US3045148A - Ignition system with transistor control - Google Patents

Ignition system with transistor control Download PDF

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US3045148A
US3045148A US3045148DA US3045148A US 3045148 A US3045148 A US 3045148A US 3045148D A US3045148D A US 3045148DA US 3045148 A US3045148 A US 3045148A
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potential
capacitor
diode
thyratron
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B41/00Circuit arrangements or apparatus for igniting or operating discharge lamps
    • H05B41/14Circuit arrangements
    • H05B41/30Circuit arrangements in which the lamp is fed by pulses, e.g. flash lamp
    • H05B41/32Circuit arrangements in which the lamp is fed by pulses, e.g. flash lamp for single flash operation

Description

y 1 1952 J. v. MCNULTY ET AL 3,045,148

IGNITION SYSTEM WITH TRANSISTOR CONTROL Filed Dec. 18, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 F76. HHS m 4 0 13 2 6 4% 5 we g, 8 5a T T 's llllllllll JOh/I l/Mc/Vu/fy Dav/d J Wr/ghf Afforney y 1962 J. v. MONULTY ET AL 3,045,148

IGNITION SYSTEM WITH TRANSISTOR CONTROL Filed Dec. 18, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Mme/Wars John M Ma Nuly Dav/dd, l l r/ %L 0 6/ By 50 T Attorney This invention relates to ignition apparatus of the capacitor discharge type, such as commonly used on jet and rocket engines.

Ignition apparatus for jet and rocket engines and the like is required to produce repeatedly spark discharges characterized by equalquantities of energy, in order that .the conditions for proper ignition at the igniter plug may be consistent from one ignition to the next. Most such engines are used on aircraft and are supplied with electrical energy from a battery or other source of limited capacity. The terminal voltage available from such a source varies with the age out the battery and with the magnitude of the load represented by other electrical devices which may be energized from the battery concurrently with the ignition apparatus. Other conditions may also affect the voltage available at the source. For example,

, in one type of installation, the ignition system is required to maintain a substantially constant energy of the spark discharge While the potential of the source varies over a range from 14 to 30 volts.

It is an object of the present invention to provide ignition apparatus producing sparks of substantially constant energy at an igniter over a considerable range of variation in the potential of the source of electrical energy.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved ignition apparatus of the capacitor discharge type.

A further object of the invention is to provide an improved arrangement for charging a capacitor to predetermined potential.

The foregoing and other objects of the invention are attained in the apparatus described herein, which includes a voltage doubler consisting of an inductance element and a capacitance element connected in series across a source of electrical. energy; means for discharging the capacitor of the voltage doubler in pulses comprising a transformer primary winding and a thyratron semiconductor device connected in series, and means for controlling the triggering potential of the thyratron semiconductor device in response to a control potential'varying concurrently with the potential across the capacitance element of the voltage doubler. The secondary winding of the transformer is connected in series with the main ignition capacitor and supplies a pulse charge to that capacitor with each triggering of the thyratron device. The energy stored on the main capacitor is delivered to the igniter whenever the potential across the main capacitor exceeds a predetermined value. 7

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from a consideration of the following specification and claims, taken together with the accompanying drawings.

In the drawings:

FIG. 1 is a wiring diagram of one form of ignition apparatus embodying our invention;

FIG. 2 is a graphical illustration of the variation in potential across the voltage doubler capacitor of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 illustrates a modification of the wiring diagram of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a graphical illustration showing the effect of the modification of FIG. 3 upon the potential variation across the voltage doubler capacitor;

FIGS. 5 to 9 are fragmentary Wiring diagrams illustrating further modifications of the circuit of FIG. 1;

ice

Patented July 17, 1962 FIG. 10 is a complete wiring diagram illustrating a further embodiment of the invention; Y

FIG. 10A is a wiring diagram illustrating another embodiment of the invention; and g FIG. 11 is a fragmentary wiring diagram illustrating a modification of the circuit of FIG. 10.

FIGURE 1 This figure illustrates an ignition system which is supplied with electrical energy from a battery 1. A voltage doubler comprisingan inductance element 2 and a capacitance element 3 in series is connected across the terminals ofthe battery 1. Across the terminals .of-the capacitor element 3 is connected a capacitor discharging circuit including a transformer primary winding4 and an anode. cathode path of a thyratron semiconductor device, shown as a controlled rectifier or thyratron transistor 5. The

controlled rectifier 5 has an anode 5a, a gate electrode or control electrode 512 and a-cathode 5c. A control potential deriving network including resistors 6 and 7 inseries is connected across the terminals of capacitance element 3. The common junction of the resistors 6 and 7 is connected through a wire 8 to the control electrode 5b.

The primary winding 4 is part of a transformer 9 having asecondary winding 10. A voltage doubler capacitor 11 is connected in series with a diode 12 across the terminals of the secondary winding 10. The diode 12 has its cathode connected to a junction 13, which is common OPERATION OF FIG. 1

Considering the condition in the circuit beginning at an instant when the capacitor 3 is completely discharged, current flowing through inductance 2 and capacitor 3 Will cause a potential to build up on the capacitor 3 to substantially twice the potential of the source 1. This phenomenon is well known and is commonly described as a voltage doubler action. The potential across capacitor 3 is applied across the terminals of the primary winding 4 and the anode-cathode path of the thyratron device 5 in series.

The thyratron device 5 is shown herein as a semi-conductor device of the type commonly referred to as a controlled rectifier or as a thyratron transistor. Such a device has a characteristic that its forward impedance, i.e., the impedance to. current flowing from. anode-to-cathode, is very high until one of two conditions occur. 'One of the two conditions is the occurrence of an anode-to-cathode current greater than a predetermined breakdown value. The other condition is the occurrence of a current greater than breakdown value between the control electrode and the cathode. Upon the occurrence of either of these two breakdown conditions, the forward impedance of the thyratron device 5 drops to a very'low value and stays at that low value until the anode-to-cathode current falls to a second value substantially lower than the sustaining value. In the'circuit of 'FIG. 1, device 5 is tripped fromits high impedance condition to its low impedance condition when the current between control electrode forward impedance'of thedevice 5 remains 'at its low value until the anode-to-cathode current is reduced to zero.

:Resistors 6 and 7 form a voltage divider to derive from the potential across the capacitor 3 a proportion of that potential which is applied through wire 8 to control electrode 5b as the control potential. The resistors 6 and 7 are chosen so that the thyratron device is triggered to its low impedance value when the potential across capacitance 3 approaches a value 2E, as shown in FIG. 2, B being the potential of the battery 1.

