US3560978A - Electronically controlled antenna system - Google Patents

Electronically controlled antenna system Download PDF

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Publication number
US3560978A
US3560978A US3560978DA US3560978A US 3560978 A US3560978 A US 3560978A US 3560978D A US3560978D A US 3560978DA US 3560978 A US3560978 A US 3560978A
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parasitic
elements
pattern
antenna
coupled
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Leon Himmel
Sven H Dodington
Ernest G Parker
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ITT Corp
ITT
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ITT
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q19/00Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic
    • H01Q19/28Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic using a secondary device in the form of two or more substantially straight conductive elements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S1/00Beacons or beacon systems transmitting signals having a characteristic or characteristics capable of being detected by non-directional receivers and defining directions, positions, or position lines fixed relatively to the beacon transmitters; Receivers co-operating therewith
    • G01S1/02Beacons or beacon systems transmitting signals having a characteristic or characteristics capable of being detected by non-directional receivers and defining directions, positions, or position lines fixed relatively to the beacon transmitters; Receivers co-operating therewith using radio waves
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q3/00Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system
    • H01Q3/44Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system varying the electric or magnetic characteristics of reflecting, refracting, or diffracting devices associated with the radiating element
    • H01Q3/446Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system varying the electric or magnetic characteristics of reflecting, refracting, or diffracting devices associated with the radiating element the radiating element being at the centre of one or more rings of auxiliary elements

Abstract

IN A TACAN BEACON ANTENNA, A MONOPOLE RADIATOR SURROUNDED BY TWO OR MORE CONCENTIC CIRCULAR ARRAYS OF PARASITIC ELEMENTS, WHICH ELEMENTS ARE DIGITALLY INHIBITED IN SEQUENCE IN A PREDETERMINED MANNER, IS USED TO PRODUCE A ROTATING RADIATION PATTERN CAPABLE OF PRODUCING 15 AND 135 CYCLE-PER-SECOND SIGNALS AT A RECEIVER. PARASITIC ELEMENTS ARE INHIBITED BY BEING OPEN CIRCUITED BY DIGITALLY CONTROLLED SWITCHING DIODES. RECIRCULATING SHIFT REGISTERS ARE USED TO INHIBIT PARASITIC ELEMENTS IN THE CIRCULAR ARRAYS TO PRODUCE THE REQUIRED MODULATION RADIATION PATTERN. A COMMON CLOCK IS USED TO STEP SAID REGISTER ALONG TO PRODUCE THE DESIRED ROTATING PATTERN.

Description

Feb. 2, i971 l.. HIMMEL ETAL 3,560,973

ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED ANTENNA SYSTEM Filed Nov. l, 1968 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 /ATTORNEY mu @X95 0m Q qos SQQQW;

3,560,978 Patented Feb. 2, 1971 3,560,978 ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED ANTENNA SYSTEM Leon Himmel, Upper Montclair, Sven H. Dodington,

Mountain Lakes, and Ernest G. Parker, Convent Station, NJ., assignors to International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation, Nutley, NJ., a corporation of Delaware Filed Nov. 1, 1968, Ser. No. 772,686 Int. Cl. G01s 1/48 U.S. Cl. 343-106 3 Claims ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE In a TACAN beacon antenna, a monopole radiator surrounded by two or more concentric circular arrays of parasitic elements, which elements are digitally inhibited in sequence in a predetermined manner, is used to produce a rotating radiation pattern capable of producing and 135 cycle-per-second signals at a receiver. Parasitic elements are inhibited by being open circuited by digitally controlled switching diodes. Recirculating shift registers are used to inhibit parasitic elements in the circular arrays to produce the required modulation radiation pattern. A common clock is used to step said registers along to produce the desired rotating pattern.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention The present invention relates to an antenna system, and in particular, one which is capable of providing a rotating radiation pattern which can be used with TACAN systems.

Description of the prior art The tactical deployment of navigation equipment has introduced the requirement that system antennas should be readily transportable. Certain navigational systems, such as TACAN have heretofore used mechanically rotated antennas. Mechanically rotated antennas, although simple and reliable, are bulky, heavy and consume relatively large amounts of primary power.

While electronically rotated scanning antennas have recently come into being, in general, they have been large and weighty.

Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide an electronic scanning antenna, which can be made small and light.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to the invention, an antenna system comprises a radiator, a plurality of parasitic elements associated with said radiator, means coupled to each of said parasitic elements for inhibiting the operation thereof and control means for selectively operating said inhibiting means in a predetermined manner.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS mee dipole parasitic elements and their associated grounding circuitry.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS In a first embodiment, as illustrated in FIG. 1, a central radiator 1, mounted on a counterpoise 4 is surrounded by two concentric rings, 2 and 3, of closely spaced parasitic monopole elements.

Each parasitic monopole element 5, is illustrated in FIG. 2 is coupled to the counterpoise 4 via a diode 8. A switching signal is applied to the diode via an R.F. isolating inductor 7. The switching signal controls the R.F. impedance between the parasitic monopole element 5 and the counterpoise 4 such as to be either an R.F. open circuit or effectively a short circuit to ground.

When an R.F. signal is applied to the monopole radiator 1 it radiates a signal which is modified by the parasitic elements 2 and 3, located as shown in FIG. 1, to produce a desired field pattern. The desired field pattern can be effectively created 0r modified by grounding selected parasitic elements.

A TACAN radiation pattern is a composite pattern comprising a single lobe of cardioid pattern, upon which is superimposed nine secondary variations or ripples. In the presently discussed antenna, selected parasitic elements in the innermost ring 2 are grounded to produce a cardioid field pattern and selected parasitic elements in the outermost ring 3 are grounded to produce the secondary variations in the desired field pattern.

With an appropriate static radiation pattern produced, as above described, it is possible to rotate the pattern by progressively grounding the parasitic elements around the array. This is accomplished as is schematically illustrated in FIG. l by coupling a master clock 11 to two programmed recirculating shift registers, the first of which has its separate bits coupled to the innermost ring of parasitic elements 2 and the second of which has its separate bits coupled to the outermost ring of parasitic elements 3.

The effective radiation pattern depends, for a given radiating frequency, upon the diameters of the concentric rings of parasitic elements. In a second embodiment, as illustrated in FIG. 3, in order to obtain an antenna operative over two frequency bands four concentric rings, two inner and two outer, are used. Rings 15 and 17 may be kept inoperative by appropriate switching circuits while rings 14 and 16 provide a rotating pattern or rings 15 and 17 can provide a pattern while rings 14 and 16 are inactive.

Up to this point, only parasitic monopole elements have been discussed, however, in a third embodiment, parasitic dipoles as shown in FIG. 4 are used to create the radiation pattern. In said embodiment dipole halves 18 are coupled to and separated by a diode 19 one end of which is D.C. coupled to ground via an R.F. choke coil 21 and the other end of which is coupled to a switching signal via R.F. choke coil 20. The switching signal causes the diode 19 to be either an R.F. open or R.F. short and thereby controls the radiation characteristics of the dipole halves.

In a fourth embodiment, as shown in FIG. 5, a stacking technique is used instead of a single parasitic element to obtain an improvement in vertical directivity. In this arrangement parasitic dipoles 24, 25, 26 are stacked one upon another, and are separately coupled to bi-lar R.F. chokes 22, 23 which provide a DC path for control switching signals.

We claim:

1. An antenna system for providing a rotating radiation pattern, comprising:

a central radiator;

a first plurality of parasitic elements associated with 3 4 said radiator positioned to form a first concentric inductor grounded at one end, a plurality of diodes couarray around said radiator; pled to spaced points on said rst and second inductors, a second plurality of parasitic elements associated with said parasitic elements comprising dipole halves coupled said radiator positioned to form a second concentric to each of said diodes, and a control voltage source conarray; nected to one end of said rst inductor. means coupled to each of said parasitic elements of said 5 first and second arrays for inhibiting the operation References Cited a heeof; t Ol C0 l d to ,d rst a v UNITED STATES PATENTS rs con r means up e sai arr y 1a 1,860,123 5/1932 Yagi 343-837X means to produce a' rotatlng lobe pat Herzog a second control means coupled to said second array 3109175 10/1963 Lloyd 343-8335( via said inhibiting means for superimposing minor p 3136996 6/1964 Parker 343`106 lobes on said rotating lobe pattern. 3339205 8/1967 Smltka 343-701 2. An antenna system according7 to claim 1 wherein 15 3375519 3/1968 Burnham 343"100 said inhibiting means comprises a switching diode cou led from the parasitic element to ground, an R.F. chokeland RODNEY D' BENNETT JR Prlmary Examiner a voltage source coupled via said R.F. choke to bias said R. E. BERGER, Assistant Examiner diode on and off.

