US2791145A - Clarinets - Google Patents

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US2791145A
US2791145A US420147A US42014754A US2791145A US 2791145 A US2791145 A US 2791145A US 420147 A US420147 A US 420147A US 42014754 A US42014754 A US 42014754A US 2791145 A US2791145 A US 2791145A
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pad
shaft
tone hole
sharp
tone
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US420147A
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Oscar E Christensen
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Oscar E Christensen
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D7/00General design of wind musical instruments
    • G10D7/06Beating-reed wind instruments, e.g. single or double reed wind instruments
    • G10D7/066Clarinets

Description

May 7, 1957 o. E. cHRlsTr-:NSEN

CLARINETS Filed March 3l, 1954 Wg Z 43 INVENTR.

4 dwarf, Cr/.se/zsefz BY '/f/ c@ United States Patent O CLARINETS Oscar E. Christensen, Salt Lake City, Utah Application March 31, 1954, Serial No. 420,147

7 Claims. (Cl. 84-382) This invention relates generally to the class of musical instruments and is directed particularly to improvements in clarinets, by means of which improvements the instrumentalist is enabled to more accurately produce certain tones.

A principal object of the invention is to provide a means in a clarinet construction for producing a correct intonation of the tones E flat (lower line of the staff) and B fiat (second space above the staff), when played with the Boehm, or one and one fingering, which employs only the thumb of the left hand and the index finger of each hand.

Another object of the present invention is to provide in a Boehm system clarinet, a new and novel key arrangement whereby a means is provided to facilitate the playing of G sharp, lst space above the staff, in connection with any other tone from F sharp, top line of the stati, to B, 3rd or center line, inclusive.

Still another object is to provide a new and improved key mechanism for a Boehm system clarinet by which the playing of the F sharp-G sharp trill and the C sharp-B trill, or their equivalents, may be accomplished.

The present `application is a continuation-in-part of my allowed application Serial No. 242,703, tiled August 20, 1951, issuing April 6, 1954, as Patent No. 2,674,148.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent as the description of the same proceeds and the invention will be best understood from a consideration of the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing forming a part of the specication, with the understanding, however, that the invention is not to be limited to the exact details of construction shown and described since obvious modifications will occur to a person skilled in the art.

in the drawing:

Figure l is a View in elevation of the middle part of a clarinet, showing the upper end of the lower section and the lower end of the upper section, with the conventional bridge connections between the sections omitted.

Figure 2 is a view in elevation of the back part of the instrument through the middle portion shown in Figure 1.

Figure 3 is a view illustrating, in at plan a new key and bridge arrangement at the center joint showing the coupling together `of keys by which the new ways for playing the above stated tones, are accomplished.

Referring now more particularly to Figures l and 2 of the drawing, the numerals 12 and 12a designate respectively the lower and upper sections of a clarinet, the joint between the two sections being designated at 14.

As previously set forth the usual or conventional bridge connections between the sections have been omitted in these gures for clarity.

In a clarinet with a bore of .575 inch the spacing of the tone holes for best intonation is approximately 2%?, inch. This is for the cylindrical portion of the bore. The best, or correct, spacing for the tone holes along the Patented May 7, 1957 ice tapered portion of the bore depends on the degree of taper therein. The correct location of the tone hole is, of course, that which will produce the correct intonation for the tone in the lower register and its 12th above. There is but one location for obtaining this result. If the tone hole is placed either above or below such location, or point, one of the tones will be oif pitch. Such correct location for the tone hole is defined or identified as the nodal point.

In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention the number 6 or C sharp, G sharp, F key, here designated 16 is placed in reverse position on the instrument from that normally occupied so that, as shown in Figure l, the key is directed across the front of the instrument from the left side and the supporting arm 18 for the key passes across the rear side of the instrument and carries the tone hole pad or cover 20 in the customary position for closing the tone hole, not shown. The arm 18 is supported on a suitable shaft mounting 22 of conventional type, located at the back of the instrument and is biased by suitable spring means (not shown) for normally holding pad 20 in tone hole closing position.