When the thyratron devie -5 is triggered, a pulse of current flows from capacitance 3 through the primary winding 4, a corresponding pulse being thereby induced in secondary winding 10. The latter pulse charges the capacitor 1 1. The polarity of the windings 4 and is indicated by the dots in the drawing. The pulse produced in the winding 10 has its positive polarity at the upper terminal of that winding. This pulse flows through capacitor 11, diode \14 and capacitor and tends to charge the capacitors 11 and 15. The pulse does not flow through diode '12, since diode 12 has its high impedance opposed to the pulse.

On the half-waves when the upper terminal of the secondary winding 10 is negative, current flows from that winding through the diode 12 and charges the capacitor 11 with its right-hand terminal positive. The winding 10 and capacitor 11 together act as a voltage doubler, to develop across the capacitor 11 a transient inverse potential equal to twice the applied potential. On the opposite half-waves, current fiow through the diode 12 is blocked but current can flow from winding 10 and capacitor 11, which now act as potential sources in series aiding, through diode 14 and capacitor 15, thereby charging capaciotr 15. When the charge on capacitor 15 exceeds a value determined by the breakdown potential of gap 16, that gap breaks down. Thereupon, substantially the full potential of capacitor 15 appears across the resistor 17 and gap 18 in parallel. The gap 18 in turn breaks down, whereupon the capacitor 15 discharges through it.

The discharging of the capacitor 5 is repeated each time that the charge on it builds up sufficiently to break down the gap '16.

The circuit goes through a series of pulse producing cycles as described above. Fig. 2 shows at the variation of potential across capacitor 3 during such cycles. During the capacitor discharging phase of each cycle, theinductance in the circuit tends to maintain the flow of current even after the capacitor is discharged, with the result that the capacitor begins to charge in the reverse direction, resulting in the negative excursion of potential appearing at 20b in FIG. 2. Eventually this reverse potential blocks the current flow through the thyratron device 5, which thereupon returns to its high impedance condition and the cycle begins again. During each of these cycles, a pulse of current charges the capacitors 11 and 15. Capacitor 11 cooperates with winding 10 to form a voltage doubler, so that capacitor 15 is charged at a higher potential. As the series of pulse cycles continues, the potential across the capacitor 15builds up in a seires of steps. The potential across storage capacitor 15 is applied across the sealed gap 16. There being then no current flow through resistor '17, susbtantially the full potential across capacitor 15 is applied across the sealed gap 16. The breakdown potential of the gap 16 is made somewhat higher than the breakdown potential of the igniter gap 18. When the potential of the charge on capacitor 15 exceeds the breakdown potential of the gap 16, the charge on capacitor 15 is discharged through the trigger gap 16 and the igniter gap 18. The gap 18 has a substantially lower impedance than the resistor 17 and takes substantially all the current flowing from the capacitor 15. The breaking down of the gaps 16 and 18 produces a low impedance path to the charge stored on the capacitor 11, and that charge now also flows through the gaps 16 and 18.

It may be seen that the circuit of FIG. 1 provides a series of spark discharges at the igniter 18. Each of those spark discharges is built up by a series of pulses of substantially equal energy applied to the capacitors 11 and 15, so that each spark discharge at the igniter gap 18 has substantially the same energy. Although the potential of the source 1 may vary, the characteristics of the thyratron device 5 do not vary. The breakdown control potential on electrode 5b, at which the thyratron device 5 shifts from its high impedance to its low impedance condition, is always the same, being determined by the characteristics of the device 5 and not by the charge stored on capacitor 3. The magnitude of the current pulses which charge the capacitors 11 and :15 is thereby made independent of the potential of the source. The trigger gap 16 consequently always breaks down after the same number of charging pulses and the charge built up on the capacitors 11 and 15 and discharged through the igniter gap 18 alawys has susbtantially the same energy.

FIGURES 3 AND 4 FIG. 3 illustrates a modification of the circuit of FIG. 1. In accordance with this modification a diode 19 has its anode connected to the cathode of the thyratron device 5, while its cathode is connected to the anode of the thyratron device 5. The presence of the diode 19 limits the reverse polarity potential across the controlled rectifier 5 to the forward impedance drop across diode 19. The operation as modified by diode 19 is illustrated by the curve 20A in FIG. 4. The diode 19 makes the potential from which the capacitor 3 starts to charge more positive. The current for recharging the capacitor 3 from the reverse potential value shown at 20b to a positive value must be supplied by battery 1. When the diode 19 is added as in FIG. 3, this reverse potential is smaller, so that the recharging current is smaller, and hence the circuit losses are lower. The etficiency of the circuit is thereby improved.

The presence of diode 19 also prevents any tendency to build up a potential on the capacitor 3 gradually over several cycles, because of incomplete discharge of the capacitor on each cycle.

FIGURE 5 This circuit is modified from that of FIG. 1 by the substitution of a saturable core transformer 21 in the control potential deriving network, in place of the resistors 6 and 7 of FIG. 1. Transformer 21 has a primary winding 22 and a secondary winding 23. Primary winding 22 is connected between the ungrounded terminal 24 of capacitor 3 and the control electrode 5b. Secondary winding 23 is connected between the anode ofthe diode 19 and ground.

OPERATION OF FIG. 5

During charging of thecapacitor 3 the secondary winding 23 is substantially open circuited, due to the diode 19, which has its high impedance in series with Winding 23. The current flowing through winding 22 and control electrode 5b increases as the charge on capacitor 3 increases, finally saturating the core of transformer 21, whereupon a pulse of current flows through control electrode 5b, setting off a discharge of capacitor 3 through the thyratron device 5. When the thyratron device 5 breaks down to its low impedance value, the capacitor 3 is discharged and the potential across it reverses as the magnetic field of the inductance 2 collapses. This reverse potential sends a high current through the secondary winding 23 and diode 19, resetting the core of transformer 21 by saturating it in the opposite sense, thereby restoring primary winding 22 to its high impedance condition.

FIGURE 6 a3 network including a resistor 26 and a capacitor 27. A switch 28 connects the time constant network in series between the junction 24 and'ground. The switch 28 is movable from the position shown to a second position in which the time constant network is connected across abattery 29.

OPERATION OF FIG. 6

The timing between the start of a cycle atzero potential across .capacitor 3 and the breaking down of the thyratron device 5 is controlled in FIG. 6 by the time characteristics of the network 26, 27 rather than by the time characteristics of the capacitor 3 itself. When the switch 28 is in its right hand position, as shown, the time characteristics of the network 26, 27 are superimposed on the time characteristics of the voltage doubler, i.e., the potential applied to the network 26, 27 is supplied from the capacitor 3. When the switch 28is thrown to its left-hand position, the triggering time of the thyratron device 5 is determined only by the time characteristics of the network 26, 27 and the potential ofthe battery 29. If this battery is provided to supply this network only, then its characteristics may be much more closely controlled and remain much more stable than the characteristics of the main battery 1 which supplies energy for the trigger gap and perhaps for other load devices.

