US2499340A - Air gun - Google Patents

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Publication number
US2499340A
US2499340A US444768A US44476842A US2499340A US 2499340 A US2499340 A US 2499340A US 444768 A US444768 A US 444768A US 44476842 A US44476842 A US 44476842A US 2499340 A US2499340 A US 2499340A
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Prior art keywords
barrel
magazine
shot
loading
breech
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Expired - Lifetime
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US444768A
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William S Wells
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PAUL S LINFORTH
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PAUL S LINFORTH
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Priority to US444768A priority Critical patent/US2499340A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41BWEAPONS FOR PROJECTING MISSILES WITHOUT USE OF EXPLOSIVE OR COMBUSTIBLE PROPELLANT CHARGE; WEAPONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F41B11/00Compressed-gas guns, e.g. air guns; Steam guns
    • F41B11/50Magazines for compressed-gas guns; Arrangements for feeding or loading projectiles from magazines
    • F41B11/51Magazines for compressed-gas guns; Arrangements for feeding or loading projectiles from magazines the magazine being an integral, internal part of the gun housing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A9/00Feeding or loading of ammunition; Magazines; Guiding means for the extracting of cartridges
    • F41A9/01Feeding of unbelted ammunition
    • F41A9/06Feeding of unbelted ammunition using cyclically moving conveyors, i.e. conveyors having ammunition pusher or carrier elements which are emptied or disengaged from the ammunition during the return stroke
    • F41A9/09Movable ammunition carriers or loading trays, e.g. for feeding from magazines
    • F41A9/10Movable ammunition carriers or loading trays, e.g. for feeding from magazines pivoting or swinging
    • F41A9/13Movable ammunition carriers or loading trays, e.g. for feeding from magazines pivoting or swinging in a vertical plane
    • F41A9/16Movable ammunition carriers or loading trays, e.g. for feeding from magazines pivoting or swinging in a vertical plane which is parallel to the barrel axis
    • F41A9/17Movable ammunition carriers or loading trays, e.g. for feeding from magazines pivoting or swinging in a vertical plane which is parallel to the barrel axis mounted within a smallarm
    • F41A9/18Movable ammunition carriers or loading trays, e.g. for feeding from magazines pivoting or swinging in a vertical plane which is parallel to the barrel axis mounted within a smallarm feeding from a tubular magazine under the barrel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41BWEAPONS FOR PROJECTING MISSILES WITHOUT USE OF EXPLOSIVE OR COMBUSTIBLE PROPELLANT CHARGE; WEAPONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F41B11/00Compressed-gas guns, e.g. air guns; Steam guns
    • F41B11/70Details not provided for in F41B11/50 or F41B11/60
    • F41B11/72Valves; Arrangement of valves
    • F41B11/723Valves; Arrangement of valves for controlling gas pressure for firing the projectile only

Description

Feb. 28, 1950 y W. S. WELLS AIR GUN Filed May 27, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 3nventor (Ittorneg Feb. 28, 1950 w. s. WELLS 2,499,340
AIR GUN Filed May 27, l942 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. MZL/Al! :i Wkzw ATTOENEK Patented Feb. 28, 1950 UNITED STATES TNT OFFICE AIR GUN William S. Wells, Palo Alto, Calif., assignor to Paul S. Linforth, San Francisco, Calif.
Claims.
My invention relates to guns, and more particularly to loading and hammer mechanism for guns of the compressed air type.
Among the objects of my invention are- (1) To provide a novel and improved loading mechanism for air guns, particularly well adapted for those types of guns designed to shoot pellets,
(2) To provide a novel and improved loading mechanism for air guns, the speed of operation of which is limited only by the manipulative speed of the operator,
(3) To provide a novel and improved loading mechanism for air guns, which is simple in construction and exceptionally efilcient in operation,
(4) To provide a novel and improved loading and hammer combination for air guns, which is particularly applicable to guns designed to shoot pellets,
(5) To provide a novel and improved loading and hammer combination for air guns, which enables loading and cooking of a gun, by an operator, in a single operation, and
(6) To provide a novel and improved hammer mechanism for air guns.
