US3695125A - Open end ratchet wrench - Google Patents

Open end ratchet wrench Download PDF

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US3695125A
US3695125A US3695125DA US3695125A US 3695125 A US3695125 A US 3695125A US 3695125D A US3695125D A US 3695125DA US 3695125 A US3695125 A US 3695125A
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pawl
head
open
wrench
tab
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Robert I Glass
William Phillips
William R House
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CESCO Mfg CORP
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CESCO Mfg CORP
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25BTOOLS OR BENCH DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, FOR FASTENING, CONNECTING, DISENGAGING OR HOLDING
    • B25B13/00Spanners; Wrenches
    • B25B13/02Spanners; Wrenches with rigid jaws
    • B25B13/08Spanners; Wrenches with rigid jaws of open jaw type
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25BTOOLS OR BENCH DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, FOR FASTENING, CONNECTING, DISENGAGING OR HOLDING
    • B25B13/00Spanners; Wrenches
    • B25B13/46Spanners; Wrenches of the ratchet type, for providing a free return stroke of the handle

Abstract

An open end ratchet wrench having a laminar head structure consisting of a central body portion with a pair of side caps permanently metal bonded on opposite sides thereof, the head structure defining therein between the caps an arcuate channel within which a spring biased ratchet pawl is slidable between an extended torquing position and a retracted ratcheting position. A pawl retention detent forming a permanent part of the head structure is movable between a temporary open position permitting insertion of the pawl and its biasing spring into the otherwise completely fabricated head structure, and a permanent closed position wherein the pawl is permanently retained in the head, the detent means defining the outer limit of sliding movement of the pawl in the head. With this construction a true open end ratchet wrench can be economically fabricated of any desired tool metal with a minimum number of parts and by simple production steps; the resulting wrench having high torquing capacity, minimal head thickness, and attractive appearance, approaching these respective characteristics in a solid open end wrench of comparable size.

Description

United States Patent Glass et al.

[ Oct. 3, 1972 [54] OPEN END RATCHET WRENCH [72] Inventors: Robert I. Glass, Holyoke; William Phillips; William R. House, both of Northampton, all of Mass.

[73] Assignee: Cesco Mfg. Corp., Northampton,

Mass.

22 Filed: Oct. 6, 1970 21 App1.No.: 78,472

[52] US. Cl ..81/179 [51] Int. Cl. ..B25b 13/12 [58] Field of Search ..8l/lll, 117, 179

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,797,600 7/1957 Beaver ..81/179 1,320,668 1l/1919 Askman ..81/179 2,185,002 12/1939 Pack ..81/63 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 983,789 2/1965 Great Britain ..81/111 Primary ExaminerJames L. Jones, Jr. AttorneyAlbert L. Gabriel [5.7] ABSTRACT An open end ratchet wrench having a laminar head structure consisting of a central body portion with a pair of side caps permanently metal bonded on opposite sides thereof, the head structure defining therein between the caps an arcuate channel within which a spring biased ratchet pawl is slidable between an extended torquing position and a retracted ratcheting position. A pawl retention detent forming a permanent part of the head structure is movable between a temporary open position permitting insertion of the pawl and its biasing spring into the otherwise completely fabricated head structure, and a permanent closed position wherein the pawl is permanently retained in the head, the detent means defining the outer limit of sliding movement of the pawl in the head. With this construction a true open end ratchet wrench can be economically fabricated of any desired tool metal with a minimum number of parts and by simple production steps; the resulting wrench having high torquing capacity, minimal head thickness, and attractive appearance, approaching these respective characteristics in a solid open end wrench of comparable size.

9 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures PATENTEDuma m2 SHEET 1 BF 3 s r s p: a M wmmw 2 MM m MM mm eww Y 5 PATENTED BI 3 I972 3.895.125

SHEET 2 or 3 INVENTORS 1908587 I 62/483 W/ll/AM L P/l/Lt/PS BY WILLIAM 1?. HOUSE Arne/v6 r OPEN END RATCHET WRENCH BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The solid open end wrench is one of the more widely used torquing instruments today, because it is relatively inexpensive, simple and attractive in construction, has high torquing capability, and can be employed in relatively tightly confined regions. However, the solid open end wrench has one major drawback, namely, that in a confined region wherein the wrench cannot be rotated through 180, it must be completely disengaged from the workpiece after an arc of travel upon reaching the limit of rotational movement allowed by the confined space, and then re-engaged with a different pair of torquing surfaces on the workpiece and moved through another are of travel, and a succession of such manipulations which can be quite tedious and time-consuming is required.

There has accordingly been a long-felt need in the art for a torquing tool or instrument which has the same general form and utility as the conventional open end wrench, but additionally has a ratcheting capability so that a succession of torquing impulses can be applied thereby to a workpiece that is located in a confined space by simply swinging the tool back and forth through a confined arc of travel, the tool turning the workpiece as it moves in one direction through the arc and ratcheting about the workpiece to recover gripping position as it moves in the other direction through the are. There have been a number of prior art attempts to fill this long-felt need in the art for an open end wrench having a ratcheting capability. Perhaps the most satisfactory devices of this general type are shown and described in US. Pat. No. 2,797,600, issued July 2, 1957 to Bud K. Beaver for Ratchet Type Movable Jaw Wrench. While the wrenches disclosed in the Beaver patent and other prior art wrenches have in fact been open end type wrenches with a ratcheting capability, nevertheless, prior art wrenches of this general type have in general been so much more difficult to make, complicated and expensive than the conventional solid open end wrench, while at the same time having much less torquing capacity than the solid open end wrench, that they have not come into any widespread usage, and in particular have not appreciably replaced the solid open end type wrench despite their much greater utility.

