USRE13329E - Signments - Google Patents

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USRE13329E
USRE13329E US RE13329 E USRE13329 E US RE13329E
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US
United States
Prior art keywords
film
lens
camera
rest
motion
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Thomas A. Edison
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By Mesne As
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T. A. EDISON.
KINETOSGOPE.
APPLIUATION FILED MAY 24, 1911.
Reissued Dec. 5, 1911. 1 3,329.
3 SHEBTS-SEEET 2.
T. EDISON.
KINETOSGOPE. APPLIOATION IILED Mun. 1911.
Reissued Dec. 5, 1911. 13,329.
3 SHEETS-SEEET 3.
'EIGIIJDEIDGEDQCIQEEDUDDU y muu UNITED STATES PA TENT OFFICE.
THOMAS A. EDISON, OF LLEWELLYN PARK, NEW JEBSEY, ASSIGNOR, :BY MESNE AS- SIGNHIIN'JS TO MOTION PICTURE PATENTS COMPANY, OF JERSEY CITY, NEW
JERSEY, A CORPOBATION OF NEW JEBSEY.
. KINETOSCOPE.
13,329. Original No. ssass, dated August 31, 1897.
Speciflcatio ot Reissued Letters Patent. Reissued Dec. 5, 1911.
Original Reissue No. 12,037, dated September 30, 1902, Serial No. 110,987. Application for this re'sse filed May 24, 1911. Serial No. 629340.
To all whom it may concem:
Be it known that I, THOMAS A. EDIsoN, a. citizen of the United States, residing at Llewell n Park, in the county of Essex and State o New Jersey, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Kinetoscopes, (Case No. 928,) of which the following is a specifioation. I
The purpose I haye in View is to produce pictures representing objects in motion throughout an extended period of time which may be utilized to exhibit the scene including such moving objects in a perfect and natural manner by means of a suitable exhibit-` ing apparatus, such as that described in an application filed simultaneously herewith, (Patent No. 493A26, dated March 14, 1893.) I have found that it is possible to accomplish this end by means of photography.
In carrying out my invention I employ an apparatus for efiecting by photography a representation suitable for reproduction of a scene including a moving object or objects comprising a means suchas a single camera, for intermittently projecting at such rapid rate as to result-n persstence of vision images of successive positions of the object or objects in motion as observed from a fixed and single point of View, a sensitized tapelike film, and a means for so moving the film as to cause the successive images to be received thereon separately and n single-line sequence. The movements of the tape-film are internittent, and it is preferable that the p'eriods of rest of the film should be longer than the periods of movement.
By' taking the photographs at a rate sufliciently high as to result in persistence of vision'the developed photographs will, when brought successively into view by an exhibiting apparatus, reproduce the movements faith fully 'and -naturally.
I`have"been able to take with a single camera and a tape-film as many as forty-six photographs per second, each having a size measured lengthwise of the tape of one inch, and
I have 'also been able to hold the tape at rest for nine-tenths of the time; but I do not wish to limit the scope of' my invention to this high rate of speed nor to this great disproportion* between the periods of rest and the periods of motion, since with some subjects a speed as low as thirty pictures per second or even lower' is suflicient, and while it is desirable to make the periods of rest asmueh longer than the periods'of motion as possible any excess of the perods of rest over the perods of motion s advantageous In the accompanying drawings, forming a part h'ereof, Figure 1 is a plan view, with the top of the casing removed, of a form of apparatus which I have found highly useful for the taking of the photographs. Fig. 2 is a vertical longitudinal section on line w m in Fig. 1. Figs. 3 and 4 are enlarged views of the stop mechanism of the photographing apparatus. Fig. 5 is a plan view of the shutter for the photographing apparatus, and Fig. 6 is a perspective view of a section of the tape-film with the positive photographs thereon.
