US8241296B2 - Use of micro and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA - Google Patents

Use of micro and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US8241296B2
US8241296B2 US12342795 US34279508A US8241296B2 US 8241296 B2 US8241296 B2 US 8241296B2 US 12342795 US12342795 US 12342795 US 34279508 A US34279508 A US 34279508A US 8241296 B2 US8241296 B2 US 8241296B2
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
system
sensor
bone
surgical
data
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active, expires
Application number
US12342795
Other versions
US20090138019A1 (en )
Inventor
Ray C. Wasielewski
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Zimmer Inc
Original Assignee
Zimmer Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/06Devices, other than using radiation, for detecting or locating foreign bodies ; determining position of probes within or on the body of the patient
    • A61B5/061Determining position of a probe within the body employing means separate from the probe, e.g. sensing internal probe position employing impedance electrodes on the surface of the body
    • A61B5/062Determining position of a probe within the body employing means separate from the probe, e.g. sensing internal probe position employing impedance electrodes on the surface of the body using magnetic field
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/16Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans
    • A61B17/17Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires
    • A61B17/1707Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires using electromagnetic effects, e.g. with magnet and external sensors
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/16Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans
    • A61B17/17Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires
    • A61B17/1717Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires for applying intramedullary nails or pins
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/06Devices, other than using radiation, for detecting or locating foreign bodies ; determining position of probes within or on the body of the patient
    • A61B5/061Determining position of a probe within the body employing means separate from the probe, e.g. sensing internal probe position employing impedance electrodes on the surface of the body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/06Devices, other than using radiation, for detecting or locating foreign bodies ; determining position of probes within or on the body of the patient
    • A61B5/065Determining position of the probe employing exclusively positioning means located on or in the probe, e.g. using position sensors arranged on the probe
    • A61B5/067Determining position of the probe employing exclusively positioning means located on or in the probe, e.g. using position sensors arranged on the probe using accelerometers or gyroscopes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/46Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
    • A61F2/4603Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor for insertion or extraction of endoprosthetic joints or of accessories thereof
    • A61F2/4609Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor for insertion or extraction of endoprosthetic joints or of accessories thereof of acetabular cups
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/46Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
    • A61F2/4657Measuring instruments used for implanting artificial joints
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/46Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
    • A61F2/4684Trial or dummy prostheses
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/14Surgical saws ; Accessories therefor
    • A61B17/15Guides therefor
    • A61B17/154Guides therefor for preparing bone for knee prosthesis
    • A61B17/155Cutting femur
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/16Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans
    • A61B17/17Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires
    • A61B17/1739Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires specially adapted for particular parts of the body
    • A61B17/1742Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires specially adapted for particular parts of the body for the hip
    • A61B17/1746Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires specially adapted for particular parts of the body for the hip for the acetabulum
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/16Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans
    • A61B17/17Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires
    • A61B17/1739Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires specially adapted for particular parts of the body
    • A61B17/1764Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires specially adapted for particular parts of the body for the knee
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/72Intramedullary pins, nails or other devices
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/84Fasteners therefor or fasteners being internal fixation devices
    • A61B17/86Threaded wires, pins or screws; Nuts therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/10Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/101Computer-aided simulation of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/102Modelling of surgical devices, implants or prosthesis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2046Tracking techniques
    • A61B2034/2051Electromagnetic tracking systems
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2072Reference field transducer attached to an instrument or patient
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/06Measuring instruments not otherwise provided for
    • A61B2090/062Measuring instruments not otherwise provided for penetration depth
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/36Image-producing devices or illumination devices not otherwise provided for
    • A61B2090/364Correlation of different images or relation of image positions in respect to the body
    • A61B2090/365Correlation of different images or relation of image positions in respect to the body augmented reality, i.e. correlating a live optical image with another image
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/39Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers
    • A61B2090/3954Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers magnetic, e.g. NMR or MRI
    • A61B2090/3958Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers magnetic, e.g. NMR or MRI emitting a signal
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/39Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers
    • A61B2090/397Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers electromagnetic other than visible, e.g. microwave
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/39Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers
    • A61B2090/397Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers electromagnetic other than visible, e.g. microwave
    • A61B2090/3975Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers electromagnetic other than visible, e.g. microwave active
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/30721Accessories
    • A61F2/30723Plugs or restrictors for sealing a cement-receiving space
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/32Joints for the hip
    • A61F2/36Femoral heads ; Femoral endoprostheses
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/32Joints for the hip
    • A61F2/36Femoral heads ; Femoral endoprostheses
    • A61F2/3662Femoral shafts
    • A61F2/367Proximal or metaphyseal parts of shafts
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/32Joints for the hip
    • A61F2/36Femoral heads ; Femoral endoprostheses
    • A61F2/3662Femoral shafts
    • A61F2/3672Intermediate parts of shafts
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/38Joints for elbows or knees
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/38Joints for elbows or knees
    • A61F2/3859Femoral components
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/38Joints for elbows or knees
    • A61F2/389Tibial components
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/46Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
    • A61F2/4603Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor for insertion or extraction of endoprosthetic joints or of accessories thereof
    • A61F2/4607Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor for insertion or extraction of endoprosthetic joints or of accessories thereof of hip femoral endoprostheses
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30667Features concerning an interaction with the environment or a particular use of the prosthesis
    • A61F2002/30668Means for transferring electromagnetic energy to implants
    • A61F2002/3067Means for transferring electromagnetic energy to implants for data transfer
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/32Joints for the hip
    • A61F2/36Femoral heads ; Femoral endoprostheses
    • A61F2/3609Femoral heads or necks; Connections of endoprosthetic heads or necks to endoprosthetic femoral shafts
    • A61F2002/3625Necks
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/32Joints for the hip
    • A61F2/36Femoral heads ; Femoral endoprostheses
    • A61F2/3609Femoral heads or necks; Connections of endoprosthetic heads or necks to endoprosthetic femoral shafts
    • A61F2002/3625Necks
    • A61F2002/3631Necks with an integral complete or partial peripheral collar or bearing shoulder at its base
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/46Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
    • A61F2/4603Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor for insertion or extraction of endoprosthetic joints or of accessories thereof
    • A61F2002/4619Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor for insertion or extraction of endoprosthetic joints or of accessories thereof for extraction
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/46Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
    • A61F2/4603Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor for insertion or extraction of endoprosthetic joints or of accessories thereof
    • A61F2002/4623Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor for insertion or extraction of endoprosthetic joints or of accessories thereof having a handle portion, e.g. integral with the implanting tool
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/46Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
    • A61F2/4657Measuring instruments used for implanting artificial joints
    • A61F2002/4658Measuring instruments used for implanting artificial joints for measuring dimensions, e.g. length
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/46Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
    • A61F2/4657Measuring instruments used for implanting artificial joints
    • A61F2002/4668Measuring instruments used for implanting artificial joints for measuring angles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/46Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
    • A61F2002/4688Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor having operating or control means
    • A61F2002/4696Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor having operating or control means optical
    • A61F2002/4697Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor having operating or control means optical visual
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2250/00Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2250/0001Means for transferring electromagnetic energy to implants
    • A61F2250/0002Means for transferring electromagnetic energy to implants for data transfer

Abstract

A system for assisting in a surgical process, comprising: (a) a surgical device taken from a group consisting of a surgical tool and a surgical implant; (b) a positional sensor carried by the surgical device, the positional sensor including a wireless transmitter and associated circuitry for transmitting sensor data from the transmitter; and (c) a computer system including a wireless receiver and signal conditioning circuitry and hardware for converting sensor data received by the wireless receiver into at least one of (i) audio feedback of positional information for the surgical device and (ii) visual feedback of positional information for the surgical device.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This is a Divisional Application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/820,279 filed Apr. 8, 2004, which claims the benefit of priority of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/461,173 entitled “USE OF MICRO- AND MINIATURE POSITION SENSING DEVICES FOR USE IN TKA AND THA” filed Apr. 8, 2003, the disclosures of which are expressly incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

BACKGROUND

Image guided surgery is being evaluated to assist a surgeon in positioning various implant components in joint arthroplasty. These image-guided systems typically rely on infrared sensors to gauge the position of the prosthetic devices and jigs in the three coordinate system. However, these systems are bulky and may also require one or more of the components thereof to be mounted to bone. In addition, these systems require a direct line of sight that makes it difficult for the surgeon to both operate and “stay out of the way” of the infrared transmissions. It is highly unlikely that these bulky devices will be useful in the small confines of minimally invasive surgery where direct line of sight will be at a premium. Additionally, the time required to use these devices can extend surgery time substantially.

SUMMARY

The present invention is directed to miniature sensing devices for use in surgical procedures and devices used therein. The invention utilizes, at least in part, generally two classes of devices: micro- and miniature sensing devices and associated micro- and miniature transmitting devices. Data from the sensing devices may be transmitted by the transmitting devices wirelessly to one or more data conditioning devices that may be operatively coupled to or include one or more displays and/or data recording devices. In an exemplary embodiment, the sensors include microgyroscopes oriented to output data relevant to three axes of position and/or movement. The microgyroscopes are operatively coupled to a wireless transmitter for transmitting the positional data to a data conditioning device, which may be operatively coupled to or include a visual display and a data recording device. Exemplary transmission protocols include, without limitation, ISM (b) and FSK modulation or spread spectrum modulation.

In a further detailed exemplary embodiment, the micro- or miniature sensors of the present invention may be mounted to surgical tools such as individual cutting jigs, alignment instrumentation (e.g., acetabular reamers, extramedullary tibial cutter), prosthetic trials and positioning devices (e.g., cup inserter), final prosthetic devices (e.g., central screw in acetabular shell), and/or the patient (e.g., to the patient's bone or other tissue). The micro- or miniature sensing devices generate data, such as position data in the three coordinates, orientation data, and/or movement data, that is transmitted to a data conditioning device. Exemplary data conditioning devices may be operatively coupled to or include, without limitation, visual displays for simulating virtual surgical environments, auditory advisory devices, and/or a computer to track the movement of the surgical device during the surgical procedure. The differing size restrictions for various surgical procedures and surgical equipment may be significant factors in the choice of sensing devices and transmission methodology. In addition to the micro- or miniature gyroscopes, additional sensing devices adapted for use with the present invention may include, without limitation, micro- or miniature inclinometers, accelerometers, and magnetometers.

The present invention is discussed in exemplary form with respect to joint arthroplasty, however, the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein may be applicable to further surgical procedures and equipment apparent to one of ordinary skill and likewise fall within the scope of the present invention.

Therefore it is a first aspect of the present invention to provide a system for assisting in a surgical process, comprising: (a) a surgical device taken from a group consisting of a surgical tool and a surgical implant; (b) a positional sensor carried by the surgical device, the positional sensor including a wireless transmitter and associated circuitry for transmitting sensor data from the transmitter; and (c) a computer system including a wireless receiver and signal conditioning circuitry and hardware for converting sensor data received by the wireless receiver into at least one of (i) audio feedback of positional information for the surgical device and (ii) visual feedback of positional information for the surgical device.

It is a second aspect of the present invention to provide a system for assisting in a surgical process, comprising: (a) a surgical device taken from a group consisting of a surgical tool, a prosthetic component, and a surgical implant; (b) a sensor carried by the surgical device, the sensor operatively coupled to a wireless transmitter and associated circuitry for transmitting sensor data including at least one of positional data and orientational data outputted from the sensor; and (c) a computer system including a visual display, a wireless receiver, and signal conditioning circuitry and hardware for converting the sensor data received by the wireless receiver into visual feedback information for viewing on the visual display.

It is a third aspect of the present invention to provide a surgical telemetry system comprising: (a) a sensor mounted to a surgical device, the sensor taken from the group consisting of an accelerometer, a magnetometer, a gyroscope, or an inclinometer; (b) a digital processing device operatively coupled to the sensor to receive data derived from data output from the sensor, the digital processing device generating a display output; and (c) a display operatively coupled to the digital processing device and adapted to receive the display output, where the display output displays the change in at least one of position and orientation of the sensor with respect to a point of reference.

It is a fourth aspect of the present invention to provide a surgical telemetry system comprising: (a) a computer system having signal conditioning hardware and software; (b) a surgical instrument having an instrument positional sensor carried thereon, the instrument positional sensor being operatively coupled to the signal conditioning hardware and software of the computer system to transmit instrument positional data thereto; and (c) a prosthetic component having a prosthetic component positional sensor carried thereon, the prosthetic component positional sensor being operatively coupled to the signal conditioning hardware and software of the computer system to transmit prosthetic component positional data thereto.

It is a fifth aspect of the present invention to provide a surgical telemetry system comprising: (a) a computer system having signal conditioning hardware and software; (b) a first surgical instrument having a first instrument positional sensor carried thereon, the first instrument positional sensor being operatively coupled to the signal conditioning hardware and software of the computer system to transmit first instrument positional data thereto; and (c) a second surgical instrument having a second instrument positional sensor carried thereon, the second instrument positional sensor being operatively coupled to the signal conditioning hardware and software of the computer system to transmit second instrument positional data thereto.

It is a sixth aspect of the present invention to provide a surgical telemetry system comprising: (a) a computer system having signal conditioning hardware and software; (b) a field generating device generating a detectable field approximate a reference object; and (c) at least one of a surgical instrument and a prosthetic component having a sensor carried thereon for sensing the detectable field, the sensor being operatively coupled to the signal conditioning hardware and software of the computer system to transmit positional data thereto relative to the detectable field.

It is a seventh aspect of the present invention to provide a surgical telemetry system comprising: (a) a sensor mounted to a prosthetic trial, the sensor including at least one of an accelerometer, a magnetometer, a gyroscope, and an inclinometer; and (b) a wireless transmitter operatively coupled to the sensor to disseminate broadcast data derived from output data attributable to the sensor.

It is an eighth aspect of the present invention to provide a surgical telemetry system comprising: (a) a sensor mounted to a prosthetic component, the sensor including at least one of an accelerometer, a magnetometer, a gyroscope, and an inclinometer; and (b) a wireless transmitter operatively coupled to the sensor to disseminate broadcast data derived from output data attributable to the sensor.

It is a ninth aspect of the present invention to provide a surgical telemetry system comprising: (a) a sensor mounted to a surgical jig, the sensor including at least one of an accelerometer, a magnetometer, a gyroscope, and an inclinometer; and (b) a wireless transmitter operatively coupled to the sensor to disseminate broadcast data derived from output data attributable to the sensor.

It is a tenth aspect of the present invention to provide a surgical telemetry system comprising: (a) a sensor mounted to a surgical device, the sensor including at least one of an accelerometer, a magnetometer, a gyroscope, and an inclinometer; and (b) a wireless transmitter operatively coupled to the sensor to disseminate broadcast data derived from output data attributable to the sensor, where the surgical device is utilized in at least one of a total knee arthroplasty procedure and a total hip arthroplasty procedure.

It is an eleventh aspect of the present invention to provide a surgical telemetry system comprising: (a) a sensor mounted to a surgical implant, the sensor including at least one of an accelerometer, a magnetometer, a gyroscope, or an inclinometer; (b) a digital processing device operatively coupled to the sensor to receive data derived from data output from the sensor, the digital processing device generating a display output; and (c) a display operatively coupled to the digital processing device and adapted to receive the display output, where the display output displays the change in at least one of position and orientation of the sensor with respect to a point of reference.

It is a twelfth aspect of the present invention to provide a surgical telemetry system comprising: (a) a surgical instrument having an instrument positional sensor associated therewith, the instrument positional sensor coupled to a wireless transmitter to transmit output data from the instrument positional sensor indicative of the position of the surgical instrument; (b) an implantable prosthetic device having a prosthetic device positional sensor associated therewith, the prosthetic device positional sensor coupled to a wireless transmitter to transmit output data from the prosthetic device positional sensor indicative of the position of the implantable prosthetic device; (c) a surgical jig having a jig positional sensor associated therewith, the jig positional sensor coupled to a wireless transmitter to transmit output data from the jig positional sensor indicative of the position of the surgical jig; (d) an anatomical positional sensor adapted to be mounted to an anatomical feature of a patient, the anatomical positional sensor coupled to a wireless transmitter to transmit output data from the anatomical positional sensor indicative of the position of the anatomical feature; and (e) a data processing device comprising: (i) a receiver adapted to receive the transmitted output data, (ii) processing circuitry to transform the transmitted output data, (iii) a digital device operatively coupled to the processing circuitry including software operative to convert transformed sensor output data into relative position data adapted to be viewable to reflect at least one of position and orientation of at least one of the surgical instrument, the implantable prosthetic device, the surgical jig, and the anatomical positional sensor, and (iv) a visual display for viewing the relative position data.