The characteristics of the double base diode 25 are such that its impedance is high until such time as a predetermined potential is applied to control electrode 25c, at which time the impedance between the control electrode 250 and base 25b drops to a very low value. Capacitor 27 then discharges through this low impedance, producing an output pulse.

FIGURE 7 This figure illustrates a modification of the circuit of FIG. 6- and shows a different arrangement for supplying potential to the terminals of the time constant network 26, 27. In FIG. 7, the battery 1 is used tosupply current through a resistor 31 and a reverse biased diode 32. The diode'32 is of the Zener voltage type and has aces, 14s

the increased energy per pulse due to the increased battery potential.

FIGURE 8 This figure shows a modification of the circuit of FIG. 7, in which a resistor 33 is added between the Zener diode 32 and the terminfls of the time constant network. This circuit, by virtue of the potential drop due to current flowing in resistor 33, varies the potential applied to the time constant network as a function of the battery potential. In other words, an increase in the battery potential increases the potential applied to the time constant network and consequently makes the capacitor 27 charge toits tripping value in a shorter time.

It has been found that the circuit of FIG. 7 tends to overcompensate for an increase in battery potential. In other words, as the battery potential increases, it slows down the pulse rate so much that the power output is actually decreased. In order to correct that unbalance, the resistor 33 has been added in the circuit of FIG. 8. Be-

1 cause of the resistor 33, the potential across the time con stant network 26, 27 is not fixed, but increases with an increase in the potential of battery 1, due to the potential drop across resistor 33. By properly balancing the potential drop across resistor 33 with respect to the potential across battery I, the circuit of FIG. 8 may be made to compensate for the changes in the battery potential,

, soias to maintain a close control of the power output,

a high impedance in its reverse direction until a predeter-v mined potential is exceeded. The impedance then becomes very low and efiectively fixes the potential at that predetermined value. The potential across the diode 32 and hence across the time constant network is thereby fiXed at a ,very definite value.- v i i The ideal operation in circuits of the type disclosed herein is to maintain'the power delivered to capacitor 15 substantially constant, regardless of changes in the potential of the battery 1. An increase in the potential of battery 1 tends to increase the energy output per pulse of the capacitor 3. A compensating elitect'may be provided by arranging the triggering system which times the pulses from the capacitor 3 so that an increase in the battery potential tends to decrease the pulse rate. If the decrease in the pulse rate exactly balances the increase in the energy per pulse, then a substantially constant power output may be produced, even though the battery potential changes. u

In the circuit of FIG. 7, the battery potential is applied across the base electrodes 25a and 25b of the double base diode 25. An increase in this potential requires a higher potential on the control electrode 250 to trip the double base diode to its low impedance value. The potential of control electrode 250 is determined by the time constant network 26, 27, which is now supplied by the constant potential across diode 32. Capacitor 27 therefore charges at the same rate, regardless of changes in the potential of battery 1. However, since an increase in the battery potential requires a higher potential at electrode 250 to trip the double base diode, a longer charging time for capacitor 27 is required. before the diode 25 trips.

The pulse rate is thereby reduced to compensate for at least over limited ranges of variation in the potential of battery 1.

As a further alternative, the voltage dividers of FIGS. 7 and 8 may be connected across capacitor 3 instead of across battery 1.

FIGURE 9 is determined by the characteristics of the Zener diode 34.

FIGURE 10 This circuit is considerably modified from the previous circuits, particularly in the potential supply for the time constant network which controls the discharge times, the connections of the diode 19, and in the circuitry connected to the secondary winding 10.

The potential supply for the time constant network '26, 27 is obtained through a filter including an inductance element 35 and a capacitance element 36 connected in parallel with the voltage doubler 2, 3 but otherwise independent of it. The potential appearing across capacitor 36 is applied to a voltage divider network including resistor 37 and resistor 38 and a Zener voltage diode 39 similar to the network shown in FIG. 8 above. Thevoltage divider network 37, 38, 39 is utilized to control the variation of outputpower with changes in the batteryvoltage. The variation may be controlled over a wide range, using the principles discussed above in connection with FIG. 8. The potential across the resistor 38 and diode 39 in series is appliedacross the time constant network 26, 27. The junction between inductance 35 and capacitor 36 is also connected through a'resistor 40 to the base 25a of the double base diode 25. By virtue of these arrangements, the time intervals at which the thyratron device 5 is triggered are determined by the time constant network and are not aifeoted by transient conditions existing in the main spark energy supply circuit. The elements used in the control volt-age deriving network, may, therefore, be more precisely selected and controlled as to their impedance values, since they do not have to carry the heavier potential on capacitor 3, so that the losses in the circuit are decreased. The utilization of the energy from the capacitor 3 is thereby made considerably more efiicient. The circuit through the secondary winding 10 includes a diode 42, a capacitor 43' and a resistor 44 in series. Diode 42 acts as a half-wave rectifier, to determine the polarity of the charge on capacitor 43. An igniter gap 45 of the semiconductor type is connected across the resistor 44. A trigger gap 46 is connected between ground and the common junction of diode 42 and capacitor 43.

The energy to be discharged at the gap 45 is stored on the capacitor 43. When the potential on capacitor 43 exceeds the breakdown potential of the sealed gap 46, the energy on the capacitor 43 is discharged through a circuit consisting only of that capacitor and the gaps 45 and 46.

FIGURE 10A The circuit shown in this figure is based on that in FIG. 10, but has been improved by the addition of several elements. This is the presently preferred embodiment of the'invention.

The elements added in this figure include a diode 70, a transformer 71 having a primary winding 72 and a secondary winding 73, a diode 74, a capacitor 75', a capacitor 76, a diode 77, and a resistor 78.

Diode 70 is eifective to hold the charge on capacitor 3 if it reaches full charge before the triggering pulse is applied to the thyratron device 5.

Transformer 71 is a step-up transformer, and is effectiveatlower voltages to improve the tripping or starting characteristics. That is to say, it permits the circuit to trigger the transistor at a lower voltage of battery 1.

Diode 74 prevents reverse potential due to overshoot in transformer 71 from reaching the control electrode 5b of thyratron device 5.

Capacitor 75 provides a minimum capacitive load for thyratron device 5, and thereby prevents certain undesirable conditions which might otherwise occur in the case of an open circuit or high resistance load on the secondary winding 10. Such an open circuit condition would increase the impedance of primary winding 4 to the capacitor discharge current to a very high value, which would tend to delay the capacitordischarge and spread out the charging pulse. The capacitor 65 establishes a maximum impedance limit on the primary winding 4, and ensures that capacitor 3 will discharge on each pulse.

