US3025794A - Perforating apparatus - Google Patents

Perforating apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
US3025794A
US3025794A US659241A US65924157A US3025794A US 3025794 A US3025794 A US 3025794A US 659241 A US659241 A US 659241A US 65924157 A US65924157 A US 65924157A US 3025794 A US3025794 A US 3025794A
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liner
charge
elements
material
explosive
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Expired - Lifetime
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US659241A
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Maurice P Lebourg
Herbert C Fagan
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Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp
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Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B1/00Explosive charges characterised by form or shape but not dependent on shape of container
    • F42B1/02Shaped or hollow charges
    • F42B1/032Shaped or hollow charges characterised by the material of the liner

Description

March 20, 1962 M. P. LEBOURG ETAL 3,025,794

PERFORATING APPARATUS Filed May 15, 1957 FIG.2

INVENTORS MAURICE P. LEBOURG HERBERT C. FAGAN BY W 3,025,794 PEMQRA'HNG APPARATUS Maurice P. Lehourg and Herbert (J. Fagan, Houston,

Tex., assignors to chlumberger Well Surveying Corporation, Houston, Tex, a corporation of Texas Filed May 15, E57, Ser. No. 659,241 6 Claims. (Cl. 1tl224-) This invention relates to perforating apparatus and, more particularly, pertains to new and improved perforating apparatus employing shaped explosive charges.

Shaped or hollow charges are widely and effectively used as cutting or perforating devices in many welllsnown applications. Usually, a shaped charge intended for such purposes comprises a block or a cylinder of explosive material into the front face of which a conical recess is formed. The recess is fitted with a suitable liner so that upon detonation of the explosive material, the explosive forces travelling in the direction of the liner transform part of the liner material into a high velocity jet along the axis of the recess. In practice, this jet is capable of penetrating many inches of steel, for example. However, in addition to the high velocity jet, a so-called slug of liner material is formed which follows the path of the jet but travels at 'a substantially lower velocity. It has been found that such slugs tend to plug the hole or perforation made by the jet. For example, in well casing perforating operations with shaped chm'ges employed heretofore, some of the perforations made by the charges may be clogged by the slugs, thus causing a reduction in the beneficial effect of the deep penetrations produced by the high velocity jets.

With a view to obviating this disadvantage, it has been proposed to replace the usual form of liner made, for example, of copper, with a copper liner to which a layer of zinc is intimately connected. Experience has shown that with such a bi-metallic liner a perforation is obtained which is as good and as deep as that obtained with an ordinary copper liner, but the slug heretofore obtained is minimized in size if not altogether eliminated. It is thought that since the copper liner portion has a relatively high vaporization point a typical, highly penetrative jet may be formed while the zinc which is readily vaporizable cannot form a low velocity slug which undesirably plugs the perforation made by the high speed jet. Thus, bi-metallic liners have found ready acceptance in the shaped charge art.

It is an object of the present invention to provide new and improved perforating apparatus employing a shaped charge having a bi-metallic liner which may be fabricated more easily than heretofore possible.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved bi-Inetallic liner for a shaped charge featuring all the beneficial results attained heretofore with such a liner, but requiring no adherence between the elements of the liner.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved method for fabricating bimetallic shaped charge liners.

In accordance with the present invention, a liner for the forward hollowed-out portion of a shaped explosive charge comprises a first element disposed adjacent the surface of the hollowed-out portion and a second element unadherently superimposed on the first element. One of the elements is made of a relatively dense and releatively ductile material and the other element is made of a relatively light, vaporizable material. Means are provided for maintaining the first and second elements in substantially fixed spatial relation.

According to another aspect of the present invention, to fabricate a liner of the foregoing type, at least one of BfiZEJh i Patented 2Q, 1952 the elements is made of a malleable or ductile material and the elements are formed by means of one or more die-stages. At some point in the fabrication of the shaped explosive charge, the elements are compressed together so as to deform at least one and bring adjacent surfaces into relatively close contact. For example, this may occur in one of the die-stages. Thereafter, the elements are mechanically locked together in fixed spatial relation.