It is a thirteenth aspect of the present invention to provide a method of supplementing a surgical procedure using a surgical telemetry system comprising: (a) using a surgical device including a sensor mounted thereto, the sensor taken from the group consisting of an accelerometer, a magnetometer, a gyroscope, or an inclinometer, and the surgical device taken from the group consisting of a surgical instrument, a prosthesis or a surgical jig; (b) operatively coupling the sensor of the surgical device to at least one of a wired receiver and a wireless receiver to receive output data generated by the sensor indicative of at least one of position data and orientation data; and (c) generating feedback data derived from the output data of the sensor.

It is a fourteenth aspect of the present invention to provide a method of manufacturing a medical device, the method comprising the steps of: (a) associating at least one of an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer, and an inclinometer with a medical device; and (b) associating a wireless transmitter with at least one of an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer, and an inclinometer, where the wireless transmitter is adapted to transmit wireless data derived from output data from at least one of the accelerometer, the gyroscope, the magnetometer, and the inclinometer.

It is a fifteenth aspect of the present invention to provide a method of manufacturing a prosthetic device, the method comprising the steps of: (a) associating at least one of an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer, and an inclinometer with a prosthetic device; and (b) associating a wireless transmitter with at least one of an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer, and an inclinometer, where the wireless transmitter is adapted to transmit wireless data derived from output data from at least one of the accelerometer, the gyroscope, the magnetometer, and the inclinometer.

It is a sixteenth aspect of the present invention to provide a method of generating telemetry data regarding the position of an object during a surgical procedure, the method comprising the steps of: (a) receiving a transmission from a transmitter operatively coupled to at least one of an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer, and an inclinometer associated with at least one of a medical device and a prosthetic device adapted for use with a surgical procedure; (b) processing the transmission from the transmitter into a format amendable to visual display; and (c) displaying the format onto the visual display such that changes in position of at least one of the medical device and the prosthetic device are reflected in substantially real-time and correspond substantially to an actual position of at least one of the medical device and the prosthetic device.

It is a seventeenth aspect of the present invention to provide a method of manufacturing a surgical device, the method comprising the steps of: (a) associating at least one of an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer, and an inclinometer with a surgical device; and (b) associating a wireless transmitter with at least one of the accelerometer, the gyroscope, the magnetometer, and the inclinometer, where the wireless transmitter is adapted to transmit wireless data derived from output data from at least one of the accelerometer, the gyroscope, the magnetometer, and the inclinometer.

It is an eighteenth aspect of the present invention to provide a method of generating telemetry data regarding the position of an object during a surgical procedure, the method comprising the steps of: (a) receiving a transmission from a transmitter operatively coupled to at least one of an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer, and an inclinometer associated with at least one of a surgical device, an implant, and a prosthetic component adapted for use with a surgical procedure; (b) processing the transmission from the transmitter into a format amendable to visual display; and (c) displaying the format onto a visual display such that changes in position of at least one of the medical device and the prosthetic device are reflected in substantially real-time and correspond substantially to an actual position of at least one of the medical device and the prosthetic device.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of the system according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a representative and schematic view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a representative and schematic view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 4 is a representative and schematic view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a representative and schematic view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a representative and schematic view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 7 is a representative and schematic view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 8 is a representative and schematic view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 9 is a representative and schematic view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 10 is a representative and schematic view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 11 is a representative and schematic view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 12 is a representative view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 13 is a representative view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 14 is a representative view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 15 is an X-ray taken of the representative view of FIG. 14;

FIG. 16 is a representative view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 17 is a representative view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 18 is a representative view of an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 19 is a schematic representation of an alternate exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 20 is a representation illustrating movements of a body for sensing by a gyroscope sensor according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 21 is a schematic representation of a gyroscope sensor for use with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention; and

FIG. 22 is a schematic circuit diagram representation of a three-axis magnetic field detector set up.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENT INVENTION

The present invention is directed to systems and associated methods that may provide visual or other telemetry regarding the orientation and/or position of surgical devices and jigs, anatomical features, and/or final and trial prosthetic components for use with surgical procedures such as, without limitation, total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty.

As discussed herein, the present invention may be incorporated with various medical devices such as, without limitation, saws, drills, hammers, reamers, screwdrivers, cup alignment instruments, guide-rods of an intramedullary femoral and tibial cutting jig, and extramedullary femoral and tibial cutting jigs. The invention may also be incorporated with various final and trial prosthetic components such as, without limitation, cup inserters, screw cap domes, prosthetic knee tibial trays, prosthetic knee trial stems, prosthetic knee trial tibial trays, prosthetic knee femoral components, prosthetic knee trial femoral components, and intramedullary extensions and stems. Still further, the invention may also be incorporated with implanted devices not encompassed by prosthetics or prosthetic trails.

Referring to FIG. 1, the invention utilizes one or more micro- or miniature sensors 10 mounted to or within (carried by) a surgical device 12, an anatomical feature of a patient 14, and/or a final or trial prosthetic component 16 to generate feedback or telemetry data during a surgical procedure regarding the position and/or orientation of the device, anatomical feature, and/or the component alone, with respect to one another, and/or with respect to a reference point. As discussed in more detail below, each micro- or miniature sensor 10 outputs data regarding position, orientation and/or movement of that sensor which is indicative of the position and/or orientation of the device, anatomical feature, or component which carries it. In specific embodiments, such output data is generated in real-time and continues to be generated in a three dimensional coordinate system as the sensor changes position and/or orientation.

The sensor output data may be utilized to generate a visual representation of the position and/or orientation of the device, anatomical feature, or component using a visual display 18. A display system 20 may include signal conditioning hardware and software 21 for receiving sensor data from the sensor and for converting such sensor data into a visual image on a visual display 18 operatively coupled thereto or included therewith. Exemplary visual displays may include, for example and without limitation, a television screen, a computer monitor, a projected image, and a virtual reality headset/visor. In this manner, a surgeon (or any other party) can visually discern substantially in real-time the position and/or orientation of the device, feature, or component and any changes thereto during a surgical procedure within the operating room or even from a remote location. This may be particularly useful during surgical procedures where a direct line of sight from a particular angle may not be possible, for instance, in minimally invasive surgery characterized by small incisional openings.

The conditioning hardware and software 21 of the display system 20 may have access to three dimensional maps of the surgical devices and prosthetic components, including data indicative of the location of the micro- or miniature sensors carried thereby, to facilitate the generation of an electronic 3-D image of the devices and prosthetic components. With these 3-D maps in place, the sensor output data may be associated with the 3-D images to create correlated 3-D data in a one-to-one manner showing any actual change in position of the device or component. It is likewise within the scope of the invention that the image data is not generated in a one-to-one manner such that the device or component may be visually magnified for viewing ease and effect. Generally, an increase in the number of strategically positioned sensors carried by a particular surgical device will result in a more accurate the 3-D correlation.

Many applications of the present invention will involve providing additional micro- or miniature reference sensors 22 on one or more reference objects so that the conditioning hardware and software 21 of the display system 20 will be configured to generate displays representing the position, orientation and/or movement of the surgical devices with respect to the reference object(s). Exemplary reference objects may include a patient's bone or other point on the patient's anatomy, an implant, a prosthetic trial component, a final prosthetic component, another surgical tool or instrument, a device worn by the patient, and an operating room object such as an operating table or restraining device. Such reference sensors will also output data regarding position, orientation and/or movement indicative of the position and/or orientation of the device, anatomical feature, or component which carries it. In specific embodiments, such output data is generated in real-time and continues to be generated in a three dimensional coordinate system as the reference sensor changes position and/or orientation. The reference sensor output data may be utilized to generate a visual representation of the position and/or orientation of the reference device, anatomical feature, or component using the visual display 18. In specific embodiments, the conditioning hardware and software 21 of the display system 20 may have access to three dimensional maps of the reference objects, including data indicative of the location of the reference micro- or miniature sensors 22 carried thereby, to facilitate the generation of an electronic 3-D image of the reference objects.

An exemplary use of the present invention includes “targeting”. Targeting includes identifying the relative location and/or orientation of one or more surgical devices, prosthetic components, implants, anatomical features, and surgical jigs. An exemplary instance may include a prosthetic trial femoral component being coupled to a surgical stem inserter by way of a threaded interface between the stem of the inserter and the proximal shoulder of the trial femoral component for use in a total hip arthroplasty procedure. After the trial femoral component is positioned within the femur, the inserter may be rotated to disengage from the femoral component so that the surgeon may test the range of motion of the patient's hip without having the inserter as an obstruction. Targeting includes utilizing sensors or other articles associated with the trial component to ascertain the position and/or orientation of the trial component, as well as sensors or other articles associated with the inserter to ascertain the position and/or orientation of the inserter. Thus, the surgeon can align the inserter with the opening within the shoulder of the trial femoral component and engage the inserter with the trial femoral component to facilitate removal of the trial femoral component without with a direct line of sight, such as, without limitation, in minimally invasive surgery. It is to be understood that targeting simply refers to knowing the position and/or orientation of at least one of a surgical device, a prosthetic component, an implant, an anatomical feature, and a surgical jig with respect to a point of reference, and optionally being able to engage or disengage a device without a direct line of sight.

Further exemplary uses of the present invention include monitoring the progress of a surgical instrument, such as the current depth of a reaming instrument, toward the intended goal position, which may or may not be or include a reference object. An exemplary monitoring function might also include providing orientation and position feedback such as how far apart a device or tool is from a prosthetic component or whether or not the surgeon is correctly orienting the surgical instrument, the prosthetic component, or the surgical jig with respect to an intended target position and/or orientation.

The surgical devices, prosthetic components, implants, and surgical jigs include one or more micro- or miniature sensors 10 that output data regarding the position, orientation, and/or movement of structures mounted thereto or incorporated therewith. In an exemplary form, the micro- or miniature sensors may include three or more microgyroscopes carried by the device, component, implant, or jig 12 that are positioned/oriented such that each microgyroscope outputs data regarding changes in one of the X, Y, and Z planes in a three dimensional coordinate system. The microgyroscopes are operatively coupled to one or more micro- or miniature RF transmitters 24 that are also carried by the device, component, implant, or jig 12, where the RF transmitter transmits sensor output data from the microgyroscopes to an RF receiver 26 provided by the display system 20. As discussed above, the surgical devices, prosthetic components, and surgical jigs may be 3-D mapped to assist the conditioning hardware and software 21 of the display system 20 in generating an electronic, virtual representation of the surgical device, prosthetic component, implant, or surgical jig on the associated display. Sensor output data is utilized by the conditioning hardware and software 21 of the display system 20 to impart substantially real-time position, orientation, and/or movement to the virtual representation shown on the display screen 18.

Referencing FIG. 2, a first detailed exemplary application of the present invention includes a surgical reamer 30 adapted for use with a total hip arthroplasty procedure and having at least one micro- or miniature sensor 32 associated therewith. An exemplary sensor 32 may include individually or in combination, without limitation, inclinometers, accelerometers, magnetometers, and microgyroscopes. The sensor 32 is coupled to a micro- or miniature transmitter device 34, which may be carried on the surgical reamer 30, to wirelessly broadcast sensor data regarding the position and/or orientation of the surgical reamer 30 with respect to the pelvis 36 in three axes of movement, represented by planes β, α and θ. A wireless receiver 38, operatively coupled to a display system 40, receives the signals broadcast by the transmitter 34 and forwards the data derived from the signals for display upon the system 40. The display system 40 is designed to inform the surgeon regarding the position and/or orientation of the surgical reamer 30, for example, continuously during surgery. In a further exemplary embodiment, the surgical reamer 30 may include one or more micro- or miniature sensors strategically carried thereon capable of sensing changes in position, orientation, and/or movement in one or more of the axes of movement.

In a more detailed exemplary embodiment, films of a patient to undergo total hip arthroplasty are taken preoperatively and are utilized to create registration and calculate the depth of acetabular reaming necessary during the procedure. Thereafter, such calculations are input into a data positioning device 42, operatively coupled to the display 40, to reflect the position of the reamer 30 with respect to the patient's pelvis 36. Alternatively, the data positioning device 42 may be operatively coupled to the reamer 30 to interface with the sensor 32 and measure conditions indicative of the orientation and/or position of the reamer 30 relative to the current depth of the reaming and/or the predetermined depth necessary for proper reaming. In accordance with the predetermined calculations, where such measurements may be independent of bone position, the reamer 30 may be automatically stopped or slowed if the desired position and/or orientation of the reamer is outside of a predetermined tolerance. By way of example, and not a limitation, the reamer 30 may be slowed or turned off if the orientation and/or position data reflects that too deep of a depression is being created by the surgeon reaming the acetabulum of the pelvis 36. Likewise, if the reaming appears to be awry from the intended orientation, the reamer will slow or stop to discontinue reaming in the awry orientation.

Referring to FIGS. 3 and 4, a second detailed exemplary application may include one or more micro- or miniature sensors 52 associated with a surgical drill 50 and an intramedullary hole starter 50′ that may be used in a total knee arthroplasty procedure to facilitate correct positioning of the intramedullary stems and placement of the intramedullary locator. Exemplary sensors 52 may include individually or in combination, without limitation, inclinometers, accelerometers, magnetometers, and microgyroscopes. The sensor 52 may be coupled to a micro- or miniature transmitter device 54, which may also be carried on the surgical drill 50 or the intramedullary hole starter 50′, to wirelessly broadcast sensor data regarding the position and/or orientation of the surgical drill and bit 50 or the intramedullary hole starter 50′ with respect to a patient's femur 56 in three axes of movement, represented by planes A, B, and C. A wireless receiver 58, operatively coupled to a display system 60, receives the signals broadcast by the transmitter 54 and forwards the data derived from the signals for display upon the system 60. The display system 60 is designed to inform the surgeon regarding the position and/or orientation of the surgical drill 50 or the intramedullary hole starter 50′ to ensure proper alignment with respect to the femur 56. In a further exemplary embodiment, the surgical drill 50 and/or the intramedullary hole starter 50′ may include at least three micro- or miniature sensors strategically carried thereon capable of sensing changes in position, orientation, and/or movement in three axes. In yet another exemplary embodiment, the surgical drill 50 and/or the intramedullary hole starter 50′ may include fewer than three sensors providing position and/or orientation data in less than three axes of movement.

Referencing FIGS. 4 and 5, in a more detailed exemplary embodiment, films of a patient to undergo total knee arthroplasty are taken preoperatively and are utilized to calculate the depth of drilling necessary for proper accommodation of one or more surgical jigs 62 and component stems. Thereafter, such calculations are input into a data positioning device 64, operatively coupled to the display 60 to reflect the position of the drill 50 with respect to the patient's femur 56. Alternatively, the data positioning device 64 may be operatively coupled to the drill 50 to interface with the sensor 52 and measure conditions indicative of the orientation and/or position of the drill 50 relative to a predetermined depth. In accordance with the predetermined calculations, the drill 50 may be automatically stopped or slowed if the desired position and/or orientation of the drill bit is outside of a predetermined tolerance. By way of example, and not a limitation, the drill 50 may be slowed or turned off if the orientation and/or position data reflects that the alignment of the drill bit is off from a predetermined acceptable tolerance. In addition, if the drilling appears to be at or approaching the intended depth, the drill 50 may slow or stop to discontinue drilling.

Further exemplary embodiments may include a surgical saw including one or more micro- or miniature sensors associated therewith for use during a total knee arthroplasty procedure. Exemplary sensors may include individually or in combination, without limitation, inclinometers, accelerometers, magnetometers, and microgyroscopes. Each sensor is operatively coupled to a feedback device, such as a display system, to provide information to a surgeon regarding the position and/or orientation of the surgical saw. For instance, the surgeon may want to verify the depth of cutting to ensure that tissue damage outside of that expected does not occur. Exemplary components of a feedback device may include, without limitation, the display system introduced above, as well as an auditory feedback device such as an earpiece speaker. In each instance, the feedback device is designed to inform the surgeon regarding the position and/or orientation of the surgical instrument during surgery.

A third detailed exemplary application may include one or more micro- or miniature sensors associated with a surgical instrument and one or more micro- or miniature reference sensors associated with a selected anatomical feature to monitor the position of the instrument relative to the anatomical feature and possibly cease or slow operation of the instrument upon reaching a predetermined position relative to the anatomical feature. More detailed exemplary applications include total hip arthroplasty where one might prevent: (1) reaming too deep during acetabular preparation; (2) over-penetration during drilling of acetabular screw holes; (3) over-penetration during depth gauging of acetabular screw holes; (4) broaching too deep; and (5) inadequate reaming of the acetabulum.