Referring to the drawings, 3 indicates the transparent or translucent tape-film; which before the apparatus is put in operation is all coiled on a reel in the sheet-metal box or case 1; the free end being connected to an empty reel in the case 2. The film 3 is preferablyof suflicient width'to admit the i tween the rows of holes 4, Fig. 2, arrangedat regular intervals along the two edges of the film, and into which holes the teeth of the wheels 5, Figs. 1 and 2, enter for the purpose of positively advancing the film. When the film is narrow, it is not essential to 'use two rows of perforations and two feedwheels, one feed-wheel being suilicient. Said wheels are mounted on a shaft 6, which carries a loose 'pulley 7-that is, a pulley frietionally connected to its shaft and forming a yielding mechanical connection. 'This pulley is driven by a cord or belt 8 from a pulley 9 on the shaft 10, which shaft is driven by means of the *beveled gears 11 12. 'The wheel 12' is preferably driven by an electric `-moto'r 13, which when the apparatus is in use is regulated to run' at the desired' uniform speed, being controlled .by the centrifnga-l governor '14: and the circuit-c ntroller 15 in ajwell-known manner. On the s'haft 10 is another pulley 16, which is connected by a cross-belt 17 to a pulley 18, also'fr'ic tionally connected to its* shaft, and which carries the 'reel to which the tape is; connected in casing 2." The filmpasses' from the casing 1 !through a slit formedby the edge 19 and the sliding door 20, which is normally threwn forward by the spring 21 F ig. 2, with suflicient force to clamp the film and hold it from movement. When the door 20 is retracted by pulling on the rod or string 22, which is connected to the arm 22', the film is liberated and allowed to advance. Film-case 2 is provided with a similar door, but the device for moving the door is not illustrated. This arrangement of the sliding door not only holds the film,but it tightly closes the casng, thus excluding light and protecting the sensitive film. The casings or boxes 1 2 are removable, so that they, with the inclosed film, may be taken bodily from the apparatus. The shaft 6., heretofore referred to, is provided with a detent or stop-wheel 23, the form of which is' mest clearly shown in Figs. 3 and 4. The wheel 23 is provided with a number of projecting teeth 24, six being shown, which teeth are adapted to strike successively against the face of the coperating detent or stop-wheel 25 on the shaft 26, which is the armature-shaft of the motor or a 'shaft which is constantly driven by the motor. Thewheel 2:3 has a corresponding number of notches 27 at regular intervals around its periphery. These notches are of such size and shape that the teeth 24 can pass through them, and when the wheels 23 and 25 are rotated in the direction indicated by the arrows each tooth in 'succession will strike the face of wheel 25, thereby bringing the film absolutely to rest at the same moment that an opening in the shut-ter exposes the film and will then pass through a notch, allowing the tape-film to be moved forward another step while it is covered by the shutter.- To avoid the danger of the wheel 25 moving so quickly that a tooth cannot enter the proper notch, a laterally-projecting tooth 29 is provided adjacent to each notch. When a tooth 29 strikes a tooth 24, the latter tooth will be guided by the tooth 29 into the adjacent notch 27.
30 is a detent spring or pawl to prevent backward movement of the wheel 23.
I prefer to so proportion the parts above described that the wheel 23 is at rest for nine-tenths of the time in order to give to the sensitized film as long an exposure as practicable and is moving forward one-tenth of the time, and said forward movement is made to take place thirty or more times per second, prcferably at least as high as fort-ysix timesvper second, although the rapidity of movement or number of times per second may be regulated as desired to give Satisfactory results. The longer interval of rest of the film nsures a good impression of the object projected thereon' and results in a picture having clean and sharp lines, since the film has suflicient time tobecome steady and overcome the vibration caused by the sudden and rapid motions of the feed mechanism. On theshaft 26,0r on any suitable shaft driven by the motor is a revolving disk 31, serving as a Shutter for alternately exposing and covering the sensitive film. This disk, which is continuously revolving, is provided with, sixor any other suitable number of apertures 32 at regular intervals around it near the edge, they being so arranged that one of the apertures passes directly between the camera-lens 33 and the film each time the film is brought to rest, the light-rays passing through the opening 3' and falling on the film half-way between the reels on which the film is wound.
34 is a'device for adjusting the cameralens toward or ?from the film, and 35 is a. device by means of which the operator can focus the camera on the object to be photographcd.
Although the operation has been partially indicated in the description of the apparatus it will now be set for-th more in detail.
