US3138320A - Fluid seal for compressor - Google Patents

Fluid seal for compressor Download PDF

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US3138320A
US3138320A US2484A US248460A US3138320A US 3138320 A US3138320 A US 3138320A US 2484 A US2484 A US 2484A US 248460 A US248460 A US 248460A US 3138320 A US3138320 A US 3138320A
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rotors
high pressure
rotor
liquid
openings
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Schibbye Lauritz Benedictus
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SVENSKA ROYTOR MASKINER AB
SVENSKA ROYTOR MASKINER AKTIEB
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SVENSKA ROYTOR MASKINER AKTIEB
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04CROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; ROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04C29/00Component parts, details or accessories of pumps or pumping installations, not provided for in groups F04C18/00 - F04C28/00
    • F04C29/0007Injection of a fluid in the working chamber for sealing, cooling and lubricating

Description

June 23, 1964 1.. B. SCHIBBYE 3,138,320

FLUID SEAL FOR COMPRESSOR Filed Jan. 14, 1960 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN VEN TOR.

LAURITZ BENEDICI'US SCHIBBYE June 23, 1964 1.. B. SCHIBBYE FLUID SEAL FOR COMPRESSOR 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 14, 1960 IN VEN TOR.

LAURITZ BENEDICTUS SCHIBBYE Wlf/ June '23, 1964 L. B. SCHIBBYE 3,138,320

FLUID SEAL FOR COMPRESSOR Filed Jan. 14, 1960 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 A WIWIIIz/WIl/V/l/IIIIIIIA F1" 5 J 7a IN V EN TOR.

LAURITZ BENEDICTUS SCHIBBYE United States Patent 3,138,320 FLUID SEAL FOR COMPRESSOR Lauritz Benedictus Schihbye, Villa Stugan, Saltsio-Duvnas,

Sweden, assignor to Svenska Rotor Maskiner Aktiebolag, Nacka, Sweden, a corporation of Sweden Filed Jan. 14, 1960, Ser. No. 2,484 Claims priority, application Sweden Jan. 15, 1959 9 Claims. (Cl. 230-143) This invention relates to a screw rotor machine for operation as compressor or expander in a known manner comprising at least two co-operating male and female rotors with intermeshing lands and grooves, a casing provided with end walls and cylindrical bores for the rotors intersecting each other, with substantially diagonally placed low pressure and high pressure ports. The machine further having nozzle means provided on the high pressure side of the machine for injection of a liquid under pressure, there being clearance provided between the rotors and the casing which are formed so that at their revolving the rotors together with the casing provide closed chambers consisting of communicating groove portions of two co-operating rotors and varying in volume as the rotors revolve. Since such a machine would have a built-in pressure ratio such that it could be utilized as a compressor or expander, it would be advantageous to provide the same with at least three lands on each rotor.

In earlier known embodiments of screw rotor machines of the type under consideration nozzle means have been provided for injection of a liquid under pressure into the chambers either axially through nozzle means located in a low pressure end wall, in the transverse plane through each of nozzle means located in the jacket walls of the easing or in the rotors. The object of this liquid injection has been to improve the sealing between the cooperating rotors and between each rotor and the casing. The rotors must be disposed in the casing so that a close tolerance between rotors and casing is obtained in order to prevent direct contact and resulting seizure.

The rotors in the previous types of dry operating compressor must be designed to operate with a similar close tolerance therebetween and therefore must be fitted with synchronizing wheels to maintain this clearance. However, by utilizing oil as injection liquid synchronizing wheels may be dispensed with and the female rotor directly driven by the male rotor. This results in the clearance between the front face of the lands of the male rotor and the back face of the lands of the female rotor being eliminated. The clearance between the back face of the lands of the male rotor and the front face of the lands of the female rotor is maintained in such a case. Besides said clearances between the axially extending surfaces of the casing and the rotors, clearances also must be provided between the ends of the rotors and the end walls of the casing. At the high pressure end the pressure difference between both ends of the rotors is equal to the total pressure difference between the pressures in the high and low pressure ports resulting in a need for sealing of this clearance.