3. An antenna System according to claim 1 wherein 20 U.S. C1. X.R. said inhibiting means comprises a rst inductor, a Second 343-100, 833, 837

US3560978A 1968-11-01 1968-11-01 Electronically controlled antenna system Expired - Lifetime US3560978A (en)

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BE (1) BE749080A (en)
DE (1) DE1953443C3 (en)
ES (1) ES373060A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2022375B1 (en)
GB (1) GB1275579A (en)

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US3704463A (en) * 1970-06-02 1972-11-28 Us Navy Direction finding antenna system
US3710388A (en) * 1970-08-06 1973-01-09 Raytheon Co Radar scanning method and apparatus
US3725938A (en) * 1970-10-05 1973-04-03 Sperry Rand Corp Direction finder system
US3790942A (en) * 1971-06-01 1974-02-05 Thomson Csf Radio beacon with a rotating cardioid radiation pattern in particular for use in landing grounds of secondary importance
FR2204810A1 (en) * 1972-10-26 1974-05-24 Int Standard Electric Corp
JPS49124948A (en) * 1972-08-16 1974-11-29
US3950753A (en) * 1973-12-13 1976-04-13 Chisholm John P Stepped cardioid bearing system
US3983561A (en) * 1975-09-02 1976-09-28 Republic Electronic Industries, Inc. High frequency wave radiation system producing a rotating beam defining a predetermined geometrical pattern
US4014024A (en) * 1973-06-15 1977-03-22 International Telephone And Telegraph Corporation Non-rotating antenna
DE2726956A1 (en) * 1976-06-21 1977-12-22 Hoffman Electronics Corp antenna system
FR2420855A1 (en) * 1978-03-24 1979-10-19 Materiel Telephonique Electronically switched vertical antennae with aligned dipoles - which are interconnected by pin-diodes, generating rotating lobe for radar (NO 22.10.79)
US4260994A (en) * 1978-11-09 1981-04-07 International Telephone And Telegraph Corporation Antenna pattern synthesis and shaping
WO1982004503A1 (en) * 1981-06-09 1982-12-23 Corp Harris Antenna having electrically positionable phase center
US4404563A (en) * 1980-11-12 1983-09-13 Motorola, Inc. System of directional antennas with means for reducing flutter
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US4631546A (en) * 1983-04-11 1986-12-23 Rockwell International Corporation Electronically rotated antenna apparatus
US4730192A (en) * 1984-03-23 1988-03-08 International Standard Electric Monitor for an electronic TACAN beacon
US4864320A (en) * 1988-05-06 1989-09-05 Ball Corporation Monopole/L-shaped parasitic elements for circularly/elliptically polarized wave transceiving
FR2666178A1 (en) * 1990-08-21 1992-02-28 Etudes Realis Protect Electron An antenna apparatus emitting or receiving high-frequency waves.
US5117217A (en) * 1987-01-21 1992-05-26 Electronic Security Products Of California Alarm system for sensing and vocally warning a person to step back from a protected object
US5243358A (en) * 1991-07-15 1993-09-07 Ball Corporation Directional scanning circular phased array antenna
US5294939A (en) * 1991-07-15 1994-03-15 Ball Corporation Electronically reconfigurable antenna
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Cited By (153)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3704463A (en) * 1970-06-02 1972-11-28 Us Navy Direction finding antenna system
US3710388A (en) * 1970-08-06 1973-01-09 Raytheon Co Radar scanning method and apparatus
US3725938A (en) * 1970-10-05 1973-04-03 Sperry Rand Corp Direction finder system
US3790942A (en) * 1971-06-01 1974-02-05 Thomson Csf Radio beacon with a rotating cardioid radiation pattern in particular for use in landing grounds of secondary importance
JPS49124948A (en) * 1972-08-16 1974-11-29
FR2204810A1 (en) * 1972-10-26 1974-05-24 Int Standard Electric Corp
US4014024A (en) * 1973-06-15 1977-03-22 International Telephone And Telegraph Corporation Non-rotating antenna
US3950753A (en) * 1973-12-13 1976-04-13 Chisholm John P Stepped cardioid bearing system
US3983561A (en) * 1975-09-02 1976-09-28 Republic Electronic Industries, Inc. High frequency wave radiation system producing a rotating beam defining a predetermined geometrical pattern
DE2726956A1 (en) * 1976-06-21 1977-12-22 Hoffman Electronics Corp antenna system
FR2420855A1 (en) * 1978-03-24 1979-10-19 Materiel Telephonique Electronically switched vertical antennae with aligned dipoles - which are interconnected by pin-diodes, generating rotating lobe for radar (NO 22.10.79)
