US2832250A - Key mechanism for clarinets - Google Patents

Key mechanism for clarinets Download PDF

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US2832250A
US2832250A US442720A US44272054A US2832250A US 2832250 A US2832250 A US 2832250A US 442720 A US442720 A US 442720A US 44272054 A US44272054 A US 44272054A US 2832250 A US2832250 A US 2832250A
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spring
key
tone hole
spatula
hole
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Leblanc Leon
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G Leblanc Corp
LEBLANC CORP G
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D7/00General design of wind musical instruments
    • G10D7/06Beating-reed wind instruments, e.g. single or double reed wind instruments
    • G10D7/066Clarinets

Description

April 29, 1958 L. LEBLANC 2,832,250
KEY MECHANISM FOR CLARINETS Filed July 12, 1954 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 J62 0 J31 1w 6 J06 IN VEN TOR.
A ril 29, 1958 L. LEBLANC 2,832,250
KEY MECHANISM FOR CLARINETS Filed July 12, 1954 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. 7
leg flarzc United States Patent KEY MECHANISM FOR CLARINET S Leon Leblanc, Paris, France, assignor to G. Leblanc (Jorporation, Kenosha, Wis, a corporation of Wisconsin Application July 12, 1954, Serial Ne. 442,726
Claims. (Cl. 84--382) This invention is concerned generally with Clarinets, and more specifically with an improved key mechanism for playing the 13,, and for the register.
It is an object of this invention to provide a key mechanism for a clarinet for obtaining a clear B (the second B in the series of fundamentals beginning at the lower end of the scale) by means of a special tone hole for this specific purpose, and simultaneously to provide a special tone hole for producing only the harmonics (twelfths) which is never used to produce a fundamental.
Another object of this invention is to minimize the stutliness of the B heretofore found in many clarinets.
A further object of this invention is to provide a more readily manipulable A key eliminating the excessive stiffness often found heretofore.
A further object of this invention is to clear up intonation defects in the upper harmonics, and to simplify the production of these harmonics due to shortening of the twelfth tube.
Yet another object of this invention, in one of the forms thereof, is to provide a single twelfth hole for the regular B and for the trill B Other and further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:
Fig. 1 is a layout view of the key mechanism in question, the mechanism being unrolled from its normal position encircling the barrel of the clarinet;
Fig. 2 is a side view thereof;
Fig. 3 is a view generally similar to Fig. l and showing a modified form of mechanism;
Fig. 4 is another view generally similar to Fig. 1 and illustrating yet another modification;
Figs. 5 and 6 are detailed views of certain of the parts used in the modification of Fig. 4;
Fig. 7 shows yet another modification; and
Fig. 8 is a detailed view illustrating a modification which can be incorporated in any of the previously described embodiments.
Referring first to the mechanism shown in Fig. 1 there will be seen a spatula 10 soldered to a hinge rod 12 mounted between a pair of posts 14 on the upper joint of the clarinet body. At the upper end of spatula 10 there is soldered a bifurcated link or bracket 16 (see also Fig. 2) and a pivot 18 in this bracket or link carries a rocker arm 20. A pad cup A is soldered to the extremity of this rocker arm 20 for covering the twelfth tone hole 22, and the opposite end of the rocker arm is provided with a tail point 2 5. This tail point engages a stirrup 26 soldered on a key cup B which closes the B tone hole 28. A flat spring 3% is provided beneath the spatula iii for lowering the link or bracket 16 carrying the rocker arm 20. The rocker arm 2% is provided with a flat spring 32 which causes lowering of the pad cup A and consequently the closing of the twelfth hole, While the tail point 24 presses the pad cup B down in order to close the R tone hole. To this end, the spring 30 is stronger than the spring 32 carried by the rocker arm 20.
To the right of the previously described mechanism in Fig. l, and in actuality substantially diametrically opposite thereto on the clarinet barrel, there is provided a spatula key 34 which carries at its extremity a pad cup C. This pad cup C covers the A tone hole (not shown). The spatula 34 is soldered to a hinge rod 36 pivotally mounted between a pair of posts 38. At the tip of the pad cup C there is soldered a small arm or bracket 40 Which rests on the tip of a lever arm 42 extending laterally from a hinge rod 44 mounted between a pair of posts 46 for pivotal movement. An oppositely extending lever arm 48 also is soldered to the hinge rod 44, and the tip of the lever arm 43 rests beneath the tip of a lever arm 50 soldered to a hinge rod 52. The hinge rod 52 is pivotally carried between a pair of posts 54.
