US6540919B2 - Method of treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation - Google Patents

Method of treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US6540919B2
US6540919B2 US10/107,614 US10761402A US6540919B2 US 6540919 B2 US6540919 B2 US 6540919B2 US 10761402 A US10761402 A US 10761402A US 6540919 B2 US6540919 B2 US 6540919B2
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
sludge
waste
treatment
inch
harrington
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US10/107,614
Other versions
US20020144957A1 (en
Inventor
Jeffry Held
Satya P. Chauhan
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
OPEN ACQUISITION LLC
Original Assignee
D-H2O LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US08/552,226 priority Critical patent/US5695650A/en
Priority to US08/934,548 priority patent/US5893979A/en
Priority to US09/229,279 priority patent/US6030538A/en
Priority to US46842799A priority
Priority to US09/612,776 priority patent/US6395176B1/en
Application filed by D-H2O LLC filed Critical D-H2O LLC
Priority to US10/107,614 priority patent/US6540919B2/en
Publication of US20020144957A1 publication Critical patent/US20020144957A1/en
Priority claimed from US10/270,420 external-priority patent/US6709594B2/en
Publication of US6540919B2 publication Critical patent/US6540919B2/en
Application granted granted Critical
Assigned to OPENCEL LLC reassignment OPENCEL LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: D H2O L.L.C.
Assigned to D H2O L.L.C. reassignment D H2O L.L.C. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: TOMASELLO, ANTHONY J.
Priority claimed from US11/198,703 external-priority patent/US7507341B2/en
Assigned to MISSNER VENTURE PARTNERS IV, LLC reassignment MISSNER VENTURE PARTNERS IV, LLC SECURITY AGREEMENT Assignors: OPENCEL LLC
Assigned to MCP INVESTMENT COMPANY, LLC reassignment MCP INVESTMENT COMPANY, LLC ASSIGNMENT OF SECURITY INTEREST Assignors: MISSNER VENTURE PARTNERS IV, LLC
Assigned to OPEN ACQUISITION LLC reassignment OPEN ACQUISITION LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: OPENCEL LLC
Assigned to OPENCEL LLC reassignment OPENCEL LLC RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: MCP INVESTMENT COMPANY, LLC
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/461Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis
    • C02F1/46104Devices therefor; Their operating or servicing
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/12Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening
    • C02F11/121Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening by mechanical de-watering
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/12Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening
    • C02F11/13Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening by heating
    • C02F11/131Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening by heating using electromagnetic or ultrasonic waves
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/12Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening
    • C02F11/15Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening by treatment with electric, magnetic or electromagnetic fields; by treatment with ultrasonic waves
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/18Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by thermal conditioning
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/02Aerobic processes
    • C02F3/12Activated sludge processes
    • C02F3/1205Particular type of activated sludge processes
    • C02F3/1221Particular type of activated sludge processes comprising treatment of the recirculated sludge
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/001Processes for the treatment of water whereby the filtration technique is of importance
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/4608Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods using electrical discharges
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/02Biological treatment
    • C02F11/04Anaerobic treatment; Production of methane by such processes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/12Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening
    • C02F11/14Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening with addition of chemical agents
    • C02F11/143Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening with addition of chemical agents using inorganic substances
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2201/00Apparatus for treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • C02F2201/46Apparatus for electrochemical processes
    • C02F2201/461Electrolysis apparatus
    • C02F2201/46105Details relating to the electrolytic devices
    • C02F2201/4616Power supply
    • C02F2201/46175Electrical pulses
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2301/00General aspects of water treatment
    • C02F2301/02Fluid flow conditions
    • C02F2301/022Laminar
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2303/00Specific treatment goals
    • C02F2303/04Disinfection
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2303/00Specific treatment goals
    • C02F2303/06Sludge reduction, e.g. by lysis
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

A system that allows the flexibility of primary and secondary treatment of municipal sludge, paper-pulp sludge, animal and plant waste, whereby the treatment thereof via electroporation may be used either as the primary dewatering treatment, secondary dewatering treatment, direct WAS-treatment, and combinations with other conventional dewatering techniques, in order to provide the municipal treatment plant, or the paper-pulp treatment plant, with the most cost-effective and efficient system as possible. The electroporated-treated sludge releases hitherto unreleased biosolids exiting from the PEF-electroporation system, which are returned to aeration tanks. The electroporation process causes the release of intracellular dissolved/organic matter, which is used as “food” for the bacteria of the aeration tanks.

Description

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 09/612,776, filed Jul. 10, 2000, which is a continuation-in-part application of application Ser. No. 09/468,427, filed on Dec. 21, 1999, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 09/229,279, filed on Jan. 13, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,030,538, which is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 08/934,548, filed on Sep. 22, 1997, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,893,979, which is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 08/552,226, filed on Nov. 2, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,695,650.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

In parent application Ser. No. 09/468,427, there is disclosed a system and method for dewatering and treating waste-activated sludge (WAS) emanating from municipal waste, or pulp-waste from a paper mill, as well as treating animal and plant waste. In that application, the method for breaking down the WAS is to subject the WAS to electroporation, which incorporates nonarcing, cyclical high voltages in the range of between 15 KV and 100 KV, which break down inter-cellular and intracellular molecular bonds, to thus release inter-cellular and intracellular water, whereby the WAS is rendered inactive and greatly reduced in mass.

