US2946285A - Rocket projectiles - Google Patents

Rocket projectiles Download PDF

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Publication number
US2946285A
US2946285A US649900A US64990057A US2946285A US 2946285 A US2946285 A US 2946285A US 649900 A US649900 A US 649900A US 64990057 A US64990057 A US 64990057A US 2946285 A US2946285 A US 2946285A
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United States
Prior art keywords
charge
projectile
starter
nozzle
missile
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Expired - Lifetime
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US649900A
Inventor
Nauschutz Peter
Wessel Wilhelm
Kuhlo Gunther
Dreyer Kuno
Bolkow Ludwig
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Bolkow Entwicklungen KG
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Bolkow Entwicklungen KG
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Publication date
Priority to DEB39751A priority Critical patent/DE1078903B/en
Application filed by Bolkow Entwicklungen KG filed Critical Bolkow Entwicklungen KG
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Publication of US2946285A publication Critical patent/US2946285A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B15/00Self-propelled projectiles or missiles, e.g. rockets; Guided missiles
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/74Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof combined with another jet-propulsion plant
    • F02K9/76Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof combined with another jet-propulsion plant with another rocket-engine plant; Multistage rocket-engine plants
    • F02K9/763Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof combined with another jet-propulsion plant with another rocket-engine plant; Multistage rocket-engine plants with solid propellant
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B10/00Means for influencing, e.g. improving, the aerodynamic properties of projectiles or missiles; Arrangements on projectiles or missiles for stabilising, steering, range-reducing, range-increasing or fall-retarding
    • F42B10/02Stabilising arrangements
    • F42B10/04Stabilising arrangements using fixed fins
    • F42B10/06Tail fins

