US2987900A - Circular knit stockings - Google Patents

Circular knit stockings Download PDF

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US2987900A
US2987900A US692670A US69267057A US2987900A US 2987900 A US2987900 A US 2987900A US 692670 A US692670 A US 692670A US 69267057 A US69267057 A US 69267057A US 2987900 A US2987900 A US 2987900A
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yarn
needles
loops
needle
station
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Peter A Mahler
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Singer Fidelity Inc
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Singer Fidelity Inc
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04BKNITTING
    • D04B9/00Circular knitting machines with independently-movable needles
    • D04B9/42Circular knitting machines with independently-movable needles specially adapted for producing goods of particular configuration
    • D04B9/46Circular knitting machines with independently-movable needles specially adapted for producing goods of particular configuration stockings, or portions thereof
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04BKNITTING
    • D04B1/00Weft knitting processes for the production of fabrics or articles not dependent on the use of particular machines; Fabrics or articles defined by such processes
    • D04B1/22Weft knitting processes for the production of fabrics or articles not dependent on the use of particular machines; Fabrics or articles defined by such processes specially adapted for knitting goods of particular configuration
    • D04B1/24Weft knitting processes for the production of fabrics or articles not dependent on the use of particular machines; Fabrics or articles defined by such processes specially adapted for knitting goods of particular configuration wearing apparel
    • D04B1/26Weft knitting processes for the production of fabrics or articles not dependent on the use of particular machines; Fabrics or articles defined by such processes specially adapted for knitting goods of particular configuration wearing apparel stockings

Description

June 13, 1961 E 2,987,900
CIRCULAR KNIT STOCKINGS 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Original Filed Oct. 15, l956 June 13, 1961 P. A. MAHLER CIRCULAR KNIT STOCKINGS 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Original Filed Oct. 15, 1956 P. A. MAHLER CIRCULAR KNIT STOCKINGS Original Filed Oct, 15, 1956 14; m r mnnmjm 54 52 L57' 4/ .PeZZFLQZVM" United States Patent 2,987,900 CIRCULAR KNIT STOCKINGS Peter A. Mahler, Philadelphia, Pa., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Singer-Fidelity, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Delaware Original application Oct. 15, 1956, Ser. No. 616,002. D1-
vided and this application Oct. 28, 1957, Ser. No.
3 Claims. (Cl. 66-185) This invention relates to improvements in circular hosiery knitting machines of the dual feed type and in the knitted product of such machines.
This application is a division of application S.N. 616,- 002, filed October 15, 1956, and now abandoned.
In machines of this type it is necessary by reason of ice into the fabric by inclusion with the loops of the course in process of formation at the moment the second yarn fabric and give it a flawed appearance.
machine limitations to produce the heel pocket of the stocking, wherein the needle cylinder is oscillated, by single feed operation, The dual feed operation, used in producing the tubularleg of the stocking by circular knitting, is accordingly discontinued at the beginning of the heel, and is continued again after completion of the V Y heel pocket for subsequent formation by circular knitting of the tubular foot of the. stocking.
The changeover from dual feed to single feed involves the withdrawal of one of the dual yarns from the needles in one course of knitting and the termination of that course in a loose end. of yarn. While conventionally this yarn is knittedinto the fabric up to the point of retraction in normalmanner, the fact that the loose end is not positively anchored creates a tendency for the loop or loops immediately adjoining the said point of retraction to expand and loosen under strain imposed on the fabric and .consequent formation of a gap or hole in thefabric. 7 It is an object of this invention to overcomethis fault.
is inserted.
It is evident that the knitting in of the loose ends as described above will in elfect double the yarn in the courses and areas affected and would tend to thicken the The invention contemplates a substantially complete concealment of the marks by bringing the loops containing the loose ends into substantial coincidence with the gore lines which are a necessary concomitant to the formation of the heel pocket, as well understood in the art, and which appear at opposite sides of the heel of the conventional circular knit stocking.