The hinge rod 52 carries another lever arm 56, and the aforementioned pad cup B is soldered to this arm. A iiat spring 5'8 is secured beneath the spatula 34, causing pad cup C normally to close the A tone hole. When the pad cup C does close the A tone hole, the small bracket 4i pushes down on the end of the lever arm 42, and hence raises the lever arm 48, thereby raising the lever arm Sil and lowering the lever arm 56 to cause the pad cup 18 to close off the B tone hole 28. The parts pivoting between the posts 46 are floating, inasmuch as they do not have any springs acting directly on them. Therefore, it is the flat spring 58 of the spatula 34 which holds the pad cup B down under some conditions, and this pad cup is held down primarily by the flat spring 30 acting through the rocker arm 20. Accordingly, for the fundamentals the spring 36 is really what holds the pad cup B in closed position on the R tone hole, and the small bracket 40 and the spring 58 serve to hold the R tone hole closed when the harmonics are played.
It will be observed that there are only three springs, namely 3t), 32 and 58, mounted respectively on the spatula It), the rocker 2i), and the spatula 34. Each of these springs has a different coefiicient of strength, based for example on the spring 58 which applies the same force normally used heretofore on conventional soprano clarinets. Assuming for spring 58 that a coefficient of spring strength may be designated as (5), then the coeflicient of spring strength of the spring 32 is (3), and that of the spring 30 is (7).
Under conditions of repose, the spatula 10 by virtue of the spring 3i) presses on the rocker 20, and this rocker rests on the twelfth tone hole by virtue of the spring 32. Pad cup B also rests on the E tone hole 28 to close the same. At the same time, the spatula 34 is biased by the spring 58 to hold the C pad cup closed against the A tone hole as previously mentioned. In short, the A tone hole, the R tone hole, and the twelfth, or register, or harmonic tone hole all are closed.
In playing the fundamental A, the index finger presses upon the spatula 34 to overcome the strength of the spring 58. The 13;, tone hole remains closed by virtue of the spring 3t as partially opposed by the weaker spring 32. The vibratory movement of the air molecules is strong when playing the fundamentals, but the resulting spring strength holding the B pad cup in closed position is sufiicient.
In the harmonic series, the vibratory movements of the air are weaker, the strength being broken up according to the movement of each harmonic. As a result, the pressure is less. In order to produce the harmonics, the
spatula key 19 is depressed by the thumb. This over-, comes the force of the springs 30 and 32 and causes the rocker 20 to rise, thereby lifting the pad cup A and opening the twelfth or register tone hole. At the same time,
the pad cup B of the B tone hole is held in lowered or closed position by virtue of the spring 58 beneath the spatula key 34. The pad cup C is not raised in the production of theharmonics, and the spring 58 therefore acts to hold the B pad cup in closed position as noted.
When the index finger and thumb simultaneously de press the spatulas and 34, the force of the springs and'58 is overcome, and the pad cup B therefore is free. The spring 32 causes the rocker 20 to pivot or rock on its axis 18, and thereby to close the pad cup A on the twelfth hole, and to raise the pad cup B by means of the tail point 26, thereby effecting extremely clear playing of the B A modification or extension of the mechanism heretofore described is shown in Fig. 3. In Fig. 3, the side 13 tone hole heretofore used has been eliminated, and suitable mechanism is provided for exclusively utilizing the regular B tone hole heretofore referred to. The parts described with regard to Figs. 1 and 2 appear without change in Fig. 3, and are identified by similar numerals with the addition of the sufiix a. Description of these parts therefore can be dispensed with except insofar as they cooperate with the additional mechanism.
