US3500595A - Modular building construction unit and column - Google Patents

Modular building construction unit and column Download PDF

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US3500595A
US3500595A US3500595DA US3500595A US 3500595 A US3500595 A US 3500595A US 3500595D A US3500595D A US 3500595DA US 3500595 A US3500595 A US 3500595A
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column
members
support
support members
portions
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Ronald S Bennett
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FLEHR HOHBACH
FLEHR HOHBACH ET AL
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/30Columns; Pillars; Struts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34815Elements not integrated in a skeleton
    • E04B1/3483Elements not integrated in a skeleton the supporting structure consisting of metal

Description

March 17, 1970 R. s. BENNETT 3,500,595

MODULAR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIT AND COLUMN Filed Oct. 27. 1967 45 42 I if .Z/Z/I' 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig. IB

INVENTOR. Ronald S. Bennett meys March 17, 1970 R. s. BENNETT MODULAR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIT AND COLUMN Filed Oct. 27. 1967 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR.

BY Ronald S. Bennett H s o t o .i.. ill

of Q

R. S. BENNETT March 17, 1970 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 MODULAR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIT AND comm Filed Oct. 27. 1967 INVENTOR.

Ronald 5. Banner? BY 7 :These and other objects of the United States Patent 3,500,595 MODULAR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND COLUMN 7 Ronald S. Bennett,'Honolulu, Hawaii Flehr, Hohbach et al., 160 Sansome St., San Francisco, Calif.

Filed Oct. 27, 1967, Ser. No. 679,941 I Int. Cl. E04h 12/12, 1/00; E02d 27/42 U.S Cl. 52-79 r p 9 Claims UNIT ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE BACKGROUND oF THE INVENTION This invention pertains to building constructions and more particularlyto inodular building constructions and to means for. readily forming a building comprised of modular room forming units. 7

Heretofore, it has been knownto assemble a preformed room forassembly with additional such units in the forming of a multi-unit building having one or more floor levels: i V I OBJECTS ltis a general object of the present invention to provide an improved modular unit and an improved support colurnn of a type suitable for use therein.

It is 'a further object of the invention to provide means for, readily and quickly assembling a multi-level building by using readily attachable room forming unitsand portions thereof wherein each modular unit can be locked in place relatively quickly.

'Itis another object of the invention to provide means forming a structural support column for building having one or more floor levels and wherein the support column is readily and quickly assembled when assembling the building being constructed. I

invention will become more readily apparent from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment when consideredin conjunction with the drawings.

; SUMMARY .OF THE INVENTION Generally,jI have provided ,a modular building construction unit providing portions of a room whereby several such units can form a complete room. Each such modular-.room-forming unit (hereafter room-unit) includes four elongated, hollow, spaced support elements serving to carry a-pair of spaced side walls, a ceiling panel,

arrda floor. vI have further provided means for readily assembling such room-units into a room, one atop the 3,500,595 Patented Mar. 17, 1970 to form a joint between tandemly disposed ends of a first and second group of elongated rigid structural support elements. The fixture is formed, as by forging, to include a pair of oppositely facing pockets separated by a transverse Wall adapted to form an interface between the ends of the two groups of support elements. Each pocket is formed and dimensioned to receive and to seat therein the assembled ends of each group. In one embodiment, the side walls of the pickets include inwardly sloping portions adapted to direct the assembled ends of each group laterally into compacted, mutually supporting relation under urging applied lengthwise to the groups of structural support elements.

Openings in the transverse wall pass tensioning rods therethrough which apply the lengthwise urging to the groups. Each opening is surrounded by a boss or collar portion adapted to cooperate with and receive the applied forces developed by the tension rods.

I A tensioning rod extends along at least onevof the 'support members at each corner of the room and is secured so as to draw the fixtures located at the opposite ends of the support members toward each other. Each fixture includes the surface portions mentioned above which serve to urge the ends of the support members resting therein in a direction laterally to consolidate the members into a section of a support column running upwardly through the building.

