US2293957A - Air pistol - Google Patents

Air pistol Download PDF

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US2293957A
US2293957A US261621A US26162139A US2293957A US 2293957 A US2293957 A US 2293957A US 261621 A US261621 A US 261621A US 26162139 A US26162139 A US 26162139A US 2293957 A US2293957 A US 2293957A
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valve
pump
air
barrel
gun
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US261621A
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William S Wells
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DALSY Manufacturing CO
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DALSY Manufacturing CO
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41BWEAPONS FOR PROJECTING MISSILES WITHOUT USE OF EXPLOSIVE OR COMBUSTIBLE PROPELLANT CHARGE; WEAPONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F41B11/00Compressed-gas guns, e.g. air guns; Steam guns
    • F41B11/50Magazines for compressed-gas guns; Arrangements for feeding or loading projectiles from magazines
    • F41B11/51Magazines for compressed-gas guns; Arrangements for feeding or loading projectiles from magazines the magazine being an integral, internal part of the gun housing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41BWEAPONS FOR PROJECTING MISSILES WITHOUT USE OF EXPLOSIVE OR COMBUSTIBLE PROPELLANT CHARGE; WEAPONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F41B11/00Compressed-gas guns, e.g. air guns; Steam guns
    • F41B11/70Details not provided for in F41B11/50 or F41B11/60
    • F41B11/72Valves; Arrangement of valves
    • F41B11/723Valves; Arrangement of valves for controlling gas pressure for firing the projectile only

Description

Aug. 25A, 1942. w. s. wELLs AIR PISTOL Filed March 13, 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 m. J m T l E m n J M m a MW wkiwbm @d v Wnnaia ,mw hw I 1.1 H NN .n Q ,H1 7 Ill'. \h. \N MYMWXM, mm, EVRM. WM, ww NNN l Ill m\ l. -l I my, \N W L mw. bww D w m kw .NEE
Aug. 25', 1941 w. s. wELLs Am rrsor.
Filed man 15. 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 short distance beyond the rear of the breech block to which end of the stem is attached a nut I9. A conical spring 2l under compression between the rear surface of the breech block and the nut I9 serves to normally hold the valve I5 against the valve seat I3. l
The pump includes ae plunger which comprises a base member 23 of cylindrical shape and of a diameter to slidably fit within the pump barrel I, this base member being provided with an integral extension or pin 25 in the direction of the valve I5. A non-porous cup-shaped leather washer 21 is adapted to flt over the pin with its bottom contacting the base member 2l. A washer 29 of resilient stretchable material such as rubber is fitted within the leather cup-shaped member 21, andagainst this rubber washer there is placed a compression washer 3i of a hard material such as metal, and the whole assembly lncluding the leather cup-shaped member 21. the rubber washer 2l and the metal washer 3| is compressed and maintained underv compression by the application of a nut Il to the extension or pin 2l which has been threaded to receive the same. The plunger is pivotallysecured to a plunger rod I which extends through a guide and supporting bearing 31 at'the muzzle end of the gun and terminates in a ilnger grip nut Il, enabling the plunger rod to be conveniently grasped and withdrawn in preparation for a compression stroke.
The plungerl rod has formed integral therewith along its upper edge, a rib 4I spaced a short distance from the grip nut 39 and extending substantially the full length of the plunger rod, the guide bearing 31 being slotted io provide a passage 43 for this rib, as the pump plunger rod is withdrawn. The guide bearing l1 has a sector slot 44 formed in the rear edge thereof, enabling the pump plunger to be rotated through an angle thus swinging the rib out oi alinement with the rib slot 4I in the bearing, and locking the plunger in position against the expansive 'force of the air under compression in the pump at the completion of a compression stroke.
In the pump under consideration, the space between the plunger 22 and the valve Ii constitutes an air compression chamber 44, which at the completion of va compression stroke is necessarily small, but the air trapped therein however, is under exceedingly high compression. thus assuring proper initial conditions for imparting high velocity to a discharged pellet.
In the event that a lower value of compression may be desired, as when a pistol o! this type is to be placed in the hands oi a child as a play toy, the reduction in compression can be very readily realized by eifectively shortening the length of the plunger stroke. Buch reduction in stroke is obtained by providing the plunger rod 2l at spaced intervals with transverse openings 4l, in a selected one of which is placed a stop in the ior'm of a cotter pin 41 or equivalent means, which upon withdrawal of the plunger rod will strike against the guide bearing 31 thus permitting only a percentage of a full stroke of the plunger, depending upon the opening selected to receive the cotter pin 41.
Operation of the valve Il is controlled from a trigger 4I operating through a tappet Il by means of an interconnecting rod Il, one end o! which bears against the shank of the trigger, whereas the other end bears against one end of the tappet, holding the other end of the tappet in light contact against the end of the valve l52, in its upper surface for loading purposes.
stem I1. The trigger 49 and the tappet 5I are both pivotally mounted in a. narrow trough or channel 55 which is soldered or otherwise afilxed to the under surface of the pump barrel I at the breech end of the gun. This trough extends a slight distance beyond the breech end of the pump to provide room for the location of the taDpet 5Iin cooperating relationship with the valve stem I1 as described.
The gun barrel 9 is supported along the upper surface of the pump barrel I, extending slightly beyond the breech end of the pump. Just behind the opening of channel 1 into the gun barrel,` the barrel is provided with a second opening A pellet dropped into the barrel at the proper time through this opening, is urged to its firing position II Just ahead of the opening from the channel 1 into the gun barrel.