Additional objects of my invention will be brought out in the following description of the same taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein Figure 1 is a side elevational view of my invention as applied to an air gun of the rifle type;
Figure 2 is a fragmentary plan View of the device of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a view in section of the invention taken on the line 33 of Figure 2 and showing the mechanism in a neutral state;
Figure 4 is a view in section similar to that of Figure 3 but illustrating the invention in the process of operation; and
Figure 5 is a similar view illustrating the invention at the completion of its operation, leaving the gun flllly cocked and loaded and ready for firing.
Briefly, the loading mechanism, in its simplest terms, involves a pellet carrier which is adapted to be shifted between a magazine and the gun barrel, and convey a single pellet at a time from the magazine to the barrel at each operation. Such shifting of the carrier is in response to the manipulation of a control element which, in proper timed relationship, further causes a breech pin to locate the pellet at the correct firing position in the barrel. The loading mechanism is so designed that during loading operation, it simultaneously engages the hammer of the gun and $6 7 the same for trigger release, thus by a single operation, preparing the gun for firing. For a more detailed description, reference will be made to the accompanying drawings.
The gun assembly involves as its principal components, a gun barrel l0, below which is supported a compressed air storage chamber I2, closed at the breech end by an air release valve assembly I4, and at its other end, carrying a suitable multistroke pump H3. The customary sights H are provided. To the rear of the air release valve assembly, is located my novel and improved hammer mechanism I8 which is of the trigger controlled hammer type, while above it and supported adjacent the breech end of the barrel, is the novel and improved loading mechanism 20 of my invention. These components. are assembled in a stock2-l. r
The pump is may be of any multi-stroke type capable of delivering air under pressure to the air storage chamber 12. The air storage chamber has communication with the gun barrel ID by way of a valve controlled passage 22 in a block .24 extending from the breech end of the air storage chamber and forming part of the air release valve assembly M. This passage, where it enters the barrel, determines the firing position 28 in the barrel. The block 24 in the end wall of the air storage chamber provides a seat 28 for a disc type valve 30 having a valve stem 32 passing through the block to the rear where it carries an impact head 34. The valve is normally seated bya coil spring 36 in the air storage chamber, which spring is held under compression in a cage or bracket 38 carried by the rear wall of the air storage chamber.
Momentary release of air under compression, to the barrel for firing purposes, is controlled by a hammer All, releasable from a cooked position by a trigger 42. The mechanism associated with the hammer and its operation, comprises 2. casing 44 having an open end facing the valve stem impact head 34, and a rear end wall 46. A rod 48 loosely mounted at one end in the end wall 46 by a cotter pin 50 on the outside and a flanged nut 52 on'the inside, extends substantially longitudinally of the casing and terminates in a head a 54 adjacent the open end thereof and in proximity to the impact head of the valve stem.
A coil spring 56 surrounding the rod 48, has one end engaging the flanged nut 52, while the other end normally bears against the head 54 through an intermediately disposed washer 58 which serves to retain the spring on the rod and prevent its sliding off from the free end thereof.
ing. Anopening 1G in the floor of the" casing enables the latch 64 to engage the notch 60 after the hammer has been urged a predetermined distance into the casing.
The trigger M is also pivotally supported between the depending side walls as and has a tongue 12 disposed between the"legs" 6'2" ofthe" latch, thereby constituting an arrangement which I enables the trigger to unlatch the hammer and release the same and, at the same time; place-a limit on the travel of the trigger, for the tongue will interlock and jam between the legs of the. latch after the latch has been withdrawn from: engagement with the-hammer.
In the specific embodiment of loading: mechani'sin" disclosed, I provide'achanneled extension 14 to the breech end of the barrel. In-this clia-n-- neled' extension, there'is disposed a pellet receiving'and' transfer element 16 This element has a longitudinal bore 18 therein, and'is pivoted at one end in the channeled extension, on a pivotBll} while its other end abuts the breech end of the. barrel, with'the bore 78 in alignment with-the loading opening 32 of the barrel.
In this position, the upper portion 84 f the element lfi blocks the output end 86of'a magazine 88 for holding asupply of pelletsQU; This magazine is disposed. on the upper partof the" barrel. [0 with its output end. 86 adjacent the'loading opening 82 of the barrel; Pellets are'introduced into the magazine through a slot 92 and are'urged toward the output end by a spring pressed plug 94 which is provided. with a pin 96 for manually retracting the plug to expose theslot for intro= ducing. pellets into the magazine.