The foregoing general arrangement has been shown in more particular detail in the drawings, as now to be de scribed.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIGURES 1A through ID are perspective views sequentially illustrating the steps in forming a building construe tion unit and assembling the same to form a building according to the invention;

FIGURE 2 is an exploded perspective view, partially in section, showing a building construction column according to the invention;

FIGURE 3 is a elevation cross-section view taken in a direction along the line 33 of FIGURE 4 and showing portions of an assembled column;

FIGURE 4 is a plan view of a fixture employed to form a joint in the column shown in FIGURE 2;

FIGURE 5 is a diagram, in plan, showing a collection of four building support members grouped together as when forming a column according to the invention;

FIGURE 6 is a view similar to FIGURE 5 showing another construction of the elongated support members.

FIGURE 7 is a diagram indicating the position of members shown in FIGURE 6, nested for shipping;

FIGURE 8 is an elevation section view taken in a direction at right angles to the line 33 of FIGURE 4 and showing the formation of a joint, according to the invention;

FIGURE 9 is an elevation view, in section, taken through the floor and ceiling of vertically adjacent roo-rn forming units, according to the invention;

FIGURE 10 is a perspective'view showing another embodiment of the joint forming fixture according to the invention.

FIGURES 11 and 12 are plan views showing additional embodiments of the support member shown in FIG- URE 7.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS With reference to FIGURE 2, a support column of the type described generally above comprises an upper and a lower column assembly 11, 12. The upper column assembly includes four tubular elongated structural support elements or members 13 having a rectanglar transverse cross-section. Each support member 13 is hollow 3 so as to accommodate the passage therethrough of at least one and possibly three tensioning rod 14, depending upon the anticipated loads to which the building may be subjected. Support elements 13 lie alongside one another and are substantially coextensive so that the ends of each can be disposed in a common plane. It may even, for ex ample, be desirable to cut each of the support elements 13. to a predetermined length under controlled environ mental conditions common to each element and in this manner ensure that the opposite ends will lie in common planes.

Lower column assembly 12 also includes support members 13 and tension rods 14 of a type as described gen-v erally above. The lower ends of each of the support members 13 of assembly 12 rest in the upwardly. facing receptacle or pocket 16 formed on the upper side of a fixture 17 which, as will be seen, serves to forma joint when used between two column assemblies such as assemblies 11, 12.

Each fixture 17 serves as both the top cap member for the lower column assembly 12 and as the bottom cap member for the upper column assembly 11. Thus, each fi-xture 17 includes the oppositely facing receptacles or pockets 16, 18 which areseparated by a transversely extending wall 19 adapted to form the interface between the adjacent ends of each group of support members 13 associated respectively with the column assemblies 11, 12.

Each pocket 16, 18 is formed and dimensioned to receive and to seat all of the adjacent ends of one or the other of the column assemblies 11, 12. Accordingly, each pocket 16, 18 includes inwardly sloping side wall portions 21 adapted to direct the assembled ends of each groupof support members 13 laterally into compacted, mutually supporting relation under longitudinal urging applied to each group of such members 13.

The sloping wall portions 21 merge into portions 21d disposed perpendicularly to wall 19 so as to snugly receive the ends of the group of members 13. Thus, the area bounded by wall portions 21a is substantially coextensive with the area defined by the group of ends of members 13.

It will be readily apparent that when a group, of support members 13 is placed loosely in a pocket, such as pocket 16, for example, gravity will serve to a certain extent to seat the ends of the members.

Means are further provided, however, for drawing all of the members tightly into the pocket thereby utilizing the functions of the inwardly sloping side wall portions 21 to positively urge members 13 laterally into compacted and mutually supporting relation with respect to each other.

Thus, tension rods 14 are each provided with threads at their lower ends 22 and at their upper ends with an enlarged or expanded head 23 counterbored with interior threads adapted to cooperate with the threads on the lower ends, 22 of rods 14.

The transversely extending Wall 19 of each fixture 17 includes a number of passages or holes 24 leading therethrough for passing an associated one of several tension In assembling a column of the foregoing type, the

' lowermost column section is formed by merely providing the base of a column assembly with a fixture 17 into which is located four of the structural support members 13. Another fixture 17 is then placed on top of the four assembled support members and by so locating the cap members 17 at opposite ends of the support members 13, they will be held together by tension rods 14 which are inserted through holes 24 of both the top and bottom fixtures 17. Subsequently, the retaining nuts 27 are screwed along the threaded ends 22 of the rods 14.