Placing the pellet in its discharge position II is accomplished through the operation of a breech pin 53 which is slidably iltted into the breech end of the gun barrel. the inserted end of the pin being tapered while 'the exposed end is provided with a ange 54. The pin has a flattened or grooved intermediate portion li adapted to receive a" set screw l1fthreaded through the upper surface of the gunvbarrel at a point just behind the loading opening 52, such set screw serving to limit the movement of the breech pin B3 in the gun barrel between the nring position II, and the loading position wherein the opening 52 to the gun barrel is uncovered. A breech pin spring I! positioned under compres-v sion about the exposed portion of the breech pin, between the breech end of the barrel and the ange 54 e a continual force tending to urge the breech p to its loading position.
The breech pin is magnetized and is adapted, when cooperating with a pellet to place it in tiring position, to hold the pellet in its nring s!- tion until discharged. 'I'his avoids'the necessity for employing frictional or other mechanical means for doing the 'same thing.
The entire assembly thus far described is slidably receivable in a sleeve 6I, and when inserted in such sleeve to itsextreme position, determined by contact of the rear end of the trough B5 against the rear end i2 of the sleeve. the breech pin Il will be urged to its ilring position against the opposing force of the spring 5I. This position of the breech pin is illustrated in Fig. i.
The sleeve 6I in being formed, is arched at its upper edge to cooperate with the pump barrel in forming a magazine Il for holding a plurality oi pellets. The front end of the magazine is provided with an opening 65 for the loading of pellets therein, and at its breech end is provided with an inspection slot 61 for enabling one to determine the contents of the magazine. The set screw l1. previously referred to as determining the maximum extent of travel of the breech pin, is so constructed as to include a right angle portion 69 extending along the upper edge of Athe gun barrel in the direction of and terminataussen? The sleeve ti atits lower edges stradzlles` 'a `haruilcor stock` Il to which it is rigidly secured by means ofv bolts orvthe like. A trigger guard Il maybe attached at one end to the stock il of thegumandatitsotherendisloopedaround i a securing bolt il extending throughboth walls Tof the sleeve, such loopterminatingin a short proiectiivn` Il extending in the vdirection of the front end of the trough Il. v
` The above described arrangement enables sleeve actionin Vthe loading of the gun, the operation of -,which mayA be briefly cxplainedas follows. i By grasping the stockv 1I of `the pistolin one Jhand and the pump. and gun-barrelassembly in the other, the gun barrel and pump assemblyfmay bek e partially withdrawn from the sleeve, the extent ofv withdrawal being determinedA bythe trigger guard extension 'il againstv which the front end of the trough Si will abut. In such withdrawn position the rib on the upper surface of the gun barrel willno longerblock thel opening 85 to the' magazine, thus enabling i the magazine to be loaded or lled with shot. `At the 'same time the .breech pin 53, due to the resulting expansion of the breech pin spring 59 permitted bythe partial -withdrawal of the pump and gun barrel assembly,
will be withdrawn to itsloading position thereby A exposing ythe loading opening 52 to the barrel,
Of more importance however, in connection with the functioning of the plunger head. is its construction. which not only materially contributes toward obtaining the necessary high compression, but also serves to retain such high compression and inhibit leakage from the pump chamber thereafter. The plunger head construction enables thisto be accomplished by reason of the fact that the rubber washer 2l, when placed under longitudinal compressionk by the `nut I3,
4will expand laterally and exert a positive lateral pressure of great force against the walls of; the
leather cup at all times,even in the absence of air pressure in the pump chamber.
Inaccordance` with prior art pump construction, plungers employed leather cup-shaped elements, but relied upon theincreasing pressure in the pump chamber during ycompression strokes for effecting a tight ilt between the leather cup and the wall of` the pumpl barrel. Any crease or wrinkle in the leather cup element, or the'presence of a` foreign body between the cup and the interior wall of the pump, `will necessarily bring about aggravated conditions of leakage upon the development of pressure in the` pump. In the construction described by me, the lateral preswhereupon -one ofthe pellets will Adrop into theI gun barrel and willl be .held to the breech pin by magnetic attraction. Upon `restoring the .pump and gun barrelv assembly again to the position lndicated in`Fig.-l; the opening to the magazine will again be blocked, thus precluding loss of shot, and
the pellet which had previously been permitted to drop `into the barrel, will be'urged by the breech lpin to its firing position .i I as indicated .in Fig." 1. The 'gun is now in condition to be -iired providing the air in the pump chamber is under' compression. To obtain a highly compressed charge of air in the pump,the valve ii isunseatedby pressureagainst the trigger and serves as the inlet valve to the pump.` When thusly unseated, it
enables withdrawal of thefplungerrod accompanied -by a charge: of air-.into the pump. The
' valve I8 is thenallowed to close by releaseof the trigger, and the charge of-fair is compressed by Vrestoring the pump plunger to its-original position, `and locking it as previously described. VA 'subsequent pulll onv the trigger will again unseat ,the valve I5, this time enabling the `discharge of the compressed air `behind the pellet which had 'been previously described as having been placed lnnringposition. yThe-,valve Ilthus performs the dual purpose of the pump intake valve and the gun discharge valve.` "..If, in the act of withdrawing the plunger rod from the pump, the gun be pointed at an angle vabovethe horizontal, loading `of. the gun may be eii'ected simultaneously with the pumping operation. l
In the operationv of theabove described pistol, ythe plunger construction and the valve construction are of. the utmost importance.