In said above-noted copending application, the apparatus and method disclosed therein, while capable in certain circumstances of being a primary municipal-sludge treatment, its intended and main objective was to use it as a secondary treatment to previously-dewatered municipal waste sludge. It is the goal of the present invention to adapt the method and apparatus of said copending application serial No. 09/468,427 into a main, primary treatment of municipal waste sludge.

In a previous (Phase I) project, it has been demonstrated the laboratory feasibility of pulsed electric field (PEF) for disrupting the biomass in waste activated sludge (WAS) derived from municipal wastewater treatment. While there was no significant increase in the solids content of dewatered sludge, the quantity of WAS needing disposal was estimated to be significantly reduced.

Encouraged by the Phase I results, a pilot plant for testing at one or two wastewater treatment plants that generate WAS has been developed. It has been decided that a pulsed electric field (PEF) system that could handle 0.5 to 1.0 pgm WAS feed be designed. This requires an 8 kw power supply capable of generating 30 kV and pulse generator capable of handling 50 amp peak, current, bi-polar pulses, square wave, 10 μs pulse width, and 3000 pulses/second (pps).

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is the primary objective of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus for dewatering municipal waste sludge, paper-pulp waste sludge, animal and plant waste, using electroporation for the primary treatment of the sludge.

It is also a primary objective of the present to provide such a system that will allow flexibility as to the primary and secondary treatment of municipal sludge, paper-pulp sludge, animal and plant waste, whereby the treatment thereof via electroporation may be used either as the primary dewatering treatment, secondary dewatering treatment, direct WAS-treatment, and combinations with other conventional dewatering techniques, in order to provide the municipal treatment plant, or the paper-pulp treatment plant, with the most cost-effective and efficient system as possible.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

The invention will be more readily understood with reference to be accompanying drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a schematic showing the electroporation system as used as a secondary dewatering treatment;

FIG. 2 is a schematic showing the electroporation system used in conjunction as a primary dewatering treatment in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a schematic showing the electroporation sub-system for use in dewatering municipal, paper-pulp, animal and plant waste sludges; and;

FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram showing the overall apparatus of the present invention incorporating the electroporation sub-system for use as a primary or secondary dewatering treatment;

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The original concept for the pulsed-electric field (PEF) effect using electroporation was to dewater the previously-dewatered sludge. However, additional PEF data on a paper plant sludge has indicated that the big PEF effect from electroporation of WAS occurs at higher energy levels (e.g., 100 J/mL; or 400 k Wh/ton (DS) for feed at 6 percent solids), whereby cells are disrupted. The result is inactivation of cells, breakage of cells and release of some intracellular dissolved/organic matter and typically a worsening of flocculation and dewatering. Therefore, a more effective way of using this process is to recycle all of the PEF-treated sludge back to a aerobic bioreactor to utilize the sludge as food; that is, it has been discovered that the PEF-electroporation effect on disrupting the cellular units of the WAS has been to release intracellular dissolved/organic matter. This intracellular dissolved/organic matter is just the type of ideal “food” upon which the aerobic bioreactor flourishes. Thus, returning this released intracellular dissolved/organic matter back to the aerobic bioreactor will increase the BOD load on the bioreactor, and will thus reduce the quantity of WAS by up to about 50 percent. The flowsheet for this scenario is shown in FIG. 2. Thus, it is now practical to employ the PEF-electroporation system as not only a secondary system for treating previously-dewatered sludge, but also to employ it as a primary system, as described hereinbelow.

Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown the schematic for using the PEF-electroporation system as a secondary treatment for previously-dewatered sludge, as disclosed in Applicant's copending application serial No. 09/468,427. In FIG. 1, the wastewater is delivered to the primary treatment, aerobic-reactor tanks 10, and to a secondary clarifier 12. From there, the WAS is delivered to the PEF-electroporation system 14 of the invention for deactivating the WAS to make it a Class “B” biomass for easier disposal. The biomass is then sent to a belt press 16 for further processing and disposal.

Referring now to FIG. 2, there is shown the flow chart of the present invention for employing the PEF-electroporation system as part of the primary treatment. In this system, the biosolids exiting from the PEF-electroporation system 14 are returned to the aeration tanks 10, since, as explained above, the PEF process causes the release of intracellular, dissolved organic matter, which is used as “food” for the bacteria of the aeration tanks. This “food” not only is further treated in the aeration tanks via aerobic digestion, but actually causes the aerobic digestion process in the aerobic tank itself to be accelerated for the same amount of oxygen supplied.

A practical problem with the system of FIG. 2 is that the PEF throughput needs to be of the same order of magnitude as the WAS disposal rate in order to see a noticeable effect of PEF on WAS reduction. For this reason a 1.8 ton (DS)/day PEF system has been chosen as a pilot plant. With such a system, a WAS reduction of 0.9 ton/day on a dry basis or 7.5 tons/day on a filter press cake (at 12 percent solids) basis may be achieved. In terms of thickened sludge (at 2 percent solids) basis, this translate to elimination of 45 tons/day needing to be flocculated and dewatered. This will require PEF treatment of 15 gpm WAS at 2 percent solids.