A B trill key is indicated at 60, this key being soldered to a hinge rod 62 pivoted between a pair of brackets 64, and having a finger piece or spatula 66. The upper part of the key is cut oft as indicated at 68, and a small bracket 70 is soldered to and extends laterally from this cutofi' 68. This bracket 70 rests beneath the tip 72 of a lever arm 74 soldered to a hinge rod 76 pivoted between a pair of posts 78. The opposite extremity 80 of this lever arm 74 is positioned above the tip of the lever arm a, and normally is spaced therefrom by a spring 82 beneath the lever arm 74.
Since the tip 80 of the lever 74 normally is spaced above the end of the lever 50a, then the originally described parts remain in their original position of repose. However, if the finger piece or spatula 56 is depressed by the players finger, then the extremity 68 and bracket 70 of the key are raised. This raises the end 72 of the lever 74 and lowers the end 80. Accordingly, the lever arms 48a and 50a are lowered. The lever arms 42a and 56a are raised, along with the key cups B and C, thereby permitting a clear B to be produced by means of a single B tone hole and using only one finger. As a further measure, to insure continued closure of the R tone hole when the harmonics are played, a very Weak needle spring 82 (Fig. 1) may act between the hinge rod 52 and upper post 54. On the spring strength scale previously established, this needle spring might have a spring force or strength of one, thereby lightly closing the B tone hole without depending on the A key.
In the further modification illustrated in Fig. 4, certain of the parts remain as originally described, while others are changed. The unchanged parts are identified by the same numerals previously used with the addition of the suffix b. In the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 4 the clear B tone hole is displaced, and there is but one B, tone hole on the instrument, taking the place of the trill B found in all Boehm system clarinets. Beneath the A key spatula 34b there is soldered a flat plate or bracket 84. This plate is positioned beneath the end of a diagonally disposed lever arm 86 soldered to a hinge rod 88 pivoted between a pair of posts 90. A laterally extending lever arm 92 on the hinge rod 88 rests on the pad cup B covering the B tone hole. Between the posts 54!) there are mounted two hinge rods 94 and 96. A lever arm 98 is soldered to the lower hinge rod 94 and carries the pad cup B. An arm 100 (see also Fig. 5) is soldered to this hinge rod 94 and projects toward the body of the clarinet. The outer end of the arm 109 (the end projecting toward the clarinet body) is provided with a pivot 102. A similar lever arm 104 is soldered to the upper hinge rod 96.
A lever arm 106 (Figs. 4 and 6) is soldered on the 4 upper hinge rod 96 and projects to the left therefrom, being provided with an opening 108 to receive the tail point 24 (the same as in Fig. 2).
Beneath the hinge rods 94 and 96 there is pivotally mounted a lever 110 on a pivot 112. This lever arm is provided at its opposite ends with holes 114 and 116 for receiving th pivot 102 of the lever 100, and for receiving the similar pivot of the lever 104.
As in the example shown in Fig. 1, the intermediary parts are floating, and all of the movement is derived from the spatulas 10b and 34b and their respective springs 30b and 58b, plus the rocker arm 20b and its associated spring 32b. It will be apparent that the spatula 34b by virtue of its spring 58b and the fiat bracket or plate 84 normally holds the lever arm 86 in raised position, the lever arm 92 thereby being held in lowered position to hold the pad cup B closed on the R tone hole.
It the index finger and the thumb press simultaneously on the spatula 34b and on the spatula 10b, they overcome the forceof the springs 58b and 30b, thus freeing the pad B and simultaneously effecting closing of the twelfth hole by the pad A, the pad A being lowered by the spring 32b and the tail point of the rocker arm 20b causing the lever 106 to rise, and hence pivoting the upper hinge rod 96. In the course of such pivotal movement, the lever arm 104 causes the lever 110 to pivot about its pivot 112, thereby acting through the arm 100 to eifect reverse pivoting of the hinge rod 94 and raising of the arm 98 and key pad 13 to open the B tone hole to sound the B A bracket 116 is soldered to the pad cup B in order that the latter may be raised with the aid of the key 601), the extremity of the key 60!) in this instance resting beneath the bracket 116. Thus, the B, may be produced with a single finger (index finger) since the pads for the A, A and B tone holes are raised simultaneously. This is a result which is impossible to obtain on existing instrumerits, and permits many otherwise ditlicult passages to be played with ease.