The apparatus is first charged with a sensitive tape-film several hundred or even thousands of feet long and the motor is set in operation. Since the spring 21 causes the door 20 to cl'amp the film, as already described, the loose pulleys 7 18 slip without pulling said film along, but when a moving object--for example a man gesticulatingis placed in the field of the camera and the handle 22 is pulled the film is released and the pulleys operate to pull the same along. At the same time the reel in case 2 is rotated to wind up the film, thus transferring it from the reel in case l to the reel in case 2. This movement is intermittent` the film advancing by very rapid steps, which are definitely and positively controlled by means of the peculiar detent or escapement described, and a photograph is taken after each step.
While I do not care to limit myself to any particular number of steps per second, there should be at least enough so that the eye of an observer cannot distinguish, or at least cannot clearly and positively distingu ish, at a glance a difference in the position occupied by the object in the successive pictures, as illustrated in Fig. 7. A less speed in taking the pictures will cause a trembling or jerky appearance in the reproduced picture. When the movement of the object being photographed has ceased or the desired number of photographs has been obtained, the apparatus is stopped. The film is suitably treated for developing and fixing the pictures, when positive prints therefrom, Fg. 6, can b'e used in an exhibiting apparatus.
What I claim is- 1. An apparatus for taking photographs suitable for the exhibition of objects in motion, having in combination a camera having a single stationary lens; a single sensitized tape-film supported on opposite sides of, and longitudinally movable .with respect to, the lens, and having an intermediate section crossing the lens; feeding devices engaging such intermediate section of the film and moving the same across the lens of the camera at a high rate of speed and with an intermittent motion; and a shutter exposing successive portions of the film during the periods of rest, substantially as set forth.
2. An apparatus for taking photographs suitable for the exhibition of objects n motion, having in combination a camera having a single stationary lens; a single sensitized ta e-film sup orted on opposite sides of, and l ongitudinally movable with respect to, the lens, and having an intermediate section crossing the lens; a continuously-rotating driving-shaft; feeding devices operated by said sha-ft eng agin such intermediate section of the film an moving the same across the lens of the camera at a high rate of speed and with an intermittent motion; and a continuously-rotating shutter operated by said shaft for exposing successive portionsof the film during'the periods ofrest,` substantially as set forth. I
3. An apparatus for taking photographs suitable for the exhibition of objects n motion, having in combination a camera having a single stationary lens; a single sensitized 'ta e-film supported on opposite sides of, and ongitudinally mo'vable with respect to, the lens, and having an' intermediate section crossing the lens; a continuously-rotating driVing-shaft; feeding devices operated by said shaft engaging such intermediate section of the film and moving the same across the lens of the camera at a high rate of speed and with an intermittent motion; a shutter exposing successive portions of the film during the riods of rest; and a reel revolved by said haft with variable speed ring a sin for winding the film thereon after exposure, substantially as set forth.
4. An apparatus for taking photographs suitable for the exhibition of objects n motion, having 'in combination a camera having a singlestationary lens;,a single sensitized'tape-film supported on opposite sides of, and longitudinally movable With respect to, the lens, and having an intermediate section crossinglhe lens; feeding 'devices engaging such intermediate section of the film and moving the same across the lens of the camera ata high rate of speed and with an intermittent motion, said feeding devices comprising means proportioned to cause the devices to so advance the film that its periods of rest shall exceed its periods of motion; and 'a shutter exposing successive portions of the film durin the periods of rest, substantially as set orth.
5. An apparatus for taking photographs suitable for the exhibition of objects in mot-ion, having in c0mbination a camera hav.- le stationary lens; a single sensitized per orated tape-film supported on opposite sides of, and longitudnally movable with respect to, the lens, and having an intermediate section crossing the lens; feeding devices provided with teeth engaging the perforatons of such intermediate section of the film and moving it across the lens of the camera at'a high rate of speed and with an intermittent motion; and a shutter exposing successive portions of the film during the periods of rest, substantiall1 as set forth.
In testimony 'whereof I ave signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
' THOMAS A. EDISON. witnesses: i
WABREN H. SMALL, F. J. LEONARD.

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