One way to reduce the cost of the pilot plant, which is driven by the PEF power supply and pulser cost, is to pre-thicken the WAS. Therefore, a 15 gpm rental centrifuge 18 is used for pilot testing. It is estimated that this will produce a 5 gpm feed for the PEF reactor at a solids content of 6 percent. Such a feed can be handled by a Moyno pump. The feed streams to the centrifuge and the PEF units are represented as Stream Nos. 10 and 11, respectively in FIG. 2. However, in practical application such as centrifuge may not be necessary.

PEF Power Supply and Pulser Design

The conceptual design of the power supply and the pulse generator (pulser) for the system of FIG. 2 is shown in FIG. 3. This figure shows four chambers 20 in series, although two chambers also can be used if the pulse rate is increased. The specifications for the two-chamber design are shown in Table 1. The design requires a 35 kW input power supply 22 (32 kW continuous output) delivering 30 kV. The pulse generator 24 is 200 amp maximum current and a pulse rate of 4,000 hz. (maximum).

TABLE 1 Pilot Plant PEF Power Supply, Reactor, and Pulser Chambers Gap Distance D (cm) 1.2 Chamber 1 Number of chambers in use 2 Flow Conditions Flow rate (ml/s) 315 PEF Parameters Voltage to apply (kV) 30 Rep-rate (pps) 3342.254 Pulse duration (μs) 4 Physical Properties Conductivity (S/m) 0.2 Density (g/cm3) 1 Specific Heat ([J/(g · ° C.)] 4.18 Viscosity (Pa · s) 0.0100 Dosage Level Electric Field Strength (kV/cm) 25 Total Treatment Time (μs) 80 Number of pulses per chamber 10 Temperature Change Temperature increase per pair of chamber (° C.) 11.962 Related Information Residence Time (s) 0.00299 Flow Speed (cm/s) 401.070 Energy Consumption (J/ml) 100 Estimated Power requirement (W) 31500 Reynolds Number 4010.705 Pulse Generator Current 78.5

The actual sludge handling system and the associated instrumentation is shown in FIG. 4. A detailed list of specifications is provided in Table 2. Tank T1 holds up to 100 gallons of untreated feed material, delivered through valve V1 from the centrifuge. A mixer is provided for blending infeed material. A bottom drain allows disposal to sewer at the end of a test run. Valve V4 is provided for withdrawing a sample for analysis. Material leaves T1 through V2 and a strainer to a variable-speed progressing cavity pump, which can flow from 0.5 to 5.0 gallons per minute. The tank, pump mixer and associated valves are mounted to one 42-inch square skid for transport purposes. The feed leaving P1 passes through quick-connect fittings to a reinforced hose to the reactor.

The PEF-electroporation reactor subsystem includes a power supply, pulse generator and pairs of treatment chambers as described above with reference to FIG. 3. These would be mounted to a skid, along with associated valves V5, 6 and 7. Quick-connect fittings and hose convey the treated material to valves on the outlet tank skid. Valves V12 and 13 permit the treated material to be recycled back to T1. Valve V8 permits the treated material to enter tank T2, of 100-gallon capacity. As with T1, a mixer, a sample port and a bottom drain are provided. Tank Tank T2, pump P2, mixer M2 and associated valves are mounted to another skid. Treated material leaving through V10 leads to transfer pump P2. Valve V15 is a globe style for adjusting the flow rate through V14 to tank T1. Valve V13 allows treated material from T2 to return to T1, assisted by P2, to increase treatment time.

The P2 pump is used to return the treated sludge to the biotreatment plant, aerobic tanks, when the PEF-electroporation system is used as a primary system, or optionally to filter press, if desired, when the PEF-electroporation system is used as a secondary treatment.

Safety logic has been incorporated as follows. Level control L1 will close V1 to prevent overfilling T1, with subsequent spillage. Level control L2 will shut down P1 and the power supply when the liquid level becomes too low. Level control L3 will shut down P1 and the power supply when tank T2 becomes full, to prevent spillage.

