US691493A - Cinematographic apparatus. - Google Patents

Cinematographic apparatus. Download PDF

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Publication number
US691493A
US691493A US5503801A US1901055038A US691493A US 691493 A US691493 A US 691493A US 5503801 A US5503801 A US 5503801A US 1901055038 A US1901055038 A US 1901055038A US 691493 A US691493 A US 691493A
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Prior art keywords
film
lens
tube
aperture
spool
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Expired - Lifetime
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US5503801A
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Augustus Rosenberg
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Augustus Rosenberg
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B1/00Film strip handling
    • G03B1/18Moving film strip by means which act on the film between the ends thereof
    • G03B1/20Acting means
    • G03B1/22Claws or pins engaging holes in the film

Description

No. 691g493. Patntedlan. 2|, |902 cmEMATosAPmc APPARATUS.
(Applicaein meaApr. 49, 1901.)
(No Medela) 3 Sheets-Sheet I.
mn News neus co, wom-Lungo., wAsmNsTou, u. cv
Patented lan. 2|, |902.
- A. INISNBER?.` CINEMATDGRAPHLG `APPARATUS.
(Application md Apr. 9,1901.)
3 Shams-Sheet 2.
CIDDDDD n u v u n. n u D n u n n THE Nonms paens co., Fumo-umn.. wasmNmoN, n c.
(No Model.)
Vtion and to .the extent of the other half when AUGUSTUS ROSENBERG, OF LONDON, ENGLAND.
CINEMATOGRAPHHC APPARATUS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of' Letters'Patent No. 691,493, dated January 21, 1902.
Application filed April 9, 1901. Serial No. 55,038. (No model.)
To all 1.0711077@ it may concern:
Be it known that I, AUGUSTUS RosENBEae., engineer, a subject of the German Emperor, residing at 12 Southampton Row, London, England, have invented new and useful lmprovements in Oinematographic Apparatus, of which the followingis a specification.
My invention relates to cinematographic apparatus for taking` and projecting photographs, and has for its object to enable a continuous series of pictures to be obtained upon a film of half the length and double the width of that which would otherwise be required for the same number of pictures.
The invention comprises mechanism whereby the direction of motion of the film is automatic-ally and instantaneouslyl reversed (without reversing the direction of motion of the motor or handle) when the film has been traversed in the one direction and whereby the position of the lens-tube altered automatically and coincidently with the change of direction of motion of the film, so that the lrn is exposed to the extent of only one half of its width when running in the one direcrunning in the other` direction.
The invention also comprises an improvement in the film-propelling mechanism whereby to insure the lm being held stationary during the momentary periods of exposure.
Lastly, the invention comprises means for facilitating the printing of the positive from the negative film.
Reference is to be had tothe accompanying drawings, wherein Figure 1 is a front elevation of the mechanism, the casing being in section and the cover-plates removed. Fig. 2 is a correspond ing side elevation, partly in section. Fig. 3 isa rear elevation. Fig. 4 is a plan view of the film-retaining claws, their operating-cam, and the reversing mechanism. Fig. 5 is a face view of the cam. Fig. 6 is a face View, and Fig. 7 a vertical section,showing the positive printing device. Figs. 8 and 9 are de' tails. Fig. 10 is a cross-section through the pinion 43 upon the common transverse section-line shown in Fig. l1 looking in the direction of the arrow from the point A, showing the vpulley 4l in elevation... Fig. 11 is a vert-ical longitudinal sectionthrough the same, and Fig. l2 is a cross-section upon the common transverse section line shown in Fig. 11 looking from the point B in the direction indicated by the arrow and showing the pulley 40 in elevation.
The same reference characters indicate the same parts in all the figures.
l is a plate fixed in the camera-body and having an oblong aperture 2, in which the rear end of the lens-tube 3 is fitted to slide, the lens-tube being carried by a frame 4, adapted to slide upon fixed guide-rods 5. The lengt-h of the aperture 2 is equal to twice the width of the end of the lens-tube, so as to allow of the lens-tube occupying two distinct positions therein, at which two distinct portions of the film will be exposed through the. exposure-aperture 6 of the'lens-tube, the half ot' the aperture 2 which is for the time being unoccupied being covered by a plate 7, carried by the lens-tube and sliding lighttight against the front surface of the plate 1.
