US3446270A - Apparatus for continuous casting - Google Patents

Apparatus for continuous casting Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3446270A
US3446270A US3446270DA US3446270A US 3446270 A US3446270 A US 3446270A US 3446270D A US3446270D A US 3446270DA US 3446270 A US3446270 A US 3446270A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
ingot
bending
withdrawal
mold
rolls
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Anatol Michelson
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
EW Bliss Co Inc
Original Assignee
EW Bliss Co Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by EW Bliss Co Inc filed Critical EW Bliss Co Inc
Priority to US54874366A priority Critical
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3446270A publication Critical patent/US3446270A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D11/00Continuous casting of metals, i.e. casting in indefinite lengths
    • B22D11/14Plants for continuous casting
    • B22D11/142Plants for continuous casting for curved casting

Description

y 1969 A. MICHELSON 3,446,270

APPARATUS FOR CONTINUOUS CASTING Filed May 9, 1966 Sheet of 2 Fig. I

IN VE NTOR fiWATOL M/CHELSON ATTORNEYS May 27, 1969 A. MICHELSON APPARATUS FOR CONTINUOUS CASTING Sheet f- Filed May 9, 1966 Fig. 4

F lg. 3

g INVENTOR I ANATOL M/cueLso/v ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,446,270 APPARATUS FOR CONTINUOUS CASTING Anatol Michelson, Glenolden, Pa., assignor to E. W. Bliss Company, Canton, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware Filed May 9, 1966, Ser. No. 548,743 Int. Cl. B22d 11/12 US. Cl. 164-282 3 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This invention pertains to the metal castings art and more particularly to the casting of continuous rounds, squares, ovals or slabs hereinafter referred to generally as ingots.

Casting is accomplished in a vertical, flow-through mold which may be either stationary or reciprocating and is usually water cooled. Inasmuch as the ingot emerges from the mold only partly solidified, it will normally have a liquid center of substantial depth contained Within a solid outer skin. Therefore it is necessary for the mold to be located at a considerable height to allow for sufficient secondary cooling, usually in the form of a water spray, in order to complete the solidification process. To reduce the height of the casting plant, the ingot is customarily bent from the vertical casting position through an arc and subsequently straightened in a horizontal position before being cut into prescribed billet lengths. Nevertheless the pouring rate, size of the ingot, metallurgical properties of the metal and other factors influence the permissible rate of secondary cooling and to a large extent limit the reduction in height of the casing plant due to the fact that the ingot which has a deep liquid center must be allowed a longer vertical pass before complete solidification is reached and withdrawal and bending can commence.

Heretofore, withdrawal and bending of the ingot has taken place in a series of rolls located at or near the point of complete solidification. Attempts to decrease the casting height by moving the rolls closer to the mold have generally been unsuccessful primarily due to the fact that the huge withdrawal and bending forces then are applied to the still soft and weak skin of the ingot by the cylindrical rolls which have a very high contact pressure on a tiny strip-like area of the ingot skin often causing a rise in internal and surface cracks. This causing of defects in the ingot by a very high specific pressure of cylindrical withdrawal and bending rolls is a major problem arising from the application of such rolls in continuous casting machines.

Another problem arising from the bending and withdrawal rolls being placed at or below the point of complete solidification is that the straightening rolls must then be located at a point where the ingot is essentially below solidification temperature which necessitates increased straightening forces and causes higher stresses in the ingot which also can lead to surface cracks.

Moreover, the distance between the mold and the bending and withdrawal rolls determines the length of start- 3,446,270 Patented May 27, 1969 ing mechanism required. The starting mechanism is usually a long chain-like device with a bar on the end which is fed by the withdrawal rolls up into the mold at the beginning of a casting run and is used initially to provide a bottom in the mold and to withdraw the ingot. As a consequence of a larger starting mechanism, more expensive and heavier handling and storage equipment is required.