Through said clearances there is a continuous leakage from chambers of higher pressure to chambers of lower pressure. This leakage is dependent on the width and length of the clearances, the pressure diiference between two adjacent chambers, the time and the properties of the working medium. By injection of oil in the gas constituting the working medium these properties can be changed so that the leakage is considerably reduced while the working medium is also cooled so that the temperature of the compressor will not become overly high and the thermal expansion becomes less thereby permitting narrower clearances. This enables the number of revolutions of the compressor to be reduced while maintaining its volumetric efficiency as well as increasing the compression rate in each compressor stage.

Through investigation the manner in which liquid injection is performed has been found to be most important. One object of the present invention is the design and location of the injection nozzles to promote good sealing between the rotors and casing. It is characteristic of the present invention that nozzle means be provided for injection of the liquid at an angle to the plane transverse to the axes of the rotors and through the respective nozzle means in the direction of the high pressure port. Thus the injection liquid obtains a component of movement counterdirected to the gas flow along the walls of the casing because of the pressure dilference.

A further characteristic of the invention is that the nozzle means are provided in the cylindrical walls of the casing on the same side of the plane through the axes of the rotors as the high pressure port and particularly along the line of intersection between two adjacent cylindrical bores.

Those and other characteristics of the invention and the advantages ensuing therefrom will be apparent from the following description of a number of embodiments shown in the accompanying drawing.

FIG. 1 is a vertical longitudinal section taken on line 1-1 in FIG. 2 of a screw rotor compressor according to the invention.

FIG. 2 is a vertical cross section of this compressor taken on line 2-2 in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a modification of a detail in FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is a further modification of a detail in FIG. 2.

FIG. 5 is a view of the end wall on the high pressure side of the casing taken on the line 55 in FIG. 1.

FIG. 6 is a cross section of a detail of the end wall of the casing taken on line 66 in FIG. 5.

FIG. 7 is a view of a modification of the end wall of the casing on the high pressure side taken in the same manner as in FIG. 6.

FIG. 8 is a longitudinal section through another embodiment of a screw rotor compressor.

FIG. 9 is a modification of same detail as in FIG. 5 taken on line 9-9 in FIG. 10.

FIG. 10 is a detail in cross section taken on line 1010 in FIG. 9.

FIG. 11 is another detail in cross section taken on line 11-11 in FIG. 9.

The screw rotor compressor according to FIGS. 1, 2 and 5 comprises two co-operating rotors 20 and 22, of which one, the male rotor 20, is provided with four convex lands 24 and intervening grooves 26 and co-operates with the other or female rotor 22 which is provided with six concave lands 28 and intervening grooves 30. The rotors 20, 22 are journalled in end walls 32 and 34 of the casing 36 of the compressor which for the rest comprises a jacket 38 encircling the rotors. The high pressure end wall 32 is made integral with the jacket in the form of a barrel portion 38 while the low pressure end wall is made separate.

The casing is provided with an inlet 40 with a low pressure port 42 to the working chamber 44 defined by the jacket 38 and the end walls 32 and 34 and with an outlet 46 with a high pressure port 48 from the working chamber 44 for the gas, for instance air, which is to be compressed in the machine. The low pressure port 42 is entirely axially arranged and has its opening edge 35 located radially inside the outer peripheries of the rotors to maintain a liquid film along the jacket wall 38. The low pressure port 42 and the high pressure port 48 are placed approximately diagonally opposite each other in the working chamber 44. In the case shown the low pressure port 42 is located upwardly and the high pressure port 48 downwardly in the casing 36. The invention,

however, is not limited to this placing but this can be varied according to known principles.

On the high pressure side along the intersection line between the two bores,'which provide the working chamber 44, the jacket 38 is provided with a hollow space 52 having a supply opening 54 through which liquid is supplied under pressure from a source of pressure liquid, not shown. Between the hollow space 52 and the working chamber 44 a plurality of passages 56 are provided along said intersection line, of which passages each one is directed at an oblique angle with respect to a transverse plane normal to the axes of the rotors through the mouth of the passage 56 into the working chamber 44 in a direction toward the high pressure port 48 and serves as an injection nozzle for the liquid supplied to the hollow space 52 through the supply opening 54.