Alternatively, the elements may be formed separately, for example, by passing a material for each through a common set of die-stages. Thereafter, they are superimposed and forced into an explosive material for the shaped charge thereby to pack the explosive "and deform at least one to bring adjacent surfaces of the liner elements into close contact.

The novel features of the present invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The present invention, both as to its organization and manner of operation, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing in which:

FIG. 1 is a view in longitudinal cross section of one form of shaped explosive charge perforating apparatus embodying a bi-metallic liner constructed in accordance with the invention; and

FIG. 2 is a view similar to the one shown in FIG. 1, but illustrating an alternative embodiment of the invention.

In FIG. 1 of the drawing, there is shown a shaped ex plosive charge comprising a hollow container 10 of generally conical form receiving in close interfitting relation an explosive charge 11. The container may be constructed of any material of sufiicient strength to act as a retainer of the explosive material. For example, it may be fabricated of a heavy or dense material, such as lead or steel, properly shaped to minimize the effects of undirected pressure waves while increasing the penetration power of the device for a given amount of explosive charge.

The charge 11 is formed with a hollowed-out or conically shaped forward end 12 which receives a closely fitting conical liner 13 constructed in accordance with the present invention. Liner 13 is comprised of a first element 14 of generally conical form disposed adjacent and in interfitting relation to the surface of hollowed-out portion 12. Element 14 is made of a relatively dense and relatively ductile material, such as copper or soft iron. Liner 13 further comprises a second element 15 of generally conical form interposed between elements 14 and portion 12 of charge 11. Element i5 is made of a relatively light, vaporizable material such as zinc or aluminum and is unadherently superimposed on element 14-, in intimate contact therewith.

To maintain elements 14 and 15 in fixed spatial relation housing 10 is provided with an inwardly deformed, annular ridge 16 which engages the base ends 17 and 18 of the liner elements. Thus, element 14 is maintained in engagement with element 15 which, in turn, is maintained in engagement with the surface of hollowed-out portion 12 of explosive 11.

The shaped charge thus-far described may be detonated in a suitable manner, as by a Primacord 19 disposed at the rear end of explosive charge 11 and adapted to be detousted by an electric blasting cap (not shown). Where, for example, the charge is employed in well perforating operations, it is suitably supported in a housing or carrier adapted to be lowered into a well (not shown) and the blasting cap is ignited by an operator from the surface of the earth.

In operation, Primacord 19 is detonated and it, in turn,

detonates the rear end of explosive charge 11. Thus, an explosive front is generated which creates a stream of flowing metal from liner 13 comprised mainly of the copper material in element 14. This stream extends outwardly rom explosive charge 11 to form a high speed jet capable of producing deep penetrations in a target material.

During the collapse of liner 13 wherein a portion thereof constitutes the perforating jet, any slug which might have been formed by material in the position occupied by element 15 cannot be formed because element 15 is Vaporized at the temperatures produced during the formation of the perforating jet. Heretofore, it was thought that elements 14 and 15 should be bonded together or otherwise adhered to one another to prevent distortion of the jet formation stream resulting in an undesirable loss of penetration power. ,7 Comparative tests have shown, however, that a shaped charge provided with a liner embodying the present invention is entirely satisfactory and as efficient as a charge having bonded liner elements. This analysis is presented merely as an aid to an understanding of the utility of the invention, but should not be considered as restrictive or in any way limiting the scope of the invention.

Since the elements 14 and 15 need not be adhered to one another throughout their adjacent surfaces, a shaped charge liner embodying the present invention may be conveniently and easily constructed. For example, the elements is and 15 may be formed by a conventional and relatively inexpensive die stamping process using malleable or ductile materials. Thus, fiat strips of copper and Zinc stock may be placed in face-to-face relation and run through a set of dies which progressively form the desired conical form. In this way these elements are in close or intimate contact and there is requirement for adherence or cohesion therebetween. Of course, they are physically maintained in place by means of annular ridge 16 of housing 10.

