USRE12037E - Kinetoscope - Google PatentsKinetoscope Download PDF
- Publication number
- USRE12037E USRE12037E US RE12037 E USRE12037 E US RE12037E
- United States
- Prior art keywords
- Prior art date
- 230000001747 exhibiting Effects 0.000 description 6
- 230000002688 persistence Effects 0.000 description 4
- 241000282619 Hylobates lar Species 0.000 description 2
- 206010028813 Nausea Diseases 0.000 description 2
- 101700049760 PROZ Proteins 0.000 description 2
- 235000007959 Psilotum nudum Nutrition 0.000 description 2
- 241001367079 Una Species 0.000 description 2
- 230000000875 corresponding Effects 0.000 description 2
- 230000001105 regulatory Effects 0.000 description 2
- 238000004804 winding Methods 0.000 description 2
2. 0 m um7 3 .L .P e S .d e. u S is. e ...n l n D .E L T. 7. 3 U., 2. 0. N
Application am .June io, 1902.
L lllllllllllllllllllllllllll. 1tnesses u No. |2,os7.. y neissueu sept. so, |902.
Application filed June 10, 1902 uuguu'uuumpuuudmgumuum Witn esses A:y In Ven
tor 3 Sheets- Sheet 3. I
fw?? gm "Ta-all whom it may concern.:
'rHoMAs A. EDIsoNjoF LLEWELLYN Palm, NEWJERSEK lKrmrroscorl-z.
srnon'xcanox mjming pm of nausea :anni maant No. 12,037,115@ septembei so, 1902. Original ll'oflll'. datsdvlngmt' 8 1. 1897. Applloatiunfor reissue tiled June 10. 1962.' Serial No. 110,987.
Be itknown that 1, THOMAS A. EDISON, a
y citizen of the United States, residing at Llewellyn Park, i the county of Essex and State of New Jersey, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Kinetoscopes, (CaseNo. 928,).of whichithe following is a specilication.
The purpose I .have in view is to produce,
pictures representing objects in motion throughoutan ex't'ended period of time which may `be utilized to exhibit the sceneinclud ing su'chmoving objects in a perfect and natural manner'b) mean'sof a suitable exhibiting apparatus, .such as that describedI in an application Afiled''simultaneously herewith,l
(Patent No. 493,426, dated March 14, 1893.)
I have found that it is possible to accomplish this endby meansnf photography.
4In carrying out my invention I employ an apparatus forelecting by photography a representation suitable for reproduction of ascene including a moving object or objectsA comprising" a means, such as 'a single camera, 'for lntermittentlyrprojecting at such rapid rateas to result in persistence of visionim- `ages'of' successive positions of the object or objects-fin motion as observed from a fixed .and single point of view, a'A sensitized tape- 4like lm, and a means for. so moving the film as to cause4 the successive images to be received thereon separately and in single-line -sequence.' The movements of the tape-film are intermittent, and it is preferable that the than the periods of movement. A `B`y taking the photographs ata rate suliperiods of rest of the film should be longery cient] y high as to result in persistence of vision thedeveloped photographswill,whenbrou gli tsuccessively into view by an exhibiting appaf I have beenaole totake with a singlecamera and a tapeffllm as many as forty-six pho-- tographs per second, each havin ga size meas- -nr'ed lengthwiseof the tape of: one inch, aud
I have also been able to hold the tape at rest fprnine-tenths of the time; but I do not wish D rvIsIoN A.
'of positively advancing thei'film. fllm'is narrow, it isnot essential to use two .REIss-UED portion between the periods -of rest and the Yperiodsof motion, since with some subjects' a speed as low ,as thirty pictures per second or even lower is sufficient, and while it is desirable to make the periods 0f rest -as much anyvexcess of the periods of rest over the periods of motion is advantageous;
In theaccompanying drawings, forming a part hereof, Figui-el is a plan view,`wilh the top of lthe casini.y removed, of a form of apparatus which I vhave found. highly useful for the tak-ingfof the photographs. Fig. 2. vis 'a vertical longitudinal section on line' in Fig. 1. Figs. 3 andfi are enlarged 'views of thestop mechanism ofthe pratns. Fig. 5 is a plan view of the shutter for the photographing apparatus, and Fig. U is a perspective view of a section of the tapeflm with the positive photographs' thereon; Referring to the drawings', 3 indicates the transparent or translucent tapeflm,-w hich before the apparatus is putin operation is all coiled-on a reel in t-he'sheetmetal box a The film is an empty reel in the caso 2.
