US77226A - Improvement in apparatus foe consuming smoke and gas - Google Patents

Improvement in apparatus foe consuming smoke and gas Download PDF


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US77226A US77226DA US77226A US 77226 A US77226 A US 77226A US 77226D A US77226D A US 77226DA US 77226 A US77226 A US 77226A
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    • F23B5/00Combustion apparatus with arrangements for burning uncombusted material from primary combustion
    • F23B5/02Combustion apparatus with arrangements for burning uncombusted material from primary combustion in main combustion chamber


Pate'nt'ed Apr. 28, 1868.
Jul-norms PEIERS 60., mmau'mu. wunmoron. o, c,
gutter iutrs gaunt @ft'irr.
- Lam Patent No. 77,226, dated Ap'rz'l 28, 1868.
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I Be it known that I, DANIEL E. Sonics, of Washington, District of Columbia, have-invented a new-and useful Apparatus for Consuming Smoke and Gas, and for Heating Air, 820.; and I do hereby declare thatithe foll wing is a full, 'clear,'and exact description thereof, reference being had to the annexed drawings, making part of this specification, in which I Figure 1 is a plan or top view of my invention.
Figure 2 is an end elevation,
Figure 3 is a. longitudinal sectionon the line X X of fig. 1.
'Figure 4 is a similar section on the line XI XI; and
Figure 5 is a transversevertical section on'the line XII XII.
Theother figures represent modifications of'fii'y inv'nt-ion and parts in detail.
In all the figures, like parts are indicated by the same letters of reference.
The nature of my invention consists I I First. In forcing or drawing gas,-h0t air, smoke, or vapor, from a flueor chimney, around to the fire-box of the same steam-boiler, furnace, or other heating-apparatus in which they or any of them originated, by means I of a blast or current of cold or fresh air, or steam, or both, whether said current be produced by a fan-blower,
air-p ump, the motion of the apparatus against the air, or byv'any other means.
Second. In forcing or drawing hot air, gas, smoke, or vapor from a flue or chimney of any steam-boiler, furnace, or other heating-apparatus, by means of a current of cold or fresh air, or steam, or both, traversing a difierent channel for a iven distance and then im in in u on said smoke as can or or hot air at such 5 a P 1-.-, g P 1g 1 P 2 2 an angle as will cause a draught toward the fire-box in a common flue'or channel.
Third. In constructing a continuous flue or channeL-whereby the smoke and hot or warm air of any steamboiler, furnace, or other heating-apparatus maybe conducted or forced around from the pointwhere it shall have effected its primary object backto its producing fire again, through which it shall be made to pass.
Fourth. In constructing a continuous flue or channel, as above, with another flue or channel along a .part of its length, with a partition between -them, and both opening into one, so that when the current of air is forced into. one of said flucsor channels, it will produce a draught in the other, whereby the smoke andhot or warm air in the fire-box and smoke-flue will be drawn into the common flue, and driven to the fire-box by the current of air. v
Fifth. In heating air, which aids combustion, before it'is admitted to the fire-box of'a steam-boiler, &c.
The object of my invention is mainly to secure a completeconsumption, in the same fire that produces them, of all the gaseous and carbonaceous products of combustion, so that no smoke or vapors shall escape from the chimney, and thereby economize in the quantity of fHGl Sgd W-Ell. as conduce to cleanliness in the immediate neighborhood of the operation of my apparatus; 7
In the drawing, A A, figs. 1, 2, 3, and 5, represents the shell of a steam-boiler, of any construction. is the fire-chamber, having hollow o'r tubular grate-bars, for the flow of water or.steam through them. These grate'bars are shown as pipes, by red lines in fig. 1, passing in at one side of the fire-box, and, after forming a. grate, passing out through the other side. D is a chamber, constructed of the same material and in the same general manner with the boiler-shell A, and connected with the fire-box .B, and the flue-space at the opposite end i of the shell by fines a a. The flue a, at the front end of the boiler, opens into the ash-pit under the grate-bars O. The lines a a are furnished with dampers, by which they can be completely closed, when necessary. The smoke-stack b, from the rear of the boiler, and the stack c, frem the frontend'of the chamber D, are'both also provided with dampers, whereby they can be effectually closed.