Capacitor 76 and diode 77 cooperate with secondary winding to form a voltage doubler, functioning in a manner generally similar to the capacitor 11 and diode 12 of FIG. 1.

Resistor 78 is provided to protect diodes 77 and 42 from overcurrents in the forward direction which might occur during oscillatory discharges through the gap 45.

FIGURE 11 The circuit illustrated in FIG. 11 shows a different form of mechanism for controlling the potential supplied to the control electrode 5b of the controlled rectifier 5. This circuit is in other respects similar to that shown and described in FIG. 10. Those elements which correspond, both as to structure and function, to their counterparts in FIG. 10, have been given the same reference numerals.

The circuitry for supplying a potential to control electrode 5b includes a first voltage divider connected across the terminals of the battery 1 and traceable through a resistor 46a, a resistor- 47, a capacitor 48,'and a transformer winding 49 to ground at 50. A capacitor 51 is connected in'parallel with resistor 46a. A second voltage divider is also connected across the battery l-and includes resistors 52 and 53 in series. A capacitor 54 is connected across the resistor 53.

A transistor 55 has an emitter electrode 55a, a base electrode 55b, and a collector electrode 55c. In the preseut circuit, the base serves as the input electrode, the emitter as the output electrode, and the collector as the common electrode. Collector 55c is connected to the junction 56 between resistors 46 and 47. Base electrode 55b is connected to the opposite terminal of resistor 47. Emitter electrode 55a is connected through a secondary winding 57 of a transformer 58 to the common junction 59 of resistors 52 and 53. Transformer 58 has an output winding 60 having one terminal connected to ground and the other connected through a wire 61 to the control electrode 5b. A Zeuer diode 62 is connected between junction 56 and ground.

FIGURE 11-OPERAT'ION to the igniter 45 substantially constant, the triggering sys- V tern which times the pulses from the capacitor 3 is made to respond to an increase in the battery potential in such a manner as to decrease the pulse rate. The increase in energy per pulse is compensated by the decrease in pulse rate, resulting in a substantially constant power output.

The circuit, including transistor 55, transformer 58, and related elements may be described as a blocking oscillator. It operates to apply periodically to the control electrode 5b potentials which are effective to trigger the controlled rectifier 5 to its low impedance value, thereby producing an output pulse through the transformer 9.

The transistor 55 is shown as an NPN type, so that it is held off by an emitter potential more positive than the base potential, and is turned on by an emitter potential more negative than the base potential.

The Zener diode 62 fixes the potential at junction 56 and collector 55c with respect to ground. The impedances of resistors 52 and 53 are selected so that when the transistor is not conducting the junction 59 is negative with respect to junction 56.

When power is first applied to the circuit, emitter 55e is substantially at the potential of junction 59, since there is then no current flow through or potential induced in the winding 57. Base 55b is connected through the uncharged capacitor 48 to ground, there being substantially no potential across winding 49. Base 55b is therefore more negative than emitter 55a, and the transistor is off. The capacitor 48 immediately starts to charge through resistors 46 and 47, and its terminal nearest the resistor 47 swings in a positive sense, eventually becoming more positive than the potential of emitter 552, whereupon the transistor starts to conduct. I

As the current flow through emitter 552 increases, it passes through primary winding 57, inducing a potential in secondary winding 49 of a polarity tending to charge capacitor 48 reversely, i.e., with its lower terminal positive. This charging current flows through base 55b and tends to drive the transistor to conduct more strongly. Finally, the charge on capacitor 48 reaches a condition of balance with the potential across secondary winding 49, and the charging current stops. The potential stored on capacitor 48 is then etfective to swing base 55b in a negativesense, thereby cutting off the transistor 55. Current then stops flowing through winding 57. The charge on capacitor 48 then holds the transistor off until that charge is dissipated by current supplied through resistors 46 and 47. The cycle then repeats. The pulse of current in winding 57 induces a potential in winding 60, where it is eliective to control the thyratron device 5.

If the potential of battery 1 increases, the potential of 9 v a junction 59 swings more positive, while the potential of junction 56 remains fixed at a value morepositive than junction 59. The emitter potential, when the transistor is ofif, is substantially the same as that of junction 56. Hence, in order to turn the transistor on, the capcitor 48 must charge to a more positive potential to make the base 55b more positive than emitter 55a This charging of capacitor 48 to a higher potential takes a longer time, with a consequent decrease in the rate of supply of tripping pulses to the thyratron device 5. The increase in pulse energy is compensated by the decrease in the pulse rate, so that the power output remains substantially constant.

While I have described the operation of the invention, with respect to its constant power output characteristics, in terms of an increase in battery potential, it should be apparent that a decrease in battery potential produces an analogous but reverse operation, with a compensating increase in the pulse frequency, and a similar ultimate result, i.e., constant power output spark energy at the igniter.

Resistor 46a is provided to limit the current flow 7 through the diode 62.

Capacitor 51 provides a low impedance path to alternating cur-rent, so that resistor 46a does not limit the operation of the blocking oscillator. Capacitor 54 provides a similar alternating current by-pass around resistor 53, so that during pulsing of the blocking oscillator, resistors 46 and 53 are by-passed, and the full battery potential is effective between the emitter and collector of the transistor. 1

The following table shows a suggested set of values which will work in the circuit of FIG. 11. Obviously, the invention is not limited to any of these values.

Table Resistor 46a ohms 500 Resistor 47 do 4000 Capacitor 48 mfd 0.1 Resistor 52. ..ohms 10,000 Resistor 53 .do 1,000

It should be understood that the. circuits shown and described maintain the power output to capacitor 15 substantially constant only over a limited range of variation of the potential of battery 1. Given a particular range of source potential, however, it is easy to design a circuit following the invention which will hold the power output constant.

While we have shown and described certain preferred embodiments of our invention, other modifications thereof will readily occur to those skilled in the art, and we therefore intend our invention to be limited only by the appended claims.

