US2495148A - Method of manufacturing continuous electrodes - Google Patents

Method of manufacturing continuous electrodes Download PDF

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US2495148A
US2495148A US684096A US68409646A US2495148A US 2495148 A US2495148 A US 2495148A US 684096 A US684096 A US 684096A US 68409646 A US68409646 A US 68409646A US 2495148 A US2495148 A US 2495148A
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mass
electrode
pipe
lye
sulphite
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US684096A
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Tanberg Ragnar
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHT SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS FOR ELECTRIC LIGHT SOURCES, IN GENERAL
    • H05B7/00Heating by electric discharge
    • H05B7/02Details
    • H05B7/06Electrodes
    • H05B7/08Electrodes non-consumable
    • H05B7/085Electrodes non-consumable mainly consisting of carbon
    • H05B7/09Self-baking electrodes, e.g. Söderberg type electrodes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/515Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on non-oxide ceramics
    • C04B35/52Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on non-oxide ceramics based on carbon, e.g. graphite
    • C04B35/528Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on non-oxide ceramics based on carbon, e.g. graphite obtained from carbonaceous particles with or without other non-organic components
    • C04B35/532Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on non-oxide ceramics based on carbon, e.g. graphite obtained from carbonaceous particles with or without other non-organic components containing a carbonisable binder

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  • the known type of continuously self-burning electrodes is based on melting down in a sheet iron pipe a plastic mass consisting of crushed anthracite or coke, to which are added pitch and tar as binding agent. As this mass becomes completely liquefied by heating and firstly assumes a solid state and then is coked at relatively high temperatures, it is necessary that the sheet iron pipe follows the electrode mass down into the bath and is here corroded away with the same. it is here to be noted that coking of the mass is necessary in order to obtain a sufliclent electrical conductivity.
  • the sheet iron pipe may not be separated from the mass is that the latter sticks and adheres to the sheet iron.
  • the disadvantage of this electrode is that the sheet iron envelope increases the cost of the electrode, nrlinarily because of the relatively high costs of manufacturing the envelope, which generally takes place by welding or riveting. Further the addition of iron received by the bath through melting down of the sheet pipe may act uniavorably in certain metallurgical processes.
  • a constructional form oi self-burning elec trodes has been suggested in which the sheet iron pipe or mantel is avoided by suspending the electrode at its lower portion, which has heen burnt to such a degree that it has sufiicient to permit of the attachment of the suspension means.
  • the diiliculty of constructing a continuous electrode without an iron mantel has been that has had no binding agent for the mass which,
  • the binding agent is of such a nature that it binds and cokes at a relatively moderate temperature, at 200-300 C., for example it is possible in practice in this zone, without difllculty, to supply the current by means of ordinary current supplying laws.
  • the quantity of suiphite lye which should be added in order to obtain a suflicient binding power may advantageously be fixed at between ill-35%, and that the subsequent drying may suitably take place at a temperature of above loll C.-"lld C.
  • waste lye as used above and in the claims shall be understood waste lye from the production of sulphlte cellulose, regardless of Whether it refers to the ordinary sulphite process, which operates with calcium bisulphite, or other sulphite processes, for example one in which ammonia bisulphite is used.
  • a solution according to the invention may eventually also be produced by the mixing of its individual components.
  • the invention will be particularly applicable in connection with a stationary pipe or mantel, mounted above the bath, which shapes the electrode and holds it together until the mass, through the influence of heat, has turned consistent so that it may be passed down into the furnace as it is being consumed.
  • a casing of heat resisting material through which the hot gases from the melting bath are passed in such a way that the pipe and consequently the electrode mass is heated to a few hundred degrees, so that the mass which is passed through the pipe stiffens and hardens and forms a firm, glutinated mass.
  • this embodiment is shown diagrammatically: I designates the furnace arch, 2 the bath surface and 3 the casing of heat resisting material mounted on the furnace arch.
  • the shaping pipe 4 which at the top is provided with a funnel shaped expansion 5 in which the electrode mass consisting of a premixed mass of, for example 90% cokeand/or anthracite powder and about concentrated sulphite lye is stamped down.
  • the hot gases from the furnace pass through the casing 3 and out through a discharge pipe 1, which is provided with a control damper 8. Through influence of heat from the gas the electrode mass will first stiffen and thereupon coke to a consistent electrode.
  • Below the pipe 4 are mounted current supplying jaws, in-
  • the current is supplied through the lead III, which is suitably passed through the casing I.