In the casing 36 a second hollow space 58 is provided adjacent the high pressure end wall 32. This hollow space is provided with a supply opening 60 through which a liquid under pressure is supplied from a source of pressure liquid, not shown. Between the hollow space 58 and the working chamber 44, as is evident from FIG. 6, a plurality of passages 62 are provided each of which is directed at an oblique angle with respect to the plane of the end wall in a direction toward the high pressure port 48.

The machine operates in the following manner. Gaseous working medium enters through the inlet port 42 into two communicating grooves 26, 30 in the rotors 20, 22 on the low pressure side of the compressor. These two grooves form a suction chamber which is open to the inlet port and at its other end closed in that the lands 24, 28 leading in the direction of rotation of the one rotor intermesh with the groove on the other rotor, the volume of which chamber successively increases as the rotors revolve until the lands completely leave the grooves and instead seal against the high pressure end wall 32 of the casing. Working medium simultaneously and continuously flows in and fills the chamber.

When the grooves 24, 26 have opened to their maximum size they are closed relative the inlet port 42 in that two lands 24, 28 seal off the low pressure port 42. Said lands 24, 28 during the continued revolving of the rotors 20, 22 intermesh more and more and fill up the two grooves 26, 30 lying in front thereof in the direction of rotation simultaneously as to impart to the working medium a peripheral and axial movement towards the high pressure port 48. When the lands 24, 28 have closed the chamber formed by the both communicating grooves 26, 30 a compression begins of the quantity of working medium enclosed therein in that at the inlet end the lands 24, 28 more and more enter into the grooves 26, 30 while at their high pressure ends the grooves are sealed by means of the high pressure end wall 34 of the housing.

By means of the compression the pressure on the working medium is increased so that the latter tries to leak out through the clearances between the rotors 2t), 22 and the casing 36 and also between the rotors at their intermesh. This leakage acts as a gas flow in the direction from the high pressure port 48. In order to reduce this leakage liquid is injected into the working chamber 44 of the machine through the nozzles 56, 62. By this means the viscosity of the trapped working medium is altered so that the leakage is diminished. By means of injecting the liquid so that the liquid flow and the gas flow have opposite directions of movement the gas stream is retarded and thereby the leakage is still more reduced. The axial flow becomes particularly established within the range in which the lands 24, 28 and the grooves 26, 30 intermesh on account of which the liquid in order to counteract this flow preferably is injected at or adjacent to the line 50 of intersection between the two bores which each encircles a rotor.

In order to reduce the leakage through the clearance 4- between the ends of the rotors and the high pressure end wall 32 of the housing, liquid is injected in the same manner in this clearance through the nozzles 62 in a direction toward the high pressure port 48.

During the continued revolving of the rotors 20, 22 the chamber is opened towards the high pressure port 48 and the lands 24, 28 engage more and more from the low pressure end with the grooves 26, 30 upon which the working medium under pressure is forced out from the machine through the outlet 46 to a liquid separator, not shown, for recovering of the injection liquid which after cooling again by means of a pump, not shown, is injected into the machine.

Besides as sealing medium the injection medium serves as medium for direct cooling of the working medium and possibly also as lubricant between the rotors. By utilizing lubricant oil as injection liquid and by supplying the same in sufiioient quantity the male rotor can when so is desirable directly drive the male rotor without interconnecting synchronizing gears.

FIG. 3 shows another location of the passages between the hollow space 52 and the working chamber 44. According to this embodiment these passages 64 are arranged in two parallel rows on both sides of the intersection line 50 between the both bores of the working chamber 44. This design is particularly suitable when the line 50 of intersections and the portion adjacent thereto must be made use of for other purposes or if the amount of injected liquid is too large to permit injection only through a single row of openings.