We claim: v

1. Capacitor charging apparatus COIIlPl'lSlllg a source of unidirectional electrical energy, an inductance element and a capacitance element connected in series across the source, a transformer having a primary winding and a secondary winding, a thyratron semiconductor device having an anode, a cathode, and a gate electrode, means connecting the primary Winding and the anode-cathode path of the thyratron semiconductor device in series across the capacitance element, a capacitor to be charged, an asymmetrically conductive device, means connecting the capacitor and the asymmetrically condutcive device in series across the secondary winding, means for deriving a control potential varying concurrently with the potential across the capacitance element, and means connecting the control potential deriving means to the'gate electrode to trigger a pulse discharge through the thyratron semiconductor device whenever the capacitance element is charged to a predetermined potential, whereby thecapacitor is charged by repeated pulses of substantially equal energy; an electric'circuit branch connected in parallel with the electric path through the anode and cathode of the thyratron semiconductor device, and a diode connected in said branch and having its anode and cathode respectively connected to the cathode and anode of the thyratron semiconductor device, said circuit branch being effective after each discharge of the capacitance element through the thyratron semiconductor device to pass an oscillatory current of the opposite polarity.

2. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 1, including means directly and conductively connecting the anode and cathode of the diode respectively to the cathode and anode of the thyratron semiconductor device.

3. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 1, in which said circuit branch includes an inductor in series with the diode, and means connecting the terminals of the branch to the respective terminals of the capacitance element.

4. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 1, in which said control potential deriving means comprises a saturable core transformer having a primary winding and a secondary winding; said means connecting the control potential to the gate electrode connects the primary Winding of the saturable core transformer between the gate electrode and the terminal of the first-mentioned transformer primary winding farthest from the thyratron semiconductor device, and said branch circuit includes the secondary winding of the saturable core transformer in series with the diode.

5. Capacitor charging apparatus comprising a source of unidirectional electrical energy, an inductance element and a capacitance element connected in series across the source, a transformer having a primary winding and a secondary Winding, a thyratron semiconductor device having an anode, a cathode, and a gate electrode, means connecting the primary winding and the anode-cathode path of the thyratron semiconductor device in series across the capacitance element, a capacitor to be charged, an asymmetrically conductive device, means connecting the capacitor and the asymmetrically conductive device in series across the secondary winding, means for deriving a control potential varying concurrently with the potential across the capacitance element, and means connecting the control potential deriving means to the gate electrode to trigger a pulse discharge through the thyratron semiconductor device whenever the capacitance element is charged to a predetermined potential, whereby the capacitor is charged by repeated pulses of substantially equal energy; said control potential deriving means comprises a double base diode having two base electrodes and a control electrode, means connecting one base electrode to the terminal of the transformer winding farthest from the thyratron semiconductor device, a time constant network comprising a resistor and a capacitor in series, andmeans connecting the common terminal of the resistor and capacitor to the control electrode; and said means connecting the control potential deriving means to the gate electrode comprises a connection between the other base electrode and the gate electrode.

6. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 5, in which said control potential deriving means includes a separate source of electrical energy, and means connecting said time constant network across the separate source.

7. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 5, in which said control potential deriving means includes means connecting the time constant network across the capacitance element.

8. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 5, in which said network includes a second resistor and a diode in series, and means connecting the first-mentioned resistor andthe capacitor in series across the diode.

9. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 5, in which said network includes a second resistor, a third resistor and a 'diode connected in series, and means con- 1 2t necting the first-mentioned resistor and the capacitor across the third resistor and the diode.

l0. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 9, in which said network includes filter comprising a second inductance element and a second capacitance element connected in series across the source, and the second and third resistors and the diode are connected in series across the second capacitance element.

11. Capacitor charging apparatus comprising a source of unidirectional electrical energy, an inductance element and a capacitance element connected in series with the source, a transformer having a primary winding and a secondary winding, a thyratron semiconductor device having an anode, a cathode, and a gate electrode, means connecting the primary winding and the anode-cathode path of the thyratron semiconductor device in series across the capacitance element, a capacitor to be charged, an asymmetrically conductive device, means connecting the capacitor and the asymmetrically conductive device in series across the secondary winding, means connected across the source in parallel with the series-connected inductance and capacitance elements for deriving a control potential varying concurrently with the potential across the capacitance element, and means connecting the control potential deriving means to the gate electrode to trigger a pulse discharge through the thyratron semiconductor device whenever the capacitance element is charged to a predetermined potential.

12. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 11, wherein said control potential deriving means comprises a second inductance element and a second capacitance element connected in series across the source, and a time constant network connected between the common terminal of said second inductance and second capacitance elements and one terminal of said source.

13. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 11, in which said control potential deriving means includes a blocking oscillator.

14. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 13, in which said control potential deriving means comprises two voltage dividers connected across said source, and said blocking oscillator comprises a transistor having input, output and common electrodes, a transformer having a primary winding, an output secondary winding and a feedback secondary winding, means including said primary winding connecting said transistor output electrode to a point on one of said voltage dividers, means including said feedback winding connecting the input electrode of the transistor to one terminal of said source, means connecting the common electrode of the transistor to the other voltage divider, and means connecting the output secondary winding to the gate electrode of the thyratron semiconductor device.

15. Capacitor charging apparatus comprising a source of unidirectional electrical energy, an inductance element and a capacitance element connected in series across the source, a transformer having a primary Winding and a secondary winding, a thyratron semiconductor device having an anode, a cathode, and a gate electrode, means connecting the primary winding and the anode-cathode path of the thyratron semiconductor device in series across the capacitance element, a capacitor to be charged, an asymmetrically conductive device, means connecting the capacitor and the asymmetrically conductive device in series across the secondary winding, means for deriving a control potential varying concurrently with the potential across the capacitance element, and means connecting the control potential deriving means to the gate electrode to trigger a pulse discharge through the thyratron semiconductor device Whenever the capacitance element is charged to a predetermined potential, whereby the capacitor is charged by repeated pulses of substantially equal energy; said control potential deriving means comprising a double base diode having two base electrodes and a control electrode, means connecting one base electrode to the terminal -of the transformer winding farthest from the thyratron semiconductor device, a time constant network comprising a resistor and a capacitor in series, and means con necting the common terminal of the resistor and capacitor to the control electrode; and said means connecting the control potential deriving means to the gate electrode comprises a step-up transformer having a primary winding connected between the other base electrode and a common terminal and a secondary winding connected between the common terminal and the gate electrode.

16. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 15, including a diode connected in parallel with the secondary winding and poled to block passage of current to the gate electrode due to overshoot of the transformer.

17. Capacitor charging apparatus comprising a source of unidirectional electrical energy, an inductance element and a capacitance element connected in series across the source, a transformer having a primary winding and a secondary winding, a thyratron semiconductor device having an anode, a cathode, and a gate electrode, means connecting the primary winding and the anode-cathode path of the thyratron semiconductor device in series across the capacitance element, a capacitor to be charged, an asymmetrically conductive device, means connecting the capacitor and the asymmetrically conductive device in series across the secondary winding, means for deriving a control potential varying concurrently with the potential across the capacitance element, and means connecting the control potential deriving means to the gate electrode to trigger a pulse discharge through the thyratron semiconductor device whenever the capacitance element is charged to a predetermined potential, whereby the capacitor is charged by repeated pulses of substantially equal energy; a second capacitor connected in parallel with the secondary winding and effective to provide a substantial capacitive load on the thyratron semiconductor device under high impedance conditions in said series connecting means.