The pelletreceiving and transfer element 16 carries a breech pin 98having a lateral extension 100 at one end protruding through a slot [02- in the upper portion 84' of the element.v This lateral extension is received within a housing, 1'04 carried on a sleeve E06 which slidably enclosesthe channeledv extension 14 and pellet receiving and transfer element 16. The pin, therefore, is caused to shift v with sliding. movement of the sleeve.
In its assembled position. as shownin Figure 3, the-breech pin 98 is urged into the barrel to the firing'position 26 just ahead of the valve controlled discharge passage 22 Upon" withdrawal of the-sleeve; the pin likewise is caused to be withdrawn, until the same abuts the pivot 89', following which, further withdrawal of the sleeve will cause the pin to tilt on the pivot as a fulcrum, and thus cause the pellet receiving element 16* to swingupwardly, excess space being provided'in the-housing H14 to'permit of such tilting of the pin. An abutment or stop I08 located adjacent the output end 86 of the magazine, limits the shifting movement of the element 1:6 toa: degree just sufficient to bring the bore 18 into alignment with the output end of'the magazine: When this occurs, the spring pressed plug 94 in the magazine is free to push a pellet into the bore,and is this end, the length of the pellet receiving element'lfi; as'measured from the pivot' 811; is'equal to that of the pin 98 plus the length of a single pellet, so that only a single pellet may be received from the magazine at a time.
To realize smooth and efficient functioning of the loading mechanism and to preclude jamming thereof due to improper cooperation between the loading mechanism and the pellets, I terminate the loading end of the barrel and the output end of "the magazine: on an are having its center of curvature at a point to the rear thereof and coinciding with the axis of the pivot 80, and the pe1- let receiving and transfer element 16 has its abutting end correspondingly shaped to provide a complementary fittherewith. Further, I prefer t'omakelthe pin 98 of adjustable length by forming it of two sections H0 and H2, respectively, andtscrew- 'threading one portion into the other, whereby the receiving space for the pellet in the pellet receiving elementz-may be accurately adjusted to the exact length" of the pellet.
Upon release of the pull on the sleeve, in preparation to restoring the sleeve to its original position, the pellet receiving and loading element immediatel drops back to its initial position in the channeled extension, with the pellet in alignment 1 with the loading opening in the barrel.
The" return movement of the sleeve serves to push.
the breech pin into the barrel and thereby urge theipellet to the firing position. The excess room in the housing, at this point in the operation of the loading mechanism, serves to introduce a certain delayed action between initiating the return movement of the sleeve and the contact with the breech. pin. This delay assures proper restoration. of the pelletreceiving and transfer element to itswnormal position .in. the channeled. extens'ioribefore. movement of the pin intothe barrel begins, thereby precluding any possibility of jam ming taking place through improper timing.
Cooking of the gunis automatically accomplished through'the manipulation of the loading, mechanism described above. In utilizing the manipulation of the loading mechanism" to so control the cocking of the gun, I add a lug l M: to the underside of the loading mechanism sleeve I06; and to'the upper surface of the hammer 40', and inith'e path of movement of the lug l l 4, I provide a stud I it. Thus, inthe withdrawal movement of the sleeve, the lug engages the stud and carries the hammer to the rear a distance slightly beyond" thatnecessary to allow the latch 64 to engage in the notch 60. When the pull on the sleeveis relaxed, the hammer spring 55, through its tendency to restore the hammer to its previous initial position, will start the sleeve on its return movement and thus free the pellet receiving element to drop back to its normal position from the tilted position which it occupied at the extremity of the pulling stroke on the sleeve.
The sleeve I05 is held'in its normal position by a spring biased latch H8 fulcrumed to a boss I20 on one side of the sleeve. This latch is provided with: a thumb control lever I22 to one side of the fulcrum point and a catch I24 to the other side of the fulcrum point which extends through an opening H6 in the sleeve to engagein a notch !23 formed in the side wall of the channeled extension '34. Pressure of the thumb upon the thumb lever I22 releases the sleeve for operation of the loading and hammer mechanisms, and upon restoration of the sleeve to its normal position with the gun loaded. the latching of the sleeve makes it possible for the 76 sleeve to -hold the breech pin against recoiling when the gun is fired, thereby utilizing the energy of the compressed air to best advantage.