There were a number of specific problems in connection with prior art ratchet type open end wrenches which contributed to the inability of such wrenches to be in any way competitive on the market with solid open end wrenches. For one thing, such prior art open end wrenches generally required difficult press forging or milling operations in the fabrication thereof which not only made them very expensive to make, but also effectively precluded the use of stainless steels, beryllium copper, or other exotic materials which are desirable in tools destined for marine and various other specialized applications.

Another problem with prior art wrenches of this type is that they were generally undesirably complicated, involving a number of small parts such as pivot pins, levers, intricate special springs, separate head caps, screws, and the like, which were expensive to make, difficult to assemble, and presented vulnerable wear points and structural weaknesses.

Another specific problem in connection with prior art wrenches of this type is that in confined spaces most of them were required to be engaged over a bolt head, nut, or other workpiece from the side, and could not uniformly and reliably be engaged straight onto the workpiece in the confined area. This meant that it was generally extremely difficult to engage the wrench head onto the workpiece blind.

Other and more general problems with such prior art wrenches are that their torquing capacity was not nearly as good as that of solid open end wrenches of comparable size, their wrench head structures were generally substantially thicker than those of solid open end wrenches of comparable size making them more difficult to use in tightly confined spaces and giving them an undesirable head-heavy appearance, and their general overall appearance departed too much from that of the conventional solid open end wrench to have the same customer appeal as the solid open end wrench.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In view of these and other problems in the art, it is a general object of the present invention to provide a novel open end ratchet wrench of the character described which is similar in general appearance to a simple solid open end wrench, and hence has a similar customer appeal, which has a head thickness approaching that of a conventional solid open end wrench, which has a torquing capacity of the same order of magnitude as that of a conventional solid open end wrench, yet which is simple in construction, durable, and can be produced economically by manufacturing steps which are not only easily performed but require relatively inexpensive tooling and can be performed in the production of wrenches of any desired tool material.

An open end ratchet wrench according to the present invention has a laminar head structure consisting of a central body portion with a pair of side caps that are permanently metal bonded on opposite sides thereof, as by welding or brazing. Defined within this head structure between the side caps is an arcuate channel within which a spring biased ratchet pawl is slidable between an extended torquing position and a retracted ratcheting position. The pawl and spring are retained in the head by novel detent means forming a permanent part of the head which permits the wrench head structure to be completely fabricated prior to assembly of the pawl and its spring therein. The detent means is movable between a temporary open position permitting insertion of the pawl and its biasing spring into the otherwise completed head structure, and a permanent closed position wherein the pawl is permanently retained in the head, with the detent means defining the outer limit of sliding movement of the pawl in the head.

In one form of the invention this pawl retention detent comprises tab means formed integrally with at least one of the side caps of the head, the tab means being bent approximately transversely and inwardly relative to the general plane of the wrench head so as to define the inner race of the arcuate channel in which the pawl slides. This tab means is resiliently deflectable to allow insertion of the pawl and its biasing spring into the head, and upon release the tab means springs back into a permanent retention position.

In another form of the invention the pawl retention detent comprises deformable tip means on the free end of an inner race structure that forms a part of the central body portion of the wrench head. This deformable tip means on the inner race is originally provided in the open position permitting insertion of the pawl and its biasing spring, after which the tip is permanently inwardly deformed to a retention position.

Another object of the present invention is to provide an open end ratchet wrench of the character described wherein the wrench body and head structures are of unitary construction after fabrication, and the only movable parts of the completed wrench are the pawl and its biasing spring.

A further object of the invention is to provide an open end ratchet wrench of the character described wherein the structural arrangement of the parts permits the head and handle portions of the wrench to be formed by simple die cutting or fine blanking operations, and difficult milling or press forging operations are not required.

A still further object of the invention is to provide an open end ratchet wrench of the character described which has no removable side plates on the head, pivot pins, snap-in spring-loaded detent structures for insertion of the pawl, or other small, intricate parts that may be unreliable or subject to wear, and which would otherwise complicate the assembly of the tool.

A still further object of the invention is to provide an open end ratchet wrench of the character described which can be engaged straight onto the workpiece in a confined region, the pawl automatically seeking and gripping a wrenching surface on the. workpiece, whereby the tool can be engaged and operated blind.

It is also an object of the invention to provide a ratchet wrench of the character described which, because of its novel construction, can be made of any desired tool material, as for example various stainless steels, beryllium copper, or other exotic materials, and which therefore can be made for marine or other specialized uses.

Further objects and advantages of the present invention will appear during the course of the following part of the specification, wherein the details of construction and mode of operation of several presently preferred embodiments are described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a side elevational view illustrating a completely assembled open end ratchet wrench according to one form of the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a front end elevational view taken on the line 2--2 in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is an enlarged, fragmentary side elevation of the wrench shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, looking at the same side as in FIG. 1, with a portion of one of the side caps of the head removed to disclose the arcuate channel in the head and the manner in which the pawl and its biasing spring are mounted therein.

FIG. 4 is an exploded, perspective view of the wrench shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, illustrating the parts of the wrench prior to assembly thereof.

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrating the head portion of the wrench shown in FIGS. 1 to 4 after the head structure has been assembled, but prior to insertion of the pawl and its biasing spring therein.

FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 5, but illustrating the manner in which the pawl and its spring are inserted into the head assembly.

FIG. 7 is an exploded perspective view generally similar to FIG. 4, but illustrating a second form of the invention wherein the central body portion of the head structure is of laminar construction.

FIG. 8 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrating the wrench of FIG. 7 in its completely assembled condition.

FIG. 9 is an enlarged, fragmentary side elevational view of the wrench shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, with one of the side caps of the head structure removed to illustrate the manner in which retention of the pawl and its biasing spring is accomplished, and with the pawl shown in its extended torquing position.

FIG. 10 is a view similar to FIG. 9 but illustrating the wrench with the pawl in a retracted ratcheting position.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring at first to FIGS. 1 to 6 of the drawings, which disclose a first form of the invention, the open end ratchet wrench illustrated in these figures is generally designated 10, and includes respective handle and head portions 12 and 14. While the wrench 10 as illustrated has only a single head portion 14 of the open end ratchet type at one end thereof, it is to be understood that another head may be provided on the other end of the wrench, which other head may be either a solid open end head or a second ratchet head of different size than the head 14, without departing from the present invention.

A unitary wrench body 16 forms both the handle portion 12 of the wrench l0 and the inner or core part 18 of the wrench head 14, as is best seen in FIG. 4. This head part 18 of the unitary body 16 includes a fixed jaw portion 20 having a generally flat wrenching surface 22, and an opposed pawl support portion 24 which defines part of an arcuate outer race surface 26 which continues into the yoke part of the head core 18. The pawl support portion 24 of the head core 18 terminates at its free end in an inclined end surface 28.

The body 16 of the wrench, including both the handle 12 and the inner or core part 18 of the head structure, can be formed by a simple die cutting or fine blanking operation, and if a precision tolerance is desired for the arcuate outer race surface 26, and possibly for the wrenching surface 22, this can be provided by simple broaching and grinding. If desired, of course, the wrench body 16 can be drop or press forged, but this is not necessary for a satisfactory product, and would add to the manufacturing cost.

The side caps for the head may also be die cut or fine blanked. One head side cap 30 includes a fixed jaw portion 32 that is generally co-extensive with the fixed jaw portion 20 of the head core 18, and a pawl retention portion 34 which overlaps the pawl support portion 24 of the head core 18 and also defines one side of the arcuate channel within which the pawl is slidably mounted. The pawl retention portion 34 of the side cap 30 has a forwardly and outwardly inclined inner edge 36, and generally centrally formed on the side cap 30 as an integral part thereof is a retention tab 38 which is bent inwardly so as to extend generally normal from the plane of the cap 30, or transverse to the general plane of the wrench head 14. The retention tab 38 forms the inner race of the arcuate channel in which the pawl is slidable, and is resiliently deflectable from its generally normal position relative to the plane of the cap 30 to permit insertion of the pawl and its biasing spring into the channel. The retention tab 38 terminates at a free edge 40 which is parallel to the plane of the cap 30, and which defines a tab width in the transverse direction of the wrench that is substantially the same as the thickness of the head core 18.

The other head cap 42 is similar to the cap 30, but without the retention tab. Thus, the cap 42 includes a fixed jaw portion 44 that is complementary to the fixed jaw portion 32 on the cap 30, and includes a pawl retention portion 46 that is complementary to the corresponding portion 34 of the cap 30, having a forwardly and outwardly inclined edge 48 corresponding to the edge 36. The cap 42 also has a generally straight, forwardly facing inner edge 50 that is aligned with the forwardly facing, exposed surface of the retention tab 38 when the caps and wrench body are in their assembled relationship. This inner edge 50 of the cap 42 is interrupted by a notch 52 which provides access for insertion of an assembly tool behind the retention tab 38 proximate its free edge 40 to deflect the tab 38 forwardly for insertion of the pawl.

The side caps 30 and 42 are permanently metal bonded flush against the opposite sides of the head portion 18 of the body 16 by any desired conventional metal bonding means, as for example by continuous welding, spot welding and copper brazing in combination, spot welding only, copper brazing only, projection welding, or other suitable means.

The pawl or ratcheting jaw 54 may be formed of sintered metal, or may be formed by other conventional means such as by die cutting and grinding, forging, or the like. Pawl 54 includes a generally flat inner wrenching surface 56 which is in opposed relationship to the fixed jaw wrenching surface 22, an arcuate outer bearing surface 58 which is complementary to the arcuate outer raised surface 26 in the head body, and a stop shoulder 60 which projects forwardly from the inner end portion of the pawl 54 adjacent to the side of pawl 54 that corresponds to the cap 42 of the head. An undercut spring retention notch 62 is provided in the inner end of pawl 54 for engagement with one end of helical pawl biasing spring 64, the other end of spring 64 being engageable against the fixed jaw 20 as is best illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3. The outer end of pawl 54 is preferably rounded to facilitate engagement thereof with a workpiece while at the same time avoiding galling or scratching of the workpiece by the pawl.