As tension is applied to rods 14, it will be readily evident that the inwardly sloping wall portions-21 serve to direct members 13-'laterally into compacted, mutually rods 14. Each hole 24 has been formed with an enlarged protruding boss or shoulder 26 therearound to. receive the thrust of tension rods 14 whenever they have been tightened sufficiently to draw the bottom of heads 23 into engagement therewith.

As thus arranged, a column is formed comprised of a number of asemblies 11, 12, stacked in tandem. By interconnecting rods 14, there will then be an elongated tensioning device for placing the entire length of the column, as thus assembled, under compression.

At'the bottom of the column 10, the entire column is anchored as .by means of placing the lowermost fixture 17 in concrete with the lower threaded ends 22 of tension rods 14 being bent laterally outwardly and provided with retainer nuts 27 taken up to a point adapted to bear against the shoulders 26 on the underside of wall 19 of the lowermost fixture 17.

supporting relationship. Subsequently, the lower ends of the tension rods 14 are bent as shown in FIGURE 2 and the lower column assembly 12 placed in concrete to form the initial stage for an upwardly extending support column. v

Subsequent column sections are then readily easily disposed in a similar manner merely by assembling four members 13 in the upwardly facing pocket 16 located at the upper end of the lower column assembly 12 and subsequently held together by disposing another fixture 17 at the upper end thereof.

Tensioning proceeds as before but with the distinction that the tension rods of the upper column assembly 11 are screwed into the threaded ends provided by the expanded heads 23 aligned therewith. Accordingly, by tightening the upper tension rods 14, tensioning will be applied throughout the entire length of the column, including portions of lower column assembly 12.

From the foregoing, it will be readily apparent that a support column has been provided wherein a number of column sections are held in tandemly disposed relationship by means of the fixtures 17, arranged to provide joints 31 between the column sections, and by the tensioning rods 14 which extend longitudinally between successive joints in a manner whereby the entire column can be subjected to a single uniform tensioning force.

Having in mind the above column-forming arrangement,

there is provided, a modular building construction unit 32 of a type for forming portions of rooms and hereinafter referred to as a room-unit. Unit 32 may be assembled with a number of similar units to form the building as schematically shown in FIG- URE 1D. Thus, by pre-forming a number of modular building construction units 32 of the type shown, each construction unit 32 can be hoisted into position and assembled to form larger rooms and in their entirety to form a complete building.

Each modular-building construction unit (i.e., roomunit) comprises four support members 13 located at the four corners of unit 32. In general, unit 32 includes a ceiling panel 35, a pair of spaced side walls 34 and a floor 37. It is to be observed that each unit 32 is open at opposite ends 41 whereby' a plurality of units 32 can be disposed in adjacent relationship in completing a room 52 comprised of several units 32. g

Each side wall 34 is secured, as by welding, to the side faces of an associated pair of the support members 13. Each side wall 34 includes a corrugated iron reinforcement layer 42 oriented whereby the ridges and valleys run along the length of each side wall 34 to provide strength thereto. Layer 42 further supports a finish facing panel 43 of suitable material such as gypsum wallboard, or the like, for forming an interior finishing surface to a room. The reverse surface of the corrugated layer 42 may, for example, be sprayed with an adhesive foam of suitable type for providing thermal insulation and a fire retardant coating. e

As thus arranged, each side panel assembly 44 includes a pair of support members 13, a corrugated reinforcing layer 42 and the finish facing panel 43.

L-shaped angle members 46 extend between the two side panel assemblies 44 and are secured at their ends, as by welding, to the end regions of the side facesofa support member 13 of each of the two assemblies 44. L- shaped angle members46 are disposed to provide a lower ledge portion 46a arranged to receive the ceiling panel 35 therein. Ledge portions 46a are disposed in a planev at a level substantially corresponding to the upper edge 47 of each facing panel 43. Thus, all four side edges of ceiling panel 35 will rest upon a supportingsurface. I T. I

Similarly, at the lower ends of support members 13, another pair of angle members '48 extends betweenflaterally spaced support members 13. The lower angle members 48 serve to support the'floor panel 37 resting thereon and secured by suitable means to remain fixed in place during hoisting and placement of unit 32. j v, H

. Notches 51 in the sides of fixtures 17 prevent theedges of angle members 46 from bottoming against fixtures 17 when tension rods 14 have been tightened.