Successful rand satisfactory operation depends l first upon developing and retaining ahigh value of compression in the, pump chamber. :The pivsure against the leather cup is a positive pressure existing .at all times and such pressure may be made to exceed any pressure which might be developed inf-the pump itself. 1 Being directed laterally against the inner surface only of the cupshaped washer, such pressures will effect a tight leak-proof t of the plunger in the pump barrel. I have found,-in guns embodying the plunger construction described by me, that a charge oi' air at times will be .retained therein-with but very little loss, for periods of the order of months at a stretch.
Another characteristic considered quite necessary in the obtaining of successful operation of a pistol ofthe type described, resides in obtaining snappy discharge ol'` the air under compression at ance being made for the valve stem which passes through a portionof such channel.
'Ihe operation of the valve itself which is of utmost importance, is best described by referring otal connection of the plunger headto the plunger rod will assist materially in obtaining this high 4 compression by reason of the fact that slight axial displacement for wobbling of theplunger rodin v the:op'erationfofnthe pump.' will not throw the plunger head outl of alinement in the pump barrel.
' `thus enabling the;y plunger head to retain atight lindlatorted tvinthe' barrel.
to the views in Fig. 5; Fig. 5A illustrates the valve and valve seat in normal position with no compression in the pump. Upon the completion of a compression stroke, the pressure developed in the air chamberwill urge the valvel to the rear slightly, at the same time distorting the valve seat under compression, to give it a form somewhat as indicated in Fig. 5B. In pulling the trigger to `edect the ilrlngof th pistol the valve will be gradually urged forward,` but due to the highly compressed airacting against the rubber valve seat, the valve seat will stretch under tension andv follow the movement of the valve until the degree of stretch has reached a valuefwhere the valve seat will no longerkeep up with the valve, and separation will occur. Such separationwill be exceedingly fast, for at the instant i that suchseparation occurs, the stretchable valve seat is under considerable tension, and will instantaneously snap back Therefore, the -air under compression yin 4the chamber will be dischargedy instantaneously and to its normal shape.
the full force thereof will be directed against the pellet in the gun barrel with very little, if any, drop in pressure.
Were the valve seat described byv me omitted from my valve assembly, the opening ofthe valve mustnecessarily involve a gradual enlargement of the space between the valve and its seat, resulting in a comparatively gradual release of air from the pump chamber. The full effect of the air under compression cannot be obtained or realized under such conditions.
' The embodiment of lmy invention. as disclosed in Fig. 6. constitutes a pistol oi' the repeater type and in view of the fact that the air chamber must necessarily supply air sumcient for the firing of a number of pellets, the pump is of the multiple stroke type, thus enabling the building up of a desired pressure in a storage chamber of considerably greater volume than that provided for in the single shot type, where the entire volume of compressed air is discharged at each shot.
The pump in the pistol disclosed in Fig. 6 is provided with a stationary hollow tubular piston 3|, anchored at its rear end in the breech block l2 and has the greater portion 83 of its wall section thinned down with respect to the rear end portion of the piston to form a shoulder 34. The front end of this piston is threaded to receive and hold an intake check valve and plunger assembly.
This assembly comprises a valve seat 91 threaded into the threaded end of the piston, which valve seat has integrally formed therewith, a tubular extension 99 in the direction of the muzzle end of the pistol. Such extension has its end threaded. A valve IIII which may take the form of a rivet, seats upon the valve seat 31 with its bifurcated shank inserted into the tubular extension 93, and is provided with a rubber sealing gasket |03. A rubber washer I fits over the tubular extension of the valve seat within the threaded portion of the piston and adjacent the valve seat, and is compressed against the undersurface of the valve seat by an internal compression nut IIII threaded Into the threaded end of the piston.
Against this nut I'I and surrounding the tubular extension 99 of the valve seat, is a leather cup III which holds a rubber washer I II against which is fitted a hard metallic washer I3 capable of being forced against the rubber washer III under compression by a clamping nut I I5 threaded to the end of the tubular extension 33, thus giving a -plunger construction along the lines of that described in Fig. 1. Over the thinner wall portion of the piston is reciprocaily mounted a pump `barrel II`I, which is of a length to abut against the shoulder il of the piston, when the pump barrel is urged to its maximum position on the piston. This slidable pump barrel has fitted thereto at its front end, an intake check valve assembly I I9.
This assembly involves a perforated cage III inserted in the front end of the pump barrel and internally threaded to receive a closure nut |23 which is formed with an air intake channel |25. This closure nut also functions as a valve seat in much the same manner as the tubular valve seat 31 of the piston. A valve |21 similar to that described in connection with the tubular valve seat of the piston is employed in the inlet check valve, the perforated cage |2| being so spaced from the valve head as to preclude the loss of the lvalve from the valve seat during use.
At the breech end of the pump, where the pump piston 3l is anchored to the breech block. the block is provided with a discharge channel |23 interconnecting the interior of the pump piston with the gun barrel |3|,`at a point Just behind the firing position |30 of a pellet in the gunbarrel.
