USRE12038E - Kinetoscopic film - Google Patents

Kinetoscopic film Download PDF


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USRE12038E US RE12038 E USRE12038 E US RE12038E
United States
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Thomas A. Edison
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. No. 12,038. Beissued Sept. 30, I902.
(Application filed July 18. 1902.)
a Sheets-Shani l.
No. |2,o3s. Reissued Sept. 30, I902.
{Application filed July 18, 1902.)
3 Sheets-Sheet 2.
Kms'roscomc FILM.
' SPEOIFIOAll-Idll' forming part of Reiaaued Letters Patent No. 12,088, dated September 30, 1902. Grlgiusl lo. 689,168, d stsd August 31', 1897. Application for rel-int filed July is, 1902. Serial at; 116,482.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, THOMAS A. EDISON, a citizen of the United States, residing at Llewellyn Park, in the county of Essex and State of New Jersey, have} invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Kinetoscopic Films, (Case No. 928,) of which the following is a specification.
The purpose I have in view is to produce pictures representing objects in motion throughout an extended period of time-which may be utilized to exhibit the scene including such-moving objects in a perfect and natural manner by means of a suitable exhibiting apparatus, such as that described in an application filed simultaneously herewith, (Patent No. 493,426,dated March 14, 1893.),
i I have found that it is possible to accomplish this end by means of photography.
In carrying out my invention I employ an apparatus for eflecting by photographya rep-v resentation suitable for reproduction of a scene including a moving object or objects comprising a means, such as a single camera, for intermittently projecting at such rapid rate as to result in persistence of vision images of successive positions of the object or objects in motion as observed from a fixed and single point of view, a sensitized tapelike him, and a means for so moving the film as to cause the successive images to be received thereon separately and in single-line sequence.- The movements of the tape-film are intermittent, and it is preferable that the periods of rest of the film should be longer then the periods of movement.
By taking the photographs at a rate sufliciently high'as to result in persistence of vision the develo photographs will,wh en brought successive y into view by an exhibiting apparatus, reproduce the movements faithfully and naturally.
I have been able to take with a single camera and a tape-film as many as forty-six photographs per second, each having a size measured engthwise of the tape of-pne inch, and I have also been able to hold the tape at rest for nine-tenths of the time; bntl .do not wish 'to limit the scope 'of' my invention to this high rate of speed nor to this great dispro- DIVISION B.
portion between the periods of rest and the periods of motion, since with some subjects a speedas-low as thirty pictures per second or even lower is sufiicient,.and while it is desirable to make the periods of rest as much longer than the periods of motion as possible any excess of the periods of rest over the periods of motion is. advantageous.
,In the accompanying drawings, forming a part hereof, Figure 1 is a plan view, with the top of the casing removed, of a form of apparatus which I have found highly useful for the taking of the photographs. Fig. 2is a vertical longitudinal section on line a: a: in Fig. 1. Figs. 3 and 4 are enlarged views of the stop mechanism of the photographing apparatus. Fig. 5 is a plan view of the shutter for the photographing apparatus, and Fig. 6 isa perspective view of a section of the tapefilm with the positive photographs thereon.
Referring to the drawings, 3'iudioates the transparent or translucent tape-film, which before the apparatus is put in operation is all coiledon a reel in the sheet-metal box or case 1, the free end being connected to an empty reel in the case 2. The film 3 is preferably of suflicient width toadmit the taking of pictures one inch in diameter between the rows of holes 4, Fig.2, arranged at regular intervals along the two edges of the film, and into which holes the teeth of the wheels 5, Figs. 1 and 2, enter for the purpose of positively advancing the film. When the film is narrow, it is not essential to use two rows of perforations and two-feed-wheels, one feedwheel being suflicient. Said wheels are mounted on a shaft 6, which carries a loose pulley 7--that' is, a pulley frictionally conc nected to its shaft and forming a yielding preferably driven by an electric motor 13, which when the apparatus is in use is regulated to run at the desired uniform speed, a
being controlled by the centrifugal governor known manner. 0n the shaft 10 is another pulley 16, which is connected by a' cross-belt .14 andthecircuit-controller 15 in a well- XOG - 60 second, although the rapidity '17 to a pulley 18, also frictionally connected to its'shaft, and which carries the reel to which the tape is connected in casing 2. The film passes from the casing 1 through a slit 5 formed by the edge 19, and the sliding door 20, which is normally thrown forward by the spring 21, Fig. 2,, with sufiicient force to clamp the film and hold it from movement. When the door is retracted by pulling on re the rod or string 22, which is connected to the arm 22, the film is liberated and allowed to advance. Film-case 2 .is provided with a similar door, but the device for moving the door is not illustrated. This arrangement of :5 the sliding door not only holds the film, but it tightly closes the casing, thus excluding light and protecting the sensitive film. The casings or boxes 12 are removable, so that they, with the inclosed film, may be taken so bodily from theapparatus. The shaft 6,