Referencing FIG. 6, a surgical reamer 70 includes at least one magnetometer 72 operatively coupled to a transmitter 74 that may be carried by the reamer 70. A number of magnets 76 may be implanted circumferentially around an acetabulum 78 of a pelvis 80, where the magnets may have varying field strengths. The position of the reamer 70 may be measured in part using the earth's magnetic field, and more specifically, using the magnetic fields generated by the magnets 76 positioned about the acetabulum 78. Still further, an artificial magnetic field may be selectively created by a field generating device 82 to facilitate gauging the position of the reamer 70 independent of the pelvis 80. As the position of the reamer 70 in any of the three axes of movement is changed, the magnetometer 72 may detect the earth's magnetic field and/or the artificial magnetic field. The magnetometer 72 may be coupled to a data positioning device 84 capable of utilizing the magnetometer 72 output to discern the changes in position of the reamer 70. Those of ordinary skill in the art are aware of the practices through which magnetometers 72 may be used to monitor changes in position. In addition, the magnetometer 72 may likewise detect magnetic fields and field strengths associated with the magnets 74 to provide relevant magnetic field data to the positioning device 84 to calculate the relative position of the reamer 70 with respect the magnets positioned around the acetabulum 78, and thereby the pelvis 80. The data positioning device 84 may be operatively coupled to a display or data readout 86 to enable the surgeon to reposition the reamer 70, based at least in part, upon the outputted data. In this manner, a surgeon may reposition and align the reamer 70 without requiring a direct line of sight. It is to be understood that other sensors may be used in place of the magnetometers and magnets to facilitate positioning and orienting the reamer 70 with respect to the acetabulum 78.

A further detailed exemplary application includes microgyroscopes mounted within the femoral broaches to determine the broach position within the femoral canal. In another detailed exemplary application, circular gyro rings are positioned distally along the femur to supplement the orientation and alignment of the broach within the femoral canal.

In a fourth detailed exemplary application, one or more micro- or miniature sensors are associated with a surgical instrument and one or more micro- or miniature reference sensors are associated with a surgical jig to monitor the position of the instrument with respect to the jig and possibly cease operation of the instrument upon reaching a predetermined position relative to the jig. Exemplary sensors to be associated with a surgical instrument include, without limitation, accelerometers, inclinometers, magnetometers, and gyroscopes. More detailed exemplary applications include: (1) ensuring that the saw is inserted and operative to a proper depth through a slot in the jig (no registration); (2) ensuring that the proper orientation (correct valgus/varus/slope) is achieved while cutting with a saw (with registration); and (3) ensuring proper drill penetration through an acetabular screw hole (independent of bone registration). Still further, exemplary sensors to be associated with a surgical jig include, without limitation, accelerometers, inclinometers, magnetometers, and gyroscopes. Exemplary positioning for the sensors associated with the jigs include, without limitation, within the guide rods of intramedullary femoral and tibial cutting jigs and/or extramedullary femoral and tibial cutting jigs to ensure that correct orientation exists between the saw and the jig prior to any bone being cut.

Referencing FIG. 7, an exemplary embodiment may include a surgical saw 90 that includes one or more microsensors 92 associated therewith. The microsensors 92 may be coupled to a wireless transmitter 94 carried by the saw 90 or may simply include leads from the surgical saw 90 coupled to a data positioning device 96. When wireless transmitters 94 are utilized, a wireless receiver 98 may be included to capture the wireless signals and forward such data to the data positioning device 96. Likewise, a surgical knee jig 100 for use with a total knee arthroplasty procedure includes one or more microsensors 102, within the guide rod 103, coupled to a transmitter 104 associated therewith that output generated data that is received by the data positioning device 96. The surgical jig 100 is adapted to be mounted to the distal end of a femur 106 to prepare the distal end to accept a prosthetic femoral component (not shown). The data positioning device 96 utilizes the data from the microsensors 92, 102 to output data reflecting the relative position of the saw 90 with respect to the jig 100 that may be viewed by a surgeon on a visual display 108. Such data may be indicative of the depth of the cut as the position of the saw 90 changes with respect to the jig 100, thereby allowing the surgeon to know the depth of the cut without necessitating a direct line of sight. It will be understood by one of ordinary skill that the cuts made by the saw 90 do not require registration to bone, but instead utilize the relative position and/or orientation of the intramedullary guide rod 103. It is to be understood that the microsensors associated with the surgical jig 100 need not be identical in number and in function to those associated with the surgical saw 90.

In a fifth detailed exemplary application, one or more micro- or miniature reference sensors are associated with an anatomical feature and one or more micro- or miniature sensors are associated with a medical instrument adapted to position a prosthetic device. The sensors allow for the monitoring of the position of the prosthetic device with respect to the anatomical feature to ensure proper alignment of the prosthetic device. It is within the scope of the invention that anatomical features include, without limitation, bone, muscle, tendons, ligaments, and skin. In instances where a small incision is made and other internal landmarks may not be apparent, a combination of sensors on an anatomical feature and a medical instrument may assist in accurate placement of a prosthetic component without necessitating a direct line of sight.

Referencing FIG. 8, a surgical cup inserter 110 includes at least one microgyroscope 112 operatively coupled to a wireless transmitter 114 that may be carried within the handle of the inserter 110. The microgyroscope 112 may be capable of sensing changes in movement in all three axes of movement and, via the transmitter 114, disseminating such position data to a remote receiver 116. The remote receiver 116 is operatively coupled to a data positioning device 118 adapted to utilize the microgyroscope 112 output data to determine the relative position of the inserter 110 with respect to an anatomical feature (not shown). In an exemplary form, the anatomical feature may include the pelvis having one or more sensors mounted thereto that are operatively coupled to the data positioning device 118. Such sensors may be wired or wireless and include wireless transmitters where applicable. In an exemplary process, the pelvis (not shown) includes sensors positioned approximate the acetabulum to provide reference data in at least one dimension and a reference point for comparative analysis of the position data output by the microgyroscope 112. As such, the data positioning device 118 is able to calculate the position of the inserter 110 with respect to the pelvis, even as the position of the inserter 110 changes with respect to the pelvis. The data positioning device 118 may be operatively coupled to a display monitor 120 to display the relative position of the inserter 110 with respect to the pelvis, including the angle of insertion of the prosthetic cup 122 within the acetabulum. This angle data may allow the surgeon to compare the current angle with a predetermined angle (which may have been calculated preoperatively using one or more X-rays or other position determining devices) and guide placement of the prosthetic cup into the correct abduction and anteversion orientation with respect to the acetabulum.

Referring to FIG. 9, a sixth detailed exemplary application may include one or more micro- or miniature sensors 130 mounted inside a prosthetic trial component 132 to identify if the trial component is oriented correctly with respect to an anatomical feature 134. More specifically, the prosthetic trial component, or femoral knee trial prosthesis 132, includes one or more sensors 130 associated therewith that sense changes in orientation in free space and output such data to a wireless transmitter 134 within the trial 132. The anatomical feature, or femur 136, includes micro- or miniature sensors 138 mounted thereto during a total knee arthroplasty procedure. The outputs of the sensors 138 may be coupled to a wireless transmitter (not shown) or may be coupled directly to a data position device 140 also receiving inputs indirectly from the micro- or miniature sensors 130 within the femoral knee prosthesis 132. A visual display 142 may be operatively coupled to the data positioning device 140 to provide a visual representation, capable of rotation in three space, to enable the surgeon to see what cannot be seen via a direct line of sight.

Referencing FIG. 10, an alternate exemplary embodiment of the sixth aspect may include one or more micro- or miniature sensors (not shown) mounted inside a prosthetic trial component 152 to identify if the trial component is oriented correctly with respect to an anatomical feature 154. More specifically, the prosthetic trial component, or femoral hip trial prosthesis 152, includes one or more sensors associated therewith that sense changes in orientation in free space and output such data to a wireless transmitter (not shown) within the trial component 152. The anatomical feature, or femur 154, includes a micro- or miniature sensor 156 mounted thereto during a total hip arthroplasty procedure. The output of the sensor may be coupled to a wireless transmitter (not shown) or may be coupled directly to a data position device 156 also receiving inputs indirectly from the micro- or miniature sensors within the femoral hip trial prosthesis 152. A visual display 158 may be operatively coupled to the data positioning device 156 to provide a visual representation, capable of rotation in three space, to enable the surgeon to see what cannot be seen via a direct line of sight. More specifically, the orientation of the trial component 152 may be monitored to verify that the trial component is within the femoral canal in varus or valgus. Still further, the relative anteversion of the stem of the femoral hip trial 152 may also be determined.

In still a further exemplary application, one or more micro- or miniature sensors may be mounted to trial prosthetic components to provide relevant data to optimize range of motion of the prosthetic joint by selecting final prosthetic components that mitigate dislocation tendencies. In addition, such trial prosthetic components may provide relevant data regarding ligament balance and joint kinematics function testing relevant to final prosthetic component selection.

In a seventh detailed exemplary application, one or more micro- or miniature sensors may be mounted to a prosthetic trail component. Prosthetic trail components are utilized by a surgeon to verify the relevant dimensions of the eventual prosthetic component to be implanted. In addition to sensing three dimensional positional data, such sensors may measure absolute values and range of motion to discern which prosthetic components fit best in a particular patient. Such measurements may also be compared to the position of one or more anatomical features, such as bone, where the bone has a micro- or miniature reference sensor mounted thereto or in proximity thereto. Such prosthetic components may be used with or without registration and may be utilized in a wide range of surgical procedures beyond total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty.

Referencing FIG. 11, a seventh exemplary application may include one or more micro- or miniature sensors 190 mounted inside a prosthetic trial component 192 to provide feedback regarding the orientation of the trial component 192 during a total hip arthroplasty procedure. More specifically, the prosthetic trial component, or femoral hip trial prosthesis 192, includes one or more sensors 190 associated therewith that sense changes in position and/or orientation in free space and output such data to a wireless transmitter 194 within the prosthesis 192 while the trial is repositioned with respect to the femur 194. A data position device 196 receives signals from the transmitter 194 and calculates the position of the prosthesis 192 and any changes in position in real-time. Visual representation regarding the orientation of the prosthesis 192 may be shown on a visual display 198 operatively coupled to the data position device 196. The visual display 198 may be programmed to concurrently show the position of the prosthesis 192 and the position of the patient's bone from preoperative X-rays or other data that effectively show the relative anatomical position of the patient. More specifically, the orientation of the trial 192 may be monitored to verify that the trial 192 is within the femoral canal 200 in varus or valgus. Still further, the relative anteversion of the stem of the femoral trial 192 may also be determined.

Referencing FIG. 12, in a further detailed exemplary application, a surgical instrument 210 and prosthetic trial component 212 each have micro- or miniature sensors (not shown) associated therewith to provide guidance to maneuver the instrument 210 and trial 212 for insertion, impaction, and/or extraction of the trial 212. More specifically, the surgical instrument may include a surgical stem inserter 210 having a threaded end adapted to be received within an opening on the shoulder of a trial femoral prosthetic component 212. As discussed in a previous exemplary application, such an exemplary surgical instrument and exemplary prosthetic trial component may be useful in minimally invasive surgery where direct line of sight may not continuously be possible. Still further, such an exemplary surgical instrument and exemplary prosthetic trial component may be particularly useful in targeting and facilitate coupling and disengagement between the trials and surgical instruments without necessitating a direct line of sight or an unduly large incision.

Referring to FIG. 13, an eighth detailed exemplary application may include one or more micro- or miniature sensors 216 mounted to a tibial tray prosthetic device 218 to provide positional and/or orientational information sufficient to discern if subsidence is occurring subsequent to total knee arthroplasty. Still further, one or more micro- or miniature sensors (not shown) may be mounted on a femoral prosthetic device 220 to provide positional and/or orientational information sufficient to discern if the prosthetic knee joint 222 and the range of motion associated therewith are within proper tolerances. Such information could be compared to data generated during prosthetic trial fittings, where the prosthetic trials included one or more micro- or miniature sensors, to verify that the final prosthetic components are mimicking the final prosthetic trial components on which the surgeon based the choice of final prosthetic components.

In a further detailed exemplary application, the position and depth of a femoral prosthetic shaft within the femoral canal could be monitored over time to determine if subsidence or loosening was occurring after a total hip arthroplasty procedure.

In a ninth detailed exemplary application, one or more micro- or miniature sensors may be mounted to a prosthetic device or surgical retainer. A further detailed exemplary application includes associating one or more micro- or miniature sensors along an outer rim of a prosthetic cup to facilitate aligning and orienting the cup within the acetabulum. An additional exemplary embodiment includes one or more microgyroscopes placed within a femoral component trial to provide relevant data to determine varus and valgus and flexion and extension alignment relative the center of the femoral canal. An even further exemplary use may include mounting a micro- or miniature sensor to both the acetabulum and femoral component trials (in the femoral neck or in the femoral head) to discern the relative stability (range of movement (ROM) and angle of dislocation) between the two components.

Referencing FIGS. 14 and 15, a femoral rod 153 for use in repair of a fractured femur 155 may include one or more micro- or miniature sensors 151 associated therewith. The rod 153 includes a plurality of holes 157 therethrough that are adapted to receive screws 159 to mount the rod 153 to the femur 155. However, before the screws 159 are introduced therein, a corresponding hole must be drilled through the femur 155 that is precisely aligned with one of the holes of the rod 153. One challenge to surgeons has been discerning the position and orientation of the holes 157, then maintaining the position and orientation of holes 157 while drilling through the femur 155. Prior art techniques involved X-ray machines that were cumbersome and hindered the range of motion of the surgeon. The present invention, however, does not necessitate use of cumbersome X-ray machines, but relies upon the sensor or sensors 151 associated with the rod 153 to discern the position of the holes therethrough. Exemplary sensors 151 may include individually or in combination, without limitation, inclinometers, accelerometers, magnetometers, and microgyroscopes. The sensor 151 may be coupled to a micro- or miniature transmitter device to transmit sensor data regarding the position and/or orientation of the rod 153 in three axes of movement, represented by planes X, Y, and Z. A wireless receiver, operatively coupled to a display system, receives the signals broadcast by the transmitter and forwards the data derived from the signals for display upon the system. The display system is designed to provide feedback for the surgeon regarding the position and/or orientation of one or more holes within the rod 153.

In a further exemplary application, a surgical drill may include one or more micro- or miniature sensors associated therewith, along with a femoral rod that includes one or more micro- or miniature sensors associated therewith for use in repair of a fractured femur. As discussed above, the rod includes a plurality of holes therethrough that are adapted to receive screws to mount the rod to the femur. The sensors associated with the rod provide position and/or orientation data regarding the holes through the rod, while the sensors associated with the drill provide position and/or orientation data regarding the position and/or orientation of the drill bit to align the drill bit with the holes in the rod without necessitating a direct line of sight prior to commencing the drilling. As discussed above, utilizing positional and/or orientational sensors alleviates the reliance upon cumbersome X-ray equipment.

In still a further exemplary application, one or more micro- or miniature sensors may be mounted to a prosthetic component to provide relevant data regarding the range of motion available to the patient. In addition, prosthetic components having one or more micro- or miniature sensors associated therewith may be compared against data generated by trial prosthetic components to compare the range of motion available to the patient. Still further, such prosthetic components may provide relevant data regarding ligament balance and joint kinematics function testing prior to termination of the surgical procedure. Even further, such prosthetic components may include sensors capable of generating positional and/or orientational data such that ligament balance and joint kinematics function can be assessed and compared to previous measurements to discern what, if any, changes have occurred over time.

Referencing FIG. 16, a tenth detailed exemplary application may include one or more micro- or miniature sensors mounted to a screw cap dome screw 161 to identify the position of a final prosthetic hip component. In one exemplary application, the screw cap dome screw 161 provides feedback regarding the orientation of the insert 163 within the cup 165 secured to the pelvis 167 to ensure that the insert 163 is adequately impacted and adjacent to the cup 165. In another exemplary application, the sensors may provide position and/or orientation data over time that may be detected and recorded to discern if one or more of the final prosthetic hip components have graduated in position and/or orientation over time.

In an eleventh detailed exemplary application, one or more micro- or miniature reference sensors are associated with an anatomical feature and one or more micro- or miniature sensors are associated with a prosthetic device. The sensors allow for the monitoring of the position of the prosthetic device with respect to the anatomical feature to track changes in the relationship between the prosthetic device and the anatomical feature over time. More specifically, the anatomical feature may include a patient's femur and the prosthetic device may include a femoral stem for use in a total hip arthroplasty procedure. Still further, the anatomical feature might comprise a patient's tibia and the prosthetic device may include a tibial tray for use in a total knee arthroplasty procedure.