The invention will be more readily understood by reference to the attached drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a side view of a stocking made in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary face view of'the left side of the stocking;
FIG. 3 is alike view of the right hand side;
FIG. 4 is a development of the heel pocket of the stocking;
FIG. 5 is a greatly magnified view of the area of the stocking fabric embraced by the rectangle appearing in broken lines in FIG. 2;
' FIG. 6 is a like view of the area embraced by the broken lines in FIG. 3;
When, in dualfeed knitting, one of the yarns is withafter the terminal loop in the interrupted course and at the point of yarn withdrawal. The severance of this yarn does not occur immediately after withdrawal but at some distance .from the terminal loop thereby leaving a trailing end .of considerable length which, conventionally is cut away by hand at a point near the loop. The present invention contemplates the use of this extended and unsevered end as .a medium for anchoring the loose end of yarn in the fabric so as to preclude formation of the undesirable gap or hole described above.
.To this end, it is proposed to guide the manipulate the needles so that the end, or at least that part of it which immediately adjoins the terminal loop in the interrupted course, shall be picked up by the needles and knitted into the fabric with and in the same manner as. the yarn from the continuing feed source which forms the following course. The length of loose end so knitted in will be adequate to form a positive anchor for the interrupted course of loops and to preserve those loops substantially intact and unmodified by the yarn and .1
strains to which the stocking may normally be subjected.
It will be apparent that conventionally the same faulty condition will prevail when the dual feed knitting operation is re-established at the completion of the heel pocket. Reintroduction of the'second yarn again entails the formation of 'an extended loose end which normally is cut I g 'l ediatelyv adjo nfmg the said loop shall-be knitted FIG. 7 is a development in part of the cam ring of a knitting machine of the character to which the inven tion relates showing the needle and jack cams immediately involved in the present invention;
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary view in perspective showing the dial plate, the elements of the yarn feed, a part of the needle series;
FIG. 9 is a similar view showing the elements of the yarn feed in different positions of adjustment;
FIG. 10 is a fragmentary view in perspective showing the details of the yarn clamping and severing elements of the feed mechanism; V
' FIG. 11 is a fragmentary view illustrating the function of the sinkers to control latch clearance of a yarn loop carried by one of the needles;
FIG. 12 is a similar fragmentary view illustrating a detail of structure and operation;
FIG. 13 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view showing the relatlon of the needles to yarn in different positions of the yarn feed fingers;
FIG. 14 is a schematic view showing one of the yarn feed fingers and the immediate section of the needle cylinder at the time of yarn introduction;
FIG. 15 is a like view showing the needles and finger during the period of yarn Withdrawal, and
16 is a schematic view of the needle circle.
With reference to FIGS. 1 to 6 inclusive of the drawings, the heel pocket of the stocking 1 is indicated by the reference numeral 2, and 3 indicates collectively the gore marks which appear at the opposite sides of the heel and which are anunavoidable result of the machine process used in the knitting of this portion of the stocking. As previously described, the dual yarn feed is terminated with the initiation of the oscillatory operation at the heel and the point of termination relative to the gore marks is best illustrated in FIG. 5. The feed from one of the yarn feed stations, hereinafter identified as station B, is interrupted at the point 5 in course 6 and the terminal loop of this course may be identified also by the number 5. In accordance with the invention, the loose end 7 extending from the loop 5 is knit with the yarn 8 of the course 9, which immediately follows the course 6, through the loops of the next preceding course 11. Course 9 is formed from yarn fed from the other of the yam feed stations which will be identified hereinafter as station A; and the subsequent courses making up the heel pocket will be composed of yarn drawn solely from station A. The yarn for course 11, lying in the'dual feed area ofthe leg, will be drawn from station A. In course 9 the loops which immediately follow the position of the ter rninal loop are the composite loops 10 which contain in addition to the normal loops of the course, the loops formed from the loose end 7 as described above.