Description

July 26, 1960 P. NAUSCH'I'Z ETAL 2,946,285
nocxm PROJECTILES Fi1ed April 1. 1957 ROCKET PRQJECTILES Peter Nauschtz, Stuttgart-Flughafen, Wilhelm Wessel,
Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Gnther Kuhlo, Stuttgart-Bernhausen, Kuuo Dreyer, Echterdingen, Filder, alld'Llllll" Filed Apr. 1, 1957, SEI. N0. 649,900 Claims priority, application Germany Apr. 5, 1956 2 Claims. (Cl. 102-49) The present invention pertains to a rocket projectile equipped with two propellant eharges, an initial starter charge and a travel charge.
lt is old in the art to equip a projectile with an axray of starter charges, which serves the purpose cf speeding up the projectile in a short time to its optimum speed and to add a substantially smaller travel Charge to produce a substantially smaller propelling thrus-t, intended to function for an extended period cf time and to maintain the course of the projectile. Further, it is known to arrange the motive force cf the start'er charge relative to the horizontal in such a manner, that it P'asses through the center of gravity of the projectile and liftsit instantaneously from its launching carriage. In Such a case; the propelling thrustof the travel charge passes throgh the Center point of resistance. In p'rior practice of this art, large type rockets, such as aerial vehicles without a es Patent O crew, were launched upward from especially built bases with rocket propulsion, and thereafter were guided in the desired direction. From launching bases, =built especially for such a purpose, rocket projectiles were discharged having their propelling nozzles prepositioned before launching substantially in the direetion cf the target.
The primary object of the present invention is to eliminate the conventional starting equipment in launching rocket projectiles and sirnilar vehicles. The inventive idea applied to a.rocket projectile with a Starter and a travel charge involves the positioning of the axis of the flow of the combustion gases from the nozzle df the startet charge, relative to the direction of the 'axis of the projectile at a predetermined angle. The inventi'oni claims and defines this angle 04 of 15 or more, having,
its vertex in the center of gravity of the prpjeetile, or approximately so, the two spokkes emanating from the vertex being the axis cf flow qf the gases and the axis of the projectile, respectively. The nozzle..is moxinted to the projectile in such a manner tl1at wlgen' the L1arojectil e is placed on the ground the nozzle isspaced above =the.
ground. lt is generally recognized that a Change in angle of the starting thrust relative to the direetion of.dptimurn speed-increase amounts to a*loss. 'Inacc01danc:e with the present invention, however, tlqis angular change is even increased when compared tqinereases conventionally made when starting structures are employed. The advantage gained by eliminating any starting structure is considered superior to the necessity of providing a slightly increased starter charge to accomplish the same operation. In accordance With the present invention a cousiderable portion of the thrust produced by the starter charge acts vertically upwards, thus lifting the aerial vehicle at the start so that no prior preparations are required to send it 01T the ground a-t the launching place.
Another object of the invention is to provide the tl 1rust nozzles of the starter charge with means to change their angular positions relative to the direction of the discharge and to lock them on the projectile. Optionally the starter charge itself may be thus adjusted integrally with its nozzle.
these vanes shaped in Such a mahner that they function as legs of the projeotile. -Thus, pr0jectiles may be placed on the leg vanes upon a platform substantially in the direction of the discharge. The leg 'vanes pxeferably are mount ed with thepr ojectilein a relzltionship calculafed tokeep the=center of g ravi'tyi of the ppojectildwithin their supporting reach. In such a case the f ront of the projectile does not need to be supported. If,=l1owever, the center of gravi ty cf the Projectile is'no't calculated to be within the suppor ting "nach df the leg vai1es, it is contemplated to provide additional means of support 10 thefront of the projectile, such as a spring-loa'cled light leg, mount'ed to the projectile, capable of snapping baek to the body of the projectile a the start;
Thus,-' a mcket projeetile, in particula-t a lang range g uided one, equipped in accordanmwith this invenlion, may be placed in the direetion of aim on any desired support, including the bare ground. Upon fining, it will lift itself fromihesupport by thcomponent pf th "s-tarfi ing force created by theinclination cyf the stafitercharge nozzle and directed -transverse to ;the support and simul- Parts in fragmentary cross-sectidnal view. Fig. 2 is a rear elevation of Fig. l.
Referring to these figures,.the main' bodv" 0f the projectile 1 isa cylindrical structure elosed in the 'front part with a pointed conical body 2. The main body is hollowto accommodate a pro'pellai1t charge. On its rear, four' flight guidirig vanes, 3 t0 6, ai1anged cross-wise, eire'attached to the projectile withlegs 7 straiddled. The traveling charge 8 with a corresponding 'thrust nozzle 8 'are mounted in.the rear cf the projec tile body 1 in the directiori of its axis; The thrust nozzle 9 of the Starter charge 10 expands outward:and is niounted with the projectile at an angle to its aiiis of morethnl 5" dire'cteddownwarcl andlowa'rds'therear. The axis of thestarter nozzle passes' through the centerof gr'avity'5.
-The starter charge 10 is mounted removably to the projectile body 1 by a front and"rear holdifig:ih'eans 13 and -16respectiVely both attached to the"projectile body-The front holdingmeans cmprise a bordl4j eanted towa'rd therear-at adwnwrdangle. Afpin 011 a similar -prqjection*l5 :provided in thef'shell "0f the Y Starter harge is slanted at an angle coriespondin'gfto fc thereat holding mens '16 at apoint 17; .--Du ring tlie combustion of the startercharg the soldering poii1t 17 is subject to the resulting heat which exceeds the melting' temperature of the solder. The startet charge Shell preferably has in its top rear past the soldering point anothet projection engaging the holding means 16. Even after the melting of the solder, the starter chafge'is' kept in its place until its thrust against the two holding means is spent. The startet charge shell thereafter will drop ofi by gravity.