' The chamber D is divided, for a portion of'its length, into an, upper and lower division, by a horizontal partition-plate, (Z, to the front edge of which is hinged another plate, d, so that by its swing upward or downward, the mouth of either division may be contracted or enlarged; the plate d being operated by a cam or endless screw, or any equivalent device, through the shell of the chamber D'. A fan-blower or air-pump, E, or equivalent forcing-agent, is connected witlithe lower division of the chamber'D, at its rear end, and a similar blowing or forcing-device, F, may b so attached as to communicate with the upper division of the chamber D, as seen in fig. 4. A door, e, is made at the-rear end of the chamber D, over the fan E, through which, when opened, air may be supplied to the upper division when' desirable. Ordinary furnace-doors are .a'lso' fitted to thefire-box apd ash-pit at the front epd of the boiler-shell A.
A steam-pipe, G, furnished with valves or stop-cocks, passes into the lower division of the chamber D, through the side, and after traversing its width, say two or three times, terminates,v by a closed end. The closed limb of this pipe, which extends clear across the lower division of the chamber D, is pcrt'orated wilh minute holes, for the ejection ofjiets of steamupward and towards the fro 'nt cnd of the chamber.
The pipe H, throughiwhich steam or water is supplied to tho tubular grate-ha rs G, is alsoconnccted with-a pipe, I, extending across the flue-space i n' the -boiler-shell A, in the same manner as the pipe G in the chamber D, and, like that pipe, is;also perforated with minute holes, but so that ejection may occur in the opposite direction, or towards the rear, as well as upward. Stop-cocksf are also provided for the p ipcs II and I, so that they may be closed or opened to each other when desired. The pipe leading froth the other end of the tubular grate-b'ars 0 passes out through the side or through the flue a, and up into the stack 0, or may be carried to a point where the steam, generated or superheated within it, may be applied to use It will be seen that the smoke and'fiam e g 'from the fire'-bo'x, after passing through the flucs or tubes of a steam-boi1erto the rear fi'ue-space in the shell A, 'will', ifthe stack 6 be closed by its damper, pass through the flue a into the lower division of the chambe'rDt-aud if a blast of air be forced into ,the lower division of the chamber D by the fan E, or its equivalent, its passage across the opening of the flue a will produce a draught through said fiue, bringing"the smoke and other products'of combustion with it, and carry them through the flue a into the ash-pit.under the grate-bars. If jets-of steam or water be thrown through the perforations of the pipe G into the current thus produced, the carbonaceous matter and gases drawn from the boiler-shell will become highly oxygenized by mixture with the air a'nd hot steam or vapoigand 'when forced into the tire will become ignited and thoroughly consumed, greatly increasing-tho heat of the fii'e, and, as a matter of course, lessening the amount of fuel required. Thus by the action of the fan, a constant draught through the fire-box, boiler-fines, and chamber D, may be kept up, by which every particle of combustible matter maybe carried into the fire and consumed, so that no appearance of smoke will be made from the stack or chimney, which will be kept closed by its damper, as hereinbefordset forth, afterthe fire is started.
' If the apparatus be attached to a locomotive or other moving steam-boiler, the drought may be kept up, without the fan, by opening the door eat that end of the division, D. The use of the fan E may be dispensed with, .and another fan, F, made to force cold-or fresh air along the upper division of the chamber D, until'it meets and impinges on the volume of smoke and gas, or vapor, in the lower division, at the front cndof the division-plate OZ, and thence carry it to the fire-box through the flue a, as before set forth.
By raising or lowering the end of the swinging plate d, the amount of cold air let in to the smoke may be varied and regulated as the requirements may demand.