The course 9, which merges as described with course 6, may be considered the last course of circular knitting prior to institution of the oscillatory action which forms the heel pocket. The first oscillation begins at the point 12 in FIG. 6 and the initial pass of that oscillation terminates at the point 13 in FIG. 5. From these points, as best shown in the development ofFIG. 4, the oscillations are progressively narrowed by withdrawal of needles to the points 14 and 15; then widened by reverse process to the points 16 and 17; again narrowed to the points 18 and 19; then widened in a single course from the points 18 and 19; to the initial points 12 and 13; further widened by progressive needle insertion from the points 12 and 13 to the points 21 and 22, and finally again narrowed progressively to the points 23 and 24 where the full circular knitting and dual yarn feed are restored.
It will be noted that the gore line which extends between the points 13 and 22 is formed by the interlacing of the terminal loops of progressively widened courses of oscillatory knitting described above, with the loops of the last preceding course of full circular knitting. In other words, the said terminal loops interlace with the loops of course 9 which are interknit with the final three loops of course 6., and the following loops of course 9 including the composite loops 10. Thus the composite loops substantially coincide with and in effect are incorporated in the gore mark to an extent rendering them substantially invisible to the naked eye. Not only is the loose end 7 securely anchored in the fabric tothe material ad- 7 vantage described above, but the otherwise adverse effect of the anchored end on the appearance of the stocking is avoided.
The same method is employed for anchoring'the loose end of yarn which attaches to the initial loop of the second feed yarn when re-introduced at station B, and for rendering the anchored end invisible. In this case, however, as shown in FIGS. 3, 4 and 6, the composite loops of which the said yarn end .forms a part, see FIG. 6, coincide with the gore mark extending between the points 21 and 23, this line paralleling the adjoining parts of the initial courses of full circular knitting at restoration of the latter at completion of the heel pocket. The positions of the composite loops and their relationto the loops of the adjoining courses and to the gore .rnark are clearly shown in FIG.- '6 and indicated in FIG. 3.
The mechanical means for achieving the aforedescribed results are illustrated in FIGS. 7 to 16 of the drawings. The yarn :feed stations Aand B are shown in FIG. 7 and also the needle cams associated with said stations. At station A the cams comprise the conventional latchclearing and stitch earns 31 and 32 which function for both directions of needle travel in the usual manner. station B the cams include .a latch clearing earn 33 and a stitch cam 34 both of which are adjustable radially. of the needle cylinder as and .for purposes hereinafter described. The cams 33 comprises lower and upper radially off-set portions 35 -and,36 respectively. The essential mechanism comprises also needle jacks, of which one is indicated at-37, and adjustable jack cams .38;
The 'needle circle comprises needles of three differing butt-lengths arranged in groups as indicated in FIG. 16. The continuous series extending I clockwise fromgpoint 39 to point 41 have butts of major length. Between the points 41 and 42 the needles, numbering six in the present instance, are :of intermediate length and this series of intermediate butt :needles will be hereinafter identified-as group C. From the point 42 to point 43 the butts are of 4 minor length; and in the series of six needles 43 to 39, five of the needles have butts of the said intermediate length and the remaining needle, which occupies an intermediate position in the series, is of the said minor butt length. This entire series of six needles will be hereinafter referred to as group D. i