The discharge valve constitutes an elongated resilient rubber plug |33 threaded to a valve stem |35, which stem extends through a portion of the discharge channel'and'through an opening in the breech block to a point beyond the rear end of the breech block in much the same manner as in the construction of Fig. 1. The valve is normally maintained in seated position by valve seating means within the pump piston. Such means includes a spring |31 bearing at one endl against the rubber valve plug |33, and maintained under compression by a spring compression means involving a perforated cage I3! enclosing the piston check valve and connected by a rod I4| to a loose fitting plunger disc |43 against which the other end of the spring |31 bears. A perforated partition I in the piston intermediate the perforated cage |39 and the plunger disc |43 may be employed to support the valve seating means and act as a guide bearing therefor.
The pump thus far described. by reason of its hollow stationary piston construction provides for a substantial air storage space therein, which will include all the available space between the piston check valve IIII and the breech block 32.
The gun barrel |3| in the embodiment disclosed in Fig. 6 does not rest upon the pump as in the single shot pistol of Fig. 1, .but extends axially through an additional storage chamber formed by a tube I 4B anchored at its rear end inthe breech block 32 and closed at its front end by a plug |45 which is perforated to receive and support the discharge end of the gun barrel I3I. At its rear end. the gun barrel extends through the breech block 32 and is supported at intermediate points by partitions I which are perforated to effect air connection between the chamber sections formed by the partitions. The storage chamber provided by the tube I is interconnected with the pump storage chamber by alined openings in the storage chamber tube and the pump piston, and the pump cylinder when in its closed position. Such interconnection occurs at a point Ill between the perforated cage |30 and the plunger disc I 43.
At its front end adjacent the pump cylinder. the auxiliary chamber tube |45 is provided with a pair of symmetrically disposed lugs |53 (only one being visible) and the pump piston at its rear end is likewise provided with similar lugs |55 in line with the first mentioned lugs, so that upon withdrawing the pump cylinder in the act of pumping, the lugs on the cylinder will abut against the lugs of the auxiliary chamber, thus determining the length of the stroke of the pump.
Adjacent the front valve end of the pump cylinder, a locking collar |51 is attached, which is slotted and secured in position by a set screw |33 through the slot, thus permitting a limited rotational movement of the collar about the pump cylinder. The collar only partially extends about the cylinder and is formed with an extension 'Ill whereby upon the completion of a pumping op.- eration and with the pump cylinder in the position indicaied in Fig. 6, ,the locking collar may be rotated to effect interlocking engagement between the extension ill and one of the lugs III on the auxiliary chamber tube. The pump cylinderis thereby locked against withdrawal.
Operation of the discharge valve in the embodiment described in Fig. 6: is effected through a hammer blow directed against the extended end of the valve stem |35, the glow being sumcient to effect momentary separation of the valve from the valve seat against the air compression and spring compression existing in the pump at the time. The hammer i is slidabiy positioned between the lower surface of the pump and the door of the casing itl which encloses the entire breech assembly of the gun. such hammer having a` reduced longitudinal front section Iii adjacent the pump, leavingaspace between this reduced longitudinal section and the floor of the casing The lower edge of this longitudinal front seconofthehammerisprovidedwitha pairof notches i andill to receive the engaging end |13 ofthe trigger ill which is pivotally supported between the side walls of the casing, with thenngergripportionextendingthroughthe iloorofthecasingwithinconvenientreachof an operator. The notches I," and vill are adapted to be `successively engaged by the trigger upon movement of the hammer from its `no1-mill to engage the trigger. whereby the hammer will be eably retained in such for ward position. f e
A spring block Ill of wedge shape is provided lusttotherearofthetriggeriliandbetween this .spring block and the wide rear portion of tli'e hammer is positioned the hammer spring Ill.v 'Upon the aforementioned -forward movement of the hammer to engaethe trigger. the spring block u urged against the trigger with the wedge shaped `end-contacting itat a point below the trigger pivot. causing the engaging `end |13 of the trigger to pivot upwardly and successively enter the notches IOIand |'II in the hammer as they come into position thus cocking the gun.
the hammer spring Ill is compressed and is ready upon releasing the trigger tocausethehammertofiybacktoitsoriginal position with suiilcient force to unseat the valve as previously indicated.
vBuch rearward motion of the hammer is transferred to the valve stem ill bymeans of a tappet III having one end ill adapted to strike the extended end of the valve stem, while the other end il! is adapted to be struck by the hammer I". l The end of the tappet I" which is struck by the hammer is bifurcated to receive and permit slidable movement therethrough `of an extension |11 to the rear of the hammer, which extension in the discharge position of the hammer as illustrated in Fig. 6, holds up one end It! of a loading nnger lli, which isl pivotally supported by the sidewalls of the casing I", with the other end I" of the loading finger' bearing against a magnetized breech pin Ill and holding it'in its iiring position. As in the construction of` Fig. i, the breech pin is biased by a spring |91 in such a manner that when free, the breech pin `will occupy a loading position, and the movement of the breech pin is limited by a set screw |99 threaded through the upper surface of the gun barrel.
' Th'e forward sliding or cocklng movement of the hammer |63 is accomplished in this embodi ment of my invention by"means of a thumb bolt 2li which is threaded into the side of the hammer ill, through a slot 2ill`formed in one of the walls of the casing |65. The thumb bolt is preferably located so that it may be operated by the thumb of the hand which is grasping the stock of the pistol during use. In the cocked position of the hammer, the rear extension thereof will occupy a sumciently forward position to permit the supported end itl of the loading linger to e drop behind the end of the extension, thus permitting the breech pin to withdraw under action of spring lll to its loading position.
