available within a given package volume.

4. The present invention provides a memory card package that is stronger than prior art packages.

5. The device constructed according to the present invention lends itself to automated assembly.

6. The device of the present invention is very versatile, and can be used for types I, II, III, and IV boards. It is envisioned that future board designs will also be compatible with the present invention.

7. The process will allow a card manufacturer to bond only similar materials, plastic to plastic, since the bonding of the dissimilar materials, plastic to metal, is accomplished by the package manufacturer.

8. Application of a non-conductive layer to the two cover halves prior to stamping allows the package to have a nonconductive interior.

9. The design allows the PCB to be fixed in place by opposing plastic elements ("bosses") at any level within the package

10. The PCB connectors and/or other I/O devices can be clamped between the cover halves.

11. Overall package thickness can be controlled to a very strict tolerance.

12. The package provides variable grounding locations along the length of the package sides.

These and other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art in view of the description of the best presently known mode of carrying out the invention as described herein and as illustrated in the drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a perspective exploded view of the metal covers and plastic frame of the package of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a detail view of the plastic frame showing the energy director utilized in the sonic welding process;

FIG. 3 is an exploded front end view of the metal package covers and plastic frame;

FIG. 4 is side cross-sectional view of a memory card and package as embodied by the present invention.

BEST MODE OF CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

The present invention is a PCMCIA style peripheral device package 10. Referring to FIG. 1, it can be seen that the package 10 comprises chiefly an upper cover 12, a lower cover 14, an upper frame element 16, and a lower frame element 18. The covers 12 & 14 are formed from stamped metal, and the frame elements 16 & 18 are molded plastic.

While the material for the covers is chosen to be stamped metal, there is no requirement that it be so. Any rigid material will suffice. However, if the cover is of a conductive material, it will serve to reduce EMI, RF and ESD problems, these being factors which electronic devices seek to minimize. It should be further noted that conductive material cannot be eliminated completely as PCMCIA requires a grounding point. The covers 12 & 14 will generally be mirror images of each other, but may not be in certain applications.

An optional addition to the present invention is to coat the interior of the covers 12 & 14 with a thin layer of a nonconductive material. This allows the finished product to have a conductive exterior with a non-conductive interior, thus isolating the conductivity of the interior of the package.

Referring now to FIGS. 2 & 3, a lower energy director .[.20.]. .Iadd.10 .Iaddend.extends above one-half of the perimeter upper surface of the lower frame element 18. A corresponding energy director element .[.22.]. (.Iadd.not shown) .Iaddend.extends along one-half of the lower perimeter surface of the upper frame element 16. These energy directors .[.20 & 22.]. mate with the corresponding frame surface to form the weld during the sonic welding process.

A polarizing key 24 is located at a corner of the lower frame element 18. The polarizing key 24 defines how the PCMCIA style peripheral device mates with the device in which it is being used. The polarizing key is defined for a given use by PCMCIA.

In order to facilitate bonding, the edges of the covers 12 & 14 are bent to conform to the shape of the frame elements 16 & 18. In addition, metal fingers 26 are provided on each side of the covers 12 & 14. The metal fingers 26 become embedded in the plastic frame elements 16 & 18 during the bonding and/or molding process to form an integral frame cover element. This ensures that the two halves of the package can be securely affixed to each other. The covers 12 & 14 being wrapped around the frame elements 16 & 18 also serves to strengthen the package due to the fact that a double layer of metal is formed at the perimeter of the package.

The manufacture or the PCMCIA style peripheral device with its package is accomplished as follows: first, the upper and lower covers 12 & 14 are stamped. The covers 12 & 14 are then mated with the frame elements 16 & 18. This is accomplished by injection molding. The covers 12 & 14 are placed into a mold, where they are "self-secured" in position. The self-securing is accomplished by the geometry and dimensions of the covers 12 & 14. The covers 12 & 14 are stamped to be slightly wider than the mold. Thus the covers are slightly sprung when they are placed into the mold, and remain in the proper position for the injection process. Certainly there is no requirement that the covers be self-secured in the mold. Any means or securing will suffice.