FIG. 4 shows still another location of the passages 66 between the hollow space 52 and the working chamber 44. According to this design the passages are obliquely drilled in relation to the longitudinal plane of symmetry through the casing so that the passages 66 in the direction of injection incline towards the female rotor 22. This design of the injection passages 66 is particularly advantageous in combination with rotor profiles which, in the case of the male rotor 20 consist of substantially circular lands 24 located mainly outside the pitch circle of the rotor with intervening grooves 26, and which, in the case of the female rotor consist of substantially circular grooves 30 located mainly inside the pitch circle of the rotor with intervening lands 28. With such rotor profiles, blow openings are created along the intersection line 50 from one chamber to the adjacent chamber through which a gas flow directed towards the male rotor 20 is created. To counteract this gas flow it is advantageous to arrange the nozzles 66 for the fluid injection so that the injected liquid jets are counterdirected to this gas flow, viz. directed towards the male rotor in order to reduce the leakage created by this gas flow.

FIGS. 7 and 8 show an embodiment in which the injection passages 68 and 70 are formed with increased inclination to the transverse plane the more nearly the high pressure port 48 the holes are located. By means of that is attained that in spite of the counter pressure increasing towards the high pressure port 48 and the reduced absolute injection velocity of the liquid following therefrom, so can the velocity component directed towards the gas flow be kept at constant size. By means of this increasing inclination of the passages 68, 70 an equal effective sealing can be obtained in the entire machine.

FIGS. 9 to 11 show another varied detail design. According to this open the passages 72 in the high pressure end wall 32 into recesses 74 which in the direction of injection are form-ed with increasing radial width and decreasing axial depth. By means of these recesses 74 is attained that the jets of liquid ejected from the passages 72 when a rotor land 24, 28 covers the passages 72 diverge in radial direction so that a liquid film covering the entire radial length of the rotor land 24, 28 is created instead of a number of parallel separate liquid jets. For that reason seal-ing in this manner is obtained much more along the entire length of the rotor land 24, 28 than if the passages 72 had opened into a smooth high pressure end surface 32.

While suitable embodiments of apparatus for carrying the principles of the invention into effect have been disclosed by way of example, it will be understood that the invention embraces all forms of construction falling Within the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

1. A compressor of the screw rotor type for compressing elastic fluid comprising a casing structure providing a barrel portion having intersecting bores with coplanar axes and confined by end wall portions and further providing mainly diagonally located low pressure and high pressure ports communicating with said bores, male and female rotors provided with helical lands and intervening grooves rotatably mounted in said bores, the lands of the male rotor having convexly curved flanks the major portions of which lie outside the pitch circle of the male rotor and the grooves of the female rotor having concavely curved flanks the major portions of which lie inside the pitch circle of the female rotor, the lands and grooves of said rotors intermeshing to form with the casing structure chevron shaped working chambers each composed of communicating portions of a male rotor groove and a female groove joining at the apex end of the chamber and said apex end moving axially toward said high pressure port as the rotors revolve to decrease the volume of the chamber and effect compression of the fluid contents thereof, and means for injecting liquid under pressure into the working space provided by said bores, said means comprising passages extending through said casing structure on the high pressure side of the plane of said axes and terminating at their inner ends in openings for discharging liquid into said working space, said passages and openings being constructed and arranged so that the liquid is discharged from said openings obliquely with respect to a transverse plane normal to the axes of said rotors in a direction giving the liquid discharge from said openings a velocity component directed towards said high pressure port.

2. A compressor as defined in claim 1 in which said means for injecting liquid comprises a plurality of passages extending through the wall of the barrel portion of said casing structure and terminating in openings located in the area adjacent to and inclusive of the line of intersection between said bores on the high pressure side of said plane of the rotor axes.

3. A compressor as defined in claim 2 in which said openings are disposed in two longitudinally extending rows each in a different one of said bores and each adjacent to said line of intersection between the bores.

4. A compressor as defined in claim 2 in which said passages and openings are constructed and arranged to discharge the liquid obliquely with respect to a longitudinal central plane normal to the plane of said axes in a direction toward said female rotor.

5. A compressor as defined in claim 2 in which said' passages and openings are constructed and arranged so that the liquid discharged from an opening nearer said discharge port is discharged at a greater angle of inclination with respect to said transverse plane toward said port than is the liquid discharged from an opening more remote from said port.