US4387378A (en) * 1978-06-28 1983-06-07 Harris Corporation Antenna having electrically positionable phase center
US4260994A (en) * 1978-11-09 1981-04-07 International Telephone And Telegraph Corporation Antenna pattern synthesis and shaping
US4404563A (en) * 1980-11-12 1983-09-13 Motorola, Inc. System of directional antennas with means for reducing flutter
WO1982004503A1 (en) * 1981-06-09 1982-12-23 Corp Harris Antenna having electrically positionable phase center
US4631546A (en) * 1983-04-11 1986-12-23 Rockwell International Corporation Electronically rotated antenna apparatus
US4730192A (en) * 1984-03-23 1988-03-08 International Standard Electric Monitor for an electronic TACAN beacon
EP0172626A1 (en) * 1984-07-02 1986-02-26 Canadian Patents and Development Limited Adaptive array antenna
US4700197A (en) * 1984-07-02 1987-10-13 Canadian Patents & Development Ltd. Adaptive array antenna
US5315285A (en) * 1987-01-21 1994-05-24 Electronic Security Products Of California, Inc. Alarm system for sensing and vocally warning a person approaching a protected object
US5117217A (en) * 1987-01-21 1992-05-26 Electronic Security Products Of California Alarm system for sensing and vocally warning a person to step back from a protected object
US4864320A (en) * 1988-05-06 1989-09-05 Ball Corporation Monopole/L-shaped parasitic elements for circularly/elliptically polarized wave transceiving
EP0340404A3 (en) * 1988-05-06 1990-11-22 Ball Corporation Monopole/l-shaped parasitic elements for circularly/eliptically polazized wave transceiving
EP0340404A2 (en) * 1988-05-06 1989-11-08 Ball Corporation Monopole/L-shaped parasitic elements for circularly/eliptically polazized wave transceiving
FR2666178A1 (en) * 1990-08-21 1992-02-28 Etudes Realis Protect Electron An antenna apparatus emitting or receiving high-frequency waves.
EP0473497A1 (en) * 1990-08-21 1992-03-04 Societe D'etudes Et De Realisation De Protection Electronique Informatique Electronique Securite Maritime S.E.R.P.E.-I.E.S.M. Antenna device for radiation and reception of high-frequency waves
US5235343A (en) * 1990-08-21 1993-08-10 Societe D'etudes Et De Realisation De Protection Electronique Informatique Electronique High frequency antenna with a variable directing radiation pattern
US5243358A (en) * 1991-07-15 1993-09-07 Ball Corporation Directional scanning circular phased array antenna
US5294939A (en) * 1991-07-15 1994-03-15 Ball Corporation Electronically reconfigurable antenna
US5539419A (en) * 1992-12-09 1996-07-23 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Antenna system for mobile communication
US6034638A (en) * 1993-05-27 2000-03-07 Griffith University Antennas for use in portable communications devices
US6288682B1 (en) 1996-03-14 2001-09-11 Griffith University Directional antenna assembly
US5767807A (en) * 1996-06-05 1998-06-16 International Business Machines Corporation Communication system and methods utilizing a reactively controlled directive array
US9408216B2 (en) 1997-06-20 2016-08-02 Intel Corporation Dynamic bandwidth allocation to transmit a wireless protocol across a code division multiple access (CDMA) radio link
US7936728B2 (en) 1997-12-17 2011-05-03 Tantivy Communications, Inc. System and method for maintaining timing of synchronization messages over a reverse link of a CDMA wireless communication system
US20090086680A1 (en) * 1997-12-17 2009-04-02 Tantivy Communications, Inc. Multi-detection of heartbeat to reduce error probability
US9525923B2 (en) 1997-12-17 2016-12-20 Intel Corporation Multi-detection of heartbeat to reduce error probability
US20020080742A1 (en) * 1997-12-17 2002-06-27 Tantivy Communications, Inc. System and method for maintaining timing of synchronization messages over a reverse link of a CDMA wireless communication system
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DE1953443A1 (en) 1970-05-27 application
DE1953443C3 (en) 1974-04-18 grant
JPS4932239B1 (en) 1974-08-28 grant
FR2022375B1 (en) 1975-08-22 grant
FR2022375A1 (en) 1970-07-31 application
ES373060A1 (en) 1971-11-16 application
BE749080A1 (en) grant
GB1275579A (en) 1972-05-24 application
DE1953443B2 (en) 1973-09-13 application
BE749080A (en) 1970-10-19 grant

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