Figure 6 is a sketch, showing the manner of connecting a steam-boiler with a cupola. or smelting or puddling-furnace, by my apparatus, so that the heat from the stack, andthe smoke, gases, vapor, carbon, &c., may be drawn or forced therefrom, and made to pass through the fire-box of the steam-boiler, as hereinbofore described. In this figure, 6, K is the stack or chimney of a furnace or other structure for generating heat, closed at the top, when necessary, by such a damper as is commonly used. 5'
From a point in the stack, between the fire-bed and its top, a flue, L, leads to the chamber, D, of my apparatus, its end terminating at the ejection-opening of'a fan or equivalent device for forcing air or steam, or both, in such a manner that the current or blast from the fan may cross the mouth of the line L at such afvangle with it as to produce a draught therein from the chimney or'stack, and draw the products of combustion or force them into the fire-box of a boiler through the flue a, in the manner and for the purpose before described; p
f A steam or water-pipe, g, shown by red' lines in fig. 6, may be placed in the stack, in the formfiof a coil or system in which steam may be generated or superheated, to be 'conveyed away to any point where it may be required as a motive-power, or for producing draught, or for any other purpose. I
Figure 7 is an elevation of a tubular locomotive or other steam-boiler, M, showing, the fire-chamber, B, at the rear end, in section .7," The front end of the boiler has a flue-space, h, shown by red lines, and in the cross-section, Figure 8, into which the tubes 2' of the boiler open from the fire-box. With this flue-space the stack N connects, passing through an air-chamber, O, which is external to and Surroundstheiliue-space N and the front end of the boiler, and is provided with a door, a, similar to the door at the fan-endof the chamber D, fig. 4. The fire-box B is surrounded on its top, sides, and front, with an air-chamber, 0, (see cross-section, Figure 9,) communicating with the ash-pit, through its sides and back, by means of registers or dampers K,underthe 1 1 grate-bars, which may, if desirable, be hollow or tubular, as hereinbefore described. The air-chambers O O are connected by a number of air-pipes, P, extending from one to the other, along the outside of the boiler. The same number of other pipes, Q, extend from, the flue-space h rearwards, and parallelwith the pipes P, nearly to the air-chamber O, surrounding the fire-box, at which points the pipes Q are made to connect with the pipes P, so as to constitute pairs, each pair haviug a common outlet through its pipe P into, the air-chamber 0', around the fire-boxl l f The union of the pipes P and Q may be a rectangular one, as shown in Figure 10, or the junction may be a more acute angle, as seen in Figure '11;
X The pipes P and Q may be made, to pass from the chamber 0 and smoke-flue it, through thelbody. of the boiler, among the tubes or-flues, to theair-chamber around the fire-box, instead of being ori the outside of the boiler, as shown; .or, in another construction, the flue-tubes may he closed at their ends which are farthest frpm the fire -chamber, and connect directly with air-pipes P, leading from the air-chamber 0, through the body the boiler, to the air-chamber 0', around the fire-box. In this case the fluespace It will be dispensed with, The connection of the flues z with the pipes P will be the same as those of the pipes, Qwith sa'id air-pipes, and the eheot o the operation of the cold air upon the products of combustion will be the same in all of these con-. structions. Automaton-valves she 111d be placed in the pipes 'P, so arranged that, by closing, return or back draught shall be prevented in the air and smoke-fines or pipes. I
- A current or blast of air, made to pass through the pipes Pby a-fan or equivalent device, will, in passing the connecting-openings with the pipes Q, or the flue-tubes i, produce in them a draught from the flue-space h, or directly from the fire-box of the smoke and. gases, and will force them through the registers it again into the fire.
When moving atlspeed, the door 'e'can be opened, and the draught or current will be kept up by the onward motionofthe boiler. Combined with the door e, or independent of it, a flueor pipe may lead into the air-chamber O, and be provided with a hood to direct the external air into the chamber without regard to the direction in which the boiler may be moving.
Steam-pipes may be made to terminate in either or both the pipes P and Q, or the tubes 2', as seen in fig. 11, for the purpose of aiding the current or draught by their ejections.
The pipes, passing through the apparatus or through the stack of a heating-apparatus, wherein steam. is to be'generated or superheated, may be made to connect with a steam-drum or chest, not shown in the drawing, properly provided with a safety-valve, from which it may be conducted to any point where its service may he wanted.