heretofore referredto, is provided with-a detent or stop-wheel 23, the form of which is most clearly shownin Figs. 3 and 4. The.
wheel 23 is provided with a number of pro- 2 5. jecting teeth 24-, six being shown, which teeth are adapted to strike successively against the face of the cooperating detent or stopwheel 25 on the shaft 26,. which is the arma- .ture-shaft of the motor or a shaft which is 0 constantly driven by the motor. The wheel 25 has a corresponding number of notches 27 at regular intervals around its periphery. These notches-are of such size and shape that the teeth 24 can'pass through them, and
3 5 when thewheels 23 and 25 are rotated in the direction indicated by thearrows each tooth in succession will strike the face of wheel 25,.
thereby bringihg the film absolutely to rest at the same moment that an opening in the 0 shutter exposes the film, and will then pass through a notch, allowing the tape-film to be 'moved forward another step while it is coveredby the shutter. To avoid the danger of the wheel 25 moving so quickly that a tooth 5 cannot enter the proper notch, a laterallyprojecting tooth 29 is provided adjacent to each notch. When a tooth 29 strikes a tooth 24, the latter tooth will be guided by the tooth 29 into the adjacent notch 27.
o 30 is a detent spring or'pawl to preventbackward movement of the wheel 23.
I prefer to so proportion the parts above described that the wheel 23 is at rest for ninet.enths of the time in order togive to the sensitized film as long an exposure aspra'cticable and is movingforward one-tenth of the time,
and said forward movement is made torts kepla'ce. thirty or more times per second, pref- .erably at least as'high as forty-six times per a good impression of the object projected per second may be regu- "65 thereon and results in'a picture havingclean and sharp lines, since the film has'shfficient time to become steady and overcome the'viof movement tape-like photographic give satisfactory results.
bration caused by the sudden and rapid mo tions of the feed mechanism. 0n the shaft 26 or on any suitable shaft driven by the mo tor is a revolving disk 31, serving as a shutter for alternately exposingand covering the sensitive film. This disk, which is continuously revolving; is provided with six or any other suitable number of apertures 32 at regu-' lar intervals around it near the edge, they beingso arranged that one of the apertures passes directly between the camera-lens 33 and the film each time the film is brought to rest, the light-rays passing through the opening 33 and falling on the film half-way between the reels on which the film is wound.
34 is a device for adjusting the camera-lens toward or from the film, and 35 is a device by means of which the operator canfocus the camera on the object to be photographed.
Although the operation has been partially indicated in the description of the apparatus, it will now. be set forth more in detail.
The apparatus is first charged with a sensitive tape-film several hundred or even thousands of feet long and the motor is set in operation. Since the spring 21 causes the door 20 to clamp the film, as already the loose pulleys 7 18 slip withoutpnlling said film along; but when a moving object-for example, a man gesticulating-is placed in;
the field of the camera and the handle 22 is pulled the film is released and the pulleys op erate to pull the same along. At the same time the reel in case 2 is rotated to wind up the film, thus transferring it from the reel in described,
case 1 to the reel in case 2. This movement is intermittent, the film advancing by very rapid steps, which are definitely and positively controlled by means of the peculiar detent or escapement described, and a photograph istakeu after. each step.
While I do not care to limit myself to any particular number of steps per second, there should be at least enough so that the eye of an observercannot distinguish,or at leastcannot clearly and positively distinguish, at
a glances difference in the position occupied .by the object in the successive pictures, as
illustrated in Fig.7. A less speed in taking the pictures will cause a trembling or jerky appearance in the reproduced picture. When the movement or the'objec't' being photographed has ceased or the desired number of photographs has been obtained, the apparatus is stopped. The film is suitably treated for developing and fixing thepictures, when positive prints therefrom, Fig. 6, can be used in an exhibiting apparatus.
What I claimis- 1. An unbroken transparent or translucent film havin thereon uniform sharply-defined photograp s of successive positions of an ob ectin motion as observed from a single point of view at rapidlyrecurring intervalsof-time, such photographs being arranged in a continuousstraight-line sequence, unlimited in number save by the length of the film, and suflicient in number quence, nlimited-in number save by the to represent the movements of the object length 0 the film, and suifioient in number throughout an extended period of time, subto represent the movements of the object :5
stantially as described. throughout an extended period of time, sub- 2. An unbroken transparent or translucent stantially as described.
tape-like photographic film provided with This specification signed and witnessed this pterfoiisteg egges anlllihavinghtherteon uniform 15th day of July, 1902.
s arp ye no p otm'rap s o successive positions of an object it? motion as observed THOMAS EDISON no from a single point of view at rapidly-recur- Witnesses;'
ring intervals of time, such photographs be; J. F.-RANDOLPH ing arranged in a continuous straight-line se- J. A. BOEHME.



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