In overcoming these and other disadvantages of the prior art the present invention contemplates a method and apparatus employing a continuous application of a distributed withdrawal and bending force to a relatively large surface area of the ingot which permits commencing the withdrawal and bending closer to the mold where the ingot still has essentially a liquid core.

In accordance with the invention, a withdrawal and bending device travels continuously with the ingot and defines a curvilinear path through which the ingot is bent including a contacting member which occupies a relatively large surface area of the ingot relative to its cross sectional area so as to exert a rather low pressure on the partially solidified ingot.

Further in accordance with the invention, the bending and withdrawal device comprises at least two endless conveyors between which the ingot passes, each carrying a contacting member each of which has a common radius point.

In a further development of the invention, a method is provided of continuous casting which involves the steps of cooling the ingot as it emerges from the mold so as to develop a solidified skin of sufiicient thickness to withstand a predetermined unit pressure and Withdrawing the ingot from the mold and simultaneously bending it along a curvilinear path by the continuous application of a withdrawal and bending force moving with the ingot and applied over a relatively large surface area of the skin.

Further in accordance with the inventive method, secondary cooling of the ingot is carried out in two stages, the first stage including spray cooling between the mold and the application of the bending and withdrawal force of sufiicient duration to develop an ingot skin of predetermined thickness and a second stage comprising spray cooling to complete solidification prior to the curved ingot being straightened.

In another aspect of the invention, because the starting mechanism must go through both straight and curved paths, it is made of a number of rolls whose diameter is equal to the minimum thickness of ingot to be cast.

The principal object of the invention is to reduced drastically a high specific pressure exerted on the ingot by prior art withdrawal, as well as bending rolls in order to avoid various defects on and under the ingots surface caused by such pressure.

Another object of the invention is to reduce the overall height of the continuous casting plant and more particularly to permit the installation of continuous casting machines in existing plant facilities as a result of the reduction in casting height.

Another object of the invention is to start the applica tion of ingot withdrawal and bending forces closer to the mold thereby substantially reducing the vertical cooling height.

Another object is to shorten the distance between the mold and the withdrawal and bending device which permits the use of a shorter starting mechanism with the further advantage of decreasing the size of the handling and storage equipment therefor.

Another object is the provision of a new and improved starting mechanism.

Still another object or advantage of the invention arising from the placement of the withdrawal and bending device closer to the mold is that the ingot is bent while its temperature is above or near the complete solidification point permitting the straightening mechanism to be moved closer to the mold at a spot where the ingot, though solidified, has a higher temperature thus decreasing the straightening forces and the consequent stresses developed in the ingot from this operation.

These and other objects will become apparent by referring to the following description and drawings wherein:

FIGURE 1 is .a front elevational view of a casting machine employing a withdrawal and bending device constructed in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention;

FIGURE 2 is a partial view of the casting machine in FIGURE 1 showing the withdrawal and bending device in greater detail,

FIGURE 3 is a side elevational view of the withdrawal and bending device taken along line 3-3 of FIGURE 2; and

FIGURE 4 is a horizontal sectional view of the withdrawal and bending device taken along line 4-4 of FIGURE 2.

Referring now to the drawings wherein the figures are for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiment of the invention only and not for the purpose of limiting the same, in FIGURE 1 a casting machine is shown generally including a flowthrough, water cooled mold 12 positioned on a pouring floor 14 and elevated above a cooling chamber 16, a withdrawal and bending device 17, a cooling chamber 18 and a roll straightener 20. A starting mechanism 22 is shown, for purpose of illustration, in its two essential positions; firstly, with the bar 23 positioned in the mold 12 atthe start of a run and; secondly, with the bar stored in the handling and storage equipment 24 after the ingot I is withdrawn and the machine 10 is operating on a continuous basis. The starting mechanism 22 comprises a number of rolls R having a diameter equal to the minimum thickness of ingot I to be cast which are connected together by at least two links L, one on each side, the width of which is less than the diameter of the rolls R. Continuous operation involves the shuttling back and forth on rails 25 of bottom pour ladles 26, one of which is shown in pouring position over a tundish 27. The flow of molten metal from the ladle 26 to the mold 12 is regulated in a known manner by the stopper of tundish 27 in accordance with a prescribed casting rate.