preferably of s uicient width to admit the Vtaking 'of pictures one yinch in .diameter between the rowsjof holesflt, Fig.2, arranged at: regular intervals along thetwo edges of the film, and in to which holes the teeth of the wheels 5', Figs."1and.'2, enter for the purpose When the rows of perforations and two feed-wheels', one feed-wheel beingl sucient. Said wheels are mounted una shaft', which carries a loose pulleyY-that is; apulley frietionally connee'tedmo its shaft. andforming a yielding mechanical-connection. This pnlleyis'd r-iven ratus,reproduce theamovements faithfully" by a cord* or belt' 8 from 'a pulley!) o'n the shaft 1( ),z which shaft is driven'A by means of `the beveledgeirslllB. The wheel 1:? is
preferably driven by an
electric motor 13,- which' when-.the'apparatus is in `use isiegulated to runat the desired uniform speed,
l 'being controlled by the ccntrlfmtalgovernor `14*and' the circuit-controller 15 in avwellknownmanner. On'theshaft'lO is another pulley 16.; which iS-c'nhectei by .a crossbelli ss` 'longer than-the periods of motion as possible photographing ap 17 to a
pulley 18, also frictionally vconnected to its shaft, and which carries the reel to which the tape is connected in casing 2. The vfilm passes from the casing 1 througha slit 5 formed by the ` edge 19 and the sliding door 20, which is normally thrown forward by the spring 21, Fig. 2,- withsuiiicient force to clamp the film and holdit from movement. When the door is retracted by pulling ou the rod orstring 22, which is connected to the arm22, the film is liberatedaud allowed to advance. Film-case 2 is provided with a similar door, but-.the device for moving the door is not illustrated. This arrangement of 4:g5 the sliding door not only holds the film, but iit tightlycloses the casing, thus excluding light and protecting the sensitive lm. The casings or boxes 1 2 are removable, so that they,`with the .inclosed film, may be .taken bodily from the apparatus. The shaft 6, heretofore referred to, is provided with a detent or stop-wheel, 23, the form of'which is -most clearly shown infFigs. 3 andei. vThe Wheel 23 is provided with a number of proz 5 -jecting teeth 24, six being shown, which teeth are adapted to strike successively against the face of the cooperating detentori' stopwheel on the shaft 26, which is thearmature-shaft of the motor Vor a shaft `which is constantlydriven by the motor. The wheel 25 has a corresponding number of notches2'1 "at regular intervals around its periphery. These notches are of such size and shapethat the teeth 24' can pass through them, and when the 23 and 25 are rotated in the direction indicated by the arrows each tooth 'in succession will strike the face of wheels wheel 25, n thereby bringing the lilm absolutely to rest at the same moment that an opening in the shutter exposes the film andwill then pass through a notch, allowing the tapealilm to bev` moved forwardanother step while i`t"-is eovj-f. eredby the shut-ter.` To avoid the danger Ioli thewlieel 25 moving so quickly that a-tooth cannot enter the propermotch, a laterally-v projecting tooth 2) is provided adjacent to' each notch.' When a tooth 2-9'strikes a.too'th 24, the latter tooth will be guided by the tooth 29 into vthe adjacent notch 27.l
30 is a detent spring or.v paw`l to prevent backward movemen-trof the
wheel 23. x
1 prefer to so proportion theparts above described that the wlieel' 23 is at rest for ninetenths of the time in'ordento give to the sensitized film as long an exposure as practicable l and is moving forward one-.tenth of the time, and said `forward .'rnovementisl made to take place thirty or more-times persecond, prefs erablyat least as high as 'fortyfsix times per l 601 Ysecond, although .the ,rapidityof movement or num-ber of times per second maybe regulated as desired to give satisfactory results.- The longer interval of rest of the film insures a good impression of the object vprojected 65,. thereon and results in a picture having clean and sharp lines, sincethe film h'as sucient time to become steady and'overcome the vif- 'oration causedby the sudden `and rapid motions of the feed mechanism. 0n the
shaft 26 or on any suitable shaft driven by the mo- 7o tor is a revolving ldisk 31, vserving as a shut# ter for alternately exposing and covering the Asensitive lilm. This disk, which is continu- 'ously revolving, is provided with six or any other suitable number of apertures 32 at regu- 75 lar intervals around it nearthe edge, they being so arranged that vone of 'the apertures passes directly between the camera-lens 33 and the film each time the iilm is brought to rest, the light-rays passing through the open- 8o ing 33' andV falling 'on the film haltway betweeu the reels on which the film is wound.