The plastic frame elements 16 & 18 are then shot into the mold. As the plastic frames are molded, the metal fingers 26 on the covers 12 & 14 become embedded in the frame elements 16 & 18 so that separation of the covers 12 & 14 from the frame elements 16 & 18 cannot take place. The end result of the Molding process is that the covers 12 & 14 have a metal surface exposed at their sides to create a grounding point when bonded together. Further toward the interior of the unit, the plastic energy directors 20 & 22 are also exposed to facilitate bonding.

One aspect of using an injection molding process is that injection molding requires that ejector pins 17 be provided on the frame elements 16 & 18. In the present invention, the ejector pins 17 are also used to position a PCB 28 that is to be packaged in the package 10. The pins 17 provide a supporting surface for the PCB 28 which can be adjusted to any height desired for a particular application. Thus an element necessary for the injection process becomes a key for the positioning of the board in the package. Positioning of the PCB is therefore accomplished easily and at minimal additional cost.

The energy directors 20 .[.& 22.]. are then sonic welded to the opposing plastic frame element so that the upper frame element 16 is permanently bonded to the lower frame element 18, both of which encase the PCB 28.

Thus the covers are secured to the frame elements, which in turn are welded to each other. This ensures that the memory card package will be very reliable and durable, and that the package height is controlled.

It should be noted that it is envisioned that the bonding process between the cover elements may also be performed by resistance welding.

A further option is to inject a foam into the interior of the package which would crystallize and act as an insulator or a heat sink.

It should also be noted that in practice, a card manufacturer will receive the two cover halves ready for welding, and will be the supplier of the board. Because the package has a modular design, it will accommodate many different connectors. Further, because the package manufacturer has accomplished a secure bonding of dissimilar materials, the metal covers bonded to the plastic frame, the bonding required by the card manufacturer is a simple process involving only bonding of like materials, i.e. plastic to plastic sonic welding.

The above disclosure is not intended as limiting. Those skilled in the art will readily observe that numerous modifications and alterations of the device may be made while retaining the teachings or the invention. Accordingly, the above disclosure should be construed as limited only by the metes and bounds of the appended claims.

Claims (7)