6. A compressor as defined in claim 1 in which said means for injecting liquid comprises passages and openings located in the high pressure end wall of said casing structure.

7. A compressor as defined in claim 6 in which said passages and openings are constructed and arranged so that the liquid discharged from an opening nearer said discharge port is discharged at a gerater angle of inclination toward said port than is the liquid discharged from an opening more remote from said port.

8. A compressor as defined in claim 1, in which said openings are in the form of recesses of increasing radial width and decreasing axial depth in the direction of liquid flow through said openings.

-9. A compressor as defined in claim 2, in which additional means for injecting liquid are provided, said additional means comprising passages and openings located in the high pressure end wall portion of said casing structure.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,096,186 Nesmith May 12, 1914 1,379,248 Carrey May 24, 1921 1,439,628 Kien Dec. 19, 1922 1,451,859 Balcker Apr. 17, 1923 1,475,683 Carrey Nov. 27, 1923 1,672,571 Leonard June 5, 1928 1,673,260 Meston et al. June 12, 1928 1,675,524 Zajac July 3, 1928 1,765,724 Heil June 24, 1930 2,022,610 Wendell Nov. 26, 1935 2,243,874 Lysholm June 3, 1941 2,321,609 Marco June 15, 1943 2,455,297 Curtis et al Nov. 30, 1948 2,477,002 Paget July 26, 1949 2,620,968 Nilsson Dec. 9, 1952 2,789,512 Kremser Apr. 23, 1957 2,905,376 Davey Sept. 22, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS 220,581 Australia Feb. 25, 1959 16,476 Great Britain of 1895 704,110 Great Britain Feb. 17, 1954 495,119 Germany June 30, 1929 540,444 Germany Dec. 15, 1931

Claims (1)