2,945285 Patented Jaly 26,.1900
limited to such an arrangernent.
two guide vanes 3 and 4 functioning as legs on the gro'und 12. The two guide vanes together form an angle of 90 and each of them forms an angle of 45 with the ground 12. Since the vanes are shown to be'r'ectangular in shape, the combination as presented is an example of a technically sound positioning on the ground 12. '[he present invention also recognizes that for the maintenance of an undisturbed transition from start to flight travel, it is important to maintain the position f the guide vanes substantially unchanged from that which th ey occupied at the start. Thus, according to the invent-ion, each pair of guide vanes maintains a position of 45 from horizontal and vertieal and not the conventional horizontal and vertical positions respectively, employed in the prior art.
In long range guided missiles it is therefore also important to maintain substantially the starting position during travel in order to avoid expensive and eornplicated means for their long range guidance. This applies also to a long range guided projeetile of the type spinning along its longitudinal axis. The invention may be applied preferably also to long range guided missile since the accuracy of the aim is independent of the position ineidentally chosen prior to its discharge. The usefulness of the invention is not limited, however, to long range gnided missiles.
Control means may be included to make the vertical and/or horizontal angles of the starte: charge nozzle adjustable relative to the projectile to change the direction of gas flow. Such control means a1:e considered to be novel in combination with the arrangement of the above described type.
The invention may be practiced also with a satisfactory accuracy of aim in combination with non-'guided projectiles, which are being discharged from various type launching bases, positioned at various angles, in partieular when the angle of the starter charge nozzle is adjustable, and when the angula: acljustments are m:asurable, for instance, With a level, pendulum, compass or sirnilar angle measuring means, either directly mounted on the projectile 01' to be used independently from outside. While the invention is shown with the starter charge positioned in the rear, obviously it is not Neither is it limited to a single Starter charge, but could include an array of startet charges fired simultaneously, again having a common resulting thrust at an angle of 15 o1 niore relative to the axis of the projectile and acting in the vertical plane upward.
While the invention is demonstrated on a two stage rocket having a single starter charge and single travel charge, it may be applied to multistage rockets also.
While the rear guide vanes are shown utilized as legs, other projections of a missile includifig those positioncid in the center and in the front such as ailefons, wings, undercarriages may be ad apted to serve as leg supports simultaneously, or sepa'rate leg supports may be included.
The invention is not l imited to ordnance proj ectiles but its p1inciples and teachings may be used also in other type missiles including jet planes, torpedoes, etc.
whenever discharge of fluids under pressure is utilized as means of propulsion.
The four guide vane positions are not li1nitecl to the angle of 45 from horizontal.;l'his angle is considered only to be optimum.
The inventioni not limited to- Cdnventional ordnance type propellant fuels, such as powder in grain. Any fluid dr solid ti pe propellafits, in iluding petroleum products, liquified gases etc. cjtheri viseusable carfyinlg out theobj'ects of this invention are inoludecl,
1;Conventional means may be incorporated into the starter charge shell to cause its disintegration upon its separation from the rocket. Ihe legs of the missile may be extendalle to alloW its 'safe Positioning on unlevel ground.
It should be understood,of cou rse .that the foregoing disclosure relates only to a preferred embodiment of the invention and that it is intended to cover all changes and modifications of the examiale of the invention herein chosen for the purposes of the disclosre, which do not constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the apPendecl claims.
What is claimedand desired to be protected by Letters Patent of the United States im l. In an ordnance missile having two stages, a starter stage and a travel stage, with a startet charge and a travel charge and with corresfponding starter charge nozzle and a travel charge nozzle, respebtively, said starter charge and said starte: charge nozzle forming an integral body, means to position said starter charge nozzle with its orifice away from the direction of said missile at an angle of the axis of the said startet charge nozzle' in excess of 15 from the axis of said missile and below it, an array 015 four guide vanes mounted 011 the rear"periphery of said missile, the planes of said vanes eonverging in crqss frmation upon the longitudinal axis of said missile, the bisector plane of the prism formed by' the bottom two vanes with the bottom plane defined by theii bottom edges, aligned With the vertical longitudinal cross-sec tional plane of said missile, at least said bottom two vanes being of equal siz e and of a length greater than the distank:e from the rear of said missile to the center of gravity of said missile, so that the center of gravity of said missile is above the said bottom plane.
2. An ordnance missile as claimed in cla'nn 1, the width of said bisector plane being greater tha.n the distance of the orifice of said starter charge from the longitudinal axis of said missile, so that said orifice is sjpaced above ground.
ReferencesCited in the fileof this patent UNITED STATES. PATENTS l Parke: et a1. May 6,
US649900A 1956-04-05 1957-04-01 Rocket projectiles Expired - Lifetime US2946285A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DEB39751A DE1078903B (en) 1956-04-05 1956-04-05 Rocket propelled missile