In accordance with the invention, the casting machine 10 is characterized by a two-stage secondary cooling arrangement in which the first stage is cooling chamber 16 and the second stage is primarily cooling chamber 18 but also may include spray cooling within the withdrawal and bending device 17. Initial cooling is performed within the mold 12 by water circulation in the mold walls. The cooling arrangement is distinguished in that the chamber 16 is considerably reduced in size from the known prior art since, in the invention, the purpose of chamber 16 is not complete solidification of the ingot I, but only the formation of a crust or skin I (FIGURE 2) of sufficient thickness greater than that developed in the mold 12 to withstand the withdrawal and bending pressures of the device 17 as will be described more fully hereinafter. The first stage cooling chamber 16 is essentially similar to the second stage cooling chamber 18 in that each employs support rolls 28, 29 for guiding the ingot I. Water spray jets 30, 31 connected to a water circulatory system and heat exchanger (not shown) are interspersed between rolls 28, 29. The cooling chamber 18 includes a sliding door 33 which seals an opening therein of sufiicient size to accommodate the pivoted arm 35 of the starting chain storage and handling mechanism 24. The length of the starting chain 22 is somewhat greater than the distance between the middle of the mold 12 and the middle of the 'withdrawal and bending device 17 or the distance between the withdrawal and bending device 17 and a drive spider 36. During continuous casting, the arm 35 remains in the position shown in FIGURE 1 outside of the cooling chamber 18. At the beginning of a casting run, however, the door 33 is opened and the arm 35 lowered to the dotted line position by means of an actuating cylinder 38. The starting chain 22 is moved to and from the mold 12 by means of the spider 36 and the withdrawal and bending device 17 along longitudinal guides 39 positioned at each side of the ingot path.

Referring now to FIGURES 24, the withdrawal and bending device 17 is housed in a spray box 40 within whichwater jets (not shown) may be directed for cooling if necessary. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, a frame 41 supports a pair of endless conveyors 42, 43 on opposite sides of the ingot I, each being driven continuously with the ingot so that there is no relative movement. To the extent the conveyors 42, 43 contain essentially duplicate parts, those parts .are identified by like numerals where applicable, however, to the extent conveyors 42, 43 differ but contain similar parts, like numerals will be used in identifying such parts with the addition of a prime mark with respect to conveyor 43. Each conveyor 42, 43 is made up of a number of links 44 joined together by .a plurality of contact members or pressure shoes 45, 45 by means of connecting pins 46, each carrying a roller 47 at the center and rollers 49 on the opposite ends. Upper and lower conveyor drives 50, 52 each have axially spaced sprocket elements which engage the pin roller 49 for driving the conveyors 42, 43, each of which has a separate, but synchronized drive 53. Conveyors 42, 43 each include a track section 54, 54' upon which the central rollers 47 of each pressure shoe 45, 45 ride. Track section 54 has a convex curvature and in cooperation with a concave portion a of track section 54' defines a segment of a circle having a predetermined radius the length of which depends largely on the cross sectional area of the ingot I and the grade of steel being cast. Generally the length of radius R will be about 25 times the thickness of the ingot I. An upper portion b of track section 54' which extends vertically above the top of track section 54 has a flat surface which serves to take the consequential bending forces as the ingot I enters the curved pathway. Therefore, the forces created in bending the ingot I are transmitted directly to the frame 40 so that the mechanism can be of lighter construction.