The pawl 54 and its biasing spring 64 are not engaged in their operative positions in the head portion 14 of the wrench until fabrication of the wrench has otherwise been completed. Thus, the side caps 30 and 42 are permanently metal bonded to the head portion 18 of the body of the wrench, and various finishing operations such as tumbling, heat treating, plating, and the like, can be performed on the completed wrench prior to assembly of the pawl and its biasing spring therein so that such finishing operations will not in any way damage either the pawl or its biasing spring. The head portion 14 of the completed wrench prior to insertion of the pawl 54 and its spring 62 therein is best illustrated in FIG. 5. The spring 64 is connected to the inner end of pawl 54 by engagement of one end of the spring into the retention notch 62 in the inner end of the pawl, and if desired to facilitate assembly the spring may be crimped into this position. Insertion of the pawl and spring into the recess in the wrench head 14 is accomplished as best illustrated in FIG. 6 by engaging the end of a tapered pin type insertion tool 66 into the notch 52 of side cap 42 behind the retention tab 38, and moving the tool 66 laterally to the right as viewed in FIG. 6 so as to deflect the retention tab 38 by lever action to the left or outwardly as viewed in FIG. 6, providing sufficient clearance to permit the pawl stop shoulder 60 to move inwardly past the tab 38, at which time the insertion tool 66 is disengaged from tab 38 allowing the tab 38 to spring back into its permanent closed position as best illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 3.

It will thus be seen that assembly of the form of wrench shown in FIGS. 1 to 6 is very simple, involving a minimum of steps. These steps are simply first metal bonding the side caps 30 and 42 to the head portion 18 of the wrench body 16; then engaging one end of spring 64 in the notch 62 of the pawl 54; and then inserting the pawl 54 and spring 64 into the head cavity while temporarily deflecting the retention tab 38 to provide clearance for such insertion by use of the insertion tool 66.

In the assembled condition of the wrench, the spring 64 normally biases the pawl 54 to a forwardrnost, extended torquing position as illustrated in FIG. 3, this position of the pawl being defined by engagement of stop shoulder 60 thereon with the retention tab 38. In this position of pawl 54, its wrenching surface 56 is generally parallel to the fixed jaw wrenching surface 22. During engagement of the wrench head 14 over a nut, bolt head, or other workpiece, according to the positioning of the facets of the workpiece, the pawl 54 may be engageable over a respective facet of the workpiece without being retracted from its forwardmost position of FIG. 3, or during engagement the pawl 54 may be pushed inwardly along the arcuate outer race surface 26 of the head so that the pawl jaw surface 56 is opened relative to the fixed jaw surface 22 to permit engagement of the workpiece between the two jaws. The inclined edges 36 and 48 of the respective side caps 30 and 42 provide the necessary clearance for this opening of the jaws, while nevertheless leaving sufficient cap material for secure retention of the pawl 54 in the head. This ability of the pawl 54 to be deflected inwardly to open the jaws permits the wrench to be engaged straight onto the workpiece even if the workpiece is in a relatively tightly confined region, and the forward biasing of the pawl by means of spring 64 causes the pawl to automatically seek and grip a wrenching surface on the workpiece. If such a wrenching surface does not immediately become aligned with the pawl surface 56, wiggling the wrench back and forth will cause the necessary automatic adjustment of the pawl relative to the workpiece for gripping action to be effected. Then, ratchet wrenching is accomplished by simply swinging the handle portion 12 of the wrench back and forth through a confined arc of travel, the pawl 54 gripping the workpiece as the handle is swung anticlockwise as viewed in FIGS. 1 and 3 so as to turn the workpiece through an increment of movement, and the pawl 54 retracting into the head as the handle is swung clockwise as viewed in FIGS. 1 and 3 to permit the pawl to recover gripping position on another facet of the workpiece, and in this manner a succession of torquing impulses are applied to the workpiece.

FIGS. 7 to 10 of the drawings illustrate a second form of wrench according to the present invention which is generally designated 68, and includes respective handle and head portions that are generally designated 70 and 72. In this form of the invention the core or body portion 74 of the wrench head comprises a plurality of separate laminations 76 which may be die cut or fine blanked, and which are metal bonded together by electron beam welding, fusion TIG welding, or other suitable metal bonding means.

This laminated core or body portion 74 of the wrench head is generally similar to the head portion 18 of the body 16 of the first form of wrench that is shown in FIGS. 1 to 6, except for the inner race construction. Thus, the core or body portion 74 of the wrench head 72 includes a fixed jaw portion 78 having a generally flat wrenching surface 80, and an opposed pawl support portion 82 which defines part of an arcuate outer race surface 84 which continues into the yoke part of the head core 74. The pawl support portion 82 terminates at its free end in inclined end surface 86.

In the form of wrench shown in FIGS. 7 to 10 the inner race structure for the pawl, which serves to retain the pawl in the head cavity, is formed integrally with the core or body portion 74 of the wrench head, projecting from the fixed jaw portion 78 generally normal to the wrenching surface 80 thereof, but having its inner surface curved to provide clearance for the arcuate sliding movement of the pawl between its extended and retracted positions. Accordingly, in the form of wrench shown in FIGS. 7 to 10 wherein the core or body portion 74 of the wrench head is of laminar construction, the pawl is retained by inner race structure 88 which is formed as an integral part of such core or body portion of the wrench head rather than being formed by tab means bent inwardly from at least one of the side caps of the head as in the first form of wrench shown in FIGS. 1 to 6.

