US2590527A - Suction massage device - Google Patents

Suction massage device Download PDF

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Publication number
US2590527A
US2590527A US2264048A US2590527A US 2590527 A US2590527 A US 2590527A US 2264048 A US2264048 A US 2264048A US 2590527 A US2590527 A US 2590527A
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suction
chamber
massage device
openings
cups
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Fluck Fridolin
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Joseph Niedermann
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61HPHYSICAL THERAPY APPARATUS, e.g. DEVICES FOR LOCATING OR STIMULATING REFLEX POINTS IN THE BODY; ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION; MASSAGE; BATHING DEVICES FOR SPECIAL THERAPEUTIC OR HYGIENIC PURPOSES OR SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE BODY
    • A61H9/00Pneumatic or hydraulic massage, e.g. sprays
    • A61H9/005Pneumatic massage

Description

March 25, 1952 F. FLUCK 2,590,527

SUCTION MASSAGE DEVICE Filed April 22, 1948 Tll:l.l- 7

INVENTOR FRIDoL IN FL UCK Patented Mar. 25, 1952 SUCTION MASSAGE DEVICE 'Q' Ild rikilin Flu ck, Lucerne, Switzerland, assignor of p I one-half to Joseph Niedermann,Lucerne, Switzerland Application April 22, 1948, Serial No.- 22,640

-- 1 In Switzerland April 3, 1947 1 I v 6 Claims. (01.128-67) This invention relates to an apparatus for treating the body.

. Devices are known which operate toassist the blood stream under the skin tissues by a suction action. However, thesedevices have only a very limited action, since this action does not extend over a large area and, moreover, it can- I not be adapted sufliciently to the shapes of differentparts of the body. I

According 'to the present invention, an apparatus for treating the body is provided which not only stimulates the circulation of the blood under the skin, but simultaneously also produces a massage .eiiect, such apparatus comprising a plurality of suction cups arranged on a diaphragm which may be adapted to the shape of the body in such a manner that the latter is simultaneously influenced at several points by the suction action.

One embodiment of the invention is shown, by way of example, in the accompanying drawing, wherein,

Figure l is a longitudinal section through the apparatus when not in use,

Figure 2 is a bottom plan view of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, and

Figure 3 is a side elevation of the apparatus in the suction position.

On to the suction tube I is screwed a pyramidal connection member 2 which is formed of a rigid material, e. g. metal, and constitutes a suction chamber which serves to hold the suction cap 3. The latter is formed as a diaphragm which is mounted on the edge of the connection member 2 by a flange 4 which extends completely around the diaphragm. The diaphragm, in order to fulfil its purpose, is made of an elastic material, e. g. rubber, and the flange 4 thereof is arranged to adhere tightly to the connection member 2 when the suction action is started. The diaphragm 3 has six tubular sockets 5 for receiving suction cups 6, which are preferably made of glass and, as illustrated, are intended to be inserted into the sockets 5 by their tips.

The free end of the suction tube l is provided with peripheral grooves I in order that a conical pipe 8, preferably of ductile material, e. g. rubber, may be pushed thereon. This pipe 8 serves as the connecting element to a suction pipe, for example, to the connection nozzle of a vacuum cleaner, vacuum pump or like device.

It is not necessary for the diaphragm 3 to have six sockets for the suction cups, as obviously a greater or lesser number may be provided.

If not all or only a single suction cup 6 is to be used, the sockets 5' that are not in use may be closed by stoppers. v

The apparatus is used by being placed on the part of the body that is to be treated and, by the suctional force of the suction cups, has the effect of stimulating the blood circulation. Due to the provision of a plurality of such suction cups, this effect is produced over an area and, by moving the apparatus over the part of the body, this areaeffect is assisted by the massage action thus obtained. v

For producing thesuction action, motor-driven aspirators provided expressly for the purpose may be used. .The apparatus may, however, also be connected to a vacuum cleaner, which is available in 'most households, to a vacuum pump or to an injector operated by the water main.

Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of my said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, I declare that what I claim is:

1. A suction massage device, comprising in combination a suction chamber; a flexible cover located over said suction chamber and being formed with a plurality of openings therein; and a plurality of elongated suction cups each being formed with a passage extending therethrough along the length thereof, each of said suction cups having one open end substantially larger than the other open end thereof, and each of said suction cups being respectively connected at its smaller end to one of said openings of said flexible cover.

2. A suction massage device, comprising in combination, a suction chamber made of a rigid material; a flexible resilient cover located over said suction chamber and being formed with at least one opening therein, said cover being removably mounted on said rigid suction chamber; and at least one elongated suction cup formed with a passage extending therethrough along the length thereof, said suction cup having one open end substantially larger than the'other open end thereof, and said suction cup being connected at its smaller end to said opening of said flexible cover.

3. A suction massage device, comprising in combination, a suction chamber made of a rigid material; a flexible resilient cover located over said suction chamber and being formed with a plurality of openings therein, said cover having a flange embracing said chamber so that said flexible cover is removably mounted on said rigid suction chamber; a plurality of rigid elongated suction cups each being formed with a passage extending therethrough along the length thereof, each of said suction cups having one open end substantially larger than the other open end thereof, and each of said suction cups being respectively removably connected at its smaller end to one of said openings of said flexible cover; and a suction tube threadedly connected to said rigid suction chamber.

4. A suction massage device, comprising in combination, a suction chamber; a flexible cover located over said suction chamber and being formed with a plurality of openings therein; and a plurality of rigid elongated suction cups each being formed with a passage extending therethrough along the length thereof, each of said suction cups having one open end substantially larger than the other open end thereof, and each of said suction cups being respectively removably connected at its smaller end to one of said openings of said flexible cover, said larger open ends b: said suction cups causing 'a suction force produced in said chamber to be applied over a considerably larger area than the total area of said openings in said "flexible cover.

5. A suction massage device, comprising in combination, "a suction chamber made of "a rigid material; a flexible resilient cover located over saidfsuction chamber and being formed with a plurality of openings therein, said cover havin a flange embracing said chamber so that said flexible cover is removably mounted on said rigid suction chamber; a plurality of rigid elongated suction cups each being ramed with a passage extending 'therethroughalong the length thereof, each of said suction cups having one open end substantially larger than the other open end thereof, and each of said suction cups being respecuvely'i-emovabiy'conneeted'at its smaller end to one of said openings'offsaid flexible cover, said larger open ends of saiasueuon cups causing a suction force produced in said chamber to be applied over a considerably larger area than the total area of said openings in said flexible cover; and a suction tube threadedly connected to said rigid suction chamber.

6. A suction massage device, comprising in combination, a suction chamber made of a rigid material; a flexible resilient cover located over said suction chamber and being formed with a plurality of openings therein, said cover having a flange embracing said chamber so that said flexible cover is removably mounted on said rigid suction chamber; a plurality of rigid elongated glass suction cups each being formed with a passage extending therethrough along the length thereof, each of said suction cups having one open end substantially larger than the other open end thereof, and each of said suction cups being respectively removably connected at its smaller end to one of said openings of said flexible cover, said larger open ends of said suction cups causing a suction force produced in said chamber to be applied over a considerably larger area than the total area of said openings in said flexible cover; and a suction tube threadedly connected to said rigid suction chamber.

FRIDOLIN FLUCK.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 946,837 Common Jan. 18, 1910 1,062,053 Strong May 20, 1913 1,179,129 Maxam Apr. 11, 1916 1,294,284 Logeman Feb. 11, 1919 1,462,400 Warren July 1'7, 1923 1,755,936 Stanley Apr. 22, 1930 2,063,084 Farnon Dec. 8, 1936 2,338,339 La Mere et 'al Jan. 4, 1944

US2590527A 1947-04-03 1948-04-22 Suction massage device Expired - Lifetime US2590527A (en)