In photographing a negative the film 8, wound upon a spool 9 at the upper part of the camera-body, is drawn through a guide-slot 10, over the back of the plate l, past the aperture 2, and between the plate 1 and a gate 11, through another guide-slot 12, to another spool 13 at the lower part of the camera-body, to which spool the end of the film is attached. During the first half of the series of exposures the film becomes temporarily wound upon the spool 13, the lens-tube having previously been setin the position shown in full lines in Fig. l by means of 'a stem 14, in which position it is retained against the stress of a spring 15 by the engagement of a lug of the frame 4 with a detent'or latch 16, pivoted at 17 and held in position of engagement by a light spring 18. A trigger 19 is adapted to engage the latch 16 so as to disengage it from the lens-tube carrier 4 at the proper moment, the trigger being permitted to come into operative position and being caused to act on the latch by the film itself when the latter reaches the end of its travel in the direction from the spool 9 to the spool 13. When so released, the lens-tube is suddenly shifted to its other position (shown in dotted lines in Fig. 1) by the action of the spring 15, this.
shifting motion of the lens-tube being com- IOO bined with that of a reversing-clutch, Whereby the direction of running of the film will be reversed simultaneously with the change of position of the lens.
The trigger 19 is a lever having a slot 20, admitting of sliding motion on its fnlcrum 21, and it has a head 22, that passes through an aperture in the plate 1 and is caused by a spring 23 to bear lightly against the face of the film as it passes the gate 1l, by which the film is held up to the plane of exposure. This gate has in it an aperture 24, adapted to give passage to the head 22 of the trigger, but which is covered by the film until an aperture 25 in the film near the end attached to the spool 9 coincides with the aperture 24 in the gate. When this occurs, the head 22 of the trigger is caused by the spring 23 to pass through the aperture 25 in the film and to present its upper face in the path of the film which engages with the trigger by the upper end of the aperture 25. (See Fig. 8.) The continued movement of the film thereby causes the trigger to be rocked about its fulcrum and the latch 16 to be disengaged from the lens-tube carrier 4, thus permitting the spring 15 to effect the sudden shifting of the lens-tube and the reversal of motion of the film propelling and winding mechanism. The sequence of the Vpictures at the point where the direction of motion of the lm is reversed is shown by the numerals 196 to 205 in Fig. 9. On the return movement of the film the trigger presents a beveled under face to the opposite end of the slot 25, so that the trigger will be forced back bythe film out of the way.
The lm winding and propelling mechanisms are driven from a. first-motion shaft 26 through a multiplying train of gear 27 28 29 30 and a shaft 31, having a double clutch 32, fitted to slide upon but to turn with it and adapted to be thrown into driving engagement with one or other of two corresponding clutches 33 34, carried by beveled wheels 35 36, loose upon the shaft 3l, the position of the double clutch 32 being determined by that of the lens carrier-frame 4, which acts,
upon a sliding boss 37, carrying an arm 38, engaging with a groove 39 around the clutch, there being sufficient lost motion between 4 and 37 to allow for the difference of travel of the lens-tube and clutch. Loose upon the sleeve 36"L of the wheel 36 and upon the shaft 3l, respectively, are two band pulleys 40 and 41. (Shown separately in axial section in Fig. 12, and in Figs. 10 and 1l by face views looking in opposite directions from a common transverse section.) These bandpulleys 40 4l are adapted to be put, the one 0r the other, into driving engagement with the sleeve 36 by means of oppositely-beveled or oppositely-acting spring-pawls 42, mounted onthe pulleys 40 41 and both engaging with the teeth of a pinion 45, situated between the pulleys 40 and 41 and fast upon the sleeve 36, so that the one pulley will be driven from the said sleeve through the engagement ofits pawl while the pawl of the other slips, according as the sleeve 36a is rotated in the one or the other direction by clutch 32 engaging with clutch 34 of wheel 36 orwith clutch 33 of wheel 35, which is in gear with wheel 36 through wheel 69. The pulleys 40 41 are geared by endless bands 44 45 with corresponding pulleys 46 47, loose on the driving-spindles of the spools, frictional driving connection between these pulleys 46 47 and their spindles being maintained by means of bow-springs 96 97, fixed on the respective spindles and bearing with their ends against the side faces of the corresponding pulleys, as shown. In consequence of the arrangement described variation in the relative effective diameters of the spools 9 and 13 (due to the constant variation in the length of film carried by each spool) is prevented from causing the film to become overstrained by tension due to the gradual increase in the effective diameter of that spool which happens to be winding up. The upper spool 9 engages positively with its spindle 48 'by a square 49 on the end of the latter engaging in a corresponding socket in the spool, the spool turning freely at the other end upon a spring-pressed center-pin 50, fitted to slidein the casing, so las to be removable to admit of the insertion and withdrawal of the spool through an opening in the top of the casing closed by a door 5l. The spool 13 is slid onto its spindle 52 and fits friction-tight thereon by means of a spring 53, the spool having an attached handle 54 and being inserted or `removed through an aperture in the side of the casing closed by a door 55.