In the single manipulation of the sleeve, the gun, therefore, is both loaded and cooked and made ready for firing. The speed with which this can be accomplished is limited only by the speed at which the operator can go through the motion of reciprocating the sleeve.
While the specific embodiment of my invention has been described with respect to the handling of shot such as pellets, for which the invention is peculiarly adapted, a gun employing my invention may well be adapted for the handling of ball shot, the only necessary change being the addition of a means for holding the ball at the firing position in the barrel, and many such holding means are known in the prior art.
It will be apparent from the above description of my invention, that the same fulfills the objects thereof as previously set forth, and while the invention is susceptible to change and alteration, I do not desire to be limited in my protection to the specific details disclosed, except as necessitated by the appended claims.
Iclaim:
1. A gun comprising a barrel having a firing position therein in spaced relationship to the breech end of said barrel for a shot which is to be discharged and a loading opening at the breech end thereof, a magazine having an output end in proximity to the loading opening of said barrel, a shot receiving element, means for shifting said shot receiving element between the output end of said magazine and the loading opening of said barrel to enable said shot receivingfelement to receive a shot from said magazine, a nd convey it to the loading opening of saidibarrel, and a breech pin disposed in said shot, receiving element and slidable therefrom into said barrel to said firing position therein. for urging said shot from its position at the loading opening of said barrel to the firing position in said barrel.
2. A gun comprising a barrel having a firing position in spaced relationship to the breech end of said barrel for a shot which is to be discharged and a loading opening at the breech end thereof, a magazine having an output end in proximity to the loading opening of said barrel, a shot receiving element pivotally secured at a point substantially equally spaced from the loading opening of said barrel and the output end of said magazine with its free end shiftable between the output end of said magazine and the loading opening of said barrel in substantially sliding contact therewith to receive a shot from said magazine and convey it to the loading opening of said barrel, said free end extending across said magazine output end when said shot receiving element is in registry with the loading end of said barrel, and a breech pin slidably disposed in said shot receiving element and movable into said barrel to said firing position for urging said shot from its position at the loading opening of said barrel to the firing position in said barrel.
3. A gun comprising a barrel having a firing position in spaced relationship to the breech end of said barrel for a shot which is to be discharged and a loading opening at the breech end thereof, a magazine having an output end in proximity to the loading opening of said barrel, a shot receiving element, means for shifting said shot receiving element between the output end of said magazine and the loading opening of said barrel to enable said shot receiving element to receive a shot from said magazine and convey it to the loading opening of said barrel, a breech pin in said shot receiving element, and means for moving said breech pin into said barrel through said loading opening to urge said shot from its position at the loading opening of said barrel to the firing position in said barrel.
4. A gun comprising a gun barrel having a firing position in spaced relationship to the breech end of said barrel for a shot-which is to be discharged, and a loading opening at the breech end thereof; a magazine supported adjacent said barrel, said magazine having an output end in proximity to the loading opening of said barrel and substantially on an arc therewith whose center is located at a point to the rear of said magazine and barrel; a spring biased plug in said magazine for urging shot toward the output end thereof; a shot receiving and transfer element having a longitudinal bore therein and a slot afiording communication between said bore and the outer surface of the element, said element being normally supported with one end pivoted at said aforementioned center point by a pivot and the other end in complementary fit with said magazine and barrel, said bore being in alignment with said barrel while said magazine output end is blocked by said element; a breech pin in the bore of said shot receiving element and having an extension thereon protruding through said slot, said breech pin being slidable in said bore and into said barrel from a predetermined retractible position in said bore, and terminating short of said barrel loading opening by the length of one shot when said pin is in said predetermined retractible position; and means for cooperating the movement of said breech pin with movement of said shot receiving and transfer element to receive a shot from said magazine and position it at the firing position in said barrel.