Below and in line longitudinally of the instrument with the tone hole 24 which is covered with the third finger of the left hand there is provided, at the nodal point which lies in the plane indicated by the transverse broken line 25, an extra or additional tone hole 26.

A shaft 27 is disposed at the right side of the instrunient from the tone holes 24 and 26 and carries a ring 2S which encircles the hole 24 and a cover pad 29 which overlies the added tone hole 26. The shaft 27 is spring biased in the manner commonly employed in this instrument so as to maintain the added tone hole pad or cover 29 raised from the tone hole 26. When the ring 28 is depressed the added tone hole 26 has its cover pad closed down so as to close the hole. Stated another way, the tone hole 26 will be in open position when tones immediately above the C sharp, G sharp, F are played. By placing these tone holes, namely the tone hole 26 and the tone hole under the pad 20, at the nodal point correct intonation will result. The tone hole pads or covers 20 and 29 are not to be opened simultaneously. When one is opened the other one must remain closed.

By the arrangement thus described a means is provided for producing correct intonation of the tones E tlat (lower line of the staff) and B iiat (second space above the staff), when played with the Boehm or one and one, fingering which employs only the thumb of the left hand and the index nger of each hand. When this lingering is employed the pad 29 remains raised and the tone hole 26 is open and being, as previously stated, at the nodal point, correct intonation results for the stated E at, B flat tones.

This added tone hole is not used as a C sharp, G sharp, F tone hole .as these tones are played in the customary manner, but is for the purpose of having an open C shar G sharp, F tone hole equivalent when needed as described above.

In the new arrangement shown in Figure 3, the parts corresponding to like parts in Figures 1 and 2 will be identified by the corresponding :reference numbers primed.

The reference number 26 designates the tone hole located at the same nodal point of the instrument bore as the hole covered by the pad 20. These tone holes are in the upper section 12a', separated from the lower section 12 connected by the joint 14.

The short shaft 22' pivotally mounted at the back of the instrument carries `the conventional #6 key, designated 16 and from this shaft extends the short arm 35 which terminates in the finger 35a directed transversely of the instrument.

At the opposite side of the joint from the arm 3S on the lower section 12 is mounted the short rotatable shaft 36 which parallels the arm 35, or extends transversely of the instrument, and secured to this shaft 36 is the joint bridging arm 37, the free end of which is directed upwardly along the instrument body and terminates, in the at face 37a which underlies and is normally engaged by the finger 35a.

Secured to the shaft 36 is the arm 38 which extends lengthwise of the instrument in parallel relation with arms 37, across the joint 14', and carries upon its free upper end the tone hole pad Extending in the opposite direction from arm 38 and secured to shaft 36, is the arm 39 which may form a continuation of arm 38 as shown and this arm has threaded therethrough, at its free lower end portion, for adjustment toward and away from the body of the instrument, the screw 40, the function of which will be hereinafter set forth.

The numeral 27 designates the longitudinal shaft which carries the ring 28 for the tone hole 24 which is covered by the third linger of the left hand and the tone hole pad 29 for tone hole 26 is carried by shaft 27 through the arm 29a.

Extending longitudinally of the instrument across the joint 14', is the two part bridge 41 comprising the parts a and b, the part a being carried by the shaft 27".

On the lower section 12' is the longitudinal shaft 42 which carries, through the arm 43, the ring 44 for the tone hole 45, which ring is engaged by the iirst finger of the right hand.

The key pad 46 is also carried by shaft 42 as shown and is normally held in open position by conventional spring biasing means (not shown) for the shaft 42.

The bridge section b is secured to the shaft 42 and has its free end portion disposed beneath and in operative vengagement with the underside of the upper portion a.

The shaft 27 is also conventionally urged by biasing spring means (not shown) in a direction to maintain the pad 29 in raised position so that the tone hole 26 is normally open.

Thus, the closing of tone hole 26 by pad 29' can bc effected by depressing ring 28', but depression of ring 2S' will not affect the bridge section b to turn shaft 42.

The bridge section b has a tail extension 41a which lies beneath the terminal portion of arm 39 between tho end of Vadjusting screw 40 and the body of the instrument. This screw is normally spaced from7 or out of contact with, the extension 41a.