Referencing FIG. 17, a femoral prosthetic component 171 includes at least one or more micro- or miniature reference sensors 173 operatively coupled to a wireless transmitter 175. The sensor 173 may be capable of sensing changes in movement in all three axes of movement and, via the transmitter 175, disseminating such position data to a remote receiver. The remote receiver may be operatively coupled to a data positioning device adapted to utilize the sensor 173 output data to determine the relative position of the femoral prosthetic component 171 with respect to an anatomical feature, such as, without limitation, a patient's femur 177. In an exemplary form, the femur 177 may include one or more sensors 179 mounted thereto that are operatively coupled to the data positioning device. Such sensors may be wired or wireless and include wireless transmitters where applicable. In an exemplary process, the sensors 179 associated with the femur 177 provide reference data in at least one dimension and a reference point for comparative analysis of the position and/or orientation data output by the sensors 173 associated with the femoral prosthetic component 171. As such, the data positioning device is able to calculate the position of the femoral prosthetic component 171 with respect to the femur 177, even as the position of the prosthetic component 171 changes with respect to the femur 177. The data positioning device may be operatively coupled to a display monitor to display the relative position of the prosthetic component 171 with respect to the femur 177, including the angle of insertion of the prosthetic component 171 within the femur 177. This angle data may allow the surgeon to compare the current angle with a predetermined angle (which may have been calculated preoperatively using one or more X-rays or other position determining devices) and guide placement of the prosthetic component into the correct position.

In a twelfth detailed exemplary application, one or more micro- or miniature reference sensors are associated with an implant, independent of a prosthetic or trial component, a surgical device, or a surgical jig. The implant may be positioned within an anatomical feature, such as, without limitation, the femoral canal. Likewise, the implant may be positioned adjacent to an anatomical feature, such as without limitation, the femoral bone. By using an implant with one or more micro- or miniature reference sensors, a point of reference may be established that is relatively fixed over time and in proximity to the area in which the surgeon is concerned.

Referencing FIG. 18, an exemplary application may include one or more micro- or miniature sensors 191 associated with an implant 193. Exemplary sensors 191 may include individually or in combination, without limitation, inclinometers, accelerometers, magnetometers, and microgyroscopes. The sensor 191 may be coupled to a micro- or miniature transmitter device 195 to transmit sensor data regarding the position and/or orientation of the implant 193 in three axes of movement. A wireless receiver, operatively coupled to a display system, receives the signals broadcast by the transmitter 195 and forwards the data derived from the signals for display upon the system. The display system is designed to provide a reference point for the surgeon regarding the position and/or orientation of one or more surgical instruments, final and trial prosthetic components, and surgical jigs used during a surgical procedure.

In a further exemplary embodiment, the implant 193 is inserted into a femoral canal 197 of a patient's femur 199 during a total hip arthroplasty procedure. In such an exemplary embodiment, a prosthetic femoral component 201 likewise includes one or more micro- or miniature sensors 203 associated therewith and in communication with a wireless transmitter 205 that provides relevant data regarding the position of the femoral component 201. Likewise, the implant 193 may provide relevant data that is imputed to the position and/or orientation of a patient's femur 199. In this manner, the surgeon can precisely make one or more cuts with a surgical saw (not shown) concerning the proximal portion of the patient's femur 199 prior to insertion of the prosthetic component 201. In addition, when the prosthetic component 201 is ready for insertion, the surgeon may leave the implant 193 in place and may utilize the position data from the sensors 191 as a point of reference for positioning and orienting the prosthetic component 201.

It is also within the scope of the present invention to replace one or more of the reference sensors with transmitting devices, such as, without limitation, magnets. In this manner, the signal or field generated may be detected by one or more reference sensors, such as, without limitation, magnetometers. Likewise, other transmitting devices and sensors, such as piezoelectric sensors, known to those of ordinary skill will likewise fall within the scope of the present invention.

While some of the aforementioned exemplary embodiments have been discussed with respect to total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty, the same principles and advantages are likewise applicable for other medical procedures where microgyroscopes or other sensors may be mounted to one or more surgical devices, anatomical features, implants, and prosthetic components to ensure that the object is oriented properly with respect to one or more points of reference.

Current technology in reference sensors such as that disclosed in United States Patent Application Publication Nos. 2002/0180306 and 2002/0104376, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference, evidences substantial development in reducing the size of such sensors utilizing nanotechnology.

The exemplary sensors discussed herein and adapted for use with the present invention may fall within generally two classes: source and sourceless. Source sensors rely on artificial stimuli such as generated magnetic fields or outputs from other artificial devices for one or more points of reference. In exemplary form, a pair of source sensors may rely on each other for relative points of reference. In a further exemplary form, a first sensor may be mounted to a first object and a reference sensor may be mounted to a second object, where the first sensor utilizes a magnetic field or other output generated by the reference sensor to provide a reference point as to the movement of the second sensor with respect to the first sensor. Likewise, the reference sensor may utilize a magnetic field or other output from the first sensor as a reference point as to the movement of the reference sensor with respect to the first sensor. In this manner, a surgeon is able to manipulate a first object having the first sensor mounted thereto with respect to the second object with the second sensor mounted thereto without necessitating a direct line of sight to position the first object in relation to the second object.

A second class of sensors, sourceless sensors, relies on natural or ever-present stimuli such as the earth's magnetic field or gravity. Exemplary sourceless sensors may utilize the magnetic field and/or gravity of the earth to provide a fixed reference point for measurements such as tilt and level. Such sensors may be self-contained and, unlike some source sensors, do not require a transducer to create an artificial stimulus or field.

As shown in FIG. 19, a first exemplary sensor technology available for use with the present invention is the Flock of Birds, and more specifically, the microBIRD technology commercially available from Ascension Technology Corporation (see http://www.ascension-tech.com/products/microbird.php), and patented in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,849,692 and 4,945,305, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference. Flock of Birds is a magnetic-transducing technique that measures the position and orientation of one or more receiving antenna sensors 10′ located on the surgical device, tool, prosthetic component, or implant 12′ with respect to a transmitter 22′ located on a reference object 16′. The transmitter 22′ includes three individual antennae arranged concentrically to generate a multiplicity of DC magnetic fields that are picked up by the sensor 10′. The sensor measures the position and orientation of the object 16′ which carries it. The sensor 10′ consists of three axes of antenna that are sensitive to DC magnetic fields. The transmitter 22′ includes a driver that provides a controlled amount of DC current to each axis of the transmitter. Both the sensor 10′ and the transmitter 22′ driver may be modified in the present invention to facilitate wireless communication with the display system 20′. The display system 20′ controls the amount of DC current provided by the transmitter 22′ driver to the transmitter 22′ axis. The signal output from the sensor 10′ is transmitted back to the conditioning hardware and software 21′ of the display system 20′, which conditions and processes the signal to compute position and orientation of the sensor 10′ with respect to the transmitter 22′ using the Flock of Birds available algorithms. Such position and orientation data is then used to generate a visual signal to be displayed on the visual display 18′.

A second exemplary sensor technology for use with the present invention may include microgyroscopes to measure angular rate; i.e., how quickly an object turns. The rotation is typically measured with reference to one of three axes: X, Y, and Z or yaw, pitch, and roll. A microgyroscope with one axis of sensitivity can also be used to measure other axes by mounting the microgyroscope differently, as shown in FIG. 20. Here, a yaw-axis microgyroscope is mounted on its side so that the yaw axis becomes the roll axis. Depending on how a microgyroscope is mounted, its primary axis of sensitivity can be one of the three axes of motion: yaw, pitch, or roll.

Exemplary microgyroscopes for use with the present invention include ADXRS150 available from Analog Devices (http://www.analog.com). Such exemplary microgyroscopes are rotational rate measurement systems on a single monolithic integrated circuit. The exemplary microgyroscopes measure angular rate by means of Coriolis acceleration. Each of three microgyroscopes may be oriented with respect to the surgical device, tool, prosthetic component, or implant so that each of the X, Y, and Z planes is accommodated.

One practical application is to measure how quickly a surgical instrument is turned by mounting one or more microgyroscopes thereto. In addition, the angular rate can be integrated over time to determine angular position. For example, if a microgyroscope senses that the surgical instrument is out of position, an appropriate signal may indicate such to the surgeon and discontinue operation of the instrument until the instrument is oriented in a proper manner.

Referencing FIG. 21, an exemplary microgyroscope 242 includes a frame 248 containing a resonating mass 250 tethered to a substrate by springs 252 at 90° relative to the resonating motion to measure the Coriolis acceleration. A plurality of Coriolis sense fingers 254 are used to capacitively sense displacement of the frame in response to the force exerted by the mass. If the springs 252 have a stiffness, K, then the displacement resulting from the reaction force will be 2 ΩvM/K. As the rate of rotation with respect to the microgyroscope 242 increases, so does the displacement of the mass 250 and the signal derived from the corresponding capacitance change. It should be noted that the microgyroscope 242 may be mounted anywhere on the surgical device, tool, prosthetic component, or implant and at any angle, so long as the sensing axis of the microgyroscope 242 is parallel to the axis of rotation. The microgyroscopes 242 measure the displacement of the resonating mass 250 and its frame 248 due to the Coriolis effect through capacitive sensing elements attached to a resonator. Displacement due to angular rate induces a differential capacitance in this system. If the total capacitance is C and the spacing of the sense fingers 254 is “g”, then the differential capacitance is 2 ΩvMC/gK, and is directly proportional to the angular rate. The fidelity of this relationship is excellent in practice, with nonlinearity less than 0.1%.

The microgyroscopes 242 can sense capacitance changes as small as 12×10−21 farads (12 zeptofarads) from deflections as small as 0.00016 Angstroms (16 femtometers). This can be utilized in the surgical device, tool, prosthetic component, or implant by situating the electronics, including amplifiers and filters, on the same die as the gyroscope 242. The differential signal alternates at the resonator frequency and can be extracted from the noise by correlation.

The exemplary ADXRS microgyroscopes 242 employ two resonators that operate anti-phase to differentially sense signals and reject common-mode external accelerations that are unrelated to angular motion to angular rate-sensing that makes it possible to reject shocks of up to 1,000 g. As a result, the microgyroscopes 242 measure the same magnitude of rotation, but give outputs in opposite directions. Therefore, the difference between the two outputs is used to measure angular rate. This cancels non-rotational signals that affect both ends of the microgyroscope 242.

Accelerometers may also be utilized as sensors 10, 10′ in the present invention to measure tilt or inclination, inertial forces, and shock or vibration. An intended application for accelerometers with respect to the present invention includes measuring tilt in at least one axis and exemplary accelerometers are available as model ADXL203BE from Analog Devices (http://www.analog.com). Such exemplary accelerometers are acceleration measurement systems on a single monolithic integrated circuit to implement an open loop acceleration measurement architecture. It is envisioned that the accelerometer be oriented with respect to the surgical device, tool, prosthetic component, or implant so the accelerometer's X and Y axis would most often approach a parallel orientation with respect to the earth's surface. In such an orientation, tilt may be measured in two axes for roll and pitch. In addition to measuring acceleration, the acceleration may be integrated over time to provide velocity data, which can likewise be integrated over time to provide position data. Those of ordinary skill are familiar with the noise considerations associated with power supplies for sensors, and in particular, accelerometers. It is within the scope of the invention to utilize a capacitor, generally around 1 μF, to decouple the accelerometer from the noise of the power supply. Other techniques may include adding a resistor in series with the power supply or adding a bulk capacitor (in the 1 μF to 4 μF range) in parallel with the first capacitor (1 μF).

Other exemplary accelerometers include model KXG20-L20 available from Kionix, Inc. (http://www.kionix.com), model SCA610 Series available from VTI Technologies Oy (http://www.vti.fi), model SQ-XL-DAQ from (http://signalquest.com). The SQ-XL-DAQ functions as a self contained data acquisition system for 2 axis or 3 axis acceleration, tilt, and vibration measurement when used with a serial interface cable.

It is envisioned that accelerometers may be used in combination with gyroscopes, where gyroscopes detect rotation and where the accelerometers detect acceleration, for sensing inertial movement within a three-dimensional space.

It is also within the scope of the present invention that sensors 10, 10′ include inclinometers to measure roll angle and pitch angle in one or more of the exemplary embodiments discussed above. An exemplary inclinometer for use with the present invention is model SQ-S12X-360DA from Signal Quest, Inc. (http://www.Signalquest.com). Such an exemplary inclinometer provides both an analog voltage output and a digital serial output corresponding directly to a full-scale range of 360° of pitch angle and 180° of roll angle. Another exemplary inclinometer for use with the present invention is model SCA61T Series available from VTI Technologies Oy (http://www.vti.fi). The measuring direction for this exemplary inclinometer is parallel to the mounting plane.

It is also within the scope of the invention that the sensors 10, 10′ include magnetometers for detecting an artificial magnetic field and/or the earth's magnetic field and discerning positional data therefrom. An exemplary magnetometer for use with the present invention is model CXM544 available from Crossbow Technology, Inc. (http://www.xbow.com). The magnetometer is capable of detecting the earth's magnetic field in three axes and computes a continuous measure of orientation using a 3-axis accelerometer as a gravitational reference field. The magnetometer compensates for temperature drift, alignment, and other errors.

Another exemplary magnetometer for use with the present invention includes model HMC1053 available from Honeywell, Inc. (http://www.magneticsensors.com). Such an exemplary magnetometer includes a wheatstone bridge to measure magnetic fields. With power supply applied to a bridge, the sensor converts any incident magnetic field in the sensitive axis direction to a differential voltage output. In addition to the bridge circuit, the sensor has two on-chip magnetically coupled straps; the offset strap and the set/reset strap. These straps are for incident field adjustment and magnetic domain alignment, and eliminate the need for external coils positioned around the sensors. The magnetoresistive sensors are made of a nickel-iron (Permalloy) thin-film deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned as a resistive strip element. In the presence of a magnetic field, a change in the bridge resistive elements causes a corresponding change in voltage across the bridge outputs. These resistive elements are aligned together to have a common sensitive axis (indicated by arrows) that will provide positive voltage change with magnetic fields increasing in the sensitive direction. Because the output only is in proportion to the one-dimensional axis (the principle of anisotropy) and its magnitude, additional sensor bridges placed at orthogonal directions permit accurate measurement of arbitrary field direction. The combination of sensor bridges in two and three orthogonal axes permits applications such as compassing and magnetometry.

Referring to FIG. 22, an exemplary three-axis magnetic field detector may comprise a two-axis detector combined with a single axis detector. Alternatively a single three axes detector may be used in place of the above combination.

In accordance with the present invention, the sensors may be connected to one or more displays and digital recording devices via wire and/or wireless transmission. A first exemplary embodiment includes a sensor operatively coupled to a radio frequency (RF) modem that may include a programmed microprocessor (i.e., a smart modem). The microprocessor may organize the data into discrete packets and address such packets for reception by intended remote displays and/or digital recording devices. Each of the displays and/or digital recording devices also include a smart modem operative to automatically discern if the data is corrupted and if the data is intended for that particular remote device. If the data is corrupted, the smart modem will signal the disseminating modem to resend the data. The packetizing and addressing of the packets reduces interference and enables the same radio frequency to be utilized by each of the smart modems.

Alternatively, the present invention may utilize dumb modems transmitting data on a predetermined frequency. One of ordinary skill is familiar with the software and hardware that may be associated with a dumb modem to provide addressing and data packetization.

It is also within the scope of the invention that the sensors be operatively coupled to a dumb modem and radio frequency transmitter that manipulates the data output from the sensors and converts it into a radio signal. The radio signal is adapted to be received by one or more remote devices, where a modem operatively coupled thereto converts the radio signals into data indicative of data output by the sensors regarding at least one of position, acceleration, and velocity.

An exemplary RF modem may utilize an RF spread spectrum radio transmitter or may utilize another RF communication protocol.

Following from the above description and invention summaries, it should be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that, while the apparatuses described herein constitutes an exemplary embodiments of the present invention, the invention contained herein is not limited to this precise embodiments and changes may be made to the aforementioned embodiments without departing from the scope of the invention as defined by the claims. Additionally, it is to be understood that the invention is defined by the claims and it is not intended that any limitations or elements describing the exemplary embodiments set forth herein are to be incorporated into the interpretation of any claim element unless such limitation or element is explicitly stated. Likewise, it is to be understood that it is not necessary to meet any or all of the identified advantages or objects of the invention disclosed herein in order to fall within the scope of any one of the claims, since the invention is defined by the claims and since inherent and/or unforeseen advantages of the present invention may exist even though they may not have been explicitly discussed herein.