The track segment 54 and upper and lower sprockets 50, 52 of conveyor 43 are fixed rigidly to the frame 40 while the track section 54 and sprockets 50, 52 of conveyor 42 are suspended on a hinge 58 and a bifurcated arm 60 which supports the upper sprocket shaft 62. The upper end of the track section 54 is carried by the shaft 62 as shown in FIGURE 4 while the lower end is carried by the lower drive sprocket shaft 63 in a similar manner. Upper and lower bifurcated arms 65, 66 are also journaled on the upper and lower sprocket shafts 62, 63 and rest on restraining cylinders 68, 69 which establish the spacing between track sect-ions 54, 54' to develop the required withdrawal and bending forces applied by the shoes 45, 45'. Should a change in ingot size be required, nuts 70 on cylinders 68, 69 may be adjusted so as to change the distance between pressure shoes 45, 45' according to the thickness of the ingot to be cast. The pressure shoes 45, 45' are curved, convexly and concavely respectively to match the curvature being developed in the ingot I as it passes between the track sections 54, 54'. Since the pressure shoes 45, 45 get hot during contact with the ingot, two cooling tanks 73 with flowing water are positioned so that the pressure shoes 45, 45' pass through upon each revolution of the conveyors 42, 43. Water spray box 40 includes a water seal 75 at the lower end where the ingot I emerges to collect cooling water.

As referred to previously, it occurs in the prior art that because the withdrawal and bending forces are transmitted to the ingot by cylindrical rolls, essentially a line contact is made with the ingot which is occasioned by extremely high pressures. This dictates that the placement of the withdrawal and bending rolls be at or near the point of complete solidification of the ingot with the consequent disadvantages discussed.

In accordance-with the present invention, and particularly where the ingot has a deep liquid center as usually found in casing steel for example, the withdrawal and bending device 17 provides for continuous application of a distributed bending and withdrawal force to a relatively large surface area of the ingot which eliminates distortion and crack formations in the ingot and permits location of the mechanism closer to the mold at a point where the ingot is only partially solidified as shown in FIGURE 2. With the invention, it is necessary only that the ingot have a skin I of sutficient thickness to withstand the distributed forces. The distributed forces are applied to a surface area of the ingot which is essentially a function of its cross sectional area. That is, for ingots of considerably larger cross section, the conveyors 42, 43 will be considerably longer and the radius of curvature also considerably longer so that the bending forces are less concentrated. As a rule of thumb, the radius should be about 25 times the thickness of the ingot I.

Moreover, with the invention the shoes 45, 45' applying the distributive withdrawal and bending forces move with the ingot while it is being deformed. This is distinguished from the prior art where the ingot is pulled through rolls inducing certain dynamic rolling stresses thereto.

Modifications of the invention may be visualized by persons skilled in the art, however it should be appreciated that such changes are intended to fall within the invention in its broadest aspects as defined in the appended claims except insofar as limited by the prior art.

I claim:

1. A continuous casting installation including a flowthrough mold from which an ingot is cast and guide means for engaging opposed surfaces of the ingot'and continuously moving therewith along a curvilinear path intercepting the initial direction of movement of the ingot from the mold and diverting it along said curvilinear path, said guide means including: a pair of opposed stationary track sections, one concave and the other convex; said track sections positioned directly opposite each other and defining said curvilinear path and between which the ingot passes; and adjustable frame means for restraining said track sections against movement from a predetermined spacing in relation to the" ingot thickness so that the ingot is deflected from its original course while being withdrawn from the mold; endless conveyor means carried by each of said track sections, each conveyor means including a plurality of pivotally interconnected ingot engaging members having contact areas sufficiently large to distribute the ingot bending forces over an area larger than those obtainable with cylindrical roll contact; a pair of vertically spaced .sprockets for each conveyor successively engageable with the ingot engaging members to move the conveyors around their respective track section; and drive means for driving each conveyor in synchronism with respect to the ingot withdrawal rate.

2. The invention as defined in claim 1. wherein the concave track section includes a fiat portion extending upwardly a considerable distance above the top of the convex section for assuming consequential bending forces.

3. The invention as defined -in claim 1 wherein the ingot engaging members have curved contact surfaces corresponding in curvature to the curvature of its respective track section.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,139,884 5/1915 Melleri 164279 3,283,368 11/1966 Homan 164-282 FOREIGN PATENTS 700,450 12/ 1964 Canada. 992,759 7/1951 France. 876,422 8/ 1961 Great Britain. 930,193 7/ 1963 Great Britain.