As previously stated, the feed of yarn from station A may for the purpose of this invention be considered constant. Change from dual to single feed operation and the reverse are functions of the feed at station B. In interrupting the feed at this station the yarn feed finger 44 is elevated so as to withdraw its yarn 45, see FIG. 9, from the needles in conventional manner. In accordance with the invention this occurs at'the leading end .of group C of the intermediate butt needles so that normally the yarn would leave the needles between the first needle of the said group and the last or trailing needle of the major butt series, all with reference to direction of cylinder rotation as indicated in-the drawings. Prior to the movement of the needles of group C into station B, however, the cams 33 and 34 are retracted to an extent such that, while not affecting the normal elevation of the preceding major butt needles to latch clearing position and subsequent depression thereof to cast their loops, the intermediate length butts of the group C needles will not engage the upper part 36 of cam 33 and also earn 34. The lower part 35 of cam 33, still active on the intermediate length butts, will lift the needles of the group to a semi-elevated position, as shown in FIG. 11 for example, wherein the yarn loops then carried by the needles will clear the latch, and since the cam 34 is also retracted to an inoperative position with respect to the needles, the latter remain in the semi-elevated position as indicated in the diagram of FIG. 15. This figure shows also that the major butt needles, preceding the group C needles past the feed station and elevated to the latch clearing position by cam 33, were subsequently depressed by earn 34 to cast their loops in nonnal fashion. This particular course of knitting will terminate with the loop formed by the last or trailing needle of the major butt length series, and in FIG. 5 this loop, formed from yarn picked up at station B, has beenidentified by the reference numeral 5. As shown also in the diagram of FIG. 15, the needles of the minor butt series following the group C have been unafiected by retracted cam 33, and these needles will also miss cam 34 and will therefor retain their loops and will track inthe path .of the major butt needles leaving the cam 34 and .at the same elevation.
As previously stated, the elevation of the finger 44 was timed so that normally the yarn 45 would leave the needles between the leading needle of group C and the trailing needle of the major butt series. By reason of the elevated position of the C group needles, however, as shown in FIG. 15, the yarn does not clear these needles and will lie at the outer sides thereof. As the needles advance and as shown in FIG. .9, the trailing end of the yarn is carried by the needles under the resilient yarn anchoring .finger 46 on the dial 47, and over the lower blade 48 of a :shear of which the upper movable blade, now elevated position, is shown at 49. Except in the details hereinafter described, the finger 46 and shear 48, 49 may be considered conventional. At the position shown in FIG. 9 theblade 49 is tripped to move downwardly and thereby sever the yarn 4.5. In this position also the needles are moving intoyarnfeed station A.
It will be noted, .as shown in FIG. .9, that between the station B and the position of :the yarn cut elf, the needles of the major butt seniesand also those of the minor butt series have been elevated to latch clearing height. This elevation, which occurs .at position Xin FIG. 9, is offectedby jacks 37, see FIG.7, and jack cams '38 which may be inserted at the proper-point into the paths of the jack butts, it being notedihowever thatyby reason 'ot the special form of the "jacks "otthe-C group needles the position of the needles of the group C' are not "affected by the cams 38 so that these needles remain in the semi-elevated poistions previously described and as indicated in FIG. 9. As also illustrated in FIG. 9, and also in FIG. 11, the trailing end of the yarn from the terminal loop has been supported on the sinkers 52 above the lower ends of the needle latches 53. It will be noted also that following elevation of the needles at X the trailing yarn end will pass inwardly of the needle circle between the trailing needle of group C and the leading needle of the minor butt series.
At this point, therefore, the needles of group C carry loops of yarn previously picked up at station A and in position for casting. They also have the trailing end of yarn from station B lying across their faces but above the latch ends. When these needles move into yarn feed station A, the cam 31 of that station will have been retracted so as not to engage the group C needles so that the latter will not be elevated and the said trailing end of yarn from the terminal loop 5 will lie above the latch and will be drawn downwardly by cam 32 to carry that yarn, together with the new yarn picked up at station A, through the cast loop to form the composite loops 7, 8 previously described. The other needles passing into station A were previously eleavated by the cams 38 and their loops are in the latch clearing position, so that they cast their loops at that station independently of cam 31. In this manner the loose end of yarn from terminal loop 5 is knit by the group C needles into the tabric as clearly illustrated in FIG. 5.