Claims (39)

1. A surgical telemetry system comprising:
a sourceless bone sensor coupled to a portion of an extremity of a patient and generating motion signals in at least two degrees of freedom;
a reference sensor coupled to a reference of the patient, the reference sensor generating motion signals in at least two degrees of freedom;
a processing system operatively coupled to the sensors to acquire the motion signals and generate a feedback output; and
a feedback device operably coupled to the processing system to receive and present the feedback output to a user, the feedback output representing one of a position and an orientation of the portion of the extremity based on the motion data with respect to the reference.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the portion of the extremity is a bone.
3. The system of claim 2, wherein the sourceless bone sensor is implanted in the bone.
4. The system of claim 3, further comprising a prosthetic component, wherein the prosthetic component includes the sourceless bone sensor.
5. The system of claim 2, wherein the sourceless bone sensor is coupled to a jig which is coupled to the bone.
6. The system of claim 1, wherein the portion of the extremity comprises a prosthesis.
7. The system of claim 1, wherein the motion signals represent motion from at least one of a first position and a first orientation to a second position and a second orientation of the sensors.
8. The system of claim 1, wherein the sourceless bone sensor comprises an integrated circuit generating motion signals corresponding to three degrees of freedom.
9. The system of claim 1, wherein the feedback device is a display device and the feedback output is an image.
10. The system of claim 1, wherein the feedback device is a sound generator and the feedback output is an audible sound.
11. The system of claim 1, wherein the processing system wirelessly acquires the motion data.
12. The system of claim 1, wherein the reference sensor is carried by a surgical instrument.
13. The system of claim 1, wherein the reference sensor is carried by a second prosthetic component.
14. The system of claim 1, wherein the reference sensor is coupled to a portion of an extremity of a patient in a predetermined relation to a second bone of the patient.
15. The system of claim 14, wherein the second bone comprises the pelvic bone.
16. The system of claim 1, wherein the motion signals represent at least one of a position and an orientation of the sensors.
17. A surgical telemetry system for repairing a joint of a patient including a first joint surface adjacent a second joint surface, the system comprising:
a sourceless bone sensor coupled to a portion of an extremity of a patient including the first joint surface, the sourceless bone sensor generating motion signals in at least two degrees of freedom;
a reference sensor coupled to a reference of the patient, the reference sensor generating motion signals in at least two degrees of freedom;
a processing system operatively coupled to the sensors to acquire the motion signals and generate a feedback output; and
a feedback device operably coupled to the processing system to receive and present the feedback output to a user, the feedback output representing one of a range of movement and an angle of dislocation of the portion of the extremity based on the motion data with respect to the reference.
18. The system of claim 17, wherein the portion of the extremity is a bone.
19. The system of claim 18, wherein the sourceless bone sensor is implanted in the bone.
20. The system of claim 19, further comprising a prosthetic component, wherein the prosthetic component includes the sourceless bone sensor.
21. The system of claim 18, wherein the sourceless bone sensor is coupled to a jig which is coupled to the bone.
22. The system of claim 17, wherein the portion of the extremity comprises a prosthesis.
23. The system of claim 17, wherein the sourceless bone sensor comprises an integrated circuit generating motion signals corresponding to three degrees of freedom.
24. The system of claim 17, wherein the feedback device is a display device and the feedback output is an image.
25. The system of claim 17, wherein the feedback device is a sound generator and the feedback output is an audible sound.
26. The system of claim 17, wherein the processing system wirelessly acquires the motion data.
27. The system of claim 17, wherein the reference sensor is coupled in a predetermined relation to a second bone of the patient including the second joint surface.
28. The system of claim 27, wherein the second bone comprises the pelvic bone.
29. A method of generating telemetry data in a surgical procedure, the method comprising the steps of:
generating motion signals with a sourceless object sensor coupled to an object;
generating motion signals with a reference sensor coupled to a reference of the patient;
acquiring motion data based on the motion signals, the motion data including at least one of an object position and an object orientation;
generating a feedback output based on the motion data, the feedback output representing a spatial relationship between the object and the reference on the patient; and
presenting the feedback output to a user in substantially real-time.
30. The method of claim 29, wherein the object is a surgical tool.
31. The method of claim 30, wherein the second bone comprises the pelvic bone.
32. The method of claim 29, wherein the object is a bone of the patient.
33. The method of claim 32, wherein the sourceless object sensor is implanted in the bone.
34. The method of claim 29, wherein the object is a jig coupled to the bone of the patient.
35. The method of claim 29, wherein the sourceless object sensor comprises an integrated circuit generating motion signals corresponding to three degrees of freedom.
36. The method of claim 29, wherein the feedback output is an image.
37. The method of claim 29, wherein the feedback output is an audible sound.
38. The method of claim 29, further comprising the step of wirelessly acquiring the motion data.
39. The method of claim 29, wherein the reference sensor is coupled to a second bone of the patient.
US12342795 2003-04-08 2008-12-23 Use of micro and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA Active 2026-06-12 US8241296B2 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US46117303 true 2003-04-08 2003-04-08
US10820279 US20040243148A1 (en) 2003-04-08 2004-04-08 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA
US12342795 US8241296B2 (en) 2003-04-08 2008-12-23 Use of micro and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12342795 US8241296B2 (en) 2003-04-08 2008-12-23 Use of micro and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA
US13546641 US8814877B2 (en) 2003-04-08 2012-07-11 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA
US14331781 US9532730B2 (en) 2003-04-08 2014-07-15 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA
US15361051 US20170071503A1 (en) 2003-04-08 2016-11-24 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in tka and tha

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10820279 Division US20040243148A1 (en) 2003-04-08 2004-04-08 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13546641 Division US8814877B2 (en) 2003-04-08 2012-07-11 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20090138019A1 true US20090138019A1 (en) 2009-05-28
US8241296B2 true US8241296B2 (en) 2012-08-14

Family

ID=33299779

Family Applications (5)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10820279 Abandoned US20040243148A1 (en) 2003-04-08 2004-04-08 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA
US12342795 Active 2026-06-12 US8241296B2 (en) 2003-04-08 2008-12-23 Use of micro and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA
US13546641 Active US8814877B2 (en) 2003-04-08 2012-07-11 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA
US14331781 Active 2024-08-17 US9532730B2 (en) 2003-04-08 2014-07-15 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA
US15361051 Pending US20170071503A1 (en) 2003-04-08 2016-11-24 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in tka and tha

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10820279 Abandoned US20040243148A1 (en) 2003-04-08 2004-04-08 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA

Family Applications After (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13546641 Active US8814877B2 (en) 2003-04-08 2012-07-11 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA
US14331781 Active 2024-08-17 US9532730B2 (en) 2003-04-08 2014-07-15 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in TKA and THA
US15361051 Pending US20170071503A1 (en) 2003-04-08 2016-11-24 Use of micro- and miniature position sensing devices for use in tka and tha

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (5) US20040243148A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2004091419A9 (en)

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100274256A1 (en) * 2009-04-27 2010-10-28 Smith & Nephew, Inc. System and Method for Identifying a Landmark
US20120022616A1 (en) * 2010-07-21 2012-01-26 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Vestibular Implant System with Internal and External Motion Sensors
US8623023B2 (en) 2009-04-27 2014-01-07 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Targeting an orthopaedic implant landmark
US8624471B1 (en) * 2010-07-30 2014-01-07 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Piezoelectric-on-semiconductor micromechanical resonators with linear acoustic bandgap tethers
US20140121783A1 (en) * 2012-10-31 2014-05-01 Randall D. Alley Adaptable Socket System, Method, and Kit
US8784425B2 (en) 2007-02-28 2014-07-22 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems and methods for identifying landmarks on orthopedic implants
US8814868B2 (en) 2007-02-28 2014-08-26 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Instrumented orthopaedic implant for identifying a landmark
US8888786B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2014-11-18 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation device and method
US8890511B2 (en) 2011-01-25 2014-11-18 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Targeting operation sites
US8911447B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2014-12-16 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US8974468B2 (en) 2008-09-10 2015-03-10 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip surgery systems and methods
US8974467B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2015-03-10 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation system and method
US9168153B2 (en) 2011-06-16 2015-10-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical alignment using references
US9220514B2 (en) 2008-02-28 2015-12-29 Smith & Nephew, Inc. System and method for identifying a landmark
US9271756B2 (en) 2009-07-24 2016-03-01 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9339226B2 (en) 2010-01-21 2016-05-17 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9526441B2 (en) 2011-05-06 2016-12-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Targeting landmarks of orthopaedic devices
US9539037B2 (en) 2010-06-03 2017-01-10 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Orthopaedic implants
US9549742B2 (en) 2012-05-18 2017-01-24 OrthAlign, Inc. Devices and methods for knee arthroplasty
US9585768B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-03-07 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Acetabular cup prosthesis alignment system and method
US9642560B2 (en) 2013-04-03 2017-05-09 Brainlab Ag Method and device for determining the orientation of a co-ordinate system of an anatomical object in a global co-ordinate system
US9649160B2 (en) 2012-08-14 2017-05-16 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip replacement navigation system and method
USRE46582E1 (en) * 2004-06-07 2017-10-24 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Orthopaedic implant with sensors
US20180000554A1 (en) * 2012-03-02 2018-01-04 Orthosoft Inc. Method and system for tracking objects in computer-assisted surgery