In the form of wrench shown in FIGS. 7 to 10 a pair of complementary outer laminations 90 and 92 each have a handle portion 94, a cap portion 96, and an intermediate neck portion 98. The cap portions 96 of the outer laminations 90 and 92 each have a fixed jaw portion 100 which overlays a respective side of the fixed jaw 78 of the head core or body 74, and a pawl retention portion 102 which overlaps a respective side of the pawl support portion 82 of the head core 74 and also defines a respective side of the arcuate channel in the head within which the pawl is slidably mounted. The jaw retention portions 102 of the caps 96 each have a forwardly and outwardly inclined edge 104 to provide clearance for the pawl as the pawl ratchets inwardly from its extended position shown in FIGS. 8 and 9 to a retracted ratcheting position as shown in FIG. 10. The cap portions of the outer laminations also each have a generally straight, forwardly facing inner edge 106.

The outer laminations 90 and 92 and the core or body portion 74 of the wrench head are assembled by permanently metal bonding the cap portions 96 of the outer laminations 90 and 92 to the opposite sides of the core of body portion 74 of the head, and similarly permanently metal bonding the handle portions 94 of the two outer laminations 90 and 92 together and filling any openings that may be present at the edges of the wrench proximate the intermediate neck portions 98 of the outer laminations. Such permanent metal bonding may be electron beam, welding, fusion TIG welding, or other suitable means.

While the core or body portion of the head has been shown in FIG. 7 as a separate laminar unit 74 which is permanently metal bonded between the two outer laminations 90 and 92 which then form both the head side caps and the handle of the wrench, it is to be understood that variations may be employed in the laminar type wrench according to the present invention. For example, if desired, the wrench handle may consist of one or more laminations which are integral extensions of the laminations 76 which form the core or body portion 74 of the wrench head, and with such construction the outer laminations may each include both handle and head cap portions, or may simply only comprise head cap portions. Also, if desired, the handle laminations may be bowed outwardly as viewed in cross section and then seam welded along their upper and lower edges to form a handle of tubular construction.

While the laminar wrench of FIGS. 7 to 10 is illustrated as having a core or body portion 74 of the head which includes four of the separate laminations 76, and a handle portion which includes two handle lamination portions 94, it is to be understood that any desired number of laminations may be provided in either the head core portion 74 or the handle portion 70 within the scope of the invention. Additional strength may be embodied in the laminar form of the invention by crossing the metal grain in the respective laminations.

After the head and handle laminations have been permanently metal bonded together to form a unitary head and handle structure, this structure may be finished in any desired manner, as for example by being tumbled, heat treated, plated, or the like.

The pawl 54 and its biasing spring 64 are the same in the laminar form of the invention shown in FIGS. 7 to 10 as the corresponding parts shown in FIGS. 1 to 6 and described hereinabove in detail in connection therewith. In the laminar form of the invention retention of the pawl 54 and its biasing spring 64 within the arcuate channel defined in the wrench head 72 is accomplished by inward deformation of a detent 108 formed on the free end of at least one of the inner race laminations 88 which lies in the same general plane as the stop shoulder 60 on pawl 54. This detent 108 is preferably defined by an undercut region of the respective inner race lamination 88 as best shown in FIG. 9, and to permit the detent 108 to be readily deformed inwardly, it is not metal bonded to adjacent laminations. In its initial position as illustrated in FIG. 7, the detent 108 and the free ends of the other inner race laminations 88 provide sufficient clearance at the entrance of the arcuate channel within the wrench head 72 for insertion of the pawl 54 and its biasing spring 64 into the arcuate channel.

Thus, final assembly of the wrench is accomplished by simply inserting the pawl 54 and its biasing spring 64 into the arcuate channel within the wrench head 72, and then permanently deforming the detent 108 inwardly to the position shown in FIGS. 9 and 10 wherein the detent 108 lies in the arcuate path of movement of the stop shoulder 60 on pawl 54, so that the pawl is permanently retained in the head of the wrench. This may be the final operation in the manufacture of the laminar form of wrench according to the invention. However, if desired the forwardly facing surface of the inner race structure may be ground inwardly as a finishing step so that the deformed detent 108 is no longer visible, provided that the wrench is made of a material such as stainless steel or the like which does not require platmg.

It will be apparent that the fully assembled laminar form of the present invention shown in FIGS. 7 to 10 functions in the same manner as the solid body form of the invention shown in FIGS. 1 to 6.

While the present invention has been shown and described herein in what are conceived to be the most practical and preferred embodiments, it is recognized that departures may be made therefrom within the scope of the invention, which is therefore not to be limited to the details disclosed herein.

We claim:

1. An open end ratchet wrench which comprises a head having a fixed jaw thereon and defining a generally forwardly opening arcuate channel therein, a ratchet pawl mounted in said channel for arcuate sliding movement between an extended torquing position wherein it is generally opposed to said fixed jaw and a retracted ratcheting position, said pawl having an inwardly extending projection, and detent means comprising a bendable integral tab means on the head bendable between an open position providing clearance for insertion of said pawl into said channel and a closed position overlying said channel wherein it is engageable against said projection on said pawl to retain the pawl in the head and to define the outer limit of sliding movement of the pawl in the head.

2. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 1, wherein said head is of laminar construction and said detent means is integral with at-least one of the laminations of said laminar head.

3. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 1, wherein said head includes a pair of side caps permanently metal bonded thereto, and said tab means is formed on at least one of said side caps and extends inwardly generally transversely relative to the general plane of the wrench head.

4. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 3, wherein said tab means is normally disposed in said closed position and is resiliently deflectable to said open position for insertion of the pawl into the channel, the tab means springing back to said closed position upon release thereof after insertion of the pawl.

5. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 3, wherein said tab means comprises a tab formed on one of said side caps and extending transversely therefrom to a free edge disposed adjacent to the other side cap.

6. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 5, wherein said pawl has shoulder means formed adjacent tth'dth fhih dsts'dth'd o e d talf ls in g ngrm l l y iii gosed iii sa id iio s'eg cap, sai position wherein said shoulder means on the pawl is engageable with the tab proximate its said free edge, and the tab proximate its said free edge being resiliently deflectable to said open position wherein it provides clearance for passage thereby of said shoulder means on the pawl to allow insertion of the pawl into the channel, the free edge portion of the tab springing back to said closed position upon release thereof after insertion of the pawl.

7. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 6, wherein said other side cap has notch means therein providing access to the space in said channel immediately behind said tab proximate its said free edge, whereby a pawl insertion tool is insertable through said notch means into said space and manipulatable to resiliently deflect the free edge portion of the tab to said open position.

8. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 1, wherein said head is of laminar construction and at least one of said laminations includes a pawl retention portion projecting from said fixed jaw and having a free end partly defining the opening of said channel, said detent means comprising a deformable tip on said free end that may be disposed in said open position for insertion of the pawl into the channel and is inwardly deformable to said closed position.

9. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 1, including a helical compression spring, said pawl having an undercut notch in its inner end within which one end of said spring is engaged.

Claims (9)

1. An open end ratchet wrench which comprises a head having a fixed jaw thereon and defining a generally forwardly opening arcuate channel therein, a ratchet pawl mounted in said channel for arcuate sliding movement between an extended torquing position wherein it is generally opposed to said fixed jaw and a retracted ratcheting position, said pawl having an inwardly extending projection, and detent means comprising a bendable integral tab means on the head bendable between an open position providing clearance for insertion of said pawl into said channel and a closed position overlying said channel wherein it is engageable against said projection on said pawl to retain the pawl in the head and to define the outer limit of sliding movement of the pawl in the head.
2. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 1, wherein said head is of laminar construction and said detent means is integral with at least one of the laminations of said laminar head.
3. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 1, wherein said head includes a pair of side caps permanently metal bonded thereto, and said tab means is formed on at least one of said side caps and extends inwardly generally transversely relative to the general plane of the wrench head.
4. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 3, wherein said tab means is normally disposed in said closed position and is resiliently deflectable to said open position for insertion of the pawl into the channel, the tab means springing back to said closed position upon release thereof after insertion of the pawl.
5. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 3, wherein said tab means comprises a tab formed on one of said side caps and extending transversely therefrom to a free edge disposed adjacent to the other side cap.
6. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 5, wherein said pawl has shoulder means formed adjacent to the side thereof which corresponds to said other side cap, said tab being normally disposed in said closed position wherein said shoulder means on the pawl is engageable with the tab proximate its said free edge, and the tab proximate its said free edge being resiliently deflectable to said open position wherein it provides clearance for passage thereby of said shoulder means on the pawl to allow insertion of the pawl into the channel, the free edge portion of the tab springing back to said closed position upon release thereof after insertion of the pawl.
7. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 6, wherein said other side cap has notch means therein providing access to the space in said channel immediately behind said tab proximate its said free edge, whereby a pawl insertion tool is insertable through said notch means into said space and manipulatable to resiliently deflect the free edge portion of the tab to said open position.
8. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 1, wherein said head is of laminar construction and at least one of said laminations includes a pawl retention portion projecting from said fixed jaw and having a free end partly defining the opening of said channel, said detent means comprising a deformable tip on said free end that may be disposed in said open position for insertion of the pawl into the channel and is inwardly deformable to said closed position.
9. An open end ratchet wrench as defined in claim 1, including a helical compression spring, said pawl having an undercut notch in its inner end within which one end of said spring is engaged.
US3695125D 1970-10-06 1970-10-06 Open end ratchet wrench Expired - Lifetime US3695125A (en)