The same device is utilized to anchor the loose end of yarn formed when the yarn feed is restored at station B. The sequence of operations is illustrated in FIGS. 6, 8, 12 and 14. In this case, the finger 44 is depressed to insert the yarn 45 between the leading needle of the group D and the trailing needle of the minor butt series. The latter needle is indicated in the drawings by the reference numeral 54. At the point of introduction, the group D needles carry loops received at station A, but these loops are not cast at station B as hereinafter described. The preceding minor butt needles also carry loops picked up at station A but these needles receive no yarn in passing through station B and were not elevated to latch clearing position at that station by reason of retraction of the cam 33. The lower part of cam 33 is engaged by the intermediate length latches of the group D needles and therefor elevates those needles to the same elevated positions wherein the loops carried from station A are cleared of the latches and the yarn 45 is intercepted by the leading needle of the group as shown in full lines in FIG. 8. It will be noted, however, that in group D the one needle 55 of minor butt length, previously referred to, was not raised by cam 31 and therefore leaves the station in the same depressed position in which it entered, as have the other needles of corresponding butt length. It should be noted also that the intercepted yarn lies against and above the lower ends of the latches of the group D needles and is supported in this position by the sinkers 52 as previously described. The upper end of the needle 55 therefore lies below the level of the yarn as indicated in FIG. 1.
As the needles progress, means is provided to intercept the yarn section extending within the cylinder for drawing the yarn tautly across the needles of group D. To this end the yarn 45 from finger 44, having its loose end clamped on the :dial plate by the finger 46, is looped by the needle progression about a pin 56 on the said plate, as shown in FIG. 8, so that the yarn is held tautly across the fronts of the group D needles. In the meantime, the leading needle 57 of the major butt series, following group D, has been actuated at station B to take the yarn 45 and to cast the loop previously picked up at station A, and the new loop of yarn 45 constitutes the initial loop of the now restored dual feed. In 'FIG. 6, this needle loop has been indicated by the numeral 57.
As the loop of yarn termed about the pin 56 progresses to. the position indicated in broken lines in FIG. 8, the yarn end extending from the leading needle of group D passes under the finger 46, but the finger at this point, and as hereinatter explained, exerts smallclamping pressure on the yarn so that the end is pulled away firom' the finger without excessive tension and possible yarn rupture at an intermediate point.
As the needles move into the dotted line position in FIG. 8 they are elevated by the earns 38 and associated jacks, with the exceptions set forth below, to latch clearing position. The exceptions are the'group D needles which already occupy the atoresaid semi-elevated position. The needle 55, however, is' elevated, but by reason of the fact that theyarn end 45 lies above the upper end of this needle and tautly against the latches of the other needles of the group, the needle 55 passes in front of the yarn in the manner illustrated in FIG. 12. The needle thereby acts to retain the yarn end securely against the other needles of the group so that when, at station A, the needles after picking up the new yarn are depressed to cast their loops, the yarn end will be carried down with the said new yarn to form the composite loops indicated at 25 in FIG. 6. The needle 55 in its downward movement will miss the yarn end and the yarn will float between the immediately adjoining Wales as indicated at 59. The loose end thus knitted into the fabric is securely anchored as described above. As the yarn section between the pin 56 and the cylinder passes under the shear blade 49, the latter is actuated to sever the yarn.
It will be noted that in this case also, the tieing in of the loose end of yarn as described above, occurs in immediate proximity to the gore markings on the right side of the heel of the stocking, specifically the mark lying between the point 21, see FIG. 4, and the terminal point 23 of oscillatory knitting. The terminal loops of the short courses which define the gore line between the points 21 and 23 are interkni-t with loops of the yarn from the feed finger 44 in an intermediate course, the loops of which are interknit with the composite loop as shown in FIG. 6. The double thickness of yarn in the loops 25 is thereby concealed and substantially invisible to the naked eye.