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DE (1) DE843886C (en)
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Cited By (49)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2927577A (en) * 1957-03-25 1960-03-08 Nicolaie Aristide Vacuum massage for scalp, face, and body
US3745603A (en) * 1971-05-10 1973-07-17 F Bayless Vacuum cleaner suction tool for cleaning deep pile shag rugs
US3765052A (en) * 1972-02-29 1973-10-16 Cons Foods Corp Vacuum cleaner suction tool for cleaning deep pile shag rugs
US5396881A (en) * 1993-10-06 1995-03-14 Klein; Sidi Facial mask and method of using same for toning facial muscles
US6032672A (en) * 1996-02-20 2000-03-07 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery
US6200281B1 (en) * 1998-08-06 2001-03-13 Jean Frajdenrajch Massaging device which is designed to be applied to the skin of a person
US6231506B1 (en) 1999-05-04 2001-05-15 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for creating a working opening through an incision
US6283912B1 (en) 1999-05-04 2001-09-04 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical retractor platform blade apparatus
US6290644B1 (en) 1996-02-20 2001-09-18 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing a localized portion of a beating heart
US6315717B1 (en) 1996-02-20 2001-11-13 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical instruments for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US6334843B1 (en) 1995-09-20 2002-01-01 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US6394951B1 (en) 1996-02-20 2002-05-28 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US20020065451A1 (en) * 1997-09-17 2002-05-30 Spence Paul A. Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery
US6406424B1 (en) 1999-09-16 2002-06-18 Williamson, Iv Warren P. Tissue stabilizer having an articulating lift element
US6464629B1 (en) 1998-09-15 2002-10-15 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US6478733B1 (en) 1999-10-01 2002-11-12 Genzyme Corporation Stabilizing device having a removable portion
US20030009081A1 (en) * 1999-07-08 2003-01-09 Chase Medical, Lp Device and method for isolating a surface of a beating heart during surgery
US6511416B1 (en) 1999-08-03 2003-01-28 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Tissue stabilizer and methods of use
US6537323B2 (en) 2000-04-28 2003-03-25 Genzyme Corporation Low profile cardiac stabilization device and method of use therefore
US20030094180A1 (en) * 1995-04-10 2003-05-22 Benetti Frederico J. Method for coronary artery bypass
US20030109815A1 (en) * 2000-06-29 2003-06-12 Horst Patricia J. Apparatus and method of massaging back and alleviating back pain using suction cup
US6626830B1 (en) 1999-05-04 2003-09-30 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Methods and devices for improved tissue stabilization
US6676597B2 (en) 2001-01-13 2004-01-13 Medtronic, Inc. Method and device for organ positioning
US6685632B1 (en) 1999-05-04 2004-02-03 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical instruments for accessing and stabilizing a localized portion of a beating heart
US20040092798A1 (en) * 1997-09-17 2004-05-13 Spence Paul A. Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery
US6758808B2 (en) 2001-01-24 2004-07-06 Cardiothoracic System, Inc. Surgical instruments for stabilizing a localized portion of a beating heart
US20040138522A1 (en) * 2002-08-21 2004-07-15 Haarstad Philip J. Methods and apparatus providing suction-assisted tissue engagement through a minimally invasive incision
US20050010197A1 (en) * 2003-07-08 2005-01-13 Liming Lau Organ manipulator apparatus
US6852075B1 (en) 1996-02-20 2005-02-08 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery
US20050148825A1 (en) * 1997-09-17 2005-07-07 Spence Paul A. Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery
US20050148824A1 (en) * 2003-12-30 2005-07-07 Morejohn Dwight P. Transabdominal surgery system
US20050148822A1 (en) * 2003-12-30 2005-07-07 Willis Geoffrey H. Organ manipulator and positioner and methods of using the same
US7189201B2 (en) 1995-09-20 2007-03-13 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US20070088203A1 (en) * 2005-05-25 2007-04-19 Liming Lau Surgical assemblies and methods for visualizing and performing surgical procedures in reduced-access surgical sites
US7338434B1 (en) 2002-08-21 2008-03-04 Medtronic, Inc. Method and system for organ positioning and stabilization
US7399272B2 (en) 2004-03-24 2008-07-15 Medtronic, Inc. Methods and apparatus providing suction-assisted tissue engagement
US20090064444A1 (en) * 2007-09-07 2009-03-12 Shenzhen Futaihong Precision Industry Co., Ltd. Suction head structure and vacuum cleaner using the same
US7794387B2 (en) 2006-04-26 2010-09-14 Medtronic, Inc. Methods and devices for stabilizing tissue
US20100312157A1 (en) * 2009-06-03 2010-12-09 Yongxing Yan Rotary massage device
US7931590B2 (en) 2002-10-29 2011-04-26 Maquet Cardiovascular Llc Tissue stabilizer and methods of using the same
US20110237986A1 (en) * 2008-11-26 2011-09-29 Hld Healthy Life Devices Ltd Arrangement in connection with massaging apparatus, and massaging apparatus
US8083664B2 (en) 2005-05-25 2011-12-27 Maquet Cardiovascular Llc Surgical stabilizers and methods for use in reduced-access surgical sites
WO2014097288A2 (en) * 2012-12-21 2014-06-26 Syneron Medical Ltd. Large area body shaping applicator
US20140236163A1 (en) * 2011-10-05 2014-08-21 The Regents of the University of Colorado, a body corporation Intraocular manipulator and related methods
US9022998B2 (en) 2010-02-26 2015-05-05 Maquet Cardiovascular Llc Blower instrument, apparatus and methods of using
US20150265492A1 (en) * 2012-01-11 2015-09-24 Syneron Medical Ltd. Large area body shaping applicator
US20150283026A1 (en) * 2013-01-13 2015-10-08 Syneron Medical Ltd Apparatus for generation of a pressure pulse in tissue
US9655605B2 (en) 2010-06-14 2017-05-23 Maquet Cardiovascular Llc Surgical instruments, systems and methods of use
EP3189825A3 (en) * 2016-01-07 2017-10-04 HLD Healthy Life Devices OY Arrangement in connection with low pressure suction apparatus