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Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4158975A (en) * 1977-08-18 1979-06-26 Desousa Egas J J Unidirectional gripping open end wrench
WO1998055267A1 (en) * 1997-06-02 1998-12-10 Snap-On Technologies, Inc. Ratchet mechanism with laminated parts and method of making same
US5996445A (en) * 1998-06-04 1999-12-07 Universal Toolcraft Corporation Ratcheting wrench
US6276241B1 (en) 1999-02-18 2001-08-21 Snap-On Technologies, Inc. Laminated adjustable wrench
US6530298B1 (en) * 2000-03-23 2003-03-11 Michael Steffe Ratcheting open-end wrenches
US20040194589A1 (en) * 2003-03-12 2004-10-07 Stanton John L. Open end ratchet wrench
US20050016334A1 (en) * 2003-07-25 2005-01-27 Pradelski William W. Ratchetable open-ended wrench
US20080066585A1 (en) * 2006-09-08 2008-03-20 Ching-An Chiang Single-direction operable open-end spanner
US20080289454A1 (en) * 2005-03-12 2008-11-27 Tony Petkovic Wrench
US20080307929A1 (en) * 2004-08-13 2008-12-18 Sparroc Drillco Services Pty Ltd Manual Tong
US20090044666A1 (en) * 2007-08-15 2009-02-19 The Stanley Works Self-adjusting wrench
US20090193939A1 (en) * 2008-02-06 2009-08-06 The Stanley Works Ratchet Wrench
US20090193941A1 (en) * 2008-02-06 2009-08-06 The Stanley Works Ratchet Wrench
US20100071516A1 (en) * 2008-09-25 2010-03-25 Arthur Wu Reciprocatable open end wrench
US20100083797A1 (en) * 2008-10-03 2010-04-08 Li-Ju Lee Ratchet Wrench
JP2010120091A (en) * 2008-11-17 2010-06-03 Chin Kosei Ratchet spanner
FR2939345A1 (en) * 2008-12-09 2010-06-11 Li Ju Lee Ratchet spanner for turning small dimension bolt, has grip jaw with internal surface including fitting surface formed on internal surface of fitting region, and stop surface formed on rear region of fitting region
ES2342764A1 (en) * 2010-02-09 2010-07-13 Kung-Cheng Chen Ratchet wrench (Machine-translation by Google Translate, not legally binding)
US20100269640A1 (en) * 2009-04-24 2010-10-28 Glenn Robinson Wrench with bolt engaging portion and roller
US20110146463A1 (en) * 2009-12-23 2011-06-23 Stanton John L Open-Ended Ratchet Wrench
US20110174118A1 (en) * 2010-01-15 2011-07-21 Jie-Shing Peng Gear unit and molding method of the same and applied ratchet wheel wrench
US20110197720A1 (en) * 2010-02-12 2011-08-18 Wen-Pin Liu Open End Wrench Capable of Fast Driving
US20110219977A1 (en) * 2010-03-12 2011-09-15 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Initiator modules, munitions systems including initiator modules, and related methods
EP2383075A2 (en) 2010-04-30 2011-11-02 Bobby Hu Open end wrench capable of fast driving a workpiece
AU2010200378B2 (en) * 2010-02-02 2012-01-12 Chen, Kung-Cheng Ratchet wrench
EP2457691A1 (en) 2010-11-26 2012-05-30 Bobby Hu Open end wrench capable of fast driving a workpiece
CN101712143B (en) * 2008-10-06 2012-06-27 伯鑫工具股份有限公司 Reciprocating type open spanner
DE202012102183U1 (en) 2012-06-13 2012-09-20 Jia-Cheng Hu Open Disposable Wrench
EP2517832A1 (en) 2011-04-29 2012-10-31 Bobby Hu Open end wrench capable of fast driving a workpiece
US8408101B2 (en) 2010-05-14 2013-04-02 Wen-Pin Liu Open end wrench capable of fast driving
TWI398324B (en) * 2011-08-12 2013-06-11 Proxene Tools Co Ltd Ratchet-action open-end wrench
US20130213191A1 (en) * 2012-02-17 2013-08-22 Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Fastener driver hand tool
US8534167B2 (en) 2010-05-11 2013-09-17 Wen-Pin Liu Super high-torque open end wrench capable of fast driving
US8567289B2 (en) 2010-04-30 2013-10-29 Bobby Hu Open end wrench capable of fast driving
US20130327187A1 (en) * 2012-06-06 2013-12-12 Jia-Cheng Hu One-Way Open-End Wrench
WO2015134002A1 (en) * 2014-03-04 2015-09-11 Eldessouky Ali W Clamping ratchet wrench
US9566694B2 (en) 2012-06-24 2017-02-14 Marlon Elwin Lacert Open ended socket wrench

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US1320668A (en) * 1919-11-04 Johan emil askman
US2185002A (en) * 1937-09-22 1939-12-26 Earle A Pack Dual reversible right and left hand wrench
US2797600A (en) * 1955-10-28 1957-07-02 Bud K Beaver Ratchet type movable jaw wrench
GB983789A (en) * 1963-12-27 1965-02-17 Briles Mfg Ratchet type movable jaw wrench

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1320668A (en) * 1919-11-04 Johan emil askman
US2185002A (en) * 1937-09-22 1939-12-26 Earle A Pack Dual reversible right and left hand wrench
US2797600A (en) * 1955-10-28 1957-07-02 Bud K Beaver Ratchet type movable jaw wrench
GB983789A (en) * 1963-12-27 1965-02-17 Briles Mfg Ratchet type movable jaw wrench