Instead of forming the elements 14 and 15 together, they may be stamped separately, preferably by means of the same set of die-stages, and then superimposed to constitute liner 13. Thereafter, explosive 11 is loaded into container and the liner 13 is forced into the explosive with a force on the order of 20,000 pounds. This, of course, forms the hollowed-out section 12 in the explosive, packs the explosive to a desired density, and deforms either or both of elements 14- and to bring their adjacent surfaces into intimate, but non-adherent, contact. Mechanical locking of the elements may then be effected.

It is thus evident that elements 14 and 15 may be brought into close association by exerting a force sulficient to deform one or both of them. Accordingly, either or both of the elements should be malleable or ductile so as to permit this deformation. Moreover, the deforming force may be applied at some Stage of the fabrication to the shaped explosive charge, that is, this may occur during the formation of the liner or at the time the liner is pressed into the explosive material of the charge.

in the modified arrangement illustrated in FIG. 2, components which have their counterparts in FIG. 1 are represented by the same reference numerals. Here, a modified liner 13' is comprised of a relatively dense conical liner element Li made, for example, of copper disposed in interfitting relation within a liner element 15' composed of a relatively light, vaporizable material, such as zinc. As in the arrangement of FIG. 1, elements Idand 15' are unadherently superimposed, however, to maintain them in fixed spatial relation element 14 is slightly shorter than element 15' and the latter is crimped or inwardly deformed to provide an annular ridge which engages the base end 17 of element 14.

To construct liner 13 flat copper and Zinc stocks are run together through a number of progressive die stages on a conventional stamping machine. Each successive die operation forms a piece of the composite material into a shape more closely approaching that of a cone. The final stage produces a cone which is then trnnrned at the base by means, for example, of an appropriate set of dies.

The same or another set of dies may be arranged to undercut element 14, and in a further step, element 15 is crimped over the edge 17 of element 14 thereby to lock the elements together. If desired, this last set of dies may be appropriately arranged to effect the final trimming of element 15, although this operation may take place during a preceding stage.

From the foregoing discussion it is evident that although the elements of liner 13 or 13 are not adherent to one another, the effectiveness of a shaped explosive charge embodying the present liner performs efiiciently and eflectively. Furthermore, the liner can be fabricated by means of simple stamping operations and is thus considerably less expensive to construct than heretofore possible.

Obviously, other arrangements may be employed for mechanically locking, the elements of the liner together. a

For example, the inner element may be provided with a series of openings annularly spaced about its base and the outer element may be, appropriately deformed so as to enter these openings thereby locking the elements together. Alternatively, the elements may be joined together at their base ends by one or more solder points or they may be spot welded together at a number of points.

In constructing a bi-metallic liner according to the present invention for a specific practical application, two

sheets of metal each 0.012" thick were run simultaneously through a set of die-stages. One was composed of 99% pure copper, fully annealed, while the other was composed of an alloy known as deep drawing zinc containing lead in about 0.08%. The sets of dies were constructed of chrome-plated hard steel and a thrust of 5,625 lbs. was employed. The dies were appropriately lubricated to prevent scoring or galling of the zinc. The resulting conical liner had a base diameter of 1 7 and a height of l% and a wall thickness of 0.024" at the base end and 0.027 near the apex end. The liner Was forced into a powder charge of 15 grams to complete a shaped explosive charge. Of course, the foregoing is presently only by way of example and should not be considered in any way as limiting the scope of the invention. For example, other thicknesses of the metals and/ or other amounts of thrust may be employed. Moreover, by means of dies of appropriate size, liners of any desired dimensions and shape may be produced.

While particular embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it is apparent that changes and modifications may be made without departing from this invention in its broader aspects, and therefore the aim in the appended claims is to cover all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invention.