Families Citing this family (144)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8801720B2 (en) 2002-05-15 2014-08-12 Otismed Corporation Total joint arthroplasty system
US9308002B2 (en) 2002-11-07 2016-04-12 Crescent H Trust Precise hip component positioning for hip replacement surgery
US7470288B2 (en) * 2003-07-11 2008-12-30 Depuy Products, Inc. Telemetric tibial tray
EP1648354A4 (en) * 2003-07-11 2010-03-31 Depuy Products Inc In vivo joint space measurement device and method
US7776055B2 (en) * 2004-07-19 2010-08-17 General Electric Company System and method for tracking progress of insertion of a rod in a bone
US8388553B2 (en) * 2004-11-04 2013-03-05 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Cycle and load measurement device
CA2769658C (en) * 2005-02-18 2016-01-12 Richard D. Komistek Smart joint implant sensors
US20060241397A1 (en) * 2005-02-22 2006-10-26 Assaf Govari Reference pad for position sensing
JP4668643B2 (en) * 2005-02-23 2011-04-13 オリンパスメディカルシステムズ株式会社 Endoscope apparatus
US7927270B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2011-04-19 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. External mechanical pressure sensor for gastric band pressure measurements
US7658196B2 (en) * 2005-02-24 2010-02-09 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. System and method for determining implanted device orientation
US8870742B2 (en) 2006-04-06 2014-10-28 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. GUI for an implantable restriction device and a data logger
US8152710B2 (en) 2006-04-06 2012-04-10 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Physiological parameter analysis for an implantable restriction device and a data logger
US7775966B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2010-08-17 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Non-invasive pressure measurement in a fluid adjustable restrictive device
US7699770B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2010-04-20 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Device for non-invasive measurement of fluid pressure in an adjustable restriction device
US8016744B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2011-09-13 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. External pressure-based gastric band adjustment system and method
US7775215B2 (en) 2005-02-24 2010-08-17 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. System and method for determining implanted device positioning and obtaining pressure data
US8066629B2 (en) * 2005-02-24 2011-11-29 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Apparatus for adjustment and sensing of gastric band pressure
US20060271199A1 (en) * 2005-05-20 2006-11-30 Johnson Lanny L Navigational markers in implants
CN103637840A (en) 2005-08-23 2014-03-19 史密夫和内修有限公司 Telemetric orthopedic implants
US7432823B2 (en) * 2005-11-09 2008-10-07 Distribution Control Systems, Inc. Tamper detection apparatus for electrical meters
US7602301B1 (en) 2006-01-09 2009-10-13 Applied Technology Holdings, Inc. Apparatus, systems, and methods for gathering and processing biometric and biomechanical data
EP2007291A2 (en) 2006-02-15 2008-12-31 Otismed Corp. Arthroplasty jigs and related methods
US9808262B2 (en) 2006-02-15 2017-11-07 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US8591516B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-11-26 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US9968376B2 (en) 2010-11-29 2018-05-15 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US8603180B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular alignment guides
WO2007107006A1 (en) * 2006-03-23 2007-09-27 Orthosoft Inc. Method and system for tracking tools in computer-assisted surgery
US7728868B2 (en) 2006-08-02 2010-06-01 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. System and method of providing real-time dynamic imagery of a medical procedure site using multiple modalities
US8565853B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2013-10-22 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC Simulated bone or tissue manipulation
US7769422B2 (en) * 2006-09-29 2010-08-03 Depuy Products, Inc. Apparatus and method for monitoring the position of an orthopaedic prosthesis
US8460302B2 (en) 2006-12-18 2013-06-11 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US9445720B2 (en) 2007-02-23 2016-09-20 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Processing sensed accelerometer data for determination of bone healing
JP5726418B2 (en) * 2007-02-28 2015-06-03 スミス アンド ネフュー インコーポレーテッド System and method for identifying a target
USD674093S1 (en) 2009-08-26 2013-01-08 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Landmark identifier for targeting a landmark of an orthopaedic implant
EP1982676B1 (en) * 2007-04-03 2012-07-11 Finsbury (Development) Limited Apparatus and system
US20080262347A1 (en) * 2007-04-20 2008-10-23 Geoffrey Batchelder Method and apparatus for monitoring integrity of an implanted device
GB0716051D0 (en) * 2007-08-17 2007-09-26 Lancaster University Position and orientation detector
JP6121088B2 (en) 2007-09-06 2017-04-26 スミス アンド ネフュー インコーポレイテッド The system and method of communicating with telemetric implant
US8960520B2 (en) * 2007-10-05 2015-02-24 Covidien Lp Method and apparatus for determining parameters of linear motion in a surgical instrument
US8967443B2 (en) * 2007-10-05 2015-03-03 Covidien Lp Method and apparatus for determining parameters of linear motion in a surgical instrument
USD642263S1 (en) 2007-10-25 2011-07-26 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty jig blank
US8460303B2 (en) 2007-10-25 2013-06-11 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty systems and devices, and related methods
WO2009067235A1 (en) * 2007-11-19 2009-05-28 Blue Ortho Sas Hip implant registration in computer assisted surgery
US8221430B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2012-07-17 Otismed Corporation System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs
US8617171B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-12-31 Otismed Corporation Preoperatively planning an arthroplasty procedure and generating a corresponding patient specific arthroplasty resection guide
US8715291B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2014-05-06 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US8737700B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2014-05-27 Otismed Corporation Preoperatively planning an arthroplasty procedure and generating a corresponding patient specific arthroplasty resection guide
US8545509B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-10-01 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US20090209851A1 (en) * 2008-01-09 2009-08-20 Stryker Leibinger Gmbh & Co. Kg Stereotactic computer assisted surgery method and system
WO2009094646A3 (en) 2008-01-24 2009-10-29 The University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill Methods, systems, and computer readable media for image guided ablation
US9408618B2 (en) 2008-02-29 2016-08-09 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Total hip replacement surgical guide tool
US8340379B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2012-12-25 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems and methods for displaying guidance data based on updated deformable imaging data
WO2009114829A3 (en) * 2008-03-13 2009-12-30 Thornberry Robert L Computer-guided system for orienting the acetabular cup in the pelvis during total hip replacement surgery
CA2716550A1 (en) * 2008-03-25 2009-10-01 Orthosoft Inc. Method and system for planning/guiding alterations to a bone
WO2009117832A1 (en) * 2008-03-25 2009-10-01 Orthosoft Inc. Tracking system and method
US8377073B2 (en) * 2008-04-21 2013-02-19 Ray Wasielewski Method of designing orthopedic implants using in vivo data
US8784490B2 (en) 2008-11-18 2014-07-22 Ray C. Wasielewski Method of designing orthopedic implants using in vivo data
US8480679B2 (en) 2008-04-29 2013-07-09 Otismed Corporation Generation of a computerized bone model representative of a pre-degenerated state and useable in the design and manufacture of arthroplasty devices
US8311306B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2012-11-13 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US8160345B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2012-04-17 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US8029566B2 (en) 2008-06-02 2011-10-04 Zimmer, Inc. Implant sensors
WO2009150647A3 (en) 2008-06-11 2010-03-18 Dune Medical Devices Ltd. Double registration
US20090312629A1 (en) * 2008-06-13 2009-12-17 Inneroptic Technology Inc. Correction of relative tracking errors based on a fiducial
US8197489B2 (en) 2008-06-27 2012-06-12 Depuy Products, Inc. Knee ligament balancer
US8777875B2 (en) 2008-07-23 2014-07-15 Otismed Corporation System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs having improved mating accuracy
JP5302595B2 (en) * 2008-08-06 2013-10-02 株式会社日立ハイテクノロジーズ Tilted observation method and observation device
WO2010063117A1 (en) * 2008-12-02 2010-06-10 Andre Novomir Hladio Method and system for aligning a prosthesis during surgery using active sensors
US8617175B2 (en) 2008-12-16 2013-12-31 Otismed Corporation Unicompartmental customized arthroplasty cutting jigs and methods of making the same
US8685093B2 (en) 2009-01-23 2014-04-01 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Methods and systems for diagnosing, treating, or tracking spinal disorders
US8126736B2 (en) 2009-01-23 2012-02-28 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Methods and systems for diagnosing, treating, or tracking spinal disorders
US8973584B2 (en) 2009-02-13 2015-03-10 Health Beacons, Inc. Method and apparatus for locating passive integrated transponder tags
US8690776B2 (en) 2009-02-17 2014-04-08 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer-readable media for image guided surgery
US8641621B2 (en) 2009-02-17 2014-02-04 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer-readable media for image management in image-guided medical procedures
US8167823B2 (en) * 2009-03-24 2012-05-01 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and apparatus for aligning and securing an implant relative to a patient
US8337426B2 (en) * 2009-03-24 2012-12-25 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and apparatus for aligning and securing an implant relative to a patient
US8721568B2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2014-05-13 Depuy (Ireland) Method for performing an orthopaedic surgical procedure
US8740817B2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2014-06-03 Depuy (Ireland) Device and method for determining forces of a patient's joint
US8597210B2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2013-12-03 Depuy (Ireland) System and method for displaying joint force data
US8551023B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2013-10-08 Depuy (Ireland) Device and method for determining force of a knee joint
US8556830B2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2013-10-15 Depuy Device and method for displaying joint force data
US20100268551A1 (en) * 2009-04-20 2010-10-21 Apdm, Inc System for data management, analysis, and collaboration of movement disorder data
US9655628B2 (en) 2009-05-06 2017-05-23 Blue Ortho Reduced invasivity fixation system for trackers in computer assisted surgery
DE102009025248A1 (en) * 2009-06-17 2010-11-11 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft A method for positioning a medical tool and system of medicine
US9220509B2 (en) * 2009-06-30 2015-12-29 Blue Ortho Adjustable guide in computer assisted orthopaedic surgery
US8720270B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-05-13 Ortho Sensor Inc. Prosthetic component for monitoring joint health
US9259179B2 (en) 2012-02-27 2016-02-16 Orthosensor Inc. Prosthetic knee joint measurement system including energy harvesting and method therefor
US8714009B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-05-06 Orthosensor Inc. Shielded capacitor sensor system for medical applications and method
US8679186B2 (en) 2010-06-29 2014-03-25 Ortho Sensor Inc. Hermetically sealed prosthetic component and method therefor
US8876830B2 (en) * 2009-08-13 2014-11-04 Zimmer, Inc. Virtual implant placement in the OR
US8086734B2 (en) 2009-08-26 2011-12-27 International Business Machines Corporation Method of autonomic representative selection in local area networks
US9282947B2 (en) 2009-12-01 2016-03-15 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Imager focusing based on intraoperative data
EP2526377A4 (en) 2010-01-19 2014-03-12 Orthosoft Inc Tracking system and method
US8652148B2 (en) 2010-02-25 2014-02-18 Zimmer, Inc. Tracked cartilage repair system
EP2363083B1 (en) * 2010-03-01 2013-06-12 Stryker Trauma GmbH Computer assisted surgery system
US20110213379A1 (en) * 2010-03-01 2011-09-01 Stryker Trauma Gmbh Computer assisted surgery system
US9901405B2 (en) 2010-03-02 2018-02-27 Orthosoft Inc. MEMS-based method and system for tracking a femoral frame of reference
US8554307B2 (en) 2010-04-12 2013-10-08 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Image annotation in image-guided medical procedures
US9706948B2 (en) * 2010-05-06 2017-07-18 Sachin Bhandari Inertial sensor based surgical navigation system for knee replacement surgery
US9844335B2 (en) 2012-02-27 2017-12-19 Orthosensor Inc Measurement device for the muscular-skeletal system having load distribution plates
JP5564149B2 (en) 2010-07-16 2014-07-30 ストライカー トラウマ ゲーエムベーハー Surgical targeting system and method
US8551108B2 (en) 2010-08-31 2013-10-08 Orthosoft Inc. Tool and method for digital acquisition of a tibial mechanical axis
US8961526B2 (en) 2010-11-23 2015-02-24 University Of Massachusetts System and method for orienting orthopedic implants
KR20130129246A (en) * 2010-12-17 2013-11-27 아브니르 메디컬 아이엔씨. Method and system for aligning a prosthesis during surgery
GB201021675D0 (en) * 2010-12-20 2011-02-02 Taylor Nicola J Orthopaedic navigation system
CN103491893A (en) * 2011-02-08 2014-01-01 通用医疗公司 Patient positioning systems and methods
CN103547214B (en) * 2011-05-23 2017-05-24 皇家飞利浦有限公司 Wireless intended motion marker
US9949665B2 (en) 2011-06-17 2018-04-24 Brainlab Ag Method, system and device for positioning an implant
US9610092B2 (en) 2011-08-29 2017-04-04 Microsoft Orthopedics Holdings Inc. Precision hip replacement method
US9167989B2 (en) * 2011-09-16 2015-10-27 Mako Surgical Corp. Systems and methods for measuring parameters in joint replacement surgery
US9462964B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2016-10-11 Orthosensor Inc Small form factor muscular-skeletal parameter measurement system
US9839374B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2017-12-12 Orthosensor Inc. System and method for vertebral load and location sensing
US9414940B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2016-08-16 Orthosensor Inc. Sensored head for a measurement tool for the muscular-skeletal system
US8911448B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2014-12-16 Orthosensor, Inc Device and method for enabling an orthopedic tool for parameter measurement
US20130079675A1 (en) 2011-09-23 2013-03-28 Orthosensor Insert measuring system having an internal sensor assembly
US20140253712A1 (en) * 2011-10-13 2014-09-11 Brainlab Ag Medical tracking system comprising two or more communicating sensor devices
US8670816B2 (en) 2012-01-30 2014-03-11 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Multiple medical device guidance
US9216086B2 (en) * 2012-02-01 2015-12-22 Zimmer, Inc. Adjustable provisional component of a medical device
US9539112B2 (en) * 2012-03-28 2017-01-10 Robert L. Thornberry Computer-guided system for orienting a prosthetic acetabular cup in the acetabulum during total hip replacement surgery
US9358130B2 (en) * 2012-03-29 2016-06-07 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Surgical instrument and method of positioning an acetabular prosthetic component
US9381011B2 (en) 2012-03-29 2016-07-05 Depuy (Ireland) Orthopedic surgical instrument for knee surgery
US9545459B2 (en) 2012-03-31 2017-01-17 Depuy Ireland Unlimited Company Container for surgical instruments and system including same
US9314188B2 (en) 2012-04-12 2016-04-19 Intellijoint Surgical Inc. Computer-assisted joint replacement surgery and navigation systems
CN102688097B (en) * 2012-05-14 2014-11-26 清华大学 Attitude acquisition method and system for acetabulum and femoral head in artificial hip joint replacement
US9008757B2 (en) 2012-09-26 2015-04-14 Stryker Corporation Navigation system including optical and non-optical sensors
US9402637B2 (en) 2012-10-11 2016-08-02 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Customized arthroplasty cutting guides and surgical methods using the same
CN104755036A (en) * 2012-10-26 2015-07-01 内联整形外科私人有限公司 Surgical system
US9237885B2 (en) 2012-11-09 2016-01-19 Orthosensor Inc. Muscular-skeletal tracking system and method
US9247998B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-02-02 Intellijoint Surgical Inc. System and method for intra-operative leg position measurement
US20160029952A1 (en) * 2013-03-15 2016-02-04 William L. Hunter Devices, systems and methods for monitoring hip replacements
EP3043725A4 (en) * 2013-09-13 2017-05-31 Orthosensor Inc. Kinetic assessment and alignment of the muscular-skeletal system and method therefor
EP2976047B1 (en) 2013-03-20 2017-11-01 MiRus LLC Systems and methods for measuring performance parameters related to orthopedic arthroplasty
EP3003118A4 (en) * 2013-06-05 2017-01-25 Check-Cap Ltd. Position estimation of imaging capsule in gastrointestinal tract
DE102013219154B4 (en) * 2013-09-24 2016-12-08 Siemens Healthcare Gmbh C-arm system for hands-free locking of an intramedullary nail
JP2015100437A (en) * 2013-11-22 2015-06-04 京セラメディカル株式会社 Navigation system for surgical operation
US9566443B2 (en) 2013-11-26 2017-02-14 Corquest Medical, Inc. System for treating heart valve malfunction including mitral regurgitation
US20170079723A1 (en) * 2014-05-14 2017-03-23 Brainlab Ag Method for determining the spatial position of objects
US20160051164A1 (en) * 2014-08-24 2016-02-25 Health Beacons, Inc. Probe for determining magnetic marker locations
US9901406B2 (en) 2014-10-02 2018-02-27 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Affected region display associated with a medical device
US20180085135A1 (en) * 2015-03-24 2018-03-29 Mirus Llc Systems and methods for placement of surgical instrumentation
US9949700B2 (en) 2015-07-22 2018-04-24 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Medical device approaches
US9675319B1 (en) 2016-02-17 2017-06-13 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Loupe display
WO2017143400A1 (en) * 2016-02-26 2017-08-31 Macquarie University Implanted sensing system for joint replacements
US9861446B2 (en) 2016-03-12 2018-01-09 Philipp K. Lang Devices and methods for surgery