Description

Jam E7 195@ R. TANBERG $495348 METHOD OF MANUFACTURING CONTINUOUS ELECTRODES Filed July 17, 1946 Maven-mm. fiHCFNHR ma ma ATTORNEY.
Patented Jan. 17, 1950 METHOD OF MANUFA CTURING CONTINUOUS ELECTRODES Ragnar Tanberg, Drammen, Norway Application July 17, 1946, Serial No. 684,096
In Norway May 8, 1943 Section 1, Public Law 690, August 8, 1948 Patent expires May 8, 1963 3 Claims. 1
The known type of continuously self-burning electrodes is based on melting down in a sheet iron pipe a plastic mass consisting of crushed anthracite or coke, to which are added pitch and tar as binding agent. As this mass becomes completely liquefied by heating and firstly assumes a solid state and then is coked at relatively high temperatures, it is necessary that the sheet iron pipe follows the electrode mass down into the bath and is here corroded away with the same. it is here to be noted that coking of the mass is necessary in order to obtain a sufliclent electrical conductivity.
Still another reason why the sheet iron pipe may not be separated from the mass is that the latter sticks and adheres to the sheet iron. The disadvantage of this electrode is that the sheet iron envelope increases the cost of the electrode, nrlinarily because of the relatively high costs of manufacturing the envelope, which generally takes place by welding or riveting. Further the addition of iron received by the bath through melting down of the sheet pipe may act uniavorably in certain metallurgical processes.
A constructional form oi self-burning elec trodes has been suggested in which the sheet iron pipe or mantel is avoided by suspending the electrode at its lower portion, which has heen burnt to such a degree that it has sufiicient to permit of the attachment of the suspension means.
The diiliculty of constructing a continuous electrode without an iron mantel has been that has had no binding agent for the mass which,
a relatively moderate temperature imparts mechanical firmness to the same or permits of coking without mass adhering to the mantel. one is to operate with an electrode without iron envelope, it is necessary to place the merit supplying jaws a distance below the zone which the electrode mass is suificien'tly coked order to be current carrying. in case this does not take place before at a very high temperature near the bath surface it will not be possible in practice to maintain a lasting current The present invention has for its object to avoid the disadvantages mentioned above in the completely continuous electrodes now used.
if the binding agent is of such a nature that it binds and cokes at a relatively moderate temperature, at 200-300 C., for example it is possible in practice in this zone, without difllculty, to supply the current by means of ordinary current supplying laws.
iii
Nor is it dimcult at this 66 2 temperature to undertake the necessary control of the rate of feeding of the electrode.
According to the invention it has been found that in evaporated sulphite waste lye from the cellulose industry or other aqueous solutions of saccharldes, tanning acids, resins and substances which carbonize exothermally, for example lignin and derivatives of lignin of substantially the same composition as sulphite waste lye, one has a means which in an astonishing way fulfills the requirements of a binding agent for obtaining satisfactory results. Such materials give a binding agent which binds the electrode mass without the latter adhering to the surrounding iron mantel, because the mass shrinks and is solidified when subjected to light drying and because the coking begins at moderate, low temperatures and thereupon continues exothermally.
In practice one may easily produce such a solution with properties as mentioned above by evaporation of sulphite lye to a dry material content of about 50%. it has been found that in the use of an electrode mass based on the employment of sulphite lye as binding agent in so small quantities that the mass does not adhere substantially to the shaping iron cylinder, such a, great binding power is obtained through a subsequent light drying at low temperatures that the electrode mass may be slid out of the shag ing pipe and he sufficientiy mechanically strong to constitute an indenendei'lt electrode body which may he passed down into the melting bath without support from the shaping cylinder.
it has further been found that during the said drying of the mass the latter is completely released from the iron cylinder so that the ready dried and shaped electrode haimay be easily moved out of the shaping pipe.
it has been found that the quantity of suiphite lye which should be added in order to obtain a suflicient binding power may advantageously be fixed at between ill-35%, and that the subsequent drying may suitably take place at a temperature of above loll C.-"lld C.
By the expression sulphite waste lye as used above and in the claims shall be understood waste lye from the production of sulphlte cellulose, regardless of Whether it refers to the ordinary sulphite process, which operates with calcium bisulphite, or other sulphite processes, for example one in which ammonia bisulphite is used.
A solution according to the invention may eventually also be produced by the mixing of its individual components. By way of example may 3 be mentioned a solution produced by mixing and heating to 80-90" C. oi
Per cent Glucose 5-10 Tannin 12-21 Natural resins Calcium salt of lignosul phonic acid (finely divided or decomposed lignin) 17-28 Water 40-60 The mass which is mixed and stamped down into the shaping pipe and dried as mentioned above, has the qualit that it cokes relatively easily at moderate temperatures because a temperature of about 250 C. will initiate a coking process which develops exothermally, whereby coking is easilyobtained.
Because in the melting processes for which this type of electrodes is employed ample heat quantitles of the temperatures here discussed are available, it follows that in practice one may expedite the coking of the electrode mass so that it becomes sufilciently electrically conductive for the connection of electric current supplying jaws at a point of the electrode bar at which the temperatures are still so moderate that this may be done without practical difliculties.
As will be understood, the invention will be particularly applicable in connection with a stationary pipe or mantel, mounted above the bath, which shapes the electrode and holds it together until the mass, through the influence of heat, has turned consistent so that it may be passed down into the furnace as it is being consumed.
According to'an embodiment of the invention there is mounted around the shaping pipe or mantel, a casing of heat resisting material, through which the hot gases from the melting bath are passed in such a way that the pipe and consequently the electrode mass is heated to a few hundred degrees, so that the mass which is passed through the pipe stiffens and hardens and forms a firm, glutinated mass. In the appended drawing this embodiment is shown diagrammatically: I designates the furnace arch, 2 the bath surface and 3 the casing of heat resisting material mounted on the furnace arch. In the upper closed end of this casing is placed the shaping pipe 4, which at the top is provided with a funnel shaped expansion 5 in which the electrode mass consisting of a premixed mass of, for example 90% cokeand/or anthracite powder and about concentrated sulphite lye is stamped down. The hot gases from the furnace pass through the casing 3 and out through a discharge pipe 1, which is provided with a control damper 8. Through influence of heat from the gas the electrode mass will first stiffen and thereupon coke to a consistent electrode. Below the pipe 4 are mounted current supplying jaws, in-
dicated by 9. The current is supplied through the lead III, which is suitably passed through the casing I.
I claim:
1. In the process of forming continuous electrodes from a mixture of a crushed carbonaceous material and a binding agent for electric furnace use, the improvement which consists of employing evaporated waste sulphite lye as the binding agent, said evaporated waste sulphite lye having a dry material content of 50-60% and constituting from 10% to of the total electrode mass.
2. In the process of forming continuous electrodes from a mixture of a crushed carbonaceous material and a binding agent for electric furnace use and wherein the mixture is glutinated and coked in a heated guiding mantel, the improvement which consists of employing evaporated waste sulphite lye as the binding agent, said evaporated waste sulphite lye having a dry material content of 50-60% and constituting from 10% to 35% of the total electrode mass.
3. The process of claim 2 further characterized in that the mixture of the electrode forming materials is heated to a temperature of froml50 to 300 C. while in said mantel.
RAGNAR TANBERG.
file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 617,979 Acheson Jan. 17, 1899 704,993 Weber July 15, 1902 722,411 Shode Mar. 10,1903 964,268 Johnson July 12, 1910 1,434,395 Menersmann Nov. 7, 1922 1,483,507 Brockbank Feb. 12, 1924 1,498,582 Soderbert June 24, 1924 1,544,151 Helfenstein June 30, 1925 1,640,735 Soderberg Aug. 30, 1927 1,757,695 Westly May 6, 1930 1,983,267 Browne et a1. Dec. 4, 1934 2,073,356 Torchet Mar. 9, 1937 2,154,271 Higgins Apr. 11, 1939 2,159,183 Sem May 23, 1939 2,169,563 Legeron Aug. 15, 1939 2,185,772 McMullen Jan. 2, 1940 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 294,661 Germany 1916 27,784 Norway 1917 44,046 Norway May 23, 1927 154,016 Austria 1938 500,455 Great Britain Feb. 9, 1939
US684096A 1943-05-08 1946-07-17 Method of manufacturing continuous electrodes Expired - Lifetime US2495148A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2526876A (en) * 1948-05-08 1950-10-24 Elektrokemisk As Method of handling continuous electrodes
US3619465A (en) * 1968-12-09 1971-11-09 Montedison Spa Method for operating self-baking electrodes
US4527329A (en) * 1978-10-31 1985-07-09 Carboindustrial S.A. Process for the manufacture "in situ" of carbon electrodes
US4704230A (en) * 1983-03-08 1987-11-03 Georgia-Pacific Corporation Lignosulfonate/urea binder for particulate composites
US5360465A (en) * 1989-09-29 1994-11-01 Georgia-Pacific Corporation Particulate fertilizer dust control