Cited By (56)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4158975A (en) * 1977-08-18 1979-06-26 Desousa Egas J J Unidirectional gripping open end wrench
US5983757A (en) * 1997-06-02 1999-11-16 Snap-On Technologies, Inc. Ratchet mechanism with laminated parts and method of making same
AU730543B2 (en) * 1997-06-02 2001-03-08 Snap-On Technologies, Inc. Ratchet mechanism with laminated parts and method of making same
WO1998055267A1 (en) * 1997-06-02 1998-12-10 Snap-On Technologies, Inc. Ratchet mechanism with laminated parts and method of making same
US5996445A (en) * 1998-06-04 1999-12-07 Universal Toolcraft Corporation Ratcheting wrench
US6276241B1 (en) 1999-02-18 2001-08-21 Snap-On Technologies, Inc. Laminated adjustable wrench
US6530298B1 (en) * 2000-03-23 2003-03-11 Michael Steffe Ratcheting open-end wrenches
US7024971B2 (en) 2003-03-12 2006-04-11 Stanton John L Open end ratchet wrench
US20040194589A1 (en) * 2003-03-12 2004-10-07 Stanton John L. Open end ratchet wrench
EP1654092A4 (en) * 2003-07-25 2008-12-10 William W Pradelski Improved ratchetable open-ended wrench
US20050016334A1 (en) * 2003-07-25 2005-01-27 Pradelski William W. Ratchetable open-ended wrench
EP1654092A2 (en) * 2003-07-25 2006-05-10 William W. Pradelski Improved ratchetable open-ended wrench
US7111529B2 (en) * 2003-07-25 2006-09-26 Pradelski William W Ratchetable open-ended wrench
US20080307929A1 (en) * 2004-08-13 2008-12-18 Sparroc Drillco Services Pty Ltd Manual Tong
US7721628B2 (en) * 2004-08-13 2010-05-25 Drillroc Pneumatic Pty Ltd Manual tong
US20080289454A1 (en) * 2005-03-12 2008-11-27 Tony Petkovic Wrench
US20080066585A1 (en) * 2006-09-08 2008-03-20 Ching-An Chiang Single-direction operable open-end spanner
US20090044666A1 (en) * 2007-08-15 2009-02-19 The Stanley Works Self-adjusting wrench
TWI424904B (en) * 2007-08-15 2014-02-01 Stanley Works Self-adjusting wrench
US7806025B2 (en) 2007-08-15 2010-10-05 The Stanley Works Self-adjusting wrench
US20090193939A1 (en) * 2008-02-06 2009-08-06 The Stanley Works Ratchet Wrench
US20090193941A1 (en) * 2008-02-06 2009-08-06 The Stanley Works Ratchet Wrench
US20100071516A1 (en) * 2008-09-25 2010-03-25 Arthur Wu Reciprocatable open end wrench
US7878095B2 (en) * 2008-09-25 2011-02-01 Proxene Tools Co., Ltd. Reciprocatable open end wrench
US20100083797A1 (en) * 2008-10-03 2010-04-08 Li-Ju Lee Ratchet Wrench
US7827887B2 (en) * 2008-10-03 2010-11-09 Kung-Cheng Chen Ratchet wrench
CN101712143B (en) * 2008-10-06 2012-06-27 伯鑫工具股份有限公司 Reciprocating type open spanner
JP2010120091A (en) * 2008-11-17 2010-06-03 Chin Kosei Ratchet spanner
FR2939345A1 (en) * 2008-12-09 2010-06-11 Li Ju Lee Ratchet spanner for turning small dimension bolt, has grip jaw with internal surface including fitting surface formed on internal surface of fitting region, and stop surface formed on rear region of fitting region
US20100269640A1 (en) * 2009-04-24 2010-10-28 Glenn Robinson Wrench with bolt engaging portion and roller
US20110146463A1 (en) * 2009-12-23 2011-06-23 Stanton John L Open-Ended Ratchet Wrench
US8342063B2 (en) * 2009-12-23 2013-01-01 Stanton John L Open-ended ratchet wrench
US20110174118A1 (en) * 2010-01-15 2011-07-21 Jie-Shing Peng Gear unit and molding method of the same and applied ratchet wheel wrench
AU2010200378B2 (en) * 2010-02-02 2012-01-12 Chen, Kung-Cheng Ratchet wrench
ES2342764A1 (en) * 2010-02-09 2010-07-13 Kung-Cheng Chen Ratchet wrench (Machine-translation by Google Translate, not legally binding)
EP2359985A2 (en) 2010-02-12 2011-08-24 Wen-Pin Liu Open end wrench capable of fast driving a workpiece
US8408100B2 (en) 2010-02-12 2013-04-02 Wen-Pin Liu Open end wrench capable of fast driving
EP2359985A3 (en) * 2010-02-12 2012-04-04 Wen-Pin Liu Open end wrench capable of fast driving a workpiece
US20110197720A1 (en) * 2010-02-12 2011-08-18 Wen-Pin Liu Open End Wrench Capable of Fast Driving
US20110219977A1 (en) * 2010-03-12 2011-09-15 Alliant Techsystems Inc. Initiator modules, munitions systems including initiator modules, and related methods
EP2383075A2 (en) 2010-04-30 2011-11-02 Bobby Hu Open end wrench capable of fast driving a workpiece
US8402866B2 (en) 2010-04-30 2013-03-26 Bobby Hu Open end wrench capable of fast driving
US8567289B2 (en) 2010-04-30 2013-10-29 Bobby Hu Open end wrench capable of fast driving
US8534167B2 (en) 2010-05-11 2013-09-17 Wen-Pin Liu Super high-torque open end wrench capable of fast driving
US8408101B2 (en) 2010-05-14 2013-04-02 Wen-Pin Liu Open end wrench capable of fast driving
EP2457691A1 (en) 2010-11-26 2012-05-30 Bobby Hu Open end wrench capable of fast driving a workpiece
US8573095B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2013-11-05 Bobby Hu Open end wrench capable of fast driving
TWI414399B (en) * 2011-04-29 2013-11-11
EP2517832A1 (en) 2011-04-29 2012-10-31 Bobby Hu Open end wrench capable of fast driving a workpiece
TWI398324B (en) * 2011-08-12 2013-06-11 Proxene Tools Co Ltd Ratchet-action open-end wrench
US20130213191A1 (en) * 2012-02-17 2013-08-22 Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Fastener driver hand tool
US20130327187A1 (en) * 2012-06-06 2013-12-12 Jia-Cheng Hu One-Way Open-End Wrench
US8826783B2 (en) * 2012-06-06 2014-09-09 Jia-Cheng Hu One-way open-end wrench
DE202012102183U1 (en) 2012-06-13 2012-09-20 Jia-Cheng Hu Open Disposable Wrench
US9566694B2 (en) 2012-06-24 2017-02-14 Marlon Elwin Lacert Open ended socket wrench
WO2015134002A1 (en) * 2014-03-04 2015-09-11 Eldessouky Ali W Clamping ratchet wrench

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