TABLE 2 Sludge Handling System Specifications Description Supplier Qty Inlet Tank T1 100-Gal carbon steel jacketed mixing tank 1 Buckeye Fab. 1 2-inch PVC, Schedule 80 90-Deg. elbow, 806-020 (bypass in) Harrington Mixer, 1 C-Clamp mount direct drive, ¼ HP, 400-250-DD-ED Harrington 2 Union ball valve, 2-inch socket, 1001020 Harrington 1 Strainer, 2-inch clear PVC, RVAT108 Harrington 1 Replacement screen, PVC Harrington 1 2-inch PVC, Schedule 80 pipe, 800-020, 20 feet length Harrington 2 2-inch PVC, Schedule 80 90-Deg elbow, 806-020 Harrington 2 Quick disconnect, Part F, 2-inch, polypro., FPP-020 Harrington 2 Quick disconnect, Part C, 2-inch, polypro., CPP-020 Harrington 100 ft Hose, PVC standard duty, 2-inch, 110P-020 Harrington 10/pack Hose clamps, 3-inch, H-44SS Harrington 1 Bulkhead fitting, ½-inch PVC BF10050SXT Harrington 1 Ball valve, ½-inch socket, 107005 Harrington 1 Elbow, 90-degree, ½-inch Sch 80 Pvc, 806-005 Harrington 1 Level control, high to shut feed valve, LV751 Omega 1 Level control, low to shut off pump P1 and Powr supply, LV751 Omega 1 Solid state relay for feed valve, SSR240AC10 Omega 1 Solid state relay for pump and power supply, SSR240AC25 Omega 1 Feed Valve V1 Quick disconnect, Part F, 2-inch, polypro., FPP-020 Harrington 1 Quick disconnect, Part C, 2-inch, polypro., CPP-020 Harrington 1 Union ball valve, 2-inch, 1001020 Harrington 1 Electric actuator, 2085020 Harrington 1 Process Pump P1 Pump, 5.0 down to 0.5 GPM, 35 psi, Moyno Buckeye Pump 1 Direct Current control for pump, NEMA 4 enclosure Buckeye Pump 2 Hose nipples, polypro., 2-inch, HNPP-020 Harrington 2 2-inch PVC, Schedule 80 tee, 801-020 Harrington 1 2-inch PVC, Schedule 80 pipe, 800-020, 20 feet length Harrington 2 2-inch PVC, Schedule 80 90-Deg elbow, 806-020 Harrington 2 Reactor Connections Quick disconnect, Part F, 2-inch, polypro., FPP-020 Harrington 2 Quick disconnect, Part C, 2-inch, polypro., CPP-020 Harrington 1 Union ball valve, 2-inch socket, 1001020 Harrington 2 2-inch PVC, Schedule 80 socket tee, 801-020 Harrington 2 Reducing bushing, 2-inch by ½-inch thread, 838-247 Harrington 2 ½-inch by 1-1/2-inch long PVC Schedule 80 nipple, 882-015 Harrington 2 Union ball valve, ½-inch threaded, 1001005 Harrington 1 ½-inch PVC Schedule 80 threaded tee, 805-005 Harrington 2 Reducing bushing ½-inch to ¼-inch threaded, 839-072 Harrington 1 Pressure gauge with guard, 0-60 psig, GGME060-PP Harrington 2 Tube adapter, ¼-inch MPT to ¼-inch tube, 4MSC4N-B Parker Outlet Tank T2 1 100-Gal jacketed carbon steel tank with legs, 2-in outlet Buckeye Fab. 1 2-inch PVC, Schedule 80 90-Deg elbow, 806-020 (inlet) Harrington Union ball valve, 2-inch socket 1001020 Harrington 3 Quick disconnect, Part F, 2-inch, polypro., FPP-020 Harrington 3 Quick disconnect, Part C, 2-inch, polypro., CPP-020 3 Harrington 4 2-inch PVC, Schedule 80 90-Deg elbow, 806-020 Harrington 2 2-inch PVC, Schedule 80 socket tee, 801-020 Harrington 3 2-inch PVC, Schedule 80 threaded tee, 805-020 Harrington 2 2-inch by 6-inch PVC, Schedule 80 nipple Harrington 1 Mixer, C-Clamp mount direct drive, ¼ HP, 400-250-DD-ED Harrington 1 ½-inch by 2-inch PVC, Schedule 80 Harrington 1 Ball valve, ½ inch socket, 107005 Harrington 1 Elbow 90-degree, ½-inch Sch 80 PVC, 806-005 Harrington 1 Level control, low to shut off pump P1 and Powr supply, LV751 Omega 1 Solid state relay for pump and power supply, SSR240AC25 Omega Outlet Tank Pump Pump, 5 GPM 20 feet of head, centrifugal 1 Buckeye Pump Motor starter, NEMA 4 with thermal unit 1 C.E.D. Hose nipples, polypro., 2-inch, HNPP-020 4 Harrington 1 Glove valve, threaded, PVC, 2-inch, 1261020 Harrington Product Pump P2 Pump, 5 GPM 20 feet of head, centrifugal 1 Buckeye Pump Motor starter, NEMA 4 with thermal unit 1 C.E.D. Sealtite, ½-inch lot C.E.D. Wires, cords lot C.E.D. Skids 42-inch square, metal, fork lift entry four sides Instrumentation Oscilloscope, storage, two inputs, 100 MHz, 1 printer interface Tektronix 1 Current sensor, 0.01 Volt/Ampere, 100 Amp. max. Pearson Electr. 1 Clamp-on flowmeter, 2 to 12-inch pipe, 4-20 ma output Controlotron 1 Voltage sensor, 60 Kilovolt, 1000 v/1V, Type PVM-1 North Star Resch 1 Printer, Epsom jet Model 740, Part No. C257001 parallel port ADS Systems 1 Centronics-type paraller printer port cost, Epsom F2E020-06 ADS Systems 1 ea. Type K thermocouple readout, Omega DP45KF + SB45 Omega 2 Type K thermocouple, 304SS sheath, 1/8-in. dia., KQSS-18G-12 Omega 1 Conductivity and pH meter, 0-200 μS, 0-14 pH, P-19651-20 Cole-Parmer 2 Conductivity and pH flow-through cell, P-19502-42 Cole-Parmer Alternative clamp-on flow meter, Omron FD-303 + FD-5 sensor for ¼-in. to ¾-in. pipe + FD-5000 sensor for ¾-in. to 12- in. pipes.