Yet another embodiment of theinvention is shown in Fig. 7, and in this embodiment certain of the parts, namely the spatula 10c and parts carried thereby, remain as originally disclosed. The parts which are not changed again are identified by similar numerals, this time with the addition of the suffix c. In this embodiment of the invention, the A key is no longer necessary for operation of the mechanism. Between a pair of posts 118 there is pivotally mounted a hinge rod 120. A thumb ring 122 is soldered to the lower end of the pivot rod 120, and an L arm 124 is soldered to the upper end of this hinge rod. The extremity of the L arm 124 rests on the tip of a transverse arm 126 soldered on a hinge rod 123 mounted between the upper post 113 and a post 130. A needle spring 132 maintains both the thumb ring 122 and the L arm 124 raised under rest conditions.
A lever arm 131 is soldered to the hinge rod 128, and this lever arm carries the B pad closing the B tone hole. The arm 131 has no spring, and its movement is the same as in the previously described embodiment of Figs. 1 and 3.
When the thumb ring 55 is depressed by the thumb, the l. arm 124 also is lowered, and this acts through the lever 126, pivot rod 128, and lever arm to lower the pad cup B, thereby closing the E tone hole. It the ring 122 is maintained lowered by the thumb, and the thumb is slid in such a direction as to depress the spatula 10c, then the pad A is raised to free the twelfth tone hole, the pad B remaining in place by virtue of the pressure exerted on the ring 122, thereby permitting the harmonics to be produced.
A modification of structure'is shown in Fig. 8 which may be utilized with any of the mechanisms previously described. In this case, the pad A comprises a disc having two upstanding posts 134 carrying a pivot 136 which is supported by the end of the rocker arm 20a, this rocker arm corresponding to any of the previously mentioned rocker arms 20-20c. This mounting eliminates any sliding of the pad A on the twelfth tone hole such as might otherwise be caused when the spatulas and 13 are simultaneously depressed.
It will be seen that the improvements heretofore de scribed for clarinet mechanisms permit a clear B to be produced with perfect ease and assurance, and also lead to a more facile and accurate reproduction of the harmonic series. The improvements may be applied to all models of clarinets in use at the present time. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the specific illustrative embodiments are for purposes of illustration only, and that structural changes made therein form a part of my invention insofar as they fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
I claim:
1. A key mechanism for musical instruments such as clarinets and the like comprising an elongated instrument body having a B tone hole, a separate twelfth hole above said 13,, tone hole, and a third tone hole, a spatula oriented longitudinally of said body, a pivot transverse of said body and pivotally mounting said spatula intermediate its ends, a rocker having upper and lower ends and extending longitudinally of said body, pivot means parallel to said pivot substantially at the upper end of said spatula pivotally mounting said rocker intermediate the ends thereof, a twelfth hole closure member at the upper end of said rocker and movable between open and closed positions over said twelfth hole, a 13,, tone hole closure member, means mounting said 8,, closure member for movement toward and from closing position over said B tone hole, means interconnecting the lower end of said rocker and said 13,, closure member for partially controlling the movement thereof, an operating member associated with said third tone hole and pivotally movable toward and from said third tone hole, means interconnecting said operating member and said B closure member for further controlling the movement of said B closure member, first spring means acting on said spatula and urging the upper end thereof toward said body whereby to hold said 13;, closure member and said twelfth hole closure member in closed position on their respective tone holes, second spring means on said rocker tending to close said twelfth hole closure member on said twelfth hole and to raise said 3;, closure member to open position away from said 13,, tone hole, said second spring means normally being overcome by said first spring means, and third spring means acting on said operating member and urging said operating member toward idle position, said third spring means normally overcoming said second spring means and tending to hold said B closure member in closed position, operation of said operating member alone overcoming said third spring means and leaving both of said twelfth and 13,, hole closing members in closed position, operation of said spatula key alone overcoming said first spring means and raising said twelfth hole closure member to open position, said third spring means overcoming said second spring means and holding said 3,, closure member in closed position, and simultaneous operation of said spatula and said operating member overcoming both said first and said third spring means, said second spring means raising said 3,, closure member to open position and holding said twelfth hole closure member in closed position.
2. A key mechanism as set forth in claim 1 wherein the twelfth hole and the E tone hole are aligned longitudinally of the instrument body, and the spatula pivot is positioned below the 1%,, tone hole longitudinally of the body.