I (lo not intend to confine myself to any particular form or arrangement of hollow or tubular grate-bars,
when such willbe used, nor do I intehd to confine myself to the use of hollow or tubular grate-bars, but shall use the kind in common use whenever it may be deemed expedient.
Figure 12 is aslretch, showing an air-pipe or line, meeting a similar due for smoke or gases, both contracted at their orifices for the purpose of producing a draught in one by a blast through the other, as setforth.
Figure 13 is a sketch, showing the manner in which the pipes Pand flues 2' are connected, so as to produce a draught in the latter by a blast through the formerin the direction indicated by the arrows. I I
In the operation of my invention it will be found necessary to regulate the supply of air to be mingled with'the productions of combustion, in such a manner that a large or small quantity may be'secured, according to the kind and amount of fuel used.
v This] accomplish by mpans of valves or dampers, or their equivalents, or by increasing the velocity of the-current of air, or'by-nmlr'ing' the air-pipes largci"tlian the smoke-fines; or,- all these means may b'e userl together. In order to sccurecomplete combustion of smoke, a volume of air from three to ten times larger than that of the smoke is required,'but if-steam, or superheated steam be used in conjunction with air, a much smaller volume will be sufficient toproduce the necessary amount of oxygen.
Instead of using tubes or pipes in pairs, as shownand described, (sec P Q,) I may sometimes use large airpipes, with several small pipes opening into them, thereby securing a larger area for air than would be done in a given space if the air-pipes were small.
. I Having thus fully described my invention, what I claim therein as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is- V 1.. The drawing or forcing, or drawing and forcing the smoke, gases, vapors, &c.-, from the fire-chamber of a boiler or furnace, or other heating-apparatus, and into the same fire-chamber again bya current or blast of:
air, steam, or' vapor, or any or all of them, for the purpose and in the manner set forth.
2. The drawing or forcing, or drawing and forcing, the smoke and other products ofcombustion from the fire-chamber of a steam-boiler, furnace, or othc'r heating-apparatus, by means of a current or blast of air travrsing one or more different channels from such productsof combustion, for a given distanqe, and then made to impinge on said products so as to mingle with and drive or draw them through a common flue into the originating fire-chamber, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
3. The drawing or-forcing, or drawing and forcing, the products of combustion from the fire-chamber or flue of a paddling or other furnace, or steam-boiler or other heating-apparatus, through the flues of another steam-boiler or other heating-apparatus, by means of a current or blast of air, or steam or vapor, substantially as set forth. p A
4. The combination of the shell A, and the flucs and flue-spaces of a steam-boiler, with the chamber D,
and its flue-openings a a, and an air-pumppfau-blower, or equivalent device, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
5. Thcchambcr D, when divided by apartition-plate, dot, and combined with a. steam-boiler or other heating-apparatus, substantially 'as and for the purpose set fort 6. The connection and arrangement offthe perforated pipes Fand I with the shell A and flue-spaces of a steam-boiler, or with the chamber D, or with both, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. I
7. The combination of the air-chambers O O, and pipes P Q, or their equivalents, whether on the outside of the shell of a boiler or other heating-apparatus, or extending through the interior'e same, substantially in the manner and for the purpose set forth.
8. The combination of the pipes P Q, or their equivalents, with their interior steam-pipes, fig. 11, for the purpose set forth. 4
.91 The combination of'the air-chambers 0 O, and air-pipes I, or their equivalents, with the dues of a steam-bo1ler or otherheatrng-apparatus, substantially as and for the purpose hereinIset forth, and shownin fig. 13.
10. Hosting air by forcing or drawing it through bipes or channels, along or around the shell, or through the interior of & steam-boiler,- substantiallyss set forth.
11. Oxygenizing gas and smoke, as and for the purposo set,forth.
12. The pipes P and Q, substantially in the manner and for the purpose se forth.
13. The smoke and air-tubes, substantially asshown in fig. 12, and for the purpose set forth.
14. Generating steam, as sesforth, and for the purposes described.
D. E; SOMES! Witnesses:
F. G. 'SOMES, GM 0. Huummms.
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