We claim:

1. A shaped charge device comprising a shaped explosive charge having a cavity at the forward end thereof, and a layered structure having the same shape as the surface of the charge cavity and including a first outer layer of material which is in contact with the explosive charge when the liner is placed within the cavity and a second inner layer in nonadherent intimate contact with the outer layer along the inner surface thereof, the inner layer being made of a relatively dense and ductile material, having a relatively high vaporization point so as to form a high velocity perforating jet of the material when the charge is detonated and the outer layer being made of a relatively light material having a relatively low vaporization point such that it tends to vaporize upon detonation of the charge, thereby inhibiting the formation of a low velocity slug.

2. A shaped charge device according to claim 1 Wherein the layered structure has a conical shape.

3. A shaped charge device according to claim 1 wherein the outer layer is made of zinc and the inner layer is made of copper.

4. A shaped charge device according to'claim 1 wherein each layer of the structure comprises a sheet of material formed in the shape of the charge cavity surface.

5. A shaped charge device according to claim 1 wherein the outer layer of material includes an inwardly projecting portion adapted to engage the inner layer and retain it in intimate contact with the outer layer.

6. A shaped charge comprising a generally cylindrical housing having an open end portion, a charge of explosive material within the housing formed with a cavity directed inwardly from the open end of the housing, and a liner for the charge comprising a layered structure Within the cavity having the same shape as the surface of the charge cavity and having an edge portion engaging the inside surface of the housing about the periphery of the cavity including a first outer layer of material in contact with the explosive 'material at the surface of the cavity, and a second inner layer in nonadherent intimate contact With the outer layer along the inner surface thereof, the inner layer being made of a relatively dense and ductile material having a relatively high vaporization point so as to form a high velocity perforating jet of the material when the charge is detonated and the outer layer being made of a relatively light material having a relatively low vaporization point such that it tends to vaporize upon detonation of the charge, thereby inhibiting the formation of a low velocity slug.

References Cited in the file of this patent OTHER REFERENCES American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Technical Publication No. 2158, class A, Mining Technology, 1947.

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Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3137233A (en) * 1962-02-23 1964-06-16 Henry S Lipinski Explosive confinement ring
US3255659A (en) * 1961-12-13 1966-06-14 Dresser Ind Method of manufacturing shaped charge explosive with powdered metal liner
US3439613A (en) * 1964-11-26 1969-04-22 Bolkow Gmbh Self-propelled hollow charge having concave liner with propellant contained therein
US3797391A (en) * 1972-11-20 1974-03-19 Us Air Force Multiple charge incendiary bomblet
US3976010A (en) * 1973-04-16 1976-08-24 Whittaker Corporation Spin compensated liner for shaped charge ammunition and method of making same
US4033265A (en) * 1976-03-25 1977-07-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Anti-compromise device
FR2512539A1 (en) * 1981-09-04 1983-03-11 Saint Louis Inst shaped charge
FR2522805A1 (en) * 1978-06-20 1983-09-09 Saint Louis Inst Explosive, hollow charge with metal lining - designed to eliminate terminal compact core of jet charge during explosion
US4463678A (en) * 1980-04-01 1984-08-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Hybrid shaped-charge/kinetic/energy penetrator
DE3111921C1 (en) * 1981-03-26 1985-05-09 Messerschmitt Boelkow Blohm Shaped-charge liner
DE2927555C1 (en) * 1979-07-07 1985-05-09 Messerschmitt Boelkow Blohm Hollow charge liner, and methods for their preparation
FR2555303A1 (en) * 1978-07-28 1985-05-24 France Etat Armement Novel anti-tank explosive military head
US4766813A (en) * 1986-12-29 1988-08-30 Olin Corporation Metal shaped charge liner with isotropic coating
US4922825A (en) * 1986-07-24 1990-05-08 L'etat Francais Represente Par Le Delegue Ministeriel Pour L'armement Core-forming explosive charge
US4958569A (en) * 1990-03-26 1990-09-25 Olin Corporation Wrought copper alloy-shaped charge liner
US5033387A (en) * 1981-11-07 1991-07-23 Rheinmetall Gmbh Explosive charge facing
US5098487A (en) * 1990-11-28 1992-03-24 Olin Corporation Copper alloys for shaped charge liners
FR2730049A1 (en) * 1986-08-22 1996-08-02 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Device for producing explosion-formed projectiles
US6012392A (en) * 1997-05-10 2000-01-11 Arrow Metals Division Of Reliance Steel And Aluminum Co. Shaped charge liner and method of manufacture
US6035785A (en) * 1997-02-06 2000-03-14 Giat Industries Explosively-formed charge with attachment means between the liner and the casing
FR2793314A1 (en) * 1996-04-02 2000-11-10 Giat Ind Sa Artillery or heavy caliber weapon projectile, utilizes a deforming plate and liner assembly deformed by the detonation of the main explosive charge to form a core projectile that has improved stability characteristics
US20030116049A1 (en) * 2001-12-21 2003-06-26 Han Chenghua Oliver Pre-fragmented shaped charge
WO2007031342A1 (en) 2005-09-16 2007-03-22 Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Charge having an essentially cylindrical explosive arrangement
JP2008121953A (en) * 2006-11-10 2008-05-29 Daikin Ind Ltd Molded explosive charge warhead and liner
US20080282924A1 (en) * 2006-10-31 2008-11-20 Richard Saenger Shaped Charge and a Perforating Gun
US20090050321A1 (en) * 2004-11-16 2009-02-26 Rhodes Mark R Oil well perforators
JP2017504779A (en) * 2014-02-04 2017-02-09 エアバス ディフェンス アンド スペース エスエーエス Molded explosives and applications to separate or disable the two stages of aeronautical craft
US9702669B1 (en) * 1985-02-01 2017-07-11 Qinetiq Limited Shaped charge
RU2671270C1 (en) * 2018-01-10 2018-10-30 Алла Витальевна Звягинцева Explosively formed projectile with fire-based pit