The shaft 36 is constantly urged to turn by suitable conventional spring biasing means (not shown), in a direction to raise the pad 24) to open the tone hole therebeneath, but is prevented from so turning by a stronger spring biasing means (not shown) of the usual or conventional character, acting on shaft 22 to turn it in a direction to swing or press the terminal part a of arm 35 toward the instrument body, thus holding the shaft 36 from turning to open the pad 20', by the connection of the arm 35 with the arm 37.

The mechanism thus described provides a means for facilitating the playing of G sharp, lst space above the staff, in connection with any tone from F sharp, top line of the staff, to B, 3rd or center line, inclusive and is especially valuable in the playing of the F sharp-G sharp trill and the C sharp-B trill or its equivalents, according to the following examples.

Exton/)Ie A The key pad 20', in open position, as when playing the tone G sharp or C sharp, may be closed by depressing ring 44, or either of the other two rings (not shown) of this right hand ring assembly.

When key 16 is depressed the key pad 20 is actuated to open position by the control spring (not shown) under shaft 36, When the key 16 is released the spring (not shown) under the actuating shaft 22 is of suicient strength to overpower the spring acting upon shaft 36, through arm 35 pressing down on arm 37, to put key pad 20 in closed position.

As previously stated tone hole 26 is normally open and may be closed by depressing ring 28. Since pad 20 is in closed position normally so that the screw 40 is spaced from bridge extension 41a, the depression of ring 44 will not affect pad 20. However, if key 16 is depressed to effect the opening of pad 20', the screw 40 will be moved into engagement with the bridge extension b and depression of ring 44 will cause bridge extension b to press up on arm 39 and oscillate the shaft 36 to move pad 20 to closed position.

It will, of course, be apparent tha-t the adjusting screw 40 at the end of `arm 39 is to assure simultaneous closing of key pads 20 and 46.

The operation is equally effective when made by means of either of the other two rings (not shown) of the right hand ring assembly. One or more of the rings are depressed when any of the tones shown in the above examples are played, with the exception of G sharp or C sharp.

From the foregoing it will be seen there has been provided a new and novel mechanism for producing the tones and trills described and illustrated in a more satisfactory manner and in association with the new and novel means of producing correct intonation of the tones specified.

To provide a satisfactory seat for key pad 29, the surface of the main body, or upper section, 12a, or the lower end of such section must be elongated slightly or made somewhat longer than in conventional models. To accomplish this the tenon and socket at the center joint of the instrument are reversed, as shown in Figure 2. Thus, as shown, the tenon, designated 59, is made a part of the lower section 12, while the socket, designated 60, is formed in the upper section 12a. This arrangement provides enough space for the added tone hole, and makes it possible to use a tenon of sufficient length, which would not be possible if the upper section were lcngthened and the tenon retained thereon, as the shaft posts at the upper end of the lower section would interfere.

In making this altered construction the tone hole 26 and the hole (not shown) beneath the cup or pad 20, align with corresponding holes (not shown) in the tenon 59. Thus these tone holes pass through the tenon and socket coupling.

I claim:

1. In a Boehm system clarinet, the improved ring and hole construction for producing correct intonation of E flat (lower line of staff) and B flat (second space above staff) played with the Boehm or one and one fingering, which construction comprises with a conventional #6 key an additional tone hole in the plane transversely of the instrument of, or same nodal point as, the conventional C sharp, G sharp, F tone hole, a finger ring for the third linger of the left hand tone hole, a cover pad for said additional tone hole, and a spring `biased coupling between said ring and pad for maintaining both raised.

2. The invention according to claim 1, with an arm curving around the back of the instrument and supporting the #6 key on one end and the cover pad for the C sharp, G sharp, F tone hole on the other end, `and a pivot support for said shaft upon the back of `the instrument.

3. The invention according to claim 1, with mechanism for effecting the closing of the tone hole which is opened by depression of the #6 key, while such key is held depressed and while the said additional tone hole is closed by its cover pad.