We claim:
1. A method of manufacturing a package for a memory card.Iadd., the method .Iaddend.comprising the .[.following.]. steps of:
A. .[.Stamping.]. .Iadd.stamping .Iaddend.metal covers to a size marginally larger than a mold in an injection molding process;
B. .[.Bending.]. .Iadd.bending .Iaddend.edges of said covers to conform to an intended shape of a frame element, the edges including fingers extending from the cover sides;
C. .[.Inserting.]. .Iadd.inserting .Iaddend.the covers into a mold in an injection molding process where they are slightly sprung and thus secure themselves in position;
D. .[.Shooting.]. .Iadd.shooting .Iaddend.plastic frame elements into the mold so that fingers included on the covers become embedded in the frames;
E. .[.Removing.]. .Iadd.removing .Iaddend.said covers from said mold;
F. .[.Positioning.]. .Iadd.positioning .Iaddend.a PCB between two covers, the PCB being held in the proper location by means of ejector pins on the plastic frames, the ejector pins being formed as a part of the molding process; .Iadd.and .Iaddend.
G. .[.Bonding.]. .Iadd.bonding .Iaddend.the plastic frame elements together so that a package is formed.
2. The .[.process as claimed in claim.]. .Iadd.method of claim .Iaddend.1 wherein.[.:.]. the bonding process .[.(G).]. is sonic welding.
3. The .[.process as claimed in claim.]. .Iadd.method of claim .Iaddend.1 wherein.[.:.]. the bonding process .[.(G).]. is resistance welding.
4. The .[.process as claimed in claim.]. .Iadd.method of claim .Iaddend.1 wherein.[.:.]. the bonding process .[.(G).]. utilizes adhesives.
5. The .[.process as claimed in claim.]. .Iadd.method of claim .Iaddend.1 wherein.[.:.]. interior surfaces of the covers are coated with a thin layer of nonconductive material before the PCB is positioned between the two covers. .Iadd.6. A method of manufacturing a package for a memory card, the method comprising the steps of:
A. stamping metal covers;
B. bending edges of said covers to conform to an intended shape of a frame element, the edges including fingers extending from the cover sides;
C. inserting the covers into a mold;
D. shooting plastic into the mold to form the frame element around the fingers;
E. removing said covers from said mold;
F. positioning a PCB between two covers; and
G. bonding the plastic frame elements together so that a package is
formed..Iaddend..Iadd.7. The method of claim 6 wherein the bonding process is sonic welding..Iaddend..Iadd.8. The method of claim 6 wherein the bonding process is resistance welding..Iaddend..Iadd.9. The method of claim 6 wherein the bonding process utilizes adhesives..Iaddend..Iadd.10. The method of claim 6 wherein interior surfaces of the covers are coated with a thin layer of nonconductive material before the PCB is positioned
between the two covers..Iaddend..Iadd.11. A method of manufacturing a package for a memory card, the method comprising the steps of:
A. stamping metal covers to a size larger than a mold in an injection molding process;
B. bending edges of said covers to conform to an intended shape of a frame element, the edges including fingers;
C. inserting the covers into a mold in an injection molding process where they are slightly sprung and thus secure themselves in position;
D. shooting plastic into the mold to form the frame element around the fingers;
E. removing said covers from said mold;
F. positioning a PCB between two covers; and
G. bonding the plastic frame elements together so that a package is formed..Iaddend..Iadd.12. The method of claim 11 wherein the bonding process Is sonic welding..Iaddend..Iadd.13. The method of claim 11 wherein the bonding process is resistance welding..Iaddend..Iadd.14. The method of claim 11 wherein the bonding process utilizes adhesives..Iaddend..Iadd.15. The method of claim 11 wherein interior surfaces of the covers are coated with a thin layer of nonconductive material before the PCB is positioned between the two covers..Iaddend.
US09023780 1993-07-15 1998-02-13 Method of manufacturing a memory card package Expired - Lifetime USRE36540E (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08092012 US5397857A (en) 1993-07-15 1993-07-15 PCMCIA standard memory card frame
US08348535 US5490891A (en) 1993-07-15 1994-12-01 Method of manufacturing a memory card package
US09023780 USRE36540E (en) 1993-07-15 1998-02-13 Method of manufacturing a memory card package

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09023780 USRE36540E (en) 1993-07-15 1998-02-13 Method of manufacturing a memory card package

Related Parent Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08092012 Continuation US5397857A (en) 1993-07-15 1993-07-15 PCMCIA standard memory card frame
US08348535 Reissue US5490891A (en) 1993-07-15 1994-12-01 Method of manufacturing a memory card package

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
USRE36540E true USRE36540E (en) 2000-02-01

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Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08092012 Expired - Lifetime US5397857A (en) 1993-07-15 1993-07-15 PCMCIA standard memory card frame
US08348535 Expired - Lifetime US5490891A (en) 1993-07-15 1994-12-01 Method of manufacturing a memory card package
US09023780 Expired - Lifetime USRE36540E (en) 1993-07-15 1998-02-13 Method of manufacturing a memory card package

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08092012 Expired - Lifetime US5397857A (en) 1993-07-15 1993-07-15 PCMCIA standard memory card frame
US08348535 Expired - Lifetime US5490891A (en) 1993-07-15 1994-12-01 Method of manufacturing a memory card package

Country Status (7)

Country Link
US (3) US5397857A (en)
JP (1) JP3059760B2 (en)
KR (1) KR100192074B1 (en)
CA (1) CA2143685C (en)
DE (8) DE69432324D1 (en)
EP (4) EP0682597B1 (en)
WO (1) WO1995002499A1 (en)

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EP0682597B1 (en) 2000-04-12 grant
EP0884163A1 (en) 1998-12-16 application
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DE69432196T2 (en) 2003-10-09 grant
US5490891A (en) 1996-02-13 grant
DE69424324D1 (en) 2000-06-08 grant
EP0884163B1 (en) 2000-05-03 grant
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EP0682597A1 (en) 1995-11-22 application
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DE69423960D1 (en) 2000-05-18 grant
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EP0967571A3 (en) 2001-01-17 application
JPH08505727A (en) 1996-06-18 application
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KR100192074B1 (en) 1999-06-15 grant
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CA2143685F (en) 1995-01-26 grant

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