5. A gun comprising a gun barrel having a firing position in spaced relationship to the breech end of said barrel for a shot which is to be discharged, and a loading opening at the breech end thereof; a magazine supported adjacent said barrel, said magazine having an output end in proximity to the loading opening of said barrel and on an arc therewith whose center is located at a point to the rear of said magazine and barrel; a spring biased plug in said magazine for urging shot toward the output end thereof; a channeled eX- tension at the breech end of said barrel; a shot receiving and transfer element having a longitud nal bore therein and a slot affording communication between said bore and the outer surface of the element, said element normal y lying in said channeled extension with one end pivoted at said aforementioned center point by a pivot and the other end in complementary fit with said magazine and barrel, said bore being in alignment with said barrel while said magazine output end is blocked by said element; a breech pin in the bore of said shot receiving element and having an extension thereon protruding through said slot, said breech pin being slidable in said here and into said barrel, and terminating short of said barrel loading opening by the length of one shot when said pin is in engagement with said pivot; a sleeve enclosing said trough-like extension and slidable thereon and including a housing to receive the protruding end of said breech pin extension to act as a pusher therefor in response to sliding of said :sieeve, :saidjaousing being cil a length to provide delayed actuation of SaidbI'BQCh pin upon slid- .ing of said. sleeve .in either direction, and vbeing disposed to urge said pin into said barrel to said firing position upon movement of said sleeve in :5
the direction of the barrel; and a releasable catch for holding said sleeve in such position.
WILLIAM S. WELLS.
:REFERENGES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2594185A (en) * 1948-07-19 1952-04-22 Daisy Mfg Co Loading mechanism for pneumatic guns
US2635599A (en) * 1949-08-04 1953-04-21 Daisy Mfg Co Uniform muzzle velocity pneumatic gun
US2940438A (en) * 1957-07-30 1960-06-14 Crosman Arms Company Inc Magazine gun
US3048159A (en) * 1958-06-27 1962-08-07 Richard M Kline Compressed fluid-operated small arms weapons
US3067730A (en) * 1958-11-06 1962-12-11 Crosman Arms Company Inc Gas-powered gun
US3236222A (en) * 1961-07-28 1966-02-22 Healthways Air pistol
US3236224A (en) * 1961-07-28 1966-02-22 Healthways Air pistol
US20080078971A1 (en) * 2006-05-25 2008-04-03 Kee Action Sports I Llc Self-regulating valve assembly

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US18634A (en) * 1857-11-17 Improvement in breech-loading fire-arms
US436965A (en) * 1890-09-23 Breech-loading gun
US1026303A (en) * 1911-10-26 1912-05-14 Wm M Sheffield Repeating air-rifle.
US1078487A (en) * 1912-10-28 1913-11-11 William M Sheffield Air-gun.
US1677810A (en) * 1927-07-15 1928-07-17 Richard T Bond Magazine for air guns
GB476005A (en) * 1937-02-24 1937-11-30 Nathan Henry Price Improvements in and relating to air rifles
US2288891A (en) * 1940-01-08 1942-07-07 T Mfg Corp Ab Air gun

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US18634A (en) * 1857-11-17 Improvement in breech-loading fire-arms
US436965A (en) * 1890-09-23 Breech-loading gun
US1026303A (en) * 1911-10-26 1912-05-14 Wm M Sheffield Repeating air-rifle.
US1078487A (en) * 1912-10-28 1913-11-11 William M Sheffield Air-gun.
US1677810A (en) * 1927-07-15 1928-07-17 Richard T Bond Magazine for air guns
GB476005A (en) * 1937-02-24 1937-11-30 Nathan Henry Price Improvements in and relating to air rifles
US2288891A (en) * 1940-01-08 1942-07-07 T Mfg Corp Ab Air gun

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2594185A (en) * 1948-07-19 1952-04-22 Daisy Mfg Co Loading mechanism for pneumatic guns
US2635599A (en) * 1949-08-04 1953-04-21 Daisy Mfg Co Uniform muzzle velocity pneumatic gun
US2940438A (en) * 1957-07-30 1960-06-14 Crosman Arms Company Inc Magazine gun
US3048159A (en) * 1958-06-27 1962-08-07 Richard M Kline Compressed fluid-operated small arms weapons
US3067730A (en) * 1958-11-06 1962-12-11 Crosman Arms Company Inc Gas-powered gun
US3236222A (en) * 1961-07-28 1966-02-22 Healthways Air pistol
US3236224A (en) * 1961-07-28 1966-02-22 Healthways Air pistol
US20080078971A1 (en) * 2006-05-25 2008-04-03 Kee Action Sports I Llc Self-regulating valve assembly
US7712463B2 (en) 2006-05-25 2010-05-11 Kee Action Sports I Llc Self-regulating valve assembly

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