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2539807A (en) * 1944-10-16 1951-01-30 Automatic Die & Products Compa Method of forming articles
US2543057A (en) * 1946-04-30 1951-02-27 Louis F Porter Elongated flexible tubular explosive
DE818186C (en) * 1948-10-02 1951-10-22 Rheinische Roehrenwerke Ag A process for preparing Gefaessboeden o. The like., In particular with Kesselboeden umgeboerdeltem edge
US2605703A (en) * 1944-07-06 1952-08-05 Du Pont Liner for hollow charges
GB693163A (en) * 1949-01-10 1953-06-24 Gulf Research Development Co Explosively operated apparatus for placing radio-active markers in boreholes
US2781849A (en) * 1952-03-25 1957-02-19 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Method of forming small apertures in thin metal plate-shaped articles
US2837996A (en) * 1954-05-04 1958-06-10 Seismograph Service Corp Explosive charge
US2849957A (en) * 1953-01-27 1958-09-02 Bofors Ab Explosive projectile

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2605703A (en) * 1944-07-06 1952-08-05 Du Pont Liner for hollow charges
US2539807A (en) * 1944-10-16 1951-01-30 Automatic Die & Products Compa Method of forming articles
US2543057A (en) * 1946-04-30 1951-02-27 Louis F Porter Elongated flexible tubular explosive
DE818186C (en) * 1948-10-02 1951-10-22 Rheinische Roehrenwerke Ag A process for preparing Gefaessboeden o. The like., In particular with Kesselboeden umgeboerdeltem edge
GB693163A (en) * 1949-01-10 1953-06-24 Gulf Research Development Co Explosively operated apparatus for placing radio-active markers in boreholes
US2781849A (en) * 1952-03-25 1957-02-19 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Method of forming small apertures in thin metal plate-shaped articles
US2849957A (en) * 1953-01-27 1958-09-02 Bofors Ab Explosive projectile
US2837996A (en) * 1954-05-04 1958-06-10 Seismograph Service Corp Explosive charge

Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3255659A (en) * 1961-12-13 1966-06-14 Dresser Ind Method of manufacturing shaped charge explosive with powdered metal liner
US3137233A (en) * 1962-02-23 1964-06-16 Henry S Lipinski Explosive confinement ring
US3439613A (en) * 1964-11-26 1969-04-22 Bolkow Gmbh Self-propelled hollow charge having concave liner with propellant contained therein
US3797391A (en) * 1972-11-20 1974-03-19 Us Air Force Multiple charge incendiary bomblet
US3976010A (en) * 1973-04-16 1976-08-24 Whittaker Corporation Spin compensated liner for shaped charge ammunition and method of making same
US4033265A (en) * 1976-03-25 1977-07-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Anti-compromise device
FR2522805A1 (en) * 1978-06-20 1983-09-09 Saint Louis Inst Explosive, hollow charge with metal lining - designed to eliminate terminal compact core of jet charge during explosion
FR2555303A1 (en) * 1978-07-28 1985-05-24 France Etat Armement Novel anti-tank explosive military head
DE2927555C1 (en) * 1979-07-07 1985-05-09 Messerschmitt Boelkow Blohm Hollow charge liner, and methods for their preparation
US4463678A (en) * 1980-04-01 1984-08-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Hybrid shaped-charge/kinetic/energy penetrator
DE3111921C1 (en) * 1981-03-26 1985-05-09 Messerschmitt Boelkow Blohm Shaped-charge liner
FR2512539A1 (en) * 1981-09-04 1983-03-11 Saint Louis Inst shaped charge
US5033387A (en) * 1981-11-07 1991-07-23 Rheinmetall Gmbh Explosive charge facing
US9702669B1 (en) * 1985-02-01 2017-07-11 Qinetiq Limited Shaped charge
US4922825A (en) * 1986-07-24 1990-05-08 L'etat Francais Represente Par Le Delegue Ministeriel Pour L'armement Core-forming explosive charge
FR2730049A1 (en) * 1986-08-22 1996-08-02 Fraunhofer Ges Forschung Device for producing explosion-formed projectiles
US5792980A (en) * 1986-08-22 1998-08-11 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Ange-Wandten Forschung E.V. Producing explosive-formed projectiles
US4766813A (en) * 1986-12-29 1988-08-30 Olin Corporation Metal shaped charge liner with isotropic coating
US4958569A (en) * 1990-03-26 1990-09-25 Olin Corporation Wrought copper alloy-shaped charge liner
US5098487A (en) * 1990-11-28 1992-03-24 Olin Corporation Copper alloys for shaped charge liners
FR2793314A1 (en) * 1996-04-02 2000-11-10 Giat Ind Sa Artillery or heavy caliber weapon projectile, utilizes a deforming plate and liner assembly deformed by the detonation of the main explosive charge to form a core projectile that has improved stability characteristics
US6035785A (en) * 1997-02-06 2000-03-14 Giat Industries Explosively-formed charge with attachment means between the liner and the casing
US6012392A (en) * 1997-05-10 2000-01-11 Arrow Metals Division Of Reliance Steel And Aluminum Co. Shaped charge liner and method of manufacture
US20030116049A1 (en) * 2001-12-21 2003-06-26 Han Chenghua Oliver Pre-fragmented shaped charge
US20090050321A1 (en) * 2004-11-16 2009-02-26 Rhodes Mark R Oil well perforators
US7987911B2 (en) 2004-11-16 2011-08-02 Qinetiq Limited Oil well perforators
WO2007031342A1 (en) 2005-09-16 2007-03-22 Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Charge having an essentially cylindrical explosive arrangement
US20080282924A1 (en) * 2006-10-31 2008-11-20 Richard Saenger Shaped Charge and a Perforating Gun
US7819064B2 (en) * 2006-10-31 2010-10-26 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Shaped charge and a perforating gun
JP2008121953A (en) * 2006-11-10 2008-05-29 Daikin Ind Ltd Molded explosive charge warhead and liner
JP2017504779A (en) * 2014-02-04 2017-02-09 エアバス ディフェンス アンド スペース エスエーエス Molded explosives and applications to separate or disable the two stages of aeronautical craft
RU2671270C1 (en) * 2018-01-10 2018-10-30 Алла Витальевна Звягинцева Explosively formed projectile with fire-based pit

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