Citations (115)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3915015A (en) 1974-03-18 1975-10-28 Stanford Research Inst Strain gauge transducer system
US4503705A (en) 1982-02-24 1985-03-12 The Langer Biomechanics Group, Inc. Flexible force sensor
US4822362A (en) 1987-05-19 1989-04-18 Walker Peter S Process and apparatus for tibial plateau compenent
US4997445A (en) 1989-12-08 1991-03-05 Zimmer, Inc. Metal-backed prosthetic implant with enhanced bonding of polyethylene portion to metal base
DE4017646A1 (en) 1990-05-29 1991-12-05 Sergio N Dr Erne Interference suppression in bio-magnetic measuring systems - deriving reference from mean of sensors, subtracted from picked-up signal
US5085252A (en) 1990-08-29 1992-02-04 North Carolina State University Method of forming variable cross-sectional shaped three-dimensional fabrics
US5197488A (en) 1991-04-05 1993-03-30 N. K. Biotechnical Engineering Co. Knee joint load measuring instrument and joint prosthesis
US5326363A (en) 1992-09-14 1994-07-05 Zimmer, Inc. Provisional implant
US5412619A (en) 1994-04-14 1995-05-02 Bauer; Will Three-dimensional displacement of a body with computer interface
US5425775A (en) 1992-06-23 1995-06-20 N.K. Biotechnical Engineering Company Method for measuring patellofemoral forces
US5456724A (en) 1993-12-15 1995-10-10 Industrial Technology Research Institute Load sensor for bone graft
US5465760A (en) 1993-10-25 1995-11-14 North Carolina State University Multi-layer three-dimensional fabric and method for producing
US5470354A (en) 1991-11-12 1995-11-28 Biomet Inc. Force sensing apparatus and method for orthopaedic joint reconstruction
US5518008A (en) 1994-08-25 1996-05-21 Spectral Sciences Research Corporation Structural analyzer, in particular for medical implants
US5529070A (en) 1990-11-22 1996-06-25 Advanced Technology Laboratories, Inc. Acquisition and display of ultrasonic images from sequentially oriented image planes
US5645077A (en) 1994-06-16 1997-07-08 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Inertial orientation tracker apparatus having automatic drift compensation for tracking human head and other similarly sized body
US5678448A (en) 1994-01-14 1997-10-21 Fullen Systems, Inc. System for continuously measuring forces applied by the foot
US5719324A (en) 1995-06-16 1998-02-17 Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Microcantilever sensor
US5733292A (en) 1995-09-15 1998-03-31 Midwest Orthopaedic Research Foundation Arthroplasty trial prosthesis alignment devices and associated methods
US5777467A (en) 1993-06-21 1998-07-07 Microstrain, Inc. Miniaturized displacement transducer assembly
US5840047A (en) 1996-04-16 1998-11-24 Prosthetic Sensing Technologies, Llc Sensor device for monitoring a prosthetic device
US5876325A (en) 1993-11-02 1999-03-02 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Surgical manipulation system
US5879398A (en) 1995-02-14 1999-03-09 Zimmer, Inc. Acetabular cup
US5941904A (en) 1997-09-12 1999-08-24 Sulzer Intermedics Inc. Electromagnetic acceleration transducer for implantable medical device
US6034296A (en) 1997-03-11 2000-03-07 Elvin; Niell Implantable bone strain telemetry sensing system and method
US6122541A (en) 1995-05-04 2000-09-19 Radionics, Inc. Head band for frameless stereotactic registration
US6122538A (en) 1997-01-16 2000-09-19 Acuson Corporation Motion--Monitoring method and system for medical devices
US6129122A (en) 1999-06-16 2000-10-10 3Tex, Inc. Multiaxial three-dimensional (3-D) circular woven fabric
US6143035A (en) 1999-01-28 2000-11-07 Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc. Implanted bone stimulator and prosthesis system and method of enhancing bone growth
US6165135A (en) 1999-07-14 2000-12-26 Neff; Samuel R. System and method of interrogating implanted passive resonant-circuit devices
US6216537B1 (en) 1999-03-31 2001-04-17 Medtronic, Inc. Accelerometer for implantable medical device
US6245109B1 (en) 1999-11-18 2001-06-12 Intellijoint Systems, Ltd. Artificial joint system and method utilizing same for monitoring wear and displacement of artificial joint members
US20010012932A1 (en) 1997-01-08 2001-08-09 Ferdinand Peer Instrument for compensating for hand tremor during the manipulation of fine structures
US6281149B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2001-08-28 3Tex, Inc. Ballistic protective wear for female torso
US6285902B1 (en) 1999-02-10 2001-09-04 Surgical Insights, Inc. Computer assisted targeting device for use in orthopaedic surgery
US6283168B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2001-09-04 3Tex, Inc. Shaped three-dimensional engineered fiber preforms with insertion holes and rigid composite structures incorporating same, and method therefor
US6307481B1 (en) 1999-09-15 2001-10-23 Ilife Systems, Inc. Systems for evaluating movement of a body and methods of operating the same
US6315007B1 (en) 2001-03-23 2001-11-13 3Tex, Inc. High speed three-dimensional weaving method and machine
US6345598B1 (en) 2000-09-22 2002-02-12 3Tex, Inc. 3-D braided composite valve structure
US6425923B1 (en) 2000-03-07 2002-07-30 Zimmer, Inc. Contourable polymer filled implant
US20020102743A1 (en) 1999-08-19 2002-08-01 The Regents Of The University Of California Apparatus and method for visually identifying micro-forces with a palette of cantilever array blocks
US20020104376A1 (en) 2001-02-07 2002-08-08 Steven Danyluk Ionization contact potential difference gyroscope
US6439096B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2002-08-27 3Tex, Inc. Automated 3-D braiding machine and method
US6447448B1 (en) 1998-12-31 2002-09-10 Ball Semiconductor, Inc. Miniature implanted orthopedic sensors
US6447886B1 (en) 2000-03-20 2002-09-10 3Tex, Inc. Base material for a printed circuit board formed from a three-dimensional woven fiber structure
US20020130673A1 (en) 2000-04-05 2002-09-19 Sri International Electroactive polymer sensors
US6474159B1 (en) 2000-04-21 2002-11-05 Intersense, Inc. Motion-tracking
US20020180306A1 (en) 2001-01-19 2002-12-05 Hunt Brian D. Carbon nanobimorph actuator and sensor
US20030003135A1 (en) 2001-06-28 2003-01-02 Leung Jeffrey C. Article for drug delivery and methods of making and using same
WO2003002022A2 (en) 2001-06-27 2003-01-09 Depuy Products, Inc. Minimally invasive orthopaedic apparatus and methods
US6513381B2 (en) 1997-10-14 2003-02-04 Dynastream Innovations, Inc. Motion analysis system
US20030026758A1 (en) 2001-07-27 2003-02-06 Baker Gregg S. Method and device for monitoring real-time position of an area targeted by a radiosurgery system
US6523392B2 (en) 2000-01-25 2003-02-25 Arizona Board Of Regents Microcantilever sensor
WO2003026518A1 (en) 2001-09-27 2003-04-03 Depuy International Limited Surgical instruments
US20030069644A1 (en) 2001-10-05 2003-04-10 Nebojsa Kovacevic Dual-tray teletibial implant
US20030069591A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2003-04-10 Carson Christopher Patrick Computer assisted knee arthroplasty instrumentation, systems, and processes
US6553681B2 (en) 2000-02-29 2003-04-29 Carl Roger Ekholm, Jr. Methods for measuring a bio-material for use in an implant
US6567703B1 (en) 2000-11-08 2003-05-20 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device incorporating miniaturized circuit module
US6573706B2 (en) 1999-11-18 2003-06-03 Intellijoint Systems Ltd. Method and apparatus for distance based detection of wear and the like in joints
US20030119398A1 (en) 2001-11-30 2003-06-26 Alex Bogdanovich 3-D resin transfer medium and method of use
US6611141B1 (en) 1998-12-23 2003-08-26 Howmedica Leibinger Inc Hybrid 3-D probe tracked by multiple sensors
US6610096B2 (en) 2001-08-22 2003-08-26 Macdonald Stuart G. Prosthetic implants having enhanced utility
WO2003071969A1 (en) 2002-02-27 2003-09-04 Depuy International Limited A surgical instrument system
WO2003077775A1 (en) 2002-03-15 2003-09-25 Depuy International Limited A surgical navigation tool
US6661347B2 (en) 1999-09-15 2003-12-09 Ilife Solutions, Inc. Systems within a position locator device for evaluating movement of a body and methods of operating the same
US20040019384A1 (en) 2002-07-24 2004-01-29 Bryan Kirking Implantable prosthesis for measuring six force components
US6706005B2 (en) 2000-08-25 2004-03-16 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Apparatus and method for assessing loads on adjacent bones
US20040064191A1 (en) 2002-09-30 2004-04-01 Wasielewski Ray C. Apparatus, system and method for intraoperative performance analysis during joint arthroplasty
US20040080319A1 (en) 2002-05-07 2004-04-29 Merrill John H. MIP microcantilever sensor and a method of using thereof
US6733533B1 (en) 2002-11-19 2004-05-11 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Artificial spinal disc
US20040097952A1 (en) 2002-02-13 2004-05-20 Sarin Vineet Kumar Non-image, computer assisted navigation system for joint replacement surgery with modular implant system
US20040152970A1 (en) 2003-01-30 2004-08-05 Mark Hunter Six degree of freedom alignment display for medical procedures
US6820025B2 (en) 2000-10-30 2004-11-16 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Method and apparatus for motion tracking of an articulated rigid body
US20050010302A1 (en) 2003-07-11 2005-01-13 Terry Dietz Telemetric tibial tray
US20050068044A1 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-03-31 William Peine Array sensor electronics
US20050116673A1 (en) 2003-04-18 2005-06-02 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Methods and systems for controlling the operation of a tool
US20050131390A1 (en) 2002-04-25 2005-06-16 Russell Heinrich Surgical instruments including mems devices
US6909985B2 (en) 2002-11-27 2005-06-21 Lockheed Martin Corporation Method and apparatus for recording changes associated with acceleration of a structure
US20050146076A1 (en) 2003-11-19 2005-07-07 Bogdanovich Alexander 3-D fabrics and fabric preforms for composites having integrated systems, devices, and/or networks
US20050165317A1 (en) 2003-11-04 2005-07-28 Turner Nicholas M. Medical devices
US20050186081A1 (en) 2004-02-24 2005-08-25 Mohamed Mansour H. Wind blade spar cap and method of making
US6950025B1 (en) 2002-05-17 2005-09-27 Li Nguyen Medical surgery safety device
US20050245820A1 (en) 2004-04-28 2005-11-03 Sarin Vineet K Method and apparatus for verifying and correcting tracking of an anatomical structure during surgery
US20050273170A1 (en) 2004-06-08 2005-12-08 Navarro Richard R Prosthetic intervertebral spinal disc with integral microprocessor
US20060004431A1 (en) 2004-07-01 2006-01-05 Fuller Thomas A Prophylactic bactericidal implant
US7000469B2 (en) 2000-04-21 2006-02-21 Intersense, Inc. Motion-tracking
US20060047283A1 (en) 2004-08-25 2006-03-02 Evans Boyd M Iii In-vivo orthopedic implant diagnostic device for sensing load, wear, and infection
US20060058604A1 (en) 2004-08-25 2006-03-16 General Electric Company System and method for hybrid tracking in surgical navigation
US20060075816A1 (en) 2002-12-10 2006-04-13 Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V. Activity monitoring
US7028547B2 (en) 2001-03-06 2006-04-18 Microstone Co., Ltd. Body motion detector
US20060142657A1 (en) 2002-03-06 2006-06-29 Mako Surgical Corporation Haptic guidance system and method
US20060150734A1 (en) 2002-12-10 2006-07-13 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Activity monitoring
US7104130B2 (en) 2003-04-11 2006-09-12 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Ultra-miniature accelerometers
US20060235314A1 (en) 2003-01-31 2006-10-19 Michele Migliuolo Medical and surgical devices with an integrated sensor
US20060254369A1 (en) 2005-05-12 2006-11-16 Euisik Yoon Flexible modular sensor systems
US20060271199A1 (en) 2005-05-20 2006-11-30 Johnson Lanny L Navigational markers in implants
US20070032748A1 (en) 2005-07-28 2007-02-08 608442 Bc Ltd. System for detecting and analyzing body motion
US7180409B2 (en) 2005-03-11 2007-02-20 Temic Automotive Of North America, Inc. Tire tread wear sensor system
US20070065077A1 (en) 2004-07-16 2007-03-22 Luna Innovations Incorporated Fiber Optic Position and Shape Sensing Device and Method Relating Thereto
US7195645B2 (en) 2003-07-11 2007-03-27 Depuy Products, Inc. In vivo joint space measurement device and method
US7204145B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2007-04-17 Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V. Activity monitoring
US20070219641A1 (en) 2006-03-20 2007-09-20 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Prosthetic hip implants
US20070225731A1 (en) 2006-03-23 2007-09-27 Pierre Couture Method and system for tracking tools in computer-assisted surgery
US20070233258A1 (en) 2006-02-28 2007-10-04 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Vertebroplasty- device and method
US20070270686A1 (en) 2006-05-03 2007-11-22 Ritter Rogers C Apparatus and methods for using inertial sensing to navigate a medical device
US20070287911A1 (en) 2004-12-01 2007-12-13 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Angewandten Method and device for navigating and positioning an object relative to a patient
US20080010706A1 (en) 2006-05-19 2008-01-10 Mako Surgical Corp. Method and apparatus for controlling a haptic device
US7325453B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2008-02-05 Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V. Activity monitoring
US20080039868A1 (en) 2006-07-05 2008-02-14 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Calibration method and calibration device for a surgical referencing unit
US20080065225A1 (en) 2005-02-18 2008-03-13 Wasielewski Ray C Smart joint implant sensors
US20080064947A1 (en) 2006-09-08 2008-03-13 Medtronic, Inc. Method And Apparatus To Optimize Electrode Placement For Neurological Stimulation
US20080081982A1 (en) 2006-09-29 2008-04-03 Medtronic, Inc. Method And Apparatus For Optimizing A Computer Assisted Surgical Procedure
US20080097187A1 (en) 2006-09-08 2008-04-24 Medtronic, Inc. System for navigating a planned procedure within a body
US20080123921A1 (en) 2006-09-08 2008-05-29 Medtronic, Inc. System for identification of anatomical landmarks
US20080130965A1 (en) 2004-11-23 2008-06-05 Avinash Gopal B Method and apparatus for parameter assisted image-guided surgery (PAIGS)

Family Cites Families (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7104996B2 (en) * 2000-01-14 2006-09-12 Marctec. Llc Method of performing surgery
US5833603A (en) * 1996-03-13 1998-11-10 Lipomatrix, Inc. Implantable biosensing transponder
US6523391B1 (en) * 2001-06-08 2003-02-25 Variform Inc. Vertical height impact testing apparatus
US7747311B2 (en) * 2002-03-06 2010-06-29 Mako Surgical Corp. System and method for interactive haptic positioning of a medical device
CN101060815B (en) * 2004-06-07 2012-07-18 芯赛斯公司 Orthopaedic implant with sensors
US7993269B2 (en) * 2006-02-17 2011-08-09 Medtronic, Inc. Sensor and method for spinal monitoring
US7918796B2 (en) * 2006-04-11 2011-04-05 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Volumetric measurement and visual feedback of tissues

Patent Citations (124)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3915015A (en) 1974-03-18 1975-10-28 Stanford Research Inst Strain gauge transducer system
US4503705A (en) 1982-02-24 1985-03-12 The Langer Biomechanics Group, Inc. Flexible force sensor
US4822362A (en) 1987-05-19 1989-04-18 Walker Peter S Process and apparatus for tibial plateau compenent
US4997445A (en) 1989-12-08 1991-03-05 Zimmer, Inc. Metal-backed prosthetic implant with enhanced bonding of polyethylene portion to metal base
DE4017646A1 (en) 1990-05-29 1991-12-05 Sergio N Dr Erne Interference suppression in bio-magnetic measuring systems - deriving reference from mean of sensors, subtracted from picked-up signal
US5085252A (en) 1990-08-29 1992-02-04 North Carolina State University Method of forming variable cross-sectional shaped three-dimensional fabrics
US5529070A (en) 1990-11-22 1996-06-25 Advanced Technology Laboratories, Inc. Acquisition and display of ultrasonic images from sequentially oriented image planes
US5197488A (en) 1991-04-05 1993-03-30 N. K. Biotechnical Engineering Co. Knee joint load measuring instrument and joint prosthesis
US5360016A (en) 1991-04-05 1994-11-01 N. K. Biotechnical Engineering Company Force transducer for a joint prosthesis
US5470354A (en) 1991-11-12 1995-11-28 Biomet Inc. Force sensing apparatus and method for orthopaedic joint reconstruction
US5425775A (en) 1992-06-23 1995-06-20 N.K. Biotechnical Engineering Company Method for measuring patellofemoral forces
US5326363A (en) 1992-09-14 1994-07-05 Zimmer, Inc. Provisional implant
US5777467A (en) 1993-06-21 1998-07-07 Microstrain, Inc. Miniaturized displacement transducer assembly
US5465760A (en) 1993-10-25 1995-11-14 North Carolina State University Multi-layer three-dimensional fabric and method for producing
US5876325A (en) 1993-11-02 1999-03-02 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Surgical manipulation system
US5456724A (en) 1993-12-15 1995-10-10 Industrial Technology Research Institute Load sensor for bone graft
US5678448A (en) 1994-01-14 1997-10-21 Fullen Systems, Inc. System for continuously measuring forces applied by the foot
US5412619A (en) 1994-04-14 1995-05-02 Bauer; Will Three-dimensional displacement of a body with computer interface
US5645077A (en) 1994-06-16 1997-07-08 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Inertial orientation tracker apparatus having automatic drift compensation for tracking human head and other similarly sized body
US6162191A (en) 1994-06-16 2000-12-19 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Inertial orientation tracker having automatic drift compensation for tracking human head and other similarly sized body
US6786877B2 (en) 1994-06-16 2004-09-07 Masschusetts Institute Of Technology inertial orientation tracker having automatic drift compensation using an at rest sensor for tracking parts of a human body
US5807284A (en) 1994-06-16 1998-09-15 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Inertial orientation tracker apparatus method having automatic drift compensation for tracking human head and other similarly sized body
US6361507B1 (en) 1994-06-16 2002-03-26 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Inertial orientation tracker having gradual automatic drift compensation for tracking human head and other similarly sized body
US5518008A (en) 1994-08-25 1996-05-21 Spectral Sciences Research Corporation Structural analyzer, in particular for medical implants
US5879398A (en) 1995-02-14 1999-03-09 Zimmer, Inc. Acetabular cup
US6122541A (en) 1995-05-04 2000-09-19 Radionics, Inc. Head band for frameless stereotactic registration
US5719324A (en) 1995-06-16 1998-02-17 Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Microcantilever sensor
US5733292A (en) 1995-09-15 1998-03-31 Midwest Orthopaedic Research Foundation Arthroplasty trial prosthesis alignment devices and associated methods
US5840047A (en) 1996-04-16 1998-11-24 Prosthetic Sensing Technologies, Llc Sensor device for monitoring a prosthetic device
US20010012932A1 (en) 1997-01-08 2001-08-09 Ferdinand Peer Instrument for compensating for hand tremor during the manipulation of fine structures
US6122538A (en) 1997-01-16 2000-09-19 Acuson Corporation Motion--Monitoring method and system for medical devices
US6034296A (en) 1997-03-11 2000-03-07 Elvin; Niell Implantable bone strain telemetry sensing system and method
US5941904A (en) 1997-09-12 1999-08-24 Sulzer Intermedics Inc. Electromagnetic acceleration transducer for implantable medical device
US6513381B2 (en) 1997-10-14 2003-02-04 Dynastream Innovations, Inc. Motion analysis system
US6611141B1 (en) 1998-12-23 2003-08-26 Howmedica Leibinger Inc Hybrid 3-D probe tracked by multiple sensors
US6447448B1 (en) 1998-12-31 2002-09-10 Ball Semiconductor, Inc. Miniature implanted orthopedic sensors
US6143035A (en) 1999-01-28 2000-11-07 Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc. Implanted bone stimulator and prosthesis system and method of enhancing bone growth
US6285902B1 (en) 1999-02-10 2001-09-04 Surgical Insights, Inc. Computer assisted targeting device for use in orthopaedic surgery
US6216537B1 (en) 1999-03-31 2001-04-17 Medtronic, Inc. Accelerometer for implantable medical device
US6129122A (en) 1999-06-16 2000-10-10 3Tex, Inc. Multiaxial three-dimensional (3-D) circular woven fabric
US6165135A (en) 1999-07-14 2000-12-26 Neff; Samuel R. System and method of interrogating implanted passive resonant-circuit devices
US20020102743A1 (en) 1999-08-19 2002-08-01 The Regents Of The University Of California Apparatus and method for visually identifying micro-forces with a palette of cantilever array blocks
US6307481B1 (en) 1999-09-15 2001-10-23 Ilife Systems, Inc. Systems for evaluating movement of a body and methods of operating the same
US6661347B2 (en) 1999-09-15 2003-12-09 Ilife Solutions, Inc. Systems within a position locator device for evaluating movement of a body and methods of operating the same
US6573706B2 (en) 1999-11-18 2003-06-03 Intellijoint Systems Ltd. Method and apparatus for distance based detection of wear and the like in joints
US6245109B1 (en) 1999-11-18 2001-06-12 Intellijoint Systems, Ltd. Artificial joint system and method utilizing same for monitoring wear and displacement of artificial joint members
US6583630B2 (en) 1999-11-18 2003-06-24 Intellijoint Systems Ltd. Systems and methods for monitoring wear and/or displacement of artificial joint members, vertebrae, segments of fractured bones and dental implants
US6523392B2 (en) 2000-01-25 2003-02-25 Arizona Board Of Regents Microcantilever sensor
US6553681B2 (en) 2000-02-29 2003-04-29 Carl Roger Ekholm, Jr. Methods for measuring a bio-material for use in an implant
US6425923B1 (en) 2000-03-07 2002-07-30 Zimmer, Inc. Contourable polymer filled implant
US6447886B1 (en) 2000-03-20 2002-09-10 3Tex, Inc. Base material for a printed circuit board formed from a three-dimensional woven fiber structure
US20020130673A1 (en) 2000-04-05 2002-09-19 Sri International Electroactive polymer sensors
US6474159B1 (en) 2000-04-21 2002-11-05 Intersense, Inc. Motion-tracking
US7000469B2 (en) 2000-04-21 2006-02-21 Intersense, Inc. Motion-tracking
US6706005B2 (en) 2000-08-25 2004-03-16 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Apparatus and method for assessing loads on adjacent bones
US6345598B1 (en) 2000-09-22 2002-02-12 3Tex, Inc. 3-D braided composite valve structure
US6820025B2 (en) 2000-10-30 2004-11-16 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Method and apparatus for motion tracking of an articulated rigid body
US6567703B1 (en) 2000-11-08 2003-05-20 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical device incorporating miniaturized circuit module
US6439096B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2002-08-27 3Tex, Inc. Automated 3-D braiding machine and method
US6283168B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2001-09-04 3Tex, Inc. Shaped three-dimensional engineered fiber preforms with insertion holes and rigid composite structures incorporating same, and method therefor
US6281149B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2001-08-28 3Tex, Inc. Ballistic protective wear for female torso
US20020180306A1 (en) 2001-01-19 2002-12-05 Hunt Brian D. Carbon nanobimorph actuator and sensor
US20020104376A1 (en) 2001-02-07 2002-08-08 Steven Danyluk Ionization contact potential difference gyroscope
US20030069591A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2003-04-10 Carson Christopher Patrick Computer assisted knee arthroplasty instrumentation, systems, and processes
US7028547B2 (en) 2001-03-06 2006-04-18 Microstone Co., Ltd. Body motion detector
US6315007B1 (en) 2001-03-23 2001-11-13 3Tex, Inc. High speed three-dimensional weaving method and machine
WO2003002022A2 (en) 2001-06-27 2003-01-09 Depuy Products, Inc. Minimally invasive orthopaedic apparatus and methods
US20030003135A1 (en) 2001-06-28 2003-01-02 Leung Jeffrey C. Article for drug delivery and methods of making and using same
US20030026758A1 (en) 2001-07-27 2003-02-06 Baker Gregg S. Method and device for monitoring real-time position of an area targeted by a radiosurgery system
US6610096B2 (en) 2001-08-22 2003-08-26 Macdonald Stuart G. Prosthetic implants having enhanced utility
WO2003026518A1 (en) 2001-09-27 2003-04-03 Depuy International Limited Surgical instruments
US20030069644A1 (en) 2001-10-05 2003-04-10 Nebojsa Kovacevic Dual-tray teletibial implant
US20050068044A1 (en) 2001-10-24 2005-03-31 William Peine Array sensor electronics
US20030119398A1 (en) 2001-11-30 2003-06-26 Alex Bogdanovich 3-D resin transfer medium and method of use
US20040097952A1 (en) 2002-02-13 2004-05-20 Sarin Vineet Kumar Non-image, computer assisted navigation system for joint replacement surgery with modular implant system
WO2003071969A1 (en) 2002-02-27 2003-09-04 Depuy International Limited A surgical instrument system
US20060142657A1 (en) 2002-03-06 2006-06-29 Mako Surgical Corporation Haptic guidance system and method
WO2003077775A1 (en) 2002-03-15 2003-09-25 Depuy International Limited A surgical navigation tool
US20050131390A1 (en) 2002-04-25 2005-06-16 Russell Heinrich Surgical instruments including mems devices
US20040080319A1 (en) 2002-05-07 2004-04-29 Merrill John H. MIP microcantilever sensor and a method of using thereof
US6950025B1 (en) 2002-05-17 2005-09-27 Li Nguyen Medical surgery safety device
US20040019384A1 (en) 2002-07-24 2004-01-29 Bryan Kirking Implantable prosthesis for measuring six force components
US20040064191A1 (en) 2002-09-30 2004-04-01 Wasielewski Ray C. Apparatus, system and method for intraoperative performance analysis during joint arthroplasty
US6733533B1 (en) 2002-11-19 2004-05-11 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Artificial spinal disc
US6909985B2 (en) 2002-11-27 2005-06-21 Lockheed Martin Corporation Method and apparatus for recording changes associated with acceleration of a structure
US7325453B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2008-02-05 Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V. Activity monitoring
US20060150734A1 (en) 2002-12-10 2006-07-13 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Activity monitoring
US7204145B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2007-04-17 Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V. Activity monitoring
US20060075816A1 (en) 2002-12-10 2006-04-13 Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V. Activity monitoring
US20040152970A1 (en) 2003-01-30 2004-08-05 Mark Hunter Six degree of freedom alignment display for medical procedures
US20060235314A1 (en) 2003-01-31 2006-10-19 Michele Migliuolo Medical and surgical devices with an integrated sensor
US7104130B2 (en) 2003-04-11 2006-09-12 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Ultra-miniature accelerometers
US20050116673A1 (en) 2003-04-18 2005-06-02 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Methods and systems for controlling the operation of a tool
US7195645B2 (en) 2003-07-11 2007-03-27 Depuy Products, Inc. In vivo joint space measurement device and method
US20050010302A1 (en) 2003-07-11 2005-01-13 Terry Dietz Telemetric tibial tray
US20050165317A1 (en) 2003-11-04 2005-07-28 Turner Nicholas M. Medical devices
US20050146076A1 (en) 2003-11-19 2005-07-07 Bogdanovich Alexander 3-D fabrics and fabric preforms for composites having integrated systems, devices, and/or networks
US20050186081A1 (en) 2004-02-24 2005-08-25 Mohamed Mansour H. Wind blade spar cap and method of making
US20070189902A1 (en) 2004-02-24 2007-08-16 Mohamed Mansour H Wind blade spar cap and method of making
US20050245820A1 (en) 2004-04-28 2005-11-03 Sarin Vineet K Method and apparatus for verifying and correcting tracking of an anatomical structure during surgery
US20050273170A1 (en) 2004-06-08 2005-12-08 Navarro Richard R Prosthetic intervertebral spinal disc with integral microprocessor
US20060004431A1 (en) 2004-07-01 2006-01-05 Fuller Thomas A Prophylactic bactericidal implant
US20070065077A1 (en) 2004-07-16 2007-03-22 Luna Innovations Incorporated Fiber Optic Position and Shape Sensing Device and Method Relating Thereto
US20060058604A1 (en) 2004-08-25 2006-03-16 General Electric Company System and method for hybrid tracking in surgical navigation
US7097662B2 (en) 2004-08-25 2006-08-29 Ut-Battelle, Llc In-vivo orthopedic implant diagnostic device for sensing load, wear, and infection
US20060047283A1 (en) 2004-08-25 2006-03-02 Evans Boyd M Iii In-vivo orthopedic implant diagnostic device for sensing load, wear, and infection
US20080130965A1 (en) 2004-11-23 2008-06-05 Avinash Gopal B Method and apparatus for parameter assisted image-guided surgery (PAIGS)
US20070287911A1 (en) 2004-12-01 2007-12-13 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Angewandten Method and device for navigating and positioning an object relative to a patient
US20080065225A1 (en) 2005-02-18 2008-03-13 Wasielewski Ray C Smart joint implant sensors
US7180409B2 (en) 2005-03-11 2007-02-20 Temic Automotive Of North America, Inc. Tire tread wear sensor system
US20060254369A1 (en) 2005-05-12 2006-11-16 Euisik Yoon Flexible modular sensor systems
US20060271199A1 (en) 2005-05-20 2006-11-30 Johnson Lanny L Navigational markers in implants
US20070032748A1 (en) 2005-07-28 2007-02-08 608442 Bc Ltd. System for detecting and analyzing body motion
US20070233258A1 (en) 2006-02-28 2007-10-04 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Vertebroplasty- device and method
US20070219641A1 (en) 2006-03-20 2007-09-20 Zimmer Technology, Inc. Prosthetic hip implants
US20070225731A1 (en) 2006-03-23 2007-09-27 Pierre Couture Method and system for tracking tools in computer-assisted surgery
US20070270686A1 (en) 2006-05-03 2007-11-22 Ritter Rogers C Apparatus and methods for using inertial sensing to navigate a medical device
US20080010705A1 (en) 2006-05-19 2008-01-10 Mako Surgical Corp. Method and apparatus for controlling a haptic device
US20080010706A1 (en) 2006-05-19 2008-01-10 Mako Surgical Corp. Method and apparatus for controlling a haptic device
US20080039868A1 (en) 2006-07-05 2008-02-14 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Calibration method and calibration device for a surgical referencing unit
US20080064947A1 (en) 2006-09-08 2008-03-13 Medtronic, Inc. Method And Apparatus To Optimize Electrode Placement For Neurological Stimulation
US20080097187A1 (en) 2006-09-08 2008-04-24 Medtronic, Inc. System for navigating a planned procedure within a body
US20080123921A1 (en) 2006-09-08 2008-05-29 Medtronic, Inc. System for identification of anatomical landmarks
US20080081982A1 (en) 2006-09-29 2008-04-03 Medtronic, Inc. Method And Apparatus For Optimizing A Computer Assisted Surgical Procedure