While a specific embodiment of the invention has been shown and described, it is to be understood that numerous changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.

Claims (4)

What we claim is:
1. A method of treating waste-activated sludge containing intra-cellular water molecules contained in molecular cellular units of the waste sludge, comprising:
(a) pumping the waste sludge into a dewatering apparatus for separating waste-activated sludge therefrom;
(b) directing the waste-activated sludge to an electroporating station;
(c) electroporating the waste-activated sludge for destroying at least most of the individual cellular units of the waste-activated sludge in order to release the intra-cellular water molecules A contained therein; and
said step (c) causing massive disruption of the cellular matter, allowing for the release of bound as well as intra-cellular liquids and intracellular dissolved/organic matter;
further comprising after said step of electroporating:
(d) directing the released intracellular dissolved/organic matter to an aeration tank for supplying food to bacteria of said aeration tank for performing aerobic digestion thereon, whereby the intracellular, dissolved organic matter is used as food for the bacteria of the aeration tank.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein said step of electroporating comprises subjecting the waste-activated sludge to a voltage between 15 KV. and 100 KV.
3. A method of treating waste sludge from an aeration tank for perforating aerobic digestion, comprising:
(a) treating the sludge in an electroporating process that releases intracellular dissolved/organic matter from said sludge;
(b) directing biosolids and the released intracellular dissolved/organic matter from said step (a) to an aeration tank for performing aerobic digestion thereon, whereby the intracellular, dissolved organic matter is used as food for the bacteria in said aeration tank, whereby the aerobic digestion process is accelerated thereby for the same amount of supplied oxygen.
4. The method according to claim 3, further comprising alternatively directing the sludge directly to a further dewatering process.
US10/107,614 1995-11-02 2002-03-26 Method of treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation Expired - Lifetime US6540919B2 (en)

Priority Applications (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08/552,226 US5695650A (en) 1995-11-02 1995-11-02 Method for dewatering previously-dewatered municipal waste-water sludges using high electrical voltage
US08/934,548 US5893979A (en) 1995-11-02 1997-09-22 Method for dewatering previously-dewatered municipal waste-water sludges using high electrical voltage
US09/229,279 US6030538A (en) 1995-11-02 1999-01-13 Method and apparatus for dewatering previously-dewatered municipal waste-water sludges using high electrical voltages
US46842799A true 1999-12-21 1999-12-21
US09/612,776 US6395176B1 (en) 1995-11-02 2000-07-10 Method for treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation
US10/107,614 US6540919B2 (en) 1995-11-02 2002-03-26 Method of treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/107,614 US6540919B2 (en) 1995-11-02 2002-03-26 Method of treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation
US10/270,420 US6709594B2 (en) 1995-11-02 2002-10-15 Method for treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation
US10/795,944 US7001520B2 (en) 1995-11-02 2004-03-08 Method for treating waste-activated sludge using elecroporation
US11/198,703 US7507341B2 (en) 1999-01-13 2005-08-05 Method of and apparatus for converting biological materials into energy resources
US12/409,457 US7645382B2 (en) 1995-11-02 2009-03-23 Apparatus for converting biological materials into energy resources
US12/685,484 US20100108588A1 (en) 1995-11-02 2010-01-11 Method of and apparatus for converting biological materials into energy resources

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09/612,776 Continuation US6395176B1 (en) 1995-11-02 2000-07-10 Method for treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/270,420 Continuation-In-Part US6709594B2 (en) 1995-11-02 2002-10-15 Method for treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20020144957A1 US20020144957A1 (en) 2002-10-10
US6540919B2 true US6540919B2 (en) 2003-04-01

Family

ID=24454617

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09/612,776 Expired - Lifetime US6395176B1 (en) 1995-11-02 2000-07-10 Method for treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation
US09/998,651 Expired - Lifetime US6491820B2 (en) 1995-11-02 2001-12-03 Method for the molecular destruction of waste-activated sludge using high electrical voltage
US10/107,614 Expired - Lifetime US6540919B2 (en) 1995-11-02 2002-03-26 Method of treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09/612,776 Expired - Lifetime US6395176B1 (en) 1995-11-02 2000-07-10 Method for treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation
US09/998,651 Expired - Lifetime US6491820B2 (en) 1995-11-02 2001-12-03 Method for the molecular destruction of waste-activated sludge using high electrical voltage

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (3) US6395176B1 (en)
EP (1) EP1315676A4 (en)
JP (1) JP2004502541A (en)
CA (1) CA2382357A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2002004356A1 (en)