3. A key mechanism as set forth in claim 1 wherein the B tone hole is spaced below the twelfth hole longitudinally of the body, and is displaced laterally therefrom.
4. A key mechanism as set forth in claim 1 and further including a 13,, trill key having an operating connection with the means interconnecting the operating member and the B closure member.
5. A key mechanism as set forth in claim 1 wherein the twelfth hole closure member is pivotally mounted on the rocker.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,505,359 Loomis Aug. 19, 1924 1,723,265 Young Aug. 6, 1929 1,926,489 Leblanc Sept. 12, 1933 2,090,011 Selmer Aug. 17, 1937 2,133,625 Loomis Oct. 18, 1938 2,508,550 Stubbins May 23, 1950 2,775,915 De Ford Jan. 1, 1957 FOREIGN PATENTS 662,526 France Mar. 19, 1929 276,891 Italy Aug. 21, 1930
US442720A 1954-07-12 1954-07-12 Key mechanism for clarinets Expired - Lifetime US2832250A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3150553A (en) * 1962-06-22 1964-09-29 Mazzeo Rosario Clarinet
US3238833A (en) * 1964-08-14 1966-03-08 Brodzky Arthur Clarinet
US3844193A (en) * 1972-12-20 1974-10-29 J Marchi Clarinet
US4922792A (en) * 1987-01-06 1990-05-08 Yamaha Corporation Key mechanism for a wood wind
US5477766A (en) * 1994-06-09 1995-12-26 Ellsworth; Clifford Boehm system clarinet having improved a key mechanism
FR2721743A1 (en) * 1994-06-27 1995-12-29 Buffet Crampon Sa Oboe with triple mechanism for controlling octave harmonics

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1505359A (en) * 1921-09-14 1924-08-19 Loomis Allen Octave-key mechanism
US1723265A (en) * 1926-07-06 1929-08-06 Young Charles Morrison Musical instrument
FR662526A (en) * 1928-10-19 1929-08-08 Improvements to clarinets
US1926489A (en) * 1932-06-01 1933-09-12 Leblanc Leon Key mechanism for wood wind instruments
US2090011A (en) * 1935-03-27 1937-08-17 Selmer Henri Musical instrument
US2133625A (en) * 1936-12-21 1938-10-18 Conn Ltd C G Wood-wind instrument
US2508550A (en) * 1948-08-05 1950-05-23 Frank L Kaspar Cylindrical pipe wood-wind instrument
US2775915A (en) * 1953-07-02 1957-01-01 H & A Selmer Inc Key mechanism for musical instruments

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1505359A (en) * 1921-09-14 1924-08-19 Loomis Allen Octave-key mechanism
US1723265A (en) * 1926-07-06 1929-08-06 Young Charles Morrison Musical instrument
FR662526A (en) * 1928-10-19 1929-08-08 Improvements to clarinets
US1926489A (en) * 1932-06-01 1933-09-12 Leblanc Leon Key mechanism for wood wind instruments
US2090011A (en) * 1935-03-27 1937-08-17 Selmer Henri Musical instrument
US2133625A (en) * 1936-12-21 1938-10-18 Conn Ltd C G Wood-wind instrument
US2508550A (en) * 1948-08-05 1950-05-23 Frank L Kaspar Cylindrical pipe wood-wind instrument
US2775915A (en) * 1953-07-02 1957-01-01 H & A Selmer Inc Key mechanism for musical instruments

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3150553A (en) * 1962-06-22 1964-09-29 Mazzeo Rosario Clarinet
US3238833A (en) * 1964-08-14 1966-03-08 Brodzky Arthur Clarinet
US3844193A (en) * 1972-12-20 1974-10-29 J Marchi Clarinet
US4922792A (en) * 1987-01-06 1990-05-08 Yamaha Corporation Key mechanism for a wood wind
US5477766A (en) * 1994-06-09 1995-12-26 Ellsworth; Clifford Boehm system clarinet having improved a key mechanism
FR2721743A1 (en) * 1994-06-27 1995-12-29 Buffet Crampon Sa Oboe with triple mechanism for controlling octave harmonics

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