18. Capacitor charging apparatus as defined in claim 11, in which said control potential deriving means includes control pulse producing means, and means responsive to the source potential for varying the rate of production of control pulses to reduce said' rate as the source potential increases and increase said rate as the source potential decreases.

l9. Capacitor charging apparatus, comprising a source of unidirectional electrical energy, an inductance element and a capacitance element connected in series across the source, a transformer having a primary-winding and a secondary winding, a thyratron semiconductor device having an anode, a cathode, and a gate electrode, means connecting the primary winding and the anode-cathode path of the thyratron semiconductor device in series across the capacitance element, a capacitor to be charged, an asymmetrically conductive device, means connecting the capacitor and the asymmetrically conductive device in series across the secondary winding, a diode connected between the gate electrode and the terminal of the transformer primary winding farthest from the thyratron semiconductor device, said diode being poled to present its high impedance to the potential across the capacitance element, said diode being effective when the last-mentioned potential exceeds the breakdown potential of the diode to transmit a trigger pulse to the gate electrode and thereby to trigger a pulse discharge through the thyratron semiconductor device whenever the capacitance element is charged to the diode breakdown potential, whereby the capacitor is charged by repeated pulses of substantially equal energy.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,027,617 Randolph Jan. 14, 1936 (Gther references on following page) 14 2,907,929 Lawson Oct. 6, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,054,505 Germany Apr. 23, 1959 OTHER REFERENCES Transistor Power Supplies, by L. H. Light, Wireless World, December 1955; pages 582 to 586.

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US3120620A (en) * 1962-06-07 1964-02-04 Gen Electric Pulse circuit
US3153155A (en) * 1962-10-04 1964-10-13 Rett Electronics Inc Solid state ignitor employing inverter circuit to drive firing circuit
US3171011A (en) * 1961-03-31 1965-02-23 Ksm Products Inc Stud welding device
US3184653A (en) * 1960-10-06 1965-05-18 Texas Instruments Inc Switching circuits
US3223887A (en) * 1962-06-29 1965-12-14 Bendix Corp Electrical apparatus
US3231833A (en) * 1963-09-30 1966-01-25 Gen Electric Self-starting transistor oscillator circuits
US3240198A (en) * 1962-01-12 1966-03-15 Bendix Corp Electrical apparatus
US3248604A (en) * 1962-01-09 1966-04-26 James R Richards Fuel ignition system preventing radio frequency interference
US3251351A (en) * 1963-10-14 1966-05-17 Shell Oil Co Electronic ignition system
US3263151A (en) * 1962-07-02 1966-07-26 Gen Electric Power supply for x-ray apparatus
US3273076A (en) * 1961-01-23 1966-09-13 Philips Corp Self-generating inverter with controlled semi-conductor rectifiers
US3281643A (en) * 1962-07-02 1966-10-25 Gen Electric X-ray resonant transformer power supply
US3294076A (en) * 1964-08-03 1966-12-27 Ford Motor Co Ignition system
US3296498A (en) * 1963-05-14 1967-01-03 Automatic Switch Co Voltage sensing relay system
US3302128A (en) * 1964-11-18 1967-01-31 Hoffman Electronics Corp Controlled rectifier relaxation oscillator
US3302058A (en) * 1964-03-23 1967-01-31 John H Otteman Capacitive discharge ignition system capable of multiple sparking at slow-engine speeds
US3303385A (en) * 1964-02-11 1967-02-07 Stewart Warner Corp Ignition unit
US3306275A (en) * 1964-11-09 1967-02-28 Motorola Inc Electronic apparatus
US3306274A (en) * 1964-07-23 1967-02-28 Westinghouse Electric Corp Ignition circuits using gate controlled switches
US3308801A (en) * 1964-07-23 1967-03-14 Westinghouse Electric Corp Capacitive discharge ignition system
US3316448A (en) * 1965-10-15 1967-04-25 Eltra Corp Contactless ignition system
US3329838A (en) * 1964-06-09 1967-07-04 Ideal Ind Capacitor operated scr switching circuit
US3332031A (en) * 1965-03-22 1967-07-18 Monsanto Co Free-running gate controlled switch generator with disabling switch
US3334270A (en) * 1964-09-04 1967-08-01 Gen Electric Discharge lamp circuit
US3335320A (en) * 1965-02-24 1967-08-08 Wagner Electric Corp Ignition circuit with voltage regulator
US3383553A (en) * 1965-09-27 1968-05-14 Rotax Ltd Spark ignition apparatus
US3384439A (en) * 1966-04-05 1968-05-21 Fenwal Inc Pulsed spark gas ignition and flame monitoring system
US3387177A (en) * 1965-03-09 1968-06-04 Navy Usa High rise thyratron pulse supply
US3387187A (en) * 1965-10-27 1968-06-04 Int Rectifier Corp Electrical driving circuit for solenoid-actuated counter