Attention is directed to the clamping finger and shear assembly indicated by the reference numerals 46, 48 and 49. The lower shear blade 48 is fixed and the upper blade oscillates about a pivot bolt 61 in a block 62 secured to the dial plate 47. The finger 46 is also fixed at its rear end to the dial plate. Also pivotally mounted on the bolt 61 is a lever 63 which carries a block 64 at its forward end and has also a pin 65 which projects through a slot 66 in blade 49. The slot and pin constitute a lostmotion means affording free motion between the blade and the lever. The spring 51 attached to the lever 63 tends to move the tor-ward end downwardly to a position in which the block 64 will bear against the top of the finger 46 to augment its yarn clamping capacity, but this movement of the lever is permitted only when the blade 49 moves downwardly in its working stroke or occupies the closed position with respect to the fixed blade 48. However, by such arrangement, adjustment of the tension of spring 51 may be utilized to vary the degree of pressure applied to the clamping finger 46 by block 64 independent of the means normally applied to operate the shear blade 49 to closed position. By this means the clamping pressure of the block on the finger during the withdrawal of the yarn end in the operation illustrated in FIG. 8 and described above may be regulated to avoid yarn rupture.
I claim:
1. A circular knit stocking having a. tubular section whereof successive courses of loops are formed from yarn drawn from two different sources, and said stocking having an adjoining section knit from yarn drawn from one only of said sources, the juncture of said sections exhibiting a severed end of yarn firom the other of said sources, said end extending from a terminal loop in the'terminal course, and the loops of the knitted fabric immediately adjoining said terminal loop being composite of the said severed end and vof yarn drawn from said one source whereby the loose end is securely anchored in the knitted fabric, said adjoining section having a plurality of short courses terminating in gore lines defined by gore marks coincident with the terminal loops of said short courses, a portion of said gore lines being parallel and vcoextensive with the said composite loops .in proximity thereto, whereby said co -extensive portion of the gore "lines conceals said composite loops,
2. A stocking according to claim 1, wherein the terminal loops of said short courses coincident with said coextensive portion of the gore lines are interknit with 15 said composite loops.
8 3. A stocking according to claim 1,wher,ein the terminal loops of said short courses coincident with said coeextensive portion of the. gore lines are interknit with loops drawn from said one source in an intermediate course, the loops of said intermediate .courseibeing inter-. knit with said composite loops. V
References Cited in the file voi this patent V NITED TES PATENTS
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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3111826A (en) * 1957-08-14 1963-11-26 S & S Hosiery Mills Method and means for circular multi-feed knitting
US3143869A (en) * 1962-06-01 1964-08-11 May Hosiery Mills Socks and apparatus and method for producing the same
US3270526A (en) * 1963-06-03 1966-09-06 Hanes Corp Run-stop band for hosiery
US6178785B1 (en) * 1999-12-10 2001-01-30 Naigai Co., Ltd. Socks and knitting method therefor

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1801280A (en) * 1928-06-28 1931-04-21 Hemphill Co Mechanism for knitting split fabric
US2525704A (en) * 1946-01-16 1950-10-10 Hanes Hosiery Mills Co Knitting machine and method
US2785553A (en) * 1955-05-31 1957-03-19 Carolina Knitting Machine Corp Circular multi-feed hosiery knitting machine and method of knitting

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1801280A (en) * 1928-06-28 1931-04-21 Hemphill Co Mechanism for knitting split fabric
US2525704A (en) * 1946-01-16 1950-10-10 Hanes Hosiery Mills Co Knitting machine and method
US2785553A (en) * 1955-05-31 1957-03-19 Carolina Knitting Machine Corp Circular multi-feed hosiery knitting machine and method of knitting

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3111826A (en) * 1957-08-14 1963-11-26 S & S Hosiery Mills Method and means for circular multi-feed knitting
US3143869A (en) * 1962-06-01 1964-08-11 May Hosiery Mills Socks and apparatus and method for producing the same
US3270526A (en) * 1963-06-03 1966-09-06 Hanes Corp Run-stop band for hosiery
US6178785B1 (en) * 1999-12-10 2001-01-30 Naigai Co., Ltd. Socks and knitting method therefor

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