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6709594B2 (en) * 1995-11-02 2004-03-23 Dh20, L.L.C. Method for treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation
US20060118485A1 (en) * 1999-01-13 2006-06-08 Opencel Llc Method of and apparatus for converting biological materials into energy resources
US20080197074A1 (en) * 2007-02-16 2008-08-21 Opencel Llc Method of and system for supporting denitrification
US20090095674A1 (en) * 2005-03-09 2009-04-16 Kurita Water Industries Ltd. Method and eqipment for biological treatment of organic wastewater
US7790427B1 (en) 2005-09-20 2010-09-07 Battelle Memorial Institute Method of treating biocells
US20100287826A1 (en) * 2007-07-31 2010-11-18 Hoffman Richard B System and Method of Preparing Pre-Treated Biorefinery Feedstock from Raw and Recycled Waste Cellulosic Biomass
WO2011010285A1 (en) * 2009-07-20 2011-01-27 Fde Process Systems Limited Method and system of sludge treatment
US20110059053A1 (en) * 2005-09-20 2011-03-10 Battelle Memorial Institute Method of treating biocells
CN101432233B (en) * 2006-04-28 2011-08-03 栗田工业株式会社 Biological treatment method and apparatus for organic wastewater
WO2017094003A1 (en) 2011-01-23 2017-06-08 Wadis Ltd. Wastewater treatment plant and method for treatment of waste sludge with pulsed electrical discharge
WO2020129039A1 (en) 2018-12-16 2020-06-25 Wadis Ltd. System and method for treatment of wastewater fluids

Families Citing this family (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6395176B1 (en) * 1995-11-02 2002-05-28 D-H2O L.L.C. Method for treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation
IL119756A (en) * 1996-12-04 2000-08-31 Supersoil Syst Ltd Process for the manufacture of a product useful as an artificial soil soil conditioner or peat substitute
US6491501B1 (en) * 2000-09-01 2002-12-10 Moyno, Inc. Progressing cavity pump system for transporting high-solids, high-viscosity, dewatered materials
AU2002360540A1 (en) * 2001-12-04 2003-06-17 University Of Southern California Method for intracellular modifications within living cells using pulsed electric fields
WO2003068691A1 (en) 2002-02-12 2003-08-21 Les Technologies Elcotech Inc. Method for the treatment of slurries by the combined action of pressure and electro-osmosis
FR2841796B1 (en) 2002-07-05 2005-03-04 Commissariat Energie Atomique TREATMENT OF EFFLUENTS ASSOCIATED WITH SOLID / LIQUID SEPARATION AND PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS
US9187347B2 (en) 2002-11-19 2015-11-17 Xogen Technologies Inc. Treatment of a waste stream through production and utilization of oxyhydrogen gas
US9296629B2 (en) 2002-11-19 2016-03-29 Xogen Technologies Inc. Treatment of a waste stream through production and utilization of oxyhydrogen gas
BR0316432B1 (en) * 2002-11-19 2012-05-15 method for treating a waste stream in a waste treatment system, the waste stream including a solid phase contaminant, as well as a system for treating said waste stream.
CA2437245A1 (en) 2003-08-11 2005-02-11 Les Technologies Elcotech Inc. Apparatus for treating high dryness sludge
DE102005019700A1 (en) * 2005-04-22 2006-12-21 Eisenmann Maschinenbau Gmbh & Co. Kg Surface Treatment System
DE102005029148B4 (en) 2005-06-23 2013-10-31 Eisenmann Ag Apparatus for air treatment and surface treatment plant with the same
GB2431154B (en) * 2005-10-15 2011-05-18 Daniel Stefanini Purification treatment of water
DE102006027677A1 (en) * 2006-06-14 2008-01-10 Siemens Ag Method for reducing impurities in a water system in the production of fabrics
US7713417B2 (en) * 2007-03-16 2010-05-11 Envirogen Technologies, Inc. Method for wastewater treatment with resource recovery and reduced residual solids generation
US20080311639A1 (en) * 2007-06-15 2008-12-18 Tajchai Navapanich Pulsed electric field apparatus and methods for ethanol production
US20080311638A1 (en) * 2007-06-15 2008-12-18 Optiswitch Technology Corporation Shock wave apparatus and methods for ethanol production
US20110000857A1 (en) * 2007-07-30 2011-01-06 Tissa Fernando Method and system of sludge treatment
US8673623B2 (en) * 2007-08-31 2014-03-18 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Apparatus for performing magnetic electroporation
US7985252B2 (en) * 2008-07-30 2011-07-26 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprosthesis
WO2011032149A2 (en) * 2009-09-14 2011-03-17 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Bipolar solid state marx generator
WO2011063512A1 (en) * 2009-11-26 2011-06-03 Gl&V Canada Inc. Increasing dewatering efficiency by combining electro-osmosis and aeration
IT1400509B1 (en) * 2010-06-22 2013-06-11 Stradi Apparatus and method for the thrust dehydration treatment of sludge.
DE202010012478U1 (en) 2010-09-10 2011-12-12 Süd-Chemie AG Device for electrokinetic disintegration of the cell components of aqueous suspensions without process-related pre-crushing
US8966972B2 (en) * 2010-09-22 2015-03-03 Startrak Information Technologies, Llc Flexible fuel sensor
JP5749852B2 (en) * 2011-03-24 2015-07-15 エンパイア テクノロジー ディベロップメント エルエルシー Fluid treatment method and system using a flow generator to treat water
CN102515316B (en) * 2012-01-05 2013-07-24 温州大学 Device for treating printing and dyeing wastewater by using micro electric field
CA2795655A1 (en) 2012-02-08 2013-08-08 Valorbec Societe En Commandite Processes and apparatuses for removal of carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen
WO2014063241A1 (en) * 2012-10-25 2014-05-01 Valorbec S.E.C. Processes for inactivating pathogens in bio-wastes
RU2531173C2 (en) * 2012-11-02 2014-10-20 Александр Шмулевич Недува Method and plant for deep purification and decontamination of effluents
US9145315B2 (en) 2013-03-01 2015-09-29 Paradigm Environmental Technologies Inc. Wastewater treatment process and system
CN105873862A (en) * 2013-11-06 2016-08-17 Arc阿罗马珀尔公司 Method comprising separation and high voltage pulse treatment before digestion or further purification