1. A COMPRESSOR OF THE SCREW ROTOR TYPE FOR COMPRESSING ELASTIC FLUID COMPRISING A CASING STRUCTURE PROVIDING A BARREL PORTION HAVING INTERSECTING BORES WITH COPLANAR AXES AND CONFINED BY END WALL PORTIONS AND FURTHER PROVIDING MAINLY DIAGONALLY LOCATED LOW PRESSURE AND HIGH PRESSURE PORTS COMMUNICATING WITH SAID BORES, MALE AND FEMALE ROTORS PROVIDED WITH HELICAL LANDS AND INTERVENING GROOVES ROTATABLY MOUNTED IN SAID BORES, THE LANDS OF THE MALE ROTOR HAVING CONVEXLY CURVED FLANKS THE MAJOR PORTIONS OF WHICH LIE OUTSIDE THE PITCH CIRCLE OF THE MALE ROTOR AND THE GROOVES OF THE FEMALE ROTOR HAVING CONCAVELY CURVED FLANKS THE MAJOR PORTIONS OF WHICH LIE INSIDE THE PITCH CIRCLE OF THE FEMALE ROTOR, THE LANDS AND GROOVES OF SAID ROTORS INTERMESHING TO FORM WITH THE CASING STRUCTURE CHEVRON SHAPED WORKING CHAMBERS EACH COMPOSED OF COMMUNICATING PORTIONS OF A MALE ROTOR GROOVE AND A FEMALE GROOVE JOINING AT THE APEX END OF THE CHAMBER AND SAID APEX END MOVING AXIALLY TOWARD SAID HIGH PRESSURE PORT AS THE ROTORS REVOLVE TO DECREASE THE VOLUME OF THE CHAMBER AND EFFECT COMPRESSION OF THE FLUID CONTENTS THEREOF, AND MEANS FOR INJECTING LIQUID UNDER PRESSURE INTO THE WORKING SPACE PROVIDED BY SAID BORES, SAID MEANS COMPRISING PASSAGES EXTENDING THROUGH SAID CASING STRUCTURE ON THE HIGH PRESSURE SIDE OF THE PLANE OF SAID AXES AND TERMINATING AT THEIR INNER ENDS IN OPENINGS FOR DISCHARGING LIQUID INTO SAID WORKING SPACE, SAID PASSAGES AND OPENINGS BEING CONSTRUCTED AND ARRANGED SO THAT THE LIQUID IS DISCHARGED FROM SAID OPENINGS OBLIQUELY WITH RESPECT TO A TRANSVERSE PLANE NORMAL TO THE AXES OF SAID ROTORS IN A DIRECTION GIVING THE LIQUID DISCHARGE FROM SAID OPENINGS A VELOCITY COMPONENT DIRECTED TOWARDS SAID HIGH PRESSURE PORT.
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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3265293A (en) * 1959-09-08 1966-08-09 Svenska Rotor Maskiner Ab Vacuum pump of the screw rotor type and method for operating the same
US3307777A (en) * 1963-12-23 1967-03-07 Svenska Rotor Maskiner Ab Screw rotor machine with an elastic working fluid
US3574488A (en) * 1968-04-19 1971-04-13 Plenty & Son Ltd Screw pumps
US3575539A (en) * 1968-11-27 1971-04-20 United States Steel Corp Apparatus for suppressing vibration in a helical-rotor axial-flow compressor supplied with sealing water
FR2071903A5 (en) * 1969-12-22 1971-09-17 Kuehlautomat Veb Screw compressor
DE2119558A1 (en) * 1970-04-16 1971-10-28
US3945216A (en) * 1973-06-18 1976-03-23 Svenska Rotor Maskiner Aktiebolag Refrigeration systems
US4080119A (en) * 1974-06-24 1978-03-21 Sven Evald Eriksson Method and device for draining oil from the gear case of a compressor
US5273412A (en) * 1991-03-28 1993-12-28 Grasso's Koninklijke Machinefabrieken N.V. Lubricated rotary compressor having a cooling medium inlet to the delivery port
US5653585A (en) * 1993-01-11 1997-08-05 Fresco; Anthony N. Apparatus and methods for cooling and sealing rotary helical screw compressors
US5911743A (en) * 1997-02-28 1999-06-15 Shaw; David N. Expansion/separation compressor system
US6273696B1 (en) * 1997-06-11 2001-08-14 Sterling Fluid Systems (Germany) Gmbh Screw spindle vacuum pump and operating method
US20080286138A1 (en) * 2005-12-08 2008-11-20 Ghh Rand Schraubenkompressoren Gmbh Helical Screw Compressor Comprising a Cooling Jacket
US20090246054A1 (en) * 2005-12-08 2009-10-01 Ghh Rand Schraubenkompressoren Gmbh Three-Stage Screw Compressor

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GB189516476A (en) * 1895-09-03 1895-10-26 Hermann Grauel An Improved Rotary Motor.
US1096186A (en) * 1912-09-18 1914-05-12 American La France Fire Engine Company Inc Rotary pump.
US1475683A (en) * 1919-08-02 1923-11-27 Carrey Rotory Engine Company Rotary air compressor
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US2022610A (en) * 1933-01-20 1935-11-26 Evert J Wendell Pump
US2243874A (en) * 1934-10-16 1941-06-03 Milo Ab Rotary compressor
US2321609A (en) * 1939-12-16 1943-06-15 Marco Company Rotary pump
US2477002A (en) * 1942-07-25 1949-07-26 Joy Mfg Co Gear type air pump with changespeed gearing and lubrication
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Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3265293A (en) * 1959-09-08 1966-08-09 Svenska Rotor Maskiner Ab Vacuum pump of the screw rotor type and method for operating the same
US3307777A (en) * 1963-12-23 1967-03-07 Svenska Rotor Maskiner Ab Screw rotor machine with an elastic working fluid
US3574488A (en) * 1968-04-19 1971-04-13 Plenty & Son Ltd Screw pumps
US3575539A (en) * 1968-11-27 1971-04-20 United States Steel Corp Apparatus for suppressing vibration in a helical-rotor axial-flow compressor supplied with sealing water
FR2071903A5 (en) * 1969-12-22 1971-09-17 Kuehlautomat Veb Screw compressor
DE2119558A1 (en) * 1970-04-16 1971-10-28
US3931718A (en) * 1970-04-16 1976-01-13 Hall-Thermotank Products Ltd. Refrigerant screw compression with liquid refrigerant injection
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