Non-Patent Citations (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Cooper et al., James A. Fiber-Based Tissue-Engineered Scaffold for Ligament Replacement: Design Considerations and In Vitro Evaluation, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 1523-1532, Elsevier Ltd. @ www.elsevier.com/locate/biomaterials.
D.T. Davy et al., "Telemetric Force Measurements Across the Hip after Total Arthroplasty," J of Bone and Joint Surgery, 1998, pp. 45-50, vol. 70-A, Issue 1.
F. Brick et al., "The Patellofemoral Component of Total Knee Arthroplasty," Clin Orthop. 1988, pp. 163-178, vol. 231.
G. Bergmann et al., "Frictional Heating of Total Hip Implants, Part 1 Measurement in Patents," J of Biomechanics, 2001, p. 421-428, vol. 34.
G. Bergmann et al., "Hip Joint Loading During Walking and Running Measured in Two Patients," J of Biomechanics, 1993, pp. 969-990, vol. 26, Issue 8.
G.M. Kotzar et al., "Telemeterized in Vivo Hip Joint Force Data: A report on Two Patients After Total Hip Surgery," J of Ortho Research, 1989, pp. 621-633, vol. 9, Issue 5.
K.R. Kaufman et al., "Instrumented Implant for Measuring Tibiofemoral Forces," J of Biomechanics, 1996, pp. 667-671, vol. 29, Issue 5.
P.F. Sharkey et al., "Why are Total Knee Anthroplasties Failing Today?," Clin Orthop, 2002, pp. 7-13, vol. 404.
S.J.G. Taylor et al., "Forces and Moments Telemetered from two Distal Femoral Replacement During Various Activities," J of Biomech. 2001, pp. 829-848, vol. 34.
Science@NASA, The Right Stuff for Super Spaceships from http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/16sep-rightstuff.htm7/2/2008.
Science@NASA, The Right Stuff for Super Spaceships from http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/16sep—rightstuff.htm7/2/2008.
Shenfang, Yuan, Determination of Internal Strain in 3-D Braided Composites Using Optic Fiber Strain Sensors, Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica, vol. 17, No. 1, Mar. 2004, HUST, Wuhan, China.
T.K. Fehring et al., "Early Failures in Total Knee Orthoplasty," Clin Orthop. 2001, p. 315-318, vol. 382.
Wang, Zhong Lin and Jinhui Song, Piezoelectric Nanogenerators Based on Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays, Science, vol. 312, Apr. 14, 2006 at www.sciencemag.org.

Cited By (40)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8888786B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2014-11-18 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation device and method
US8974467B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2015-03-10 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation system and method
USRE46582E1 (en) * 2004-06-07 2017-10-24 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Orthopaedic implant with sensors
US8784425B2 (en) 2007-02-28 2014-07-22 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems and methods for identifying landmarks on orthopedic implants
US8814868B2 (en) 2007-02-28 2014-08-26 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Instrumented orthopaedic implant for identifying a landmark
US9775649B2 (en) 2008-02-28 2017-10-03 Smith & Nephew, Inc. System and method for identifying a landmark
US9220514B2 (en) 2008-02-28 2015-12-29 Smith & Nephew, Inc. System and method for identifying a landmark
US9572586B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2017-02-21 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9855075B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2018-01-02 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9192392B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2015-11-24 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US8911447B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2014-12-16 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US8998910B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2015-04-07 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US8974468B2 (en) 2008-09-10 2015-03-10 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip surgery systems and methods
US9931059B2 (en) 2008-09-10 2018-04-03 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip surgery systems and methods
US8945147B2 (en) 2009-04-27 2015-02-03 Smith & Nephew, Inc. System and method for identifying a landmark
US9031637B2 (en) 2009-04-27 2015-05-12 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Targeting an orthopaedic implant landmark
US8623023B2 (en) 2009-04-27 2014-01-07 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Targeting an orthopaedic implant landmark
US9763598B2 (en) 2009-04-27 2017-09-19 Smith & Nephew, Inc. System and method for identifying a landmark
US9192399B2 (en) 2009-04-27 2015-11-24 Smith & Nephew, Inc. System and method for identifying a landmark
US9585722B2 (en) 2009-04-27 2017-03-07 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Targeting an orthopaedic implant landmark
US20100274256A1 (en) * 2009-04-27 2010-10-28 Smith & Nephew, Inc. System and Method for Identifying a Landmark
US9271756B2 (en) 2009-07-24 2016-03-01 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9775725B2 (en) 2009-07-24 2017-10-03 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9339226B2 (en) 2010-01-21 2016-05-17 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9539037B2 (en) 2010-06-03 2017-01-10 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Orthopaedic implants
US8843204B2 (en) * 2010-07-21 2014-09-23 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Vestibular implant system with internal and external motion sensors
US20120022616A1 (en) * 2010-07-21 2012-01-26 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Vestibular Implant System with Internal and External Motion Sensors
US9144677B2 (en) 2010-07-21 2015-09-29 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Vestibular implant system with internal and external motion sensors
US8624471B1 (en) * 2010-07-30 2014-01-07 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Piezoelectric-on-semiconductor micromechanical resonators with linear acoustic bandgap tethers
US8890511B2 (en) 2011-01-25 2014-11-18 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Targeting operation sites
US9526441B2 (en) 2011-05-06 2016-12-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Targeting landmarks of orthopaedic devices
US9827112B2 (en) 2011-06-16 2017-11-28 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical alignment using references
US9168153B2 (en) 2011-06-16 2015-10-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical alignment using references
US20180000554A1 (en) * 2012-03-02 2018-01-04 Orthosoft Inc. Method and system for tracking objects in computer-assisted surgery
US9549742B2 (en) 2012-05-18 2017-01-24 OrthAlign, Inc. Devices and methods for knee arthroplasty
US9649160B2 (en) 2012-08-14 2017-05-16 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip replacement navigation system and method
US20140121783A1 (en) * 2012-10-31 2014-05-01 Randall D. Alley Adaptable Socket System, Method, and Kit
US9283093B2 (en) * 2012-10-31 2016-03-15 Randall D. Alley Adaptable socket system, method, and kit
US9585768B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-03-07 DePuy Synthes Products, Inc. Acetabular cup prosthesis alignment system and method
US9642560B2 (en) 2013-04-03 2017-05-09 Brainlab Ag Method and device for determining the orientation of a co-ordinate system of an anatomical object in a global co-ordinate system

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20140330112A1 (en) 2014-11-06 application
WO2004091419A2 (en) 2004-10-28 application
US20040243148A1 (en) 2004-12-02 application
WO2004091419A9 (en) 2004-12-23 application
US8814877B2 (en) 2014-08-26 grant
US20120277752A1 (en) 2012-11-01 application
WO2004091419A8 (en) 2004-11-18 application
US9532730B2 (en) 2017-01-03 grant
US20090138019A1 (en) 2009-05-28 application
US20170071503A1 (en) 2017-03-16 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US20090088674A1 (en) Method and system for designing patient-specific orthopaedic surgical instruments
US20060293614A1 (en) Leg alignment for surgical parameter measurement in hip replacement surgery
US20050228270A1 (en) Method and system for geometric distortion free tracking of 3-dimensional objects from 2-dimensional measurements
US8239001B2 (en) Method and apparatus for surgical navigation
US20110313424A1 (en) Patient-specific total hip arthroplasty
US20050203384A1 (en) Computer assisted system and method for minimal invasive hip, uni knee and total knee replacement
US6925339B2 (en) Implant registration device for surgical navigation system
US7636595B2 (en) Method and apparatus for calibrating non-linear instruments
US20020055679A1 (en) System and method for ligament graft placement
US20070244488A1 (en) Tensor for use in surgical navigation
US20050065617A1 (en) System and method of performing ball and socket joint arthroscopy
EP1442715B1 (en) Tunable spinal implant and apparatus for its post-operative tuning
US20050197569A1 (en) Methods, systems, and apparatuses for providing patient-mounted surgical navigational sensors
US20080269596A1 (en) Orthpaedic Monitoring Systems, Methods, Implants and Instruments
US20100249796A1 (en) Method and Apparatus for Aligning and Securing an Implant Relative to a Patient
US20070270680A1 (en) Modeling method and apparatus for use in surgical navigation
US8007448B2 (en) System and method for performing arthroplasty of a joint and tracking a plumb line plane
US20100249657A1 (en) Method and Apparatus for Aligning and Securing an Implant Relative to a Patient
US20050109855A1 (en) Methods and apparatuses for providing a navigational array
US7835784B2 (en) Method and apparatus for positioning a reference frame
US20050119639A1 (en) Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes
US7477926B2 (en) Methods and apparatuses for providing a reference array input device
US6214014B1 (en) Acetabular total hip component alignment system for accurate intraoperative positioning in inclination
US8118815B2 (en) Systems and methods for joint replacement
US7060075B2 (en) Distal targeting of locking screws in intramedullary nails

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: ZIMMER, INC., INDIANA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:WASILIEWSKI, RAY C., M.D.;REEL/FRAME:027498/0298

Effective date: 20061219

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4