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3913500A (en) * 1974-05-01 1975-10-21 Chicago Bridge & Iron Co Heat treatment of waste sludges
US5695650A (en) * 1995-11-02 1997-12-09 Held; Jeffery S. Method for dewatering previously-dewatered municipal waste-water sludges using high electrical voltage
US5846425A (en) * 1994-07-22 1998-12-08 Whiteman; George R. Methods for treatment of waste streams
US5893979A (en) * 1995-11-02 1999-04-13 Held; Jeffery S. Method for dewatering previously-dewatered municipal waste-water sludges using high electrical voltage
US6030538A (en) * 1995-11-02 2000-02-29 Held; Jeffery S. Method and apparatus for dewatering previously-dewatered municipal waste-water sludges using high electrical voltages
US6395176B1 (en) * 1995-11-02 2002-05-28 D-H2O L.L.C. Method for treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP3716516B2 (en) * 1996-11-14 2005-11-16 栗田工業株式会社 Method and apparatus for aerobic treatment of organic drainage
JPH11179391A (en) * 1997-12-24 1999-07-06 Ebara Corp Method and apparatus for treating organic waste water
JPH11253999A (en) * 1998-03-13 1999-09-21 Kobe Steel Ltd Aerobic treatment of organic waste solution and apparatus therefor
JP2000185238A (en) * 1998-12-22 2000-07-04 Kobe Steel Ltd Impulse voltage generator, crushing and separating apparatus, and aerobic treatment apparatus for organic waste liquid

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3913500A (en) * 1974-05-01 1975-10-21 Chicago Bridge & Iron Co Heat treatment of waste sludges
US5846425A (en) * 1994-07-22 1998-12-08 Whiteman; George R. Methods for treatment of waste streams
US5695650A (en) * 1995-11-02 1997-12-09 Held; Jeffery S. Method for dewatering previously-dewatered municipal waste-water sludges using high electrical voltage
US5893979A (en) * 1995-11-02 1999-04-13 Held; Jeffery S. Method for dewatering previously-dewatered municipal waste-water sludges using high electrical voltage
US6030538A (en) * 1995-11-02 2000-02-29 Held; Jeffery S. Method and apparatus for dewatering previously-dewatered municipal waste-water sludges using high electrical voltages
US6395176B1 (en) * 1995-11-02 2002-05-28 D-H2O L.L.C. Method for treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Chauhan, Feasibility of Biosludge Dewatering Using Pulsed Electric Fields, Battelle, Sep. 17, 1998, p. 1-24. *