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DE294661C (en) *
US617979A (en) * 1899-01-17 Method of manufacturing graphite articles
US704993A (en) * 1900-01-08 1902-07-15 Frederick C Weber Electric smelting-furnace.
US722411A (en) * 1902-05-15 1903-03-10 Eugene Howard Moore Electric furnace.
US964268A (en) * 1906-11-09 1910-07-12 Continuous Zinc Furnace Company Apparatus for smelting ores yielding a volatile metal.
US1434395A (en) * 1920-01-30 1922-11-07 Metal & Thermit Corp Electric furnace
US1483507A (en) * 1923-07-06 1924-02-12 Rosstacony Crucible Company Refractory article and method of making the same
US1498582A (en) * 1921-01-24 1924-06-24 Norske Elektrokemisk Ind As Electrode holder
US1544151A (en) * 1923-03-20 1925-06-30 Union Carbide Corp Method of and apparatus for forming continuous electrodes
US1640735A (en) * 1923-05-16 1927-08-30 Norske Elektrokemisk Ind As Process of making channeled continuous electrodes
US1757695A (en) * 1925-09-30 1930-05-06 Norske Elektrokemisk Ind As Electrode
US1983267A (en) * 1930-07-18 1934-12-04 Theodore C Browne Electrical conductive element and process of manufacture
US2073356A (en) * 1933-04-18 1937-03-09 Norske Elektrokemisk Ind As Electrode suspension
AT154016B (en) * 1934-04-07 1938-08-10 Nicolaas Cramer Process for the production of unfired refractory and / or insulating masses, stones, linings, protective coatings and the like. Like. Made of ceramic materials.
GB500455A (en) * 1936-12-24 1939-02-09 Robert Mautsch Improvements relating to electric furnaces for melting metals
US2154271A (en) * 1937-03-02 1939-04-11 Carborundum Co Refractory article
US2159183A (en) * 1928-10-05 1939-05-23 Norske Elektrokemisk Ind As Self-baking electrode
US2169563A (en) * 1936-07-08 1939-08-15 Det Norske Aktiesclskab For El Electrode and its suspension
US2185772A (en) * 1935-12-23 1940-01-02 Carborundum Co Mold for refractory cast materials