As in the previously described embodiment, the casing III is arched along its upper edge to provide a magazine 20! with a feed opening 201 and an inspection slot 208, such magazine `being capable of holding a substantial number of shot or pellets of the order of twenty-five or more. The magazine is closed at one end by a short rib 20| added to the upper edge of th'e auxiliary chamber tube I and at the other end is closed by the breech block I2 itself, which at .this point is of suiiicient thickness to provide a well 2li leading to the charge opening into the gun barrel ISI. such wellbeing of sumcient length to accommodate one or more pellets. The pellets are fed to the well by gravity and in like manner are fed from the well into the barrel. The provision of a well of this character will thereby enable loading ofthe gun regardless of whether vthe gun is directed at an angle below or above the horizon.
In the operation of this gun. the magadne and the weil may nrst be loaded-with shot. and then `the Apump is operated with suiilcient strokes to develop the desired pressure throughout all the `interconnecting air pressure chambers inthe gun, or the pumping may be accomplished before illiing the magazine. When the desired pressure has been obtained, the hammer is urged to its forward position through thumb pressure upon the bolt to cock the whereupon along with thecockingofthegumthebreechpinwillbe withdrawn to its loading position permitting a A into the gun barrel. By reason of the fact that the breech pin is magnetized, the held against the end of the breech Upon pulling the trigger to discharge the gun. the breech pin will automatically shift the pellet to the iiring position and the breech pin will be locked in this position by reason of the fact that `the lower end of the loading linger will ride upon such hammer blow, will release a portion of the air under compression between the disc plunger and the valve, `which air will discharge through v the channel behind the. pellet with a force suilicient to elect the pellet at high velocity.
An important feature in the operation of this gun resides in the fact that the openings in the various partitions and the leakage between the disc plunger and the wall of the pump piston is so restricted that upon the sudden release of air through the discharge valve, a decided drop in pressure on the valve side of the disc plunger occurs. causing the existing high pressure on the other side of this plunger to drive the disc plunger forward suddenly and produce an instantaneous cut-oi! in the valve operation. Following such sharp-.cut-oif, the leakagel provided throughl the partitions and by the plunger will allow for, equalization of pressure throughout the air chaxnber space in the gun, whereupon the valvespring l will return the disc plunger back to its original position, which is shown in Fig. 6.
Inasmuch as the volume of air on the valve side of the disc plunger represents but a small portion of the entire volume of air stored in the variouschambers of the pistol, and inasmuch as the valve will clon before all the air on the valve side of the spring plunger can discharge. it will be apparent that only an exceedingly small percentage of the air is employed to fire each pellet. Consequently, after each firing and after the pressure has agalnbecome equalized, the pressure behind the discharge valve will not have been appreciably diminished from what it was before the previous shot. Buch slight drop in pressure per shot is partially compensated for by the fact that the hammer blow which remains the same for each discharge of the gun, will have an increas'- ingly greater effect on the valve discharge, thus tending to uphold the velocity of the pellets discharged from the gun. Consequently, it follows that this repeater type of gun is capable of nring a large number of shots on a single charge of air at velocities above a desired practicalminimum, the number depending in part upon the pressure to which the air in the gun is pumped.l A moderate amount of pumping will develop a charge in the'gun capable of imparting highvelocity to a full magazine of shot with little variation between the velocity of successive shots. 'Ihe firing curve representing the variations in velocity can be controlled in the manufacture of the gun so as to have a rising and/or drooping velocity characteristic between values above a desired minimum value, such curve characteristics being a function of hammer weight, stiffness of hammer spring etc. Y
The degree of leakage through the'partitions and past the disc plunger is preferably made such astobringaboutanequalisation ofpressure throughouttheentireairspac'eofthegunwithin the abort period of time which one might normally consume between successive firings of the The above described embodiment of Fig. 6, has been illustrated as incorporating boltactionin the operation thereof, but the same type of gun may be converted to sleeve action along 'the lines indicated in the embodiment of Fig. l. Inasmuch however, as this embodiment of Fig. 6 utiliseshammeractioninthefiringofthegunas distinguishing from the direct connection of Pig. 1,' the breech block wouldbe provided with a depending lug adapted to engage the rear end of the hammer so that upon withdrawal of the pump and gun. barrel assembly,..the hammer will be urged forward to effect engalement with the trigger.
Such withdrawal of the pump and gun barrel assembly will at the same time enable the breech pintouncoverthewellopeningtothegunbarrel, to enable entrance of one of the pellets, to be subsequently urged to its firing position, upon restoration of the pump and gun barrel assembly to its normal position.
It will be apparentfrom the above description of my invention, that I have provided a gun powered by air which embodies many new features. cooperating to produce improved results. These features may be applied to rifles as well as pistols. It will be further apparent that the embodiments described by me fulfill all the objects ofmy invention, and that while the various features yare subiectfto modifications without departing fran the principles embodied therein. I do not desire tobelimitedinmyprotectiontothedetailsdescribed bylme,\except' asmay be necessitated by the prior artand the appended claims.
I claim: 'Y i. In a'gun'. a pump and valve assembly comprising a pump barrel having an outlet or discharge end for air under compression, an air duct leading from said discharge end to the firing pcsition of a pellet in said gun. a ,piston in said pump barrel facing said discharge end,.a`valve seat at the'discharge end of said pump barrel. surrx'mmb ing the entrance to said air duct, said valve seat having a portion thereof tapering inwardly in the 'direction of said piston and being of elastic material which is materially deformable imder the pressure conditions withins'aid pump barrel. a valve on said elastic valve lseat and means for actuating said valve from said valve seat.