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7645382B2 (en) 1995-11-02 2010-01-12 Opencell Llc Apparatus for converting biological materials into energy resources
US20040168977A1 (en) * 1995-11-02 2004-09-02 Jeffrey Held Method for treating waste-activated sludge using elecroporation
US7001520B2 (en) * 1995-11-02 2006-02-21 Opencel Llc. Method for treating waste-activated sludge using elecroporation
US20100108588A1 (en) * 1995-11-02 2010-05-06 Opencel Llc Method of and apparatus for converting biological materials into energy resources
US20090176300A1 (en) * 1995-11-02 2009-07-09 Opencel Llc Method of and apparatus for converting biological materials into energy resources
US6709594B2 (en) * 1995-11-02 2004-03-23 Dh20, L.L.C. Method for treating waste-activated sludge using electroporation
US20060118485A1 (en) * 1999-01-13 2006-06-08 Opencel Llc Method of and apparatus for converting biological materials into energy resources
US7507341B2 (en) 1999-01-13 2009-03-24 Opencel Llc Method of and apparatus for converting biological materials into energy resources
US20090095674A1 (en) * 2005-03-09 2009-04-16 Kurita Water Industries Ltd. Method and eqipment for biological treatment of organic wastewater
US20110059053A1 (en) * 2005-09-20 2011-03-10 Battelle Memorial Institute Method of treating biocells
US7790427B1 (en) 2005-09-20 2010-09-07 Battelle Memorial Institute Method of treating biocells
US8222223B2 (en) 2005-09-20 2012-07-17 Battelle Memorial Institute Method of treating biocells
CN101432233B (en) * 2006-04-28 2011-08-03 栗田工业株式会社 Biological treatment method and apparatus for organic wastewater
US7572369B2 (en) 2007-02-16 2009-08-11 Opencel Llc System for supporting denitrification
US20080197074A1 (en) * 2007-02-16 2008-08-21 Opencel Llc Method of and system for supporting denitrification
US7695621B2 (en) 2007-02-16 2010-04-13 Opencel Llc Method of supporting denitrification
US20100287826A1 (en) * 2007-07-31 2010-11-18 Hoffman Richard B System and Method of Preparing Pre-Treated Biorefinery Feedstock from Raw and Recycled Waste Cellulosic Biomass
WO2011010285A1 (en) * 2009-07-20 2011-01-27 Fde Process Systems Limited Method and system of sludge treatment
WO2017094003A1 (en) 2011-01-23 2017-06-08 Wadis Ltd. Wastewater treatment plant and method for treatment of waste sludge with pulsed electrical discharge
US10183880B2 (en) 2011-01-23 2019-01-22 Wadis Ltd. Wastewater treatment plant and method for treatment of waste sludge
WO2020129039A1 (en) 2018-12-16 2020-06-25 Wadis Ltd. System and method for treatment of wastewater fluids

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CA2382357A1 (en) 2002-01-17
JP2004502541A (en) 2004-01-29
US20020144957A1 (en) 2002-10-10
US20020036175A1 (en) 2002-03-28
EP1315676A1 (en) 2003-06-04
EP1315676A4 (en) 2008-04-09
US6491820B2 (en) 2002-12-10
WO2002004356A1 (en) 2002-01-17
US6395176B1 (en) 2002-05-28

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US9776893B2 (en) Mobile station for diagnosing and modeling site specific effluent treatment facility requirements
US9108160B2 (en) Methods for enhanced electrocoagulation processing using membrane aeration
Dinsdale et al. Two-stage anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and fruit/vegetable waste using inclined tubular digesters
Müller Disintegration as a key-step in sewage sludge treatment
EP1702890B1 (en) Treatment of a waste stream through production and utilization of oxyhydrogen gas
Hogan et al. Ultrasonic sludge treatment for enhanced anaerobic digestion
US8277658B2 (en) Wastewater treatment
CA2909609C (en) System and method for treating wastewater and resulting sludge
EP1905743B1 (en) System and method for eliminating sludge via ozonation
JP4754749B2 (en) System and method for treating sludge in a waste liquid facility
US7513999B2 (en) Ozonation of wastewater for reduction of sludge or foam and bulking control
US6669839B2 (en) Wastewater pretreatment, gathering and final treatment process
CA1144665A (en) Waste-water treatment plant and method
US3296122A (en) Supply of fresh unpolluted water by means of pasteurization and sterilization of sewage effluent
US8052872B2 (en) Methods and device for enhancement of anaerobic digestion
US5837142A (en) Membrane process for treating sanitary wastewater
Farizoglu et al. Simultaneous removal of C, N, P from cheese whey by jet loop membrane bioreactor (JLMBR)
US9738549B2 (en) Method for sludge ozonation in a wastewater treatment system
CA2379382C (en) Pasteurizing sludge to exceptional quality
US6905609B2 (en) Waste treatment and disposal system
US5695650A (en) Method for dewatering previously-dewatered municipal waste-water sludges using high electrical voltage
Sarti et al. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactors in pilot-scale for domestic sewage treatment
US20050242036A1 (en) Chemical and sludge free water treatment process
US20090272681A1 (en) Recycle water treatment system for car wash
CA2007024A1 (en) Two-stage anaerobic/aerobic treatment process

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
STCF Information on status: patent grant

Free format text: PATENTED CASE

CC Certificate of correction
AS Assignment

Owner name: OPENCEL LLC, ILLINOIS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:D H2O L.L.C.;REEL/FRAME:016016/0404

Effective date: 20050427

Owner name: D H2O L.L.C., ILLINOIS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:TOMASELLO, ANTHONY J.;REEL/FRAME:016016/0181

Effective date: 20040802

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

AS Assignment

Owner name: MISSNER VENTURE PARTNERS IV, LLC, ILLINOIS

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:OPENCEL LLC;REEL/FRAME:024864/0298

Effective date: 20100728

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

AS Assignment

Owner name: MCP INVESTMENT COMPANY, LLC, ILLINOIS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MISSNER VENTURE PARTNERS IV, LLC;REEL/FRAME:026758/0973

Effective date: 20101231

AS Assignment

Owner name: OPEN ACQUISITION LLC, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:OPENCEL LLC;REEL/FRAME:028267/0490

Effective date: 20111025

Owner name: OPENCEL LLC, ILLINOIS

Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:MCP INVESTMENT COMPANY, LLC;REEL/FRAME:028275/0133

Effective date: 20111025

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12

SULP Surcharge for late payment

Year of fee payment: 11