4. In a Boehm system clarinet, the improved `construction for producing correct intonation of E at (lower line of stadi) and B iiat (second space above stal) played with the Boehm or one and one fingering, said construction comprising a #6 key supporting shaft mounted upon the back of the instrument, a #6 key mounted on said shaft and formed to extend across the left side of the instrument and part way across the front thereof from the left side, a normally closed cover pad for the conventional C sharp- G sharp-F tone hole, an operative coupling between said shaft and said pad, an additional tone hole in the plane transversely of the instrument of said pad covered tone hole, an added cover pad for said additional tone hole, a iinger ring for the third finger of the left hand tone hole, an operative coupling between said finger ring and the last named cover pad, a finger ring for the first inger of the right hand tone hole, said iinger rings being normally spring biased to a raised position and said last named cover pad being normally raised to maintain the added tone hole open, and means whereby the depression of one ring during a period in which the first pad is held in open position by depression of the #6 key will effect closing or" the irst pad while the #6 key is held depressed.

5. The invention according to claim 4, wherein the said operative coupling between the first shaft and the iirst pad comprises a second shaft on which the first pad is supported, spring `biasing means on the second shaft urging the pad to said open position, a pair of arms each carried lby one of said shafts, spring lbiasing means for the first shaft, the arm of the tirst shaft having a free end 6 portion -overlying and engaging a Ifree end portion of the arm of the second shaft, the spring biasing means of the first shaft being of greater strength than that for the second shaft and functioning to maintain the first pad closed.

6. The invention according to claim 5, with a two part bridge, one bridge part being connected to said one ring, the bridge parts having overlapping ends, and the means for effecting closing of the rst cover pad while the #6 key is depressed ycomprising an ar-m carried by the second shaft, a tail extension carried by the said one bridge part and extending beneath the last named arm and an adjustment screw interposed between the tail extension andthe last arm and carried by one and spaced from the other thereof when the rst cover pad is in closed position.

7. A Boehm system clarinet, comprising separable lower and upper sections, a tenon carried by the lower section detachably inserted into the upper section for operatively coupling the sections together, the upper section having a conventional C sharp, G sharp, F tone hole and said tenon having a corresponding hole in registration with said tone hole, a #6 key and pad for said tone hole, said pad being normally spring biased to closed position over said tone hole, and means -for producing correct intonation of E flat (lower line of staff) and B flat (second space above staff) played with the Boehm or one and one ngering, comprising an additional tone hole in the plane transversely of, or same nodal point as, said conventional tone hole, said tenon having a hole in registration with the said additional tone hole, a iinger ring for the third finger of the left hand tone hole, a shaft rocka'bly supporting said finger ring, a cover pad for said additional tone haie supported by said shaft, and spring biasing means for said shaft urging turning of the shaft in a direction to raise the finger ring and the last named pad from the respective tone holes.

Haynes June 27, 1939 Christensen May 2, 1950

US420147A 1954-03-31 1954-03-31 Clarinets Expired - Lifetime US2791145A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3017798A (en) * 1959-03-18 1962-01-23 Jack W Robbins Clarinets
US3264925A (en) * 1963-11-14 1966-08-09 Linton Mfg Company Musical instruments of the oboe, bassoon and clarinet types
US3890874A (en) * 1974-01-10 1975-06-24 Charles N Vedder Keying mechanism for wind instruments

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2164110A (en) * 1937-02-09 1939-06-27 Haynes John William Clarinet
US2506489A (en) * 1946-02-18 1950-05-02 Oscar E Christensen Clarinet

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2164110A (en) * 1937-02-09 1939-06-27 Haynes John William Clarinet
US2506489A (en) * 1946-02-18 1950-05-02 Oscar E Christensen Clarinet

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3017798A (en) * 1959-03-18 1962-01-23 Jack W Robbins Clarinets
US3264925A (en) * 1963-11-14 1966-08-09 Linton Mfg Company Musical instruments of the oboe, bassoon and clarinet types
US3890874A (en) * 1974-01-10 1975-06-24 Charles N Vedder Keying mechanism for wind instruments

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