2. In a gun, a pump and valve assembly comprising a pump barrel having a common inlet and discharge opening. an vaix' duct leading from said opening to the firing position of a pellet in said gun,a piston in said pmnp barrel facing said opening-and having apiston rodextendingb yond the confines of said pump barrel, a valve seat surrounding said common' inletv and'discharge opening, said valve seat having a portion thereof tapering in the direction of said piston and being of elastic material which is materially de' formable under the pressure f conditions within said pump barrel, and a valve on said elastic valve seat of narrowing cross sectionadapted to be actuated therefrom in response to trigger operation of said gun.
3. Anair guncomprisinga pump..a gxmbarrel supported parallel to said pump. an air duct leadingfrox'n saidpumptothei'iringpositionofa pellet in said gun barrel, a magazine adjacent said barrel for holding a plurality o'f pellets, a feed'opening from said magasine to saidbarrel at apositionto therearof saidiiringpositioma breech pin extending into said barrel and capable of limited movement between said loading posi'- tion and a point to the rear of said feed opening, a sleeve or casing slidably enclosing the rear portion of said pump and barrel and normally holding saidbreechpintosaidfiringpositiommeans enabling partial withdrawal of said barrel fresa said sleeve or casing independentlyof said breech pin, a distancesubstantially equal to thedistance between said firing position and said feed opaling. 'f
4. Anairguncomprisingapump,agimbarrel supported above said pump in line therewith. an air duct leading from said pump to the drin position of a pellet in, said barrel, a magasine adjacent said barrel for holding a plurality of pellets. a feed opening fromv said magasine to the upper surface of said barrel at a position to the rear of said a breech pin eatendingintosaidbarrelfromtherearend there# of, a sleeve or casing slidably enclosing the rear portion of said pump and barrel and normally holding said breech pin to said fir-ing position. means enabling partialwithdrawal of said pump and barrel from said sleeve or casing a distance substantially equal to the distance between said tiring position and said feed opening. and means for restraining movement of said breech bin dill'-A ingsuchpartialwithdrawalofsaidpmnpand the interior of saidbarrei.
spaans? barrel to effect exposure of feed opening to 5. An air gun comprising a compressed air chamber, a barrel supported. above said compressed air chamber in line therewith. an air duct from said compressed air chamber to the nring position of a pellet in said barrel, a feed opening in said barrel for feeding pellets individually into said barrel for placement at. the firing position, a
sleeve or casing enclosing the rear portion of saidv compressed air chamber and barrel and arched along the upper edge to form a magazine for the reception of a plurality of pellets, said magazine having one end thereof terminating at said feed opening 6. An air gun comprising a compressed air chamber, a tubular element including a barrel supported axially therein and above said air chamber in line therewith, an air duct from said air chamber to the ring position of a pellet in said barrel. a feed opening in said barrel for feeding pellets individually into said barrel'for placement at the firk!! position, a sleeve or casing enclosing the rear portion of said air chamber and tubular element and forming with said tubular element a magazine for the reception of a plu-l 8. Agn air gun comprising apump having a fixed hollow cylindrical piston'terminating in a. pistonl head facing toward thev muzzle end ofthe gun and having acheck valve therein, a pump cylinder in slidable engagement with `said nxed hollow cylindrical piston, said pump cylinder having a check valve at the muzzle end thereof enabling entrance of `air under pressure into said hollow cylindrical piston to function as a storage chamber' for air under pressure, a barrel supported above said pump. and in line therewith, an air duct extending from said hollow piston storage chamber to the firing position of a pellet in said barrel. and manually controlled valve means for releasing a predetermined portion of the compressed air in said storage chamber into said air duct to-discharge said pellet. `9. An air gun comprising a gun barreL-a compressed air storage chamber. anv air duct leading from said storage chamber to the firing position of a pellet in said barrel, a normally closed valve between said storage chamber and said firing position, manual operated. means for momentarily a leakage plunger partitioning said storage chamber andA movable in the direction of said valve in response to a differential air created behind said plunger by said charge release, and a plunger restoring spring between said plunger and said valve for restoring said` plunger to its normal position as such differential air pressure subsequently approaches the zero value.
ll. A gun comprising a gun barrel, an air storage chamber, said gun barrel and storage chamber terminating in a breech block, an air discharge channel through said breech block and connecting said air storage chamber to the firing position of a shot in said gun barrel, valve vmeans normally blocking said discharge channel and extending to the rear of said breech block, a breech pin movable in said barrel from a loading position to said firing position and also ex tending to the rear of said breech block, trigger operable means for urging said breech pin to said firing position and locking the same and subsequently actuating said valvemeans to` eiect a discharge olair against said shot.
l2. In anair gun, an air storage chamber. a gun barrel, valve means for controlling discharge of air to said gun barrel, a hammer in said gun movable from a cocked position along a path be'- controlling the openingof said valve to release a charge of air from said storage chamber. and
piston means partitioning said compressed air storage chamber and movable inthe direction of saidvalve in response to @differential air pressure created by said charge release.