Families Citing this family (5)

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US4428368A (en) * 1980-09-29 1984-01-31 Masakatsu Torii Massage device
DE3719605A1 (en) * 1987-01-22 1988-08-04 Dieter Mayer Water jet massaging device
GB9124285D0 (en) * 1991-11-15 1992-01-08 Hechmati Michel Lipo sculpture press
FR2776920B3 (en) * 1998-04-03 2000-04-28 Elie Piana Massage device has depression
DE102006059786A1 (en) * 2006-03-30 2007-10-04 Bamberger, Georg Low pressure cuff for treating parts of body with reduced pressure, has chambers or hoses for generating a suction or pressurizing effect

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US946837A (en) * 1908-11-05 1910-01-18 Cordelia L Common Fountain tonic-applicator.
US1062053A (en) * 1912-09-28 1913-05-20 Harry N Strong Shampoo-brush.
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Cited By (133)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2927577A (en) * 1957-03-25 1960-03-08 Nicolaie Aristide Vacuum massage for scalp, face, and body
US3745603A (en) * 1971-05-10 1973-07-17 F Bayless Vacuum cleaner suction tool for cleaning deep pile shag rugs
US3816872A (en) * 1971-05-10 1974-06-18 R Evans Vacuum cleaner suction tool for cleaning deep pile shag rugs
US3765052A (en) * 1972-02-29 1973-10-16 Cons Foods Corp Vacuum cleaner suction tool for cleaning deep pile shag rugs
US5396881A (en) * 1993-10-06 1995-03-14 Klein; Sidi Facial mask and method of using same for toning facial muscles
US20030094180A1 (en) * 1995-04-10 2003-05-22 Benetti Frederico J. Method for coronary artery bypass
US7219671B2 (en) 1995-04-10 2007-05-22 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Method for coronary artery bypass
US6364826B1 (en) 1995-09-20 2002-04-02 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US7048683B2 (en) 1995-09-20 2006-05-23 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US20060036128A1 (en) * 1995-09-20 2006-02-16 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US7189201B2 (en) 1995-09-20 2007-03-13 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US7611455B2 (en) 1995-09-20 2009-11-03 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US6334843B1 (en) 1995-09-20 2002-01-01 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US6336898B1 (en) 1995-09-20 2002-01-08 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US7445594B1 (en) 1995-09-20 2008-11-04 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US6464630B1 (en) 1995-09-20 2002-10-15 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US6755780B2 (en) 1995-09-20 2004-06-29 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US6371906B1 (en) 1995-09-20 2002-04-16 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US6394948B1 (en) 1995-09-20 2002-05-28 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US20040087834A1 (en) * 1996-02-20 2004-05-06 Benetti Federico J. Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US7485090B2 (en) 1996-02-20 2009-02-03 Maquet Cardiovascular Llc Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery
US6394951B1 (en) 1996-02-20 2002-05-28 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US20020111537A1 (en) * 1996-02-20 2002-08-15 Taylor Charles S. Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US7335158B2 (en) 1996-02-20 2008-02-26 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize the cardiac tissue during surgery
US6346077B1 (en) 1996-02-20 2002-02-12 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical instrument for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US20070149844A1 (en) * 1996-02-20 2007-06-28 Benetti Federico J Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize the cardiac tissue during surgery
US7497824B2 (en) 1996-02-20 2009-03-03 Maquet Cardiovasculer, Llc Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery
US6315717B1 (en) 1996-02-20 2001-11-13 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical instruments for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US20070055108A1 (en) * 1996-02-20 2007-03-08 Taylor Charles S Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US6290644B1 (en) 1996-02-20 2001-09-18 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing a localized portion of a beating heart
US20110172568A1 (en) * 1996-02-20 2011-07-14 Taylor Charles S Surgical Devices for Imposing a Negative Pressure to Stabilize the Cardiac Tissue During Surgery
US8277476B2 (en) 1996-02-20 2012-10-02 Maguet Cardiovascular LLC Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft
US6743169B1 (en) 1996-02-20 2004-06-01 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US6893391B2 (en) 1996-02-20 2005-05-17 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery
US20050033111A1 (en) * 1996-02-20 2005-02-10 Taylor Charles S. Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery
US6656113B2 (en) 1996-02-20 2003-12-02 Cardiothoracic System, Inc. Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing a localized portion of a beating heart
US6673013B2 (en) 1996-02-20 2004-01-06 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US8382654B2 (en) 1996-02-20 2013-02-26 Maquet Cardiovascular Llc Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize the cardiac tissue during surgery
US20040230099A1 (en) * 1996-02-20 2004-11-18 Taylor Charles S. Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US7056287B2 (en) 1996-02-20 2006-06-06 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US6701930B2 (en) 1996-02-20 2004-03-09 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
US6032672A (en) * 1996-02-20 2000-03-07 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery
US6852075B1 (en) 1996-02-20 2005-02-08 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize cardiac tissue during surgery
US20080114201A1 (en) * 1996-02-20 2008-05-15 Taylor Charles S Surgical devices for imposing a negative pressure to stabilize the cardiac tissue during surgery
US7585277B2 (en) 1996-02-20 2009-09-08 Maquet Cardiovascular Llc Surgical instruments and procedures for stabilizing the beating heart during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
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US8753266B2 (en) 1997-09-17 2014-06-17 Maquet Cardiovascular Llc Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery
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US8162817B2 (en) 1997-09-17 2012-04-24 Maquet Cardiovascular Llc Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery
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US7404792B2 (en) 1997-09-17 2008-07-29 Origin Medsystems, Inc. Device to permit offpump beating heart coronary bypass surgery
US6200281B1 (en) * 1998-08-06 2001-03-13 Jean Frajdenrajch Massaging device which is designed to be applied to the skin of a person
US6464629B1 (en) 1998-09-15 2002-10-15 Medtronic, Inc. Method and apparatus for temporarily immobilizing a local area of tissue
US7220228B2 (en) 1999-05-04 2007-05-22 Cardiothoracic System, Inc. Surgical retractor blade and system
US6231506B1 (en) 1999-05-04 2001-05-15 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for creating a working opening through an incision
US6626830B1 (en) 1999-05-04 2003-09-30 Cardiothoracic Systems, Inc. Methods and devices for improved tissue stabilization
US6652454B2 (en) 1999-05-04 2003-11-25 Lawrence W. Hu Method and apparatus for creating a working opening through an incision
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DE843886C (en) 1952-07-14 grant
FR973776A (en) 1951-02-14 grant
GB623897A (en) 1949-05-25 application
BE482381A (en) 1948-05-31 grant

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