Having formed a unit 32 of the type described, it is now possible to merely employ a hoisting sling 49 as shown in phantom lines in the drawing and attached suitably to the corners of unit 32.'As thus arranged, the lower ends of each of support members 13 of the unit 32"being hoisted into place will nest readily into the upper pocket 16 of each of four fixtures 17 carried atop asimilar unit 32 located underneath. At such time asfour support members 13 have filled a respective one of the fixtures '17, tension rods 14 can be utilized to collect or draw the support members for a related corner "of room-unit 32 snugly intothepocket16.' j When it is desired to finish oil? the ends of a room'52 comprised of room units 32, an additional pair of support members 13a, 13b are grouped with two others 13c, 13d to fit withinan associatedpocket 16, 18 and thereby provide full column support at each corner of the room 52.

An end wall closure panel 53 of suitable size can then be secured to members 13a,-13b where the ceiling and side walls are of the standard modular dimension. Relatively long, narrow filler panels 54, 56 serve to finish of]? the ceiling and side walls, respectively. According to another embodiment of --the'invention (FIGURE 10), a consolidating fixture 57 serves to seat a plurality of members 13 in a manner forming a column having a somewhat stiffer characteristic due to the'fact that the adjacent column'support members 13 are held spaced slightly apart by wedging'separator portions 58 therebetween. Portions 58 thereby define separately spaced receptacles or pockets 59 wherein each is dimensioned to snugly receive and seat the end of one of members "13. Wedging portions 58 include relatively straight side portions 61 perpendicular to divider wall- 62 to define the inner bounding dimensions of pockets 59. The ends of members -13 are guided into pockets 59, however, by the tapered surface portions 63 which thereby direct the ends of members 13 to a proper seating position.

In general, as shown, for example in FIGURE 5, it will be readily apparent that a support column of the type described above has the advantage of forming'essentially an X shaped reinforcement 36 within the rectangular construction of the column. This X shaped reinforcement 36 is defined, of course, by the mutually supporting side surfaces of members 13.

According to another embodiment, the elongated, hollow, rigid structural support members 13 are formed, .as shown in FIGURE 6, in a manner whereby the support members 39 (FIGURE 6) are fully compatible with the manner shown in FIGURE 5 but with the additional advantage of providing increased strength by provision of the triple thickness of material in the region '38 which thereby increases the amount of supporting steel (or other material) present for the same cross-section. In addition, manufacture of the elongated, hollow structural support members 39 can be more readily achieved inasmuch as the tolerances and requirements to provide the, overlapped seal in the region 38 are considerably less stringent. Further, support members 39, as shown in FIGURE 7, can be stored and carried in a nested relation in considerably less space so that the cost of shipping such members may be considerably reduced.

The support member 39 therefore is formed of a sheet of structural material folded to provide a transverse cross section forming a closed loop. The longitudinal marginal edges 61 are overlapped and are secured to each other, as by welding, in a position adjacent an intermediate span portion 62 of the sheet. As thus arranged, the transverse crosssection of each support member 39 will include laterally spaced hollow support portions 63 defining an indentation 64 therebetween. This particular arrangement of cross-section, as noted above, serves to increase the amount of supporting steel or other material present within the rectangular space otherwise taken up by support members 13. v a

From the foregoing, it will be readily evident thatthere has been provided a modular building construction unit of a type for forming rooms and wherein a building comprised of such rooms will include a number of support columnsfIhe support columns each include elongated tensioning 'rods extending upwardly through thebuilding. The rods are coupled together from one floor level to the next and arearranged whereby 'each column may be independently and selectively placed variously under compression by action of its associated tensioning device whereby various stresses and loads acting upon the building may be compensated.

It. will be further evident that a building so constructed may also be readily disassembled and transported elsewhere merely be decoupling the tension rods and hoisting the room units out of their related receptacles as are engaging the four corners thereof.

FIGURES 11 and 12 show additional embodiments of the support member 37 shown in FIGURE 7. The main distinction between these embodiments pertains to the self-evident manner of constructing same wherein it may be desirable not to overlap the margin edges of the sheet of material employed to form such members.