US3393039A (en) * 1966-05-11 1968-07-16 Emerson Electric Co Burner control system
US3413569A (en) * 1967-05-19 1968-11-26 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Repetitively operating thyristor switch circuit with rapid turn-off action
US3424945A (en) * 1967-03-27 1969-01-28 Mid Continent Mfg Co Controlled capacitor-discharge gas turbine ignition system
US3424944A (en) * 1966-11-09 1969-01-28 Ford Motor Co Electronic ignition system using multiple thyristors
US3437876A (en) * 1962-07-12 1969-04-08 Gianni A Dotto Automotive semiconductor ignition control apparatus
US3441873A (en) * 1967-08-11 1969-04-29 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Thyristor switch circuit having diode controlled firing means
US3461345A (en) * 1961-06-13 1969-08-12 Lucas Industries Ltd Spark ignition systems
US3463963A (en) * 1967-12-28 1969-08-26 Controls Co Of America Spark ignition circuit
US3507213A (en) * 1966-10-14 1970-04-21 English Electric Computers Ltd High speed flying hammer solenoid systems
US3510725A (en) * 1968-12-16 1970-05-05 Honeywell Inc Ignition circuit for an arc discharge lamp
US3523211A (en) * 1968-12-12 1970-08-04 Kazuo Oishi Condenser-discharge ignition system with a silicon control rectifier
US3539832A (en) * 1964-04-27 1970-11-10 Ncr Co Switching means employing unidirectional signal translating device
US3553526A (en) * 1969-12-03 1971-01-05 Philips Corp High frequency generator for the ignition of a discharge lamp
US3584929A (en) * 1969-12-29 1971-06-15 Motorola Inc Spark duration for capacitor discharge ignition systems
US3671805A (en) * 1970-01-09 1972-06-20 Motorola Inc Ignition system
US3673436A (en) * 1971-12-06 1972-06-27 Honeywell Inc Late phase firing switching circuit
US3736913A (en) * 1971-06-08 1973-06-05 P Crisafulli Inductor current relay switch
US3782353A (en) * 1970-10-06 1974-01-01 Bosch Gmbh Robert Capacitive type ignition arrangement for internal combustion engines
US3809044A (en) * 1971-01-22 1974-05-07 Outboard Marine Corp Capacitor triggered ignition system
US3813581A (en) * 1973-09-21 1974-05-28 Cam Stat Inc Spark igniter for a plurality of gas burners
US3818277A (en) * 1973-04-10 1974-06-18 Braun Ag Start device for battery igniter
US3824432A (en) * 1972-09-06 1974-07-16 Braun Ag Battery igniter
US3849670A (en) * 1973-04-13 1974-11-19 Webster Electric Co Inc Scr commutation circuit for current pulse generators
US3868552A (en) * 1973-11-05 1975-02-25 Garrett Corp Electrical circuit and interrupter
US3882421A (en) * 1972-05-25 1975-05-06 Honeywell Inc Low power pulse generator
US3889160A (en) * 1972-09-06 1975-06-10 Braun Ag Spark-producing arrangement for a lighter with a battery
US3890579A (en) * 1974-03-04 1975-06-17 Itt Ignition system and components thereof
US3982518A (en) * 1971-10-14 1976-09-28 Fournitures Internationales De Materieles Electroniques Electronic ignition device for internal combustion engines
US4038560A (en) * 1972-11-03 1977-07-26 Newman James L Pulse shaping circuit for shrimp fishing apparatus load
US4103659A (en) * 1974-08-05 1978-08-01 Donigian Donald S Ignition system
US4104970A (en) * 1977-02-10 1978-08-08 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Electronic ignition system for liquid explosive
US4141297A (en) * 1976-05-04 1979-02-27 M.L. Aviation Company Limited Ignition circuits
US4177782A (en) * 1976-11-01 1979-12-11 Hitachi, Ltd. Ignition system providing sparks for two ignition plugs in each cylinder from a single ignition coil
US4296688A (en) * 1978-09-05 1981-10-27 S.A. Prb Societe Anonyme Electric circuit for firing a detonator
US4332098A (en) * 1978-08-11 1982-06-01 Centre Stephanois De Recherches Mecaniques Hydromecanique Et Frottement Electric control weapon, operation and ammunition therefor
US4463744A (en) * 1980-03-07 1984-08-07 Hitachi, Ltd. Distributorless ignition system with surge absorbing means and apparatus therefor
US4833369A (en) * 1987-10-14 1989-05-23 Sundstrand Corp. Constant spark rate ignition exciter
US5561350A (en) * 1988-11-15 1996-10-01 Unison Industries Ignition System for a turbine engine
US5754011A (en) * 1995-07-14 1998-05-19 Unison Industries Limited Partnership Method and apparatus for controllably generating sparks in an ignition system or the like
US6374816B1 (en) 2001-04-23 2002-04-23 Omnitek Engineering Corporation Apparatus and method for combustion initiation
US6559376B2 (en) 1996-09-30 2003-05-06 Nology Engineering, Inc. Combustion initiation device and method for tuning a combustion initiation device
US6670777B1 (en) 2002-06-28 2003-12-30 Woodward Governor Company Ignition system and method
US20050276000A1 (en) * 2004-06-15 2005-12-15 Wilmot Theodore S Solid state turbine engine ignition exciter having elevated temperature operational capabiltiy