J. SPENCER OVERHOLSER, Primary Examiner. R. SPENCER ANNEAR, Assistant Examiner.

US. 01. X.R. 164-274

US3446270D 1966-05-09 1966-05-09 Apparatus for continuous casting Expired - Lifetime US3446270A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US54874366A true 1966-05-09 1966-05-09

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3446270A true US3446270A (en) 1969-05-27

Family

ID=24190218

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3446270D Expired - Lifetime US3446270A (en) 1966-05-09 1966-05-09 Apparatus for continuous casting

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US3446270A (en)
DE (1) DE1558178A1 (en)

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3528486A (en) * 1967-05-08 1970-09-15 Schloemann Ag Dummy-bar handling mechanism
US3646989A (en) * 1970-06-01 1972-03-07 Gulf & Western Ind Prod Co Continuous casting dummy bar head casting conveyor
US3658120A (en) * 1970-04-14 1972-04-25 Concast Inc Retractable dummy bar guide
US3682233A (en) * 1970-09-02 1972-08-08 Pennsylvania Engineering Corp Continuous casting machine starting system
US3700027A (en) * 1970-09-16 1972-10-24 Maanesmann Ag Continuous casting machine
US3707180A (en) * 1970-01-29 1972-12-26 Mannesmann Ag Method for advancing a continuously cast ingot along a curved withdrawal path
JPS4884736A (en) * 1971-02-15 1973-11-10
US3773103A (en) * 1970-07-21 1973-11-20 Concast Ag Continuous casting machine
US3779303A (en) * 1971-01-08 1973-12-18 Fives Lille Cail Installation for continuous ingot casting
US3797557A (en) * 1972-02-10 1974-03-19 A Tseitlin Device for ingot withdrawal from mould during continuous casting of metals
US3823763A (en) * 1972-10-19 1974-07-16 United States Steel Corp Ramp-type apparatus for disconnecting and storing a flexible starter bar
US3924673A (en) * 1968-03-18 1975-12-09 Gamma Engineering Ltd Apparatus for producing continuous metal castings
JPS5330926A (en) * 1976-09-03 1978-03-23 Hitachi Shipbuilding Eng Co Device for preventing bulging in continuous casting equipment
US4623016A (en) * 1981-05-20 1986-11-18 Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.P.A. Device for parking the dummy bar upstream from the extraction and straightening group
US6192973B1 (en) * 1996-06-07 2001-02-27 Mannesmann Ag Strip casting plant

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1139884A (en) * 1913-02-13 1915-05-18 Continuous Casting Corp Apparatus for making rods and tubes from plastic metal.
FR992759A (en) * 1944-09-12 1951-10-23 Device for the continuous casting of steel or other metal
GB876422A (en) * 1958-08-09 1961-08-30 Austen Robert Higgin Improvements relating to the casting of metals
GB930193A (en) * 1960-07-06 1963-07-03 Conkast Ag Improvements in or relating to continuous casting plant with deflection of the casting
CA700450A (en) * 1964-12-22 B. Hudson Edwin Method and means for high capacity direct casting of molten metal
US3283368A (en) * 1964-03-26 1966-11-08 Koppers Co Inc Roller apron conveyor continuous casting machine

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA700450A (en) * 1964-12-22 B. Hudson Edwin Method and means for high capacity direct casting of molten metal
US1139884A (en) * 1913-02-13 1915-05-18 Continuous Casting Corp Apparatus for making rods and tubes from plastic metal.
FR992759A (en) * 1944-09-12 1951-10-23 Device for the continuous casting of steel or other metal
GB876422A (en) * 1958-08-09 1961-08-30 Austen Robert Higgin Improvements relating to the casting of metals
GB930193A (en) * 1960-07-06 1963-07-03 Conkast Ag Improvements in or relating to continuous casting plant with deflection of the casting
US3283368A (en) * 1964-03-26 1966-11-08 Koppers Co Inc Roller apron conveyor continuous casting machine