34 is a device for adjusting the camera-lens toward or from the film, and 35 is a device-by means of which the operator can focus the camera on the object to be photographed.
Although the operation has been partially indicated in the description of the apparatusV it will now be set forth more iu detail.
' Theapparatus'is first charged with a sen- 9o sitive tape-film several hundred or even thousands of feet long and the motor is set in operation. Since the spring 21 causes the
door j 20 to clamp the lm, asalready described, the loose pulleys 7 18 slip without pulling said 95 lm along, but Whena moving object-for example, a man gesticulating-is placed in the field of the camera' and the'handle 22is pulled the film is released andthe pulleys op-l erate to pull the same along.' At the same roo time the reel in case 2 is rotated to wind up the film, thus transferring it from the reel in case 1 to the reel in case 2.v This movement is intermittent, the film advancing by very rapid steps, which are definitely and posim5 tively controlled by means of the peculiar detent or escapement described, and a photo- ,graph is taken after each step.
, While 1 do not care to limit myselfto any particular number of steps per second, there 'i ro should beat least enough so that the eye of anobserver cannot distinguish, or at least cannot clearly and positively distinguish, at
a glance a difference in the position occupied by the object in the successive pictures, as m5 illustrated in Fig. 7. A less speed in taking the pictures will cau-se a trembling-or jerky appearance in the reproduced picture.4 Vlhepl the movement of the lobject being photographed has ceased or the desired number of 12e photographs has been obtained, the appa-ratus is stopped.v The lm'is suitably treated for developing and fixing the pictures, when positive prints therefrom, Fig. 6, can be used in an exhibiting apparatus.
What I claim is- 1. An apparatus for taking photographs suitable for the exhibition of objects in m0- tion, having in combination a camerahaving a single stationary lens; al-singlesensitized 13o tape-film supported on opposite sides of, andlongitudinally -movablewith respect to, the lens, and-having an intermediate section crossing thelens;` feeding. devices engaging *5 tion, having in' combinations cameralhaving :such intermediate section of the 'l m and 'moving the same across the lens ofthe camera at a high rate of speed and with an intermit` tent motion-g and ay shutter exposing succesf5 sive portions of the lmduring of rest. substantially as set forth.
the periods 2, An apparatus for taking photographs l suitable for the exhibition of objects in motion, having in combination a camera having [0 a single stationary lens;'a single sensitized tape-film supported on opposite sides of. and
longitudinally movable with respect'to, the
lens, and having an intermediate section crossing the lens; a continuously-rotating drivingshaft;'feeding devices operated by said shaft engaging such intermediate seotion of the film and moving the same across` .the lens of the camera at a high rate of speed and with an intermittent motion; andacontinnously-rotating shutter operated by said shaft for exposing successive portions of the film during the -asset forth. i
y3. An apparatus for taking photographs suitable foith'e exhibition of objects in moa single stationary flens; la single sensitized tapelm supported. on opposite sides of, and
` longitudinally movable with respect to, the
periods 'of rest, substantially lens, and having-an intermediate section crossing -the lens; a continnously'- rotating .driving-shaft;` feeding devices operated by said shaft engaging such intermediatesectionofthe iilm and moving the` same across the lens of the camera at a high rate of speed and with an intermittent motion; a shutter exposingl successive portionsof the -ilmdming the periods of rest; and a reel revolved by said shaft with variable speed for winding `the lm thereon after exposure, substantially 4. An -apparatus for taking photographs suitable forthe exhibition of objects in motion, having inhombinat-ion a single camera, and means for passing asensitized tape'fiilm across 'the-'lens at a high` rate. o f` speed and with an intermittent motion, and forv'expos portions oi! the. lm during-
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