:I claim:

1 A support column comprising a group of elongated structural support members each of which is of a type adapted to participate in joining one section of a room with another section of a room, said support members being disposed alongside each other, a cap member disposed transversely of and enclosing the ends of the group and formed to receive therein one of the ends of each member of said group, said cap member further being formed with tapered portions for receiving and seating all the assembled ends of said support members, said tapered portions serving'to move and consolidate the members of said group laterally of each other and form a unitary column, said, cap member being further formed with additional portions for receiving and seating the ends of other structural members forming another said group, andineans'serving'to draw theends of at least one of said groups of members tightly to said cap member to cooperate with said tapered portions in moving the last named ends laterally of each other. W

' 2. Asupport column comprising a group of elongated structural support members disposed alongside each other, a cap member at each end of said group disposed transversely of the group and formed to receive one of the ends of each member of said group, said cap members further being formed with wedging portions for directing said members laterally'to consolidate the members of said group in response to'movement of said cap members toward an opposite end of said group, at least one of said cap membersbeing further formed to receive the ends of other members forming another said group, and means serving to draw said cap members toward one another to cause said wedging portions to direct said support members to move laterally together into engagement with each other to form a tightly compacted group of ends thereat.

3. In a building construction, a column comprising a first and second plurality of substantially coextensive elongated tubular support members, the members of each said plurality being disposed alongside each other, each support member being adapted to participate in the formation of a portion of a room, said first and second plurality being disposed in tandemto form 'a support column, and means serving to move the support members into a grouped assembly and to compress said column longitu dinally thereof throughout both of said pluralities, the last named means including a connecting fixture interposed between said first and second plurality, said fixture being formed to include oppositely directed open pockets each receiving an associated one of said pluralities therein, a common wall between said pockets serving to form the interface between said pluralities, and portions within the pockets serving to direct the ends of each said plurality laterally into mutually compacted relation.

4. In a building, a modular building construction unit for forming portions of a room, said units being adapted to be stacked one upon another and side by side to form a buildinghaving a plurality of levels for occupancy, said unit comprising means defining a floor, a ceiling and pairs of spaced side walls, elongated support members at the corners of the unit adapted to form, together with like support members of others of said'modular units, groups of said support members meeting at, the corners of the unit to provide .a support column, the opposite ends of said support members of the column extending to projected positions, a fixture disposed to encircle the plurality of said endsof a group at each end of the column and to laterally adjust the seating of said ends of the column relative to each other, said fixtures being formed to receive the opposite ends of said support members of said groups and formed with means responsive to movement of the fixtures of the group toward each other to consolidate the members of the group to form a single supp rt column therefrom common to a plurality of said modular units meeting at said column, and means for drawing said fixtures of the group together. I

5. A modular'building construction unit for assembly with others in construction of a multi-room building comprising means for forming. spaced pairs of side walls of the room unit, each said wall-forming means including an elongated, hollow, rigid, structural support member adapted to stand upright along each end of its associated wall, a joint-forming cap member receiving the opposite ends of those support members associated with the room unit and meeting at the corners of the room unit, and a tensioning rod extending along at least one of said support members at each corner of the room and secured to draw a said cap members toward each other, each said cap member including surface portions serving to direct the ends of said support members therein laterally to consolidate said members into a support column assembly.

6. A demountable building construction characterized by a number of room forming units and by a number of support columns extending upwardly through the building and associated with said room forming units, each of said columns being formed of a'group of individual support members disposed alongside each other, fixtures serving to collect and seat the opposite ends of said members, and elongated tension rods extending along said members and readily releasably retaining said fixtures and support members together, saidindividual support members being formed of a sheet of structural material folded to provide a transverse cross-section forming a closed loop, the longitudinal marginal edges of the sheet being overlapped and secured to each other in a position adjacent an intermediate span of said sheet, said formed to provide said crosssection to include a pair of laterally spaced hollow portions defining an indentation therebetween.