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3528486A (en) * 1967-05-08 1970-09-15 Schloemann Ag Dummy-bar handling mechanism
US3924673A (en) * 1968-03-18 1975-12-09 Gamma Engineering Ltd Apparatus for producing continuous metal castings
US3707180A (en) * 1970-01-29 1972-12-26 Mannesmann Ag Method for advancing a continuously cast ingot along a curved withdrawal path
US3658120A (en) * 1970-04-14 1972-04-25 Concast Inc Retractable dummy bar guide
US3646989A (en) * 1970-06-01 1972-03-07 Gulf & Western Ind Prod Co Continuous casting dummy bar head casting conveyor
US3773103A (en) * 1970-07-21 1973-11-20 Concast Ag Continuous casting machine
US3682233A (en) * 1970-09-02 1972-08-08 Pennsylvania Engineering Corp Continuous casting machine starting system
US3700027A (en) * 1970-09-16 1972-10-24 Maanesmann Ag Continuous casting machine
US3779303A (en) * 1971-01-08 1973-12-18 Fives Lille Cail Installation for continuous ingot casting
JPS4884736A (en) * 1971-02-15 1973-11-10
JPS5427299B2 (en) * 1971-02-15 1979-09-08
US3797557A (en) * 1972-02-10 1974-03-19 A Tseitlin Device for ingot withdrawal from mould during continuous casting of metals
US3823763A (en) * 1972-10-19 1974-07-16 United States Steel Corp Ramp-type apparatus for disconnecting and storing a flexible starter bar
JPS5330926A (en) * 1976-09-03 1978-03-23 Hitachi Shipbuilding Eng Co Device for preventing bulging in continuous casting equipment
JPS571343B2 (en) * 1976-09-03 1982-01-11
US4623016A (en) * 1981-05-20 1986-11-18 Danieli & C. Officine Meccaniche S.P.A. Device for parking the dummy bar upstream from the extraction and straightening group
US6192973B1 (en) * 1996-06-07 2001-02-27 Mannesmann Ag Strip casting plant

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
DE1558178A1 (en) 1970-03-19

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Brimacombe Design of continuous casting machines based on a heat-flow analysis: state-of-the-art review
EP0450775B1 (en) Strip casting
US3926244A (en) Method of controlling the cooling rate of narrow side walls of plate molds as a function of the casting taper during continuous casting
EP1945383B1 (en) Process and plant for producing metal strip
US2284503A (en) Apparatus for continuous casting
US3724529A (en) Plant for continuous vacuum casting of metals or other materials
EP0730924B1 (en) Continuous casting method for thin cast piece
US7631684B2 (en) Continuous casting plant
US20060151144A1 (en) Method and device for dynamically resting roller segments that support and/or guide both sides of a cast bar made of metal, particularly steel
US2582329A (en) Apparatus for handling continuous castings
US3273208A (en) Interchangeable continuous casting apparatus
EP1536900B2 (en) Method for commencing a casting process
KR100971901B1 (en) Method for the continuous rolling of a metal bar, particularly a steel bar, which is produced at a casting speed and the cross section of which is configured as a thin slab, and corresponding continuous casting machine
US3147521A (en) Continuous casting and forming process
US6276436B1 (en) Method and apparatus for high-speed continuous casting plants with a strand thickness reduction during solidification
EP0830223B1 (en) Non-contact heat absorbers for strip casting
US3375862A (en) Machine for the continuous pouring of steel
US3812900A (en) Method of operating a multi-roll casting machine during and after freezing of the liquid core of the strand
US3495651A (en) Starting device for continuous castings
US3416222A (en) Manufacture of elongate articles
US3746071A (en) Method for treating materials
US3344844A (en) Apparatus for handling a curved continuous casting starting bar
KR101233226B1 (en) Device for the horizontal continuous casting of steel
US3483915A (en) Method of forming continuously-cast metal strand into integral billets
US2565959A (en) Method of casting metal continuously