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Cited By (77)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3184653A (en) * 1960-10-06 1965-05-18 Texas Instruments Inc Switching circuits
US3273076A (en) * 1961-01-23 1966-09-13 Philips Corp Self-generating inverter with controlled semi-conductor rectifiers
US3171011A (en) * 1961-03-31 1965-02-23 Ksm Products Inc Stud welding device
US3461345A (en) * 1961-06-13 1969-08-12 Lucas Industries Ltd Spark ignition systems
US3248604A (en) * 1962-01-09 1966-04-26 James R Richards Fuel ignition system preventing radio frequency interference
US3240198A (en) * 1962-01-12 1966-03-15 Bendix Corp Electrical apparatus
US3120620A (en) * 1962-06-07 1964-02-04 Gen Electric Pulse circuit
US3223887A (en) * 1962-06-29 1965-12-14 Bendix Corp Electrical apparatus
US3263151A (en) * 1962-07-02 1966-07-26 Gen Electric Power supply for x-ray apparatus
US3281643A (en) * 1962-07-02 1966-10-25 Gen Electric X-ray resonant transformer power supply
US3437876A (en) * 1962-07-12 1969-04-08 Gianni A Dotto Automotive semiconductor ignition control apparatus
US3153155A (en) * 1962-10-04 1964-10-13 Rett Electronics Inc Solid state ignitor employing inverter circuit to drive firing circuit
US3296498A (en) * 1963-05-14 1967-01-03 Automatic Switch Co Voltage sensing relay system
US3231833A (en) * 1963-09-30 1966-01-25 Gen Electric Self-starting transistor oscillator circuits
US3251351A (en) * 1963-10-14 1966-05-17 Shell Oil Co Electronic ignition system
US3303385A (en) * 1964-02-11 1967-02-07 Stewart Warner Corp Ignition unit
US3302058A (en) * 1964-03-23 1967-01-31 John H Otteman Capacitive discharge ignition system capable of multiple sparking at slow-engine speeds
US3539832A (en) * 1964-04-27 1970-11-10 Ncr Co Switching means employing unidirectional signal translating device
US3329838A (en) * 1964-06-09 1967-07-04 Ideal Ind Capacitor operated scr switching circuit
US3306274A (en) * 1964-07-23 1967-02-28 Westinghouse Electric Corp Ignition circuits using gate controlled switches
US3308801A (en) * 1964-07-23 1967-03-14 Westinghouse Electric Corp Capacitive discharge ignition system
US3294076A (en) * 1964-08-03 1966-12-27 Ford Motor Co Ignition system
US3334270A (en) * 1964-09-04 1967-08-01 Gen Electric Discharge lamp circuit
US3306275A (en) * 1964-11-09 1967-02-28 Motorola Inc Electronic apparatus
US3302128A (en) * 1964-11-18 1967-01-31 Hoffman Electronics Corp Controlled rectifier relaxation oscillator
US3335320A (en) * 1965-02-24 1967-08-08 Wagner Electric Corp Ignition circuit with voltage regulator
US3387177A (en) * 1965-03-09 1968-06-04 Navy Usa High rise thyratron pulse supply
US3332031A (en) * 1965-03-22 1967-07-18 Monsanto Co Free-running gate controlled switch generator with disabling switch
US3383553A (en) * 1965-09-27 1968-05-14 Rotax Ltd Spark ignition apparatus
US3316448A (en) * 1965-10-15 1967-04-25 Eltra Corp Contactless ignition system
US3387187A (en) * 1965-10-27 1968-06-04 Int Rectifier Corp Electrical driving circuit for solenoid-actuated counter
US3384439A (en) * 1966-04-05 1968-05-21 Fenwal Inc Pulsed spark gas ignition and flame monitoring system
US3393039A (en) * 1966-05-11 1968-07-16 Emerson Electric Co Burner control system
US3507213A (en) * 1966-10-14 1970-04-21 English Electric Computers Ltd High speed flying hammer solenoid systems
US3424944A (en) * 1966-11-09 1969-01-28 Ford Motor Co Electronic ignition system using multiple thyristors
US3424945A (en) * 1967-03-27 1969-01-28 Mid Continent Mfg Co Controlled capacitor-discharge gas turbine ignition system
US3413569A (en) * 1967-05-19 1968-11-26 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Repetitively operating thyristor switch circuit with rapid turn-off action
US3441873A (en) * 1967-08-11 1969-04-29 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Thyristor switch circuit having diode controlled firing means
US3463963A (en) * 1967-12-28 1969-08-26 Controls Co Of America Spark ignition circuit
US3523211A (en) * 1968-12-12 1970-08-04 Kazuo Oishi Condenser-discharge ignition system with a silicon control rectifier
US3510725A (en) * 1968-12-16 1970-05-05 Honeywell Inc Ignition circuit for an arc discharge lamp
US3553526A (en) * 1969-12-03 1971-01-05 Philips Corp High frequency generator for the ignition of a discharge lamp
US3584929A (en) * 1969-12-29 1971-06-15 Motorola Inc Spark duration for capacitor discharge ignition systems
US3671805A (en) * 1970-01-09 1972-06-20 Motorola Inc Ignition system
US3782353A (en) * 1970-10-06 1974-01-01 Bosch Gmbh Robert Capacitive type ignition arrangement for internal combustion engines
US3809044A (en) * 1971-01-22 1974-05-07 Outboard Marine Corp Capacitor triggered ignition system
US3736913A (en) * 1971-06-08 1973-06-05 P Crisafulli Inductor current relay switch
US3982518A (en) * 1971-10-14 1976-09-28 Fournitures Internationales De Materieles Electroniques Electronic ignition device for internal combustion engines
US3673436A (en) * 1971-12-06 1972-06-27 Honeywell Inc Late phase firing switching circuit
US3882421A (en) * 1972-05-25 1975-05-06 Honeywell Inc Low power pulse generator
US3889160A (en) * 1972-09-06 1975-06-10 Braun Ag Spark-producing arrangement for a lighter with a battery
US3824432A (en) * 1972-09-06 1974-07-16 Braun Ag Battery igniter
US4038560A (en) * 1972-11-03 1977-07-26 Newman James L Pulse shaping circuit for shrimp fishing apparatus load
US3818277A (en) * 1973-04-10 1974-06-18 Braun Ag Start device for battery igniter
US3849670A (en) * 1973-04-13 1974-11-19 Webster Electric Co Inc Scr commutation circuit for current pulse generators
US3813581A (en) * 1973-09-21 1974-05-28 Cam Stat Inc Spark igniter for a plurality of gas burners
US3868552A (en) * 1973-11-05 1975-02-25 Garrett Corp Electrical circuit and interrupter
US3890579A (en) * 1974-03-04 1975-06-17 Itt Ignition system and components thereof
US4103659A (en) * 1974-08-05 1978-08-01 Donigian Donald S Ignition system
US4141297A (en) * 1976-05-04 1979-02-27 M.L. Aviation Company Limited Ignition circuits
US4177782A (en) * 1976-11-01 1979-12-11 Hitachi, Ltd. Ignition system providing sparks for two ignition plugs in each cylinder from a single ignition coil
US4104970A (en) * 1977-02-10 1978-08-08 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Electronic ignition system for liquid explosive
US4332098A (en) * 1978-08-11 1982-06-01 Centre Stephanois De Recherches Mecaniques Hydromecanique Et Frottement Electric control weapon, operation and ammunition therefor
US4296688A (en) * 1978-09-05 1981-10-27 S.A. Prb Societe Anonyme Electric circuit for firing a detonator
US4463744A (en) * 1980-03-07 1984-08-07 Hitachi, Ltd. Distributorless ignition system with surge absorbing means and apparatus therefor
US4833369A (en) * 1987-10-14 1989-05-23 Sundstrand Corp. Constant spark rate ignition exciter
US5561350A (en) * 1988-11-15 1996-10-01 Unison Industries Ignition System for a turbine engine
US20020101188A1 (en) * 1995-07-14 2002-08-01 Unison Industries, Inc. Method and apparatus for controllably generating sparks in an ingnition system or the like
US7095181B2 (en) 1995-07-14 2006-08-22 Unsion Industries Method and apparatus for controllably generating sparks in an ignition system or the like
US6034483A (en) * 1995-07-14 2000-03-07 Unison Industries, Inc. Method for generating and controlling spark plume characteristics
US6353293B1 (en) 1995-07-14 2002-03-05 Unison Industries Method and apparatus for controllably generating sparks in an ignition system or the like
US5754011A (en) * 1995-07-14 1998-05-19 Unison Industries Limited Partnership Method and apparatus for controllably generating sparks in an ignition system or the like
US6559376B2 (en) 1996-09-30 2003-05-06 Nology Engineering, Inc. Combustion initiation device and method for tuning a combustion initiation device
US6374816B1 (en) 2001-04-23 2002-04-23 Omnitek Engineering Corporation Apparatus and method for combustion initiation
US6670777B1 (en) 2002-06-28 2003-12-30 Woodward Governor Company Ignition system and method
US20050276000A1 (en) * 2004-06-15 2005-12-15 Wilmot Theodore S Solid state turbine engine ignition exciter having elevated temperature operational capabiltiy
US7355300B2 (en) 2004-06-15 2008-04-08 Woodward Governor Company Solid state turbine engine ignition exciter having elevated temperature operational capability

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