7. In a construction for forming rooms of a building the combination comprising a plurality of elongated structural sup'portmembers adapted to 'be assembled to form a support column section, another plurality of elongated structural support members adapted to form a support column section substantially aligned in tandem with the first named section, means-forming a joint between said sections,'said joint including a fixture formed to include oppositely facing open receptacles for respectively receiving and seating the ends of said tandemly disposed sections, said open receptacles being formedYto include tapered side wall surfaces serving to engage the ends of said members to. laterally urge said members together to consolidate same into a column.

Avv joint construction-comprised of the ends of a first and second plurality of rigid structural support elements,said pluralities being disposed in tandem, the ends of one plurality being adjacent the ends of the other plurality, means forming a joint connection between said tandemly disposed ends including a unitary, rigid fixture formed to include oppositely facing open receptacles separated by a transverse portion for forming an interface between the ends of said pluralities, the receptacles being formed and dimensioned to receive and seat therein the ends of said supportelements, said transverse portion including openings serving to pass tensioning rods therethrough, each said opening being surrounded by a boss portion adapted to cooperate with and receive the applied forces .developed by said rods, and ,further wherein the side walls of said receptacles include inwardly sloping portions serving to laterally direct the ends of said support elements into seated engagement within their receptacles.

9. A support column comprising a group of elongated structural support members disposed alongside each other, a cap member at each'end of said group disposed trans: versely of the group and formed to. receive one ofv the ends of each member of said group, said cap members further being formed with portions for directing saidmembers laterally to consolidate the members of said group in response to movement of said cap members toward an oppositeend of said group, at least one of saidcap members being further formed to receive the ends of other members forming another said group, and means serving to draw said cap members toward'one another to direct said support members to move laterally together, the last named means comprising a tensioning rod extending between said capmembers for variable tensioning thereof to place said column variously under compression and thereby urge the members of said group laterally as directed by said portions, said tensioning rod including means for readily releasably coupling said rod to another said rod of another said group of-elongated support members having one end of each member received in said cap member.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 259,048 6/ 1882 Richardson 285l 37 868,942 10/1907 Reid v 285-137 1,362,069 12/1920 'Witzel 52-236 X 1,416,709 5/1922 Hahn 52-2 8 l 1,529,895 3/ 1925 Lachance 52227 2,449,000 9/ 1948 Merrill 52.720 X 2,837,183 6/1958 Heiman 52-720 X 2,982,379 5/1961 Fisher 52-726 X 3,378,971 4/1968 Singer 52236 FOREIGN PATENTS I 608,401 1960 Italy.

JOHN E. MURTAGH, Primary Examiner U.S. c1. X.R. 52-228, 236, 726,732

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WO2011106842A1 (en) 2010-03-03 2011-09-09 Modconnect Group Pty Ltd Improvements in prefabricated modular building units
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US20110252718A1 (en) * 2010-04-15 2011-10-20 Hitachi Plant Technologies, Ltd. Building construction method and room module
US8499527B2 (en) * 2010-04-15 2013-08-06 Hitachi Plant Technologies, Ltd. Building construction method and room module
US9593478B2 (en) * 2011-11-18 2017-03-14 Pre-Form Systems LLC Non-bearing modular construction system
US9068340B2 (en) * 2011-11-18 2015-06-30 Pre-Form Systems LLC Non-bearing modular construction system
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AU2012340236B2 (en) * 2011-11-18 2017-03-02 Douglas AUSTIN Non-bearing modular construction system
US20140123573A1 (en) * 2012-11-06 2014-05-08 FC+Skanska Modular, LLC Modular building unit connection system
US9366020B2 (en) * 2012-11-06 2016-06-14 Fc Modular, Llc Modular building unit connection system
US20170350150A1 (en) * 2014-12-24 2017-12-07 Rv Lizenz Ag Assembly system for modular industrial plants
USD767875S1 (en) * 2015-02-22 2016-10-04 Rand Elliott Louvered walker
USD771272S1 (en) * 2015-05-08 2016-11-08 Gordon Hart Skid mounted fire suppression shack
EP3548674A4 (en) * 2016-12-02 2020-04-22 MRCB Innovations Sdn. Bhd. Connection system and method for prefabricated volumetric construction modules
CN110905271A (en) * 2019-11-29 2020-03-24 中铁大桥局第七工程有限公司 Assembled measuring tower and installation method thereof

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GB1244356A (en) 1971-09-02

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