10. An air gun comprismg agun barrel, a compressed air storage chamber. an air duct leading from said lstorage chamber to the firing position of a pellet in said-barrel, a normally closed valve between s aid storage chamber and said firing position. manual operated means formomentarily` controlling the opening of `said valve to release la charge of air from said storage chamber,
low and substantially in line with said storage chamber to a discharge position to effect 'operation of said valve, a casing for said gun having a slot in a side wall thereof` exposing a portion of said hammer, and a bolt extending into said casing through said slot and connecting with said hammer to enable manual shifting of said hammer toits cocked position'.
13. An air gun comprising a gun barrel, a com` pressed air storage chamber, an air duct leading from said storage chamber to said gun barrel, a valve lnormally closing said duct to the flow of air between said storage chamber and said gun I barrel, and piston means normally disposed at an intermediate point in said. storage chamber,
an air pressure equalization passage interconnecting the portionsoi.' said storage chamber on each side of said piston means, said piston means being movable in the .direction of saidduct in. response to a diii'erential air pressure createdby the opening of said valve.
14. An air gun comprising a compressed air chamber, an air duct leading therefrom. valve means normally closing said air duct to the discharge of air fromsaid air chamber, said valve means comprising a valve component and avalve seat component, one of said components being of rubber like material and stretchablev against-the air pressure in said air chamber, and means for stretching said component to the point where said component snaps away from the other to effect a sudden full opening of said valve means and permit a discharge through said air duct from said air chamber. Y
15. A gun comprising a discharge channel through said breech block and connecting said air storage chamber to the ilring position ofa shotin said gun barrel, valve means normally blocking said? discharge channel and extending to the rear of said'breech block, a breech pin movable in said barrel from a loading position to said firing position andalso extending to the rear of Vsaid breech block, trigger operable means for urgingsaid breech pin to said ilring position andsubsequently actuating said" pressure gun barrel, an air storage'chamber, said gun barrel and4 storage. chamber terminating in a breech block, an air*A directly from said storage chamber to said gun barrel, a single valve normally closing said duct, trigger-released means for directly and instantaneously opening said valve, and means controlled by the discharge through said duct ot a metered quantity of air i'or automatically closing i0 said valve. v v
17.Anairguncomprisingagunbarrel,acom
` pressed air storage chamber, an air duct leading directly from said storage chamber to said gun barrel, a single valve normally closing said duct, trigger-released means tor directly and instantaneously Opening said valve, and air-actuated piston means controlled by the discharge through said duct oi a metered' quantity of air for automatically closing said valve.
WILLIAMS. WELLS.
US261621A 1939-03-13 1939-03-13 Air pistol Expired - Lifetime US2293957A (en)

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Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2424247A (en) * 1940-11-29 1947-07-22 James F Mccaslin Trigger pull for small arms
US2440634A (en) * 1943-10-14 1948-04-27 Gen Motors Corp Shell feeding mechanism for rocket guns
US2528462A (en) * 1944-08-21 1950-10-31 Paul S Linforth Self-loading air gun
US2581505A (en) * 1948-01-26 1952-01-08 Daisy Mfg Co Loading mechanism for pneumatic guns
US2612888A (en) * 1944-08-21 1952-10-07 Paul S Linforth Air gun breech magazine
US2699767A (en) * 1953-06-17 1955-01-18 Mangolini Bruno Semiautomatic air gun
DE934995C (en) * 1952-04-09 1955-11-10 Heikki Eino Klemola Valve arrangement for a compressed air gun
US2786461A (en) * 1955-06-24 1957-03-26 Jr Henry F G Pelsue Cross bow pistol
US2815923A (en) * 1952-07-23 1957-12-10 Gen Electric Valve with automatic rate-of-flow control
US2945487A (en) * 1956-09-19 1960-07-19 Webby Clive Nelson Air guns
US3119384A (en) * 1959-02-16 1964-01-28 Crosman Arms Company Inc Gas powered gun
US3175240A (en) * 1963-03-26 1965-03-30 Richfield Oil Corp Hydraulic pig injector
US3186119A (en) * 1963-05-22 1965-06-01 Maras Thomas Device for projecting an aerial target
US3199501A (en) * 1959-12-31 1965-08-10 Bertschinger Jakob Gas-operated, manually cocked shooting device
US3204625A (en) * 1963-03-22 1965-09-07 Bob G Shepherd Gas-operated pistol
US3233600A (en) * 1962-09-04 1966-02-08 Benjamin Air Rifle Company Gas charged repeater gun
DE1301738B (en) * 1964-06-30 1969-08-21 Victor Comptometer Corp Bullet storage for a pressurized gun
US3463136A (en) * 1966-10-26 1969-08-26 Crosman Arms Co Inc Projectile loading mechanism for air rifle
US5078118A (en) * 1989-08-13 1992-01-07 Brass Eagle Inc. Breech construction for air gun