A pair of film-propelling claws 56 project through and work in slots 57 in the plate 1. These claws engage in the usual perforations 58 in the margin of the lm 8 for the purpose of imparting the required intermittent motion to the film. For this purpose they have what may be termed a four-motion feed-that is to say, are moved up and down and in and out, the up-and-down motion being imparted by an eccentric cam-groove 59 in a cam-disk 60, and the in-and-out motion, by which the claws are projected through the slots 57 into engagement with the holes 5Sin the film and are withdrawn from such engagement, being imparted by the action of a face-cam 6l. For this purpose the claws 56 are carried by spring-arms 62, connected at their upper ends by a cross-bar 63 and at their lower ends bya cross-bar 67, connected to a sliding plate 64, fitted to slide between guides 65, fixed to the plate 1. The plate 64 carries a stud 64, which engages in the eccentric cam-groove 59, whereby up-and-down motion is imparted to the slide 64 and claws '56 and the arms 62 tend to spring backward and are forced forward at the proper moment by the cam 6l acting on a stud 66, attached to the cross-bar 63, the coordination of the two movements being insured by the camgroove 59 and cam-face 6l being nformed on the same disk 60. This disk /f-,Qturns loose IOO IIC
55 the negative, and which is opened when printo'n a fixed spindle 68 and carries a bevelwheel 69, constantly in gear with the two wheels 35 86, so as to be driven by whichever of those wheels is for the time being in engagement with the clutch 32. .Consequently by the reversal of the direction of rotation of the cam-disk 67 the direction in which the film will be propelled -by theclaws will be reversed. In addition to thepropelment-claws 56 there is a second pair of claws 70, carried by spring-arms 71, fixed to the plate 1 and pressed forward by a second cam-face 7 2, acting on a stud 73, fixed to a cross-bar 74, connecting the upper arms ',Iof the springs 71, whereby these claws (which have no feedmotion) are projected through holes in the plate 1 and through the holes 58 in the film at themoment when the propelment-claws 56 are retracted from the film and are making their return stroke, so as to insure the film being held stationary during the intervals of exposure. With the wheels 35 36 there is also constantly in gear another bevel-wheel 75, fast on the spindle 76 of the exposureshutter. To enable the relative duration of the exposures and eclipses to be varied, the
shutter is formed of two superposed segments, the one, 77, fast on the spindle 76 and the other, 78, circularly adjustable, so as to enable the angular extent of the aperture to be varied. v
The gate 11 is hinged at 79 to the plate 1, so as to swing back, as ,"shown in dotted lines in Fig. 2, to enable the' film to be introduced, and is secured in the closed position by spring turn-buttons 80, the hinge-pins 79 working in slot-holes, so that the film Will be pressed evenly up to and kept in the focal plane. The gate is provided with pairs bf slots 81 82, adapted to give passage to the propelling and retaining claws, and with an aperture 83, surrounded by a projecting fiange, said aperture being equal in height and of twice the length of the exposure-aperture 6 of the lens-tube, soas to include Within itthe area covered by two juxtaposed pictures. To prevent that part of the film on which the negatives are taken from being scratched by particles of dust or dirt coming between the film and the gate 11 or the plate 1, both the gate and plate are slightly channeled on the faces next the film for a width equal to that of the exposed part of the film.
84 is a hinged cover, by which the camerabody is closed at back when photographing ing the positive film or projecting the pictures on a screen.` For printing the positive film a separate frame 85 (shown in Figs. 6 and 7) is adapted to be fitted to the back of the camera. It is provided with a recess 86, inclosing the gate 1l, and with a fianged aperture 87, adaptedto t about the fiange of the aperture 83 in the gate. It also carries a pair of spool-supporting brackets and is provided with fllm-guiding slits 88 89, leading to and from the recess 86, inclosing the gate.
The sensitized film on which positive pictures are to be printed from the negative film now occupies .the position which was previously occupied by the negative film in the camera, while the spool carrying the film on which negative pictures have been developed is slipped on a spindle mounted in the brackets 90, the negative film being` led through the guide-slit 88 and passed along with the positive lm to be printed through the gate, the twolms being in close contact andv being. propelled together by the propelling-claws entering corresponding holes in both films and moving them simultaneously. The exposure of the positive behind the negative is made through the aperture 83, two juxtaposed pictures being printed at once, and the negative film passes out through the slit 89, While the positive is wound upon the spool 13, as before. In this operation a comparatively slow movement is required and the drivinghandle is therefore removed from shaft 26 and applied directly to the clutch-shaft 3l, so as to enable a steady and regulated exposure, as required for printing, to be made.
The mechanism of the camera is inclosed at front by a light-tight partition 91, having an oblong aperture to give passage to'the lens-tube and allow of its laterally-shifting motion, a laterally-extending covering-plate 92 being attached to the lens-tube, so as to cover the unoccupied portion of the aperture.