Patent Citations (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US617979A (en) * 1899-01-17 Method of manufacturing graphite articles
DE294661C (en) *
US704993A (en) * 1900-01-08 1902-07-15 Frederick C Weber Electric smelting-furnace.
US722411A (en) * 1902-05-15 1903-03-10 Eugene Howard Moore Electric furnace.
US964268A (en) * 1906-11-09 1910-07-12 Continuous Zinc Furnace Company Apparatus for smelting ores yielding a volatile metal.
US1434395A (en) * 1920-01-30 1922-11-07 Metal & Thermit Corp Electric furnace
US1498582A (en) * 1921-01-24 1924-06-24 Norske Elektrokemisk Ind As Electrode holder
US1544151A (en) * 1923-03-20 1925-06-30 Union Carbide Corp Method of and apparatus for forming continuous electrodes
US1640735A (en) * 1923-05-16 1927-08-30 Norske Elektrokemisk Ind As Process of making channeled continuous electrodes
US1483507A (en) * 1923-07-06 1924-02-12 Rosstacony Crucible Company Refractory article and method of making the same
US1757695A (en) * 1925-09-30 1930-05-06 Norske Elektrokemisk Ind As Electrode
US2159183A (en) * 1928-10-05 1939-05-23 Norske Elektrokemisk Ind As Self-baking electrode
US1983267A (en) * 1930-07-18 1934-12-04 Theodore C Browne Electrical conductive element and process of manufacture
US2073356A (en) * 1933-04-18 1937-03-09 Norske Elektrokemisk Ind As Electrode suspension
AT154016B (en) * 1934-04-07 1938-08-10 Nicolaas Cramer Process for the production of unfired refractory and / or insulating masses, stones, linings, protective coatings and the like. Like. Made of ceramic materials.
US2185772A (en) * 1935-12-23 1940-01-02 Carborundum Co Mold for refractory cast materials
US2169563A (en) * 1936-07-08 1939-08-15 Det Norske Aktiesclskab For El Electrode and its suspension
GB500455A (en) * 1936-12-24 1939-02-09 Robert Mautsch Improvements relating to electric furnaces for melting metals
US2154271A (en) * 1937-03-02 1939-04-11 Carborundum Co Refractory article

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2526876A (en) * 1948-05-08 1950-10-24 Elektrokemisk As Method of handling continuous electrodes
US3619465A (en) * 1968-12-09 1971-11-09 Montedison Spa Method for operating self-baking electrodes
US4527329A (en) * 1978-10-31 1985-07-09 Carboindustrial S.A. Process for the manufacture "in situ" of carbon electrodes
US4704230A (en) * 1983-03-08 1987-11-03 Georgia-Pacific Corporation Lignosulfonate/urea binder for particulate composites
US5360465A (en) * 1989-09-29 1994-11-01 Georgia-Pacific Corporation Particulate fertilizer dust control

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SE120959C1 (en) 1948-02-24
GB614107A (en) 1948-12-09
CH244709A (en) 1946-09-30

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