US5165383A (en) * 1990-12-26 1992-11-24 Crosman Corporation Gun with pivoting barrel, projectile loader, and trigger interlock
US5572982A (en) * 1994-03-17 1996-11-12 Williams; Robert A. Paint ball gun with crack valve
US5711286A (en) * 1995-06-02 1998-01-27 Anics Corp. Gas-powered repeating pistol
US5761840A (en) * 1997-03-24 1998-06-09 Crosman Corporation Loader and toggle link assembly for gun
US20040255921A1 (en) * 2003-06-23 2004-12-23 Mitchell Jeffrey R. Air-powered projectile launcher
US20090007895A1 (en) * 2007-01-23 2009-01-08 Bill Whistler Kenworthy Apparatus for launching subcaliber projectiles at propellant operating pressures including the range of operating pressures that may be supplied by human breath
US20100307472A1 (en) * 2009-06-08 2010-12-09 Tech Group Hong Kong Small projectile launching air gun
ITPR20110102A1 (en) * 2011-12-23 2013-06-24 Cesare Morini Gas or pre-compressed air weapon
US8893696B2 (en) 2007-01-23 2014-11-25 Bill Whistler Kenworthy Apparatus for launching subcaliber projectiles at propellant operating pressures including the range of pressures that may be supplied by human breath
USD763974S1 (en) * 2014-01-02 2016-08-16 Htr Development, Llc Firing bolt tip for use in a paint ball gun
US20190178598A1 (en) * 2017-12-08 2019-06-13 James Eric McMillan Concentric rifle barrel assembly

Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2424247A (en) * 1940-11-29 1947-07-22 James F Mccaslin Trigger pull for small arms
US2440634A (en) * 1943-10-14 1948-04-27 Gen Motors Corp Shell feeding mechanism for rocket guns
US2528462A (en) * 1944-08-21 1950-10-31 Paul S Linforth Self-loading air gun
US2612888A (en) * 1944-08-21 1952-10-07 Paul S Linforth Air gun breech magazine
US2581505A (en) * 1948-01-26 1952-01-08 Daisy Mfg Co Loading mechanism for pneumatic guns
DE934995C (en) * 1952-04-09 1955-11-10 Heikki Eino Klemola Valve arrangement for a compressed air gun
US2815923A (en) * 1952-07-23 1957-12-10 Gen Electric Valve with automatic rate-of-flow control
US2699767A (en) * 1953-06-17 1955-01-18 Mangolini Bruno Semiautomatic air gun
US2786461A (en) * 1955-06-24 1957-03-26 Jr Henry F G Pelsue Cross bow pistol
US2945487A (en) * 1956-09-19 1960-07-19 Webby Clive Nelson Air guns
US3119384A (en) * 1959-02-16 1964-01-28 Crosman Arms Company Inc Gas powered gun
US3199501A (en) * 1959-12-31 1965-08-10 Bertschinger Jakob Gas-operated, manually cocked shooting device
US3233600A (en) * 1962-09-04 1966-02-08 Benjamin Air Rifle Company Gas charged repeater gun
US3204625A (en) * 1963-03-22 1965-09-07 Bob G Shepherd Gas-operated pistol
US3175240A (en) * 1963-03-26 1965-03-30 Richfield Oil Corp Hydraulic pig injector
US3186119A (en) * 1963-05-22 1965-06-01 Maras Thomas Device for projecting an aerial target
DE1301738B (en) * 1964-06-30 1969-08-21 Victor Comptometer Corp Bullet storage for a pressurized gun
US3463136A (en) * 1966-10-26 1969-08-26 Crosman Arms Co Inc Projectile loading mechanism for air rifle
US5078118A (en) * 1989-08-13 1992-01-07 Brass Eagle Inc. Breech construction for air gun
US5165383A (en) * 1990-12-26 1992-11-24 Crosman Corporation Gun with pivoting barrel, projectile loader, and trigger interlock
US5572982A (en) * 1994-03-17 1996-11-12 Williams; Robert A. Paint ball gun with crack valve
US5711286A (en) * 1995-06-02 1998-01-27 Anics Corp. Gas-powered repeating pistol
US5761840A (en) * 1997-03-24 1998-06-09 Crosman Corporation Loader and toggle link assembly for gun
US20040255921A1 (en) * 2003-06-23 2004-12-23 Mitchell Jeffrey R. Air-powered projectile launcher
US6904901B2 (en) * 2003-06-23 2005-06-14 Jeffrey R. Mitchell Air-powered projectile launcher
US8893696B2 (en) 2007-01-23 2014-11-25 Bill Whistler Kenworthy Apparatus for launching subcaliber projectiles at propellant operating pressures including the range of pressures that may be supplied by human breath
US20090007895A1 (en) * 2007-01-23 2009-01-08 Bill Whistler Kenworthy Apparatus for launching subcaliber projectiles at propellant operating pressures including the range of operating pressures that may be supplied by human breath
US8297268B2 (en) 2007-01-23 2012-10-30 Bill Whistler Kenworthy Apparatus for launching subcaliber projectiles at propellant operating pressures including the range of operating pressures that may be supplied by human breath
US20100307472A1 (en) * 2009-06-08 2010-12-09 Tech Group Hong Kong Small projectile launching air gun
WO2010144271A2 (en) * 2009-06-08 2010-12-16 Witzigreuter John D Small projectile launching air gun
WO2010144271A3 (en) * 2009-06-08 2011-03-24 Witzigreuter John D Small projectile launching air gun
US7882829B2 (en) * 2009-06-08 2011-02-08 Witzigreuter John D Small projectile launching air gun
EP2607836A1 (en) * 2011-12-23 2013-06-26 Cesare Morini Pre-compressed gas or air arm
ITPR20110102A1 (en) * 2011-12-23 2013-06-24 Cesare Morini Gas or pre-compressed air weapon
USD763974S1 (en) * 2014-01-02 2016-08-16 Htr Development, Llc Firing bolt tip for use in a paint ball gun
US20190178598A1 (en) * 2017-12-08 2019-06-13 James Eric McMillan Concentric rifle barrel assembly
US10533820B2 (en) * 2017-12-08 2020-01-14 U.S. Arms Company Llc Concentric rifle barrel assembly

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