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CH (1) CH363908A (en)
DE (1) DE1078903B (en)
FR (1) FR1173322A (en)
GB (1) GB855592A (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3069975A (en) * 1959-01-28 1962-12-25 Bolkow Entwicklungen K G Protective means for rocketpropelled missiles
US3132827A (en) * 1960-08-27 1964-05-12 Onera (Off Nat Aerospatiale) High speed airplane having auxiliary rockets
US3403873A (en) * 1963-01-24 1968-10-01 Navy Usa Guided missile
US4445652A (en) * 1982-03-25 1984-05-01 The Boeing Company Adjustable rocket thrust alignment device
US4949918A (en) * 1989-08-02 1990-08-21 Arszman Jerrold H Moment control of rockets

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1629767A (en) * 1924-03-18 1927-05-24 Valdes Salustio Jet-propulsion apparatus for the driving of vehicles, ships, boats, flying machines, and the like
US2503271A (en) * 1945-02-06 1950-04-11 Clarence N Hickman Rocket projectile
US2537487A (en) * 1946-03-01 1951-01-09 Stone William Card Adjustable exhaust for jetpropelled aircraft
US2596644A (en) * 1946-12-10 1952-05-13 Us Sec War Automatically detachable flashless nozzle for rockets
US2748703A (en) * 1948-04-27 1956-06-05 Wilbur H Goss Rocket type launching carriage for ordnance missile
US2787218A (en) * 1952-02-25 1957-04-02 Anthony Alastair Aircraft
US2818779A (en) * 1952-04-24 1958-01-07 Casper J Koeper Non-tip off launcher
US2833494A (en) * 1953-06-15 1958-05-06 Northrop Aircraft Inc Rocket ejection system

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE305160C (en) *

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1629767A (en) * 1924-03-18 1927-05-24 Valdes Salustio Jet-propulsion apparatus for the driving of vehicles, ships, boats, flying machines, and the like
US2503271A (en) * 1945-02-06 1950-04-11 Clarence N Hickman Rocket projectile
US2537487A (en) * 1946-03-01 1951-01-09 Stone William Card Adjustable exhaust for jetpropelled aircraft
US2596644A (en) * 1946-12-10 1952-05-13 Us Sec War Automatically detachable flashless nozzle for rockets
US2748703A (en) * 1948-04-27 1956-06-05 Wilbur H Goss Rocket type launching carriage for ordnance missile
US2787218A (en) * 1952-02-25 1957-04-02 Anthony Alastair Aircraft
US2818779A (en) * 1952-04-24 1958-01-07 Casper J Koeper Non-tip off launcher
US2833494A (en) * 1953-06-15 1958-05-06 Northrop Aircraft Inc Rocket ejection system

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3069975A (en) * 1959-01-28 1962-12-25 Bolkow Entwicklungen K G Protective means for rocketpropelled missiles
US3132827A (en) * 1960-08-27 1964-05-12 Onera (Off Nat Aerospatiale) High speed airplane having auxiliary rockets
US3403873A (en) * 1963-01-24 1968-10-01 Navy Usa Guided missile
US4445652A (en) * 1982-03-25 1984-05-01 The Boeing Company Adjustable rocket thrust alignment device
US4949918A (en) * 1989-08-02 1990-08-21 Arszman Jerrold H Moment control of rockets

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FR1173322A (en) 1959-02-24
CH363908A (en) 1962-08-15
DE1078903B (en) 1960-03-31
GB855592A (en) 1960-12-07

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