93 is a removable cover for the front of the casing, having an oblong aperture 94 opposite the lens and a pivoted shutter 95 for closing said aperture when the apparatus is not 1n use.
I claim- 1. In a cinematograph apparatus, the combination with cam-operated film propelment and retaining clawqmechanism, and with a revolving shutter for the lens, of a drivingshaft, driving gear-wheels loose on the driving-shaft, intermediate gear-wheels respectively revolving as one with the cam for operating the propelment and retaining claw mechanism and with the shutter, and with which intermediate gear-wheels said driving gear-wheels are constantlyin gear, and a double clutch rotated by said shaft and adapted to be engaged with one or the other of the said driving gear-Wheels, for putting the one or other of said wheels into driving connection with said shaft, the relation of the parts being such that the direction of motion ofthe cam -and shutter will be reversed by the change of engagement of the clutch Without reversal of motion of the clutch itself, sub.- stantially as described. l
2. In a cinematograph apparatus, the combination with cam-operated film-propelment claw mechanism, and with a revolving shutter for the lens, of adriving-shaft, reversingclutch and gear-wheel mechanism'rotated by said shaft and adapted to cause the cam and shutter to` be rotated and to cause the direction of rotation of the cam and of the shutter IOO to be concurrently reversed by the change of engagement of the clutch, a lens-tube movable in the transverse direction of the film, a spring for so moving the lens, means Whereby the lens-tube is connected to the reversing-clutch so that the two move together, means for retaining the lens-tube and clutch in the position in which they are set, and means for releasing the lens-tube and\.\clutch at a given moment so as to permit the spring to move the lens-tube and clutch for the purpose of simultaneously changing the direction of' propelment of the film, the direction of rotation of the shutter and the relative position of the film and lens-tube, as specified.
3. In a cinematograph apparatus, the combination With a laterally-movable lens-tube, a spring for moving it, a retaining-latch, a spring-pressed sliding trigger-lever for operating said latch, means of retaining the trigger out of operative position throughthe agency of the film, and a film having an aperture in it adapted to permit the trigger to come into operative engagement with the film so as to cause the trigger to be rocked by the traveling motion of the film and to disengage the latch from the lens-tube, as specified.
4. In a cinematograph apparatus, the combination With cam-operated film-propelment mechanism and with flm-letting-off andfilmtaking-up spools, of friction-gear and oppositely-acting paWl mechanism connecting the spindles of the spools with a common pinion turning with one of two gear-wheels, both constantly in gear with an intermediate wheel on the cam-spindle of the film-propelment mechanism, a reversing-clutch driven always in one direction from a first-motion shaft and adapted to be engaged with one or other of said gear-Wheels so as Without change of its own direction of motion, to cause that ofthe mechanism driven by it to be reversed, and by thus reversing the movement of the common pinion to cause the one or the other pawl mechanism and consequently the one or the other spool to be driven by said pinion for the purpose of Winding up the film While the other spool runs free, as described.
5. In a cinematograph apparatus, the combination with cam-operated film-propelment mechanism, a lens-tube movable in the lateral direction of the film, a spring for moving it, a reversing-clutch shifted by the lenstube, film letting-off and taking-up spools, friction gear and oppositely acting pawl mechanisms connecting the spool spindles with a common pinion, mechanism driven by the reversingclutch whereby the said pinion and the film propelment mechanism are driven in the one or other direction according to the position of the lens-tube and reversing-clutch, from a shaft constantly rotated in the same direction, substantially as specified.
6. In a cinematograph apparatus, the combnation with the usual film-propelling claws having a feed-motion as described, of a pair of film-retaining claws, and a cam for cansing them to be projected into or withdrawn from engagement with the holes in the film, the operation of said claws being so cordinated with that of the feed-claws that the film will be thereby held stationary in the intervals of intermittent feed.
AUGUSTUS ROSENBERG.-
Vitnesses:
T. W'. KENNARD, C. G. CLARK.
US5503801A 1901-04-09 1901-04-09 Cinematographic apparatus. Expired - Lifetime US691493A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2505965A (en) * 1944-12-20 1950-05-02 Oscar J Holmes Motion-picture projector for film with pictures in alternate series
US2819647A (en) * 1949-12-02 1958-01-14 Revere Camera Co Motion picture camera
US2986316A (en) * 1958-06-23 1961-05-30 Mitchell Camera Corp Register means for kinetoscopes

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2505965A (en) * 1944-12-20 1950-05-02 Oscar J Holmes Motion-picture projector for film with pictures in alternate series
US2819647A (en) * 1949-12-02 1958-01-14 Revere Camera Co Motion picture camera
US2986316A (en) * 1958-06-23 1961-05-30 Mitchell Camera Corp Register means for kinetoscopes

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