US2398640A - Internal-combustion engine - Google Patents

Internal-combustion engine Download PDF

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US2398640A
US2398640A US542941A US54294144A US2398640A US 2398640 A US2398640 A US 2398640A US 542941 A US542941 A US 542941A US 54294144 A US54294144 A US 54294144A US 2398640 A US2398640 A US 2398640A
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cylinder
fulcrum
lever
eccentric
engine
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Henri J Hickey
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Henri J Hickey
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01BMACHINES OR ENGINES, IN GENERAL OR OF POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT TYPE, e.g. STEAM ENGINES
    • F01B7/00Machines or engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder or within essentially coaxial cylinders
    • F01B7/02Machines or engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder or within essentially coaxial cylinders with oppositely reciprocating pistons
    • F01B7/04Machines or engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder or within essentially coaxial cylinders with oppositely reciprocating pistons acting on same main shaft
    • F01B7/12Machines or engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder or within essentially coaxial cylinders with oppositely reciprocating pistons acting on same main shaft using rockers and connecting-rods
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01BMACHINES OR ENGINES, IN GENERAL OR OF POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT TYPE, e.g. STEAM ENGINES
    • F01B7/00Machines or engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder or within essentially coaxial cylinders
    • F01B7/02Machines or engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder or within essentially coaxial cylinders with oppositely reciprocating pistons
    • F01B7/04Machines or engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder or within essentially coaxial cylinders with oppositely reciprocating pistons acting on same main shaft
    • F01B7/06Machines or engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder or within essentially coaxial cylinders with oppositely reciprocating pistons acting on same main shaft using only connecting-rods for conversion of reciprocatory into rotary motion or vice versa
    • F01B7/08Machines or engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder or within essentially coaxial cylinders with oppositely reciprocating pistons acting on same main shaft using only connecting-rods for conversion of reciprocatory into rotary motion or vice versa with side rods
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/04Engines with variable distances between pistons at top dead-centre positions and cylinder heads

Description

5 Sheets-Sheet l Arron/ve: Y:
April 16, 1946. H. J. HlcKEY INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed June 30, 1944 April 16, 1946. H. J. HlcKEY INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 30, 1944 INVENToR. HENR/ J.' HIC/(sy B KZQZ.
Hf'rveMs-ys 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 H. J. HICKEY.
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed June 30, 1944 1U* INVENToR.
BY HEM/2f J HfcKEY Arroz/YE Ys April 16, 1946.
April 16, 1946. H. J. HICKEY INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed June 30, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 14ML@ Mmwfw am@ ,4free/vs YS April 16, 1946 H. J. HlcKEY INTERNAL-'COMBUSTIN ENGINE Filed June 50, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Apr. 16, 1946 UNITED sTATEs PATENT ori-ica INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Henri J. Hickey, Cleveland, Ohio Application June 30, 1944, Serial No. 542,941
l 19 Claims. (Cl. 12S-48) This invention relates to internal combustion engines and, as one of its broader objects, aims to provide an improved engine embodying novel means -by which the compression ratio can be varied while the 'engine is in operation so as to render the engine readily adaptable for eihcient performance under varying conditions of operation. .mmrghh Another object of the invention is to provide an improved engine of this character, in which the means for varying the compression ratio requires the use of only a small number of additional parts and accomplishes the desired result in a direct and efllcient manner without disturbing the timing or valve cycle of the engine.
Still another object of this invention is to provide an improved engineI of the character mentioned, in which the means for varying the compression ratio involves the use of a fulcrum having concentric and eccentric bearing portions with which piston-operated linkage cooperates and wherein adjustment of such fulcrum modies the action of the linkage and the compression stroke of the piston.
The invention can be further brieiiy summarized as consisting in certain novel combinations and arrangement of parts hereinafter described and particularly set out in the appended claims.
In the accompanying sheets of drawings,
Fig. 1 is a. transverse sectional view taken through an engine constructed according to the present invention and showing the pistons at the end of their inward or compression stroke, the view being taken substantially on line I-I of Fig. 3.
Fig. 2 is a partial transverse sectional view similar to Fig. 1- but showing the pistons at the end of their outward or power stroke.
Fig. 3 is a. side view of the engine showing the same partly in elevation and partly in section and with a side cover of the engine removed.
Fig. 4 is a partial sectional plan view taken1 on line 4 4 of Fig. 2 and showing the adjustable fulcrum.
Fig. 5 is a sectional detail view taken on line 5-5 of Fig. 4 and showing the fulcrum adjusting means.
Fig. 6 is a sectional detail view similar to Fig. 5 but showing the fulcrum shifted to a different Position.
Fig. `7 is a sectional detail view taken approximately on the line 'I-1 of Fig. 3 and showing the bracket and related parts for supporting and adjusting the fulcrum.
Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken through such bracket and related parts as indicated by line 8-8 of Fig. '1.
Fig. 9 is an elevational view looking toward the end oi' the bracket.
Fig. 10 is a partial transverse sectional view on the order of Fig. 1, but showing a modified form of the improved engine.
Fig. 11 is a view similar to Fig. 10, but showing the fulcrum of the modied engine shifted to a diirerent position, and
Fig. 12 is a sectional plan view taken through the modied construction on line I2-I2 of Fig. 10.
In the embodiment of the variable compression engine shown in Figs. 1 to 9 inclusive, the engine is provided with a block or housing I5 which contains one or more laterally or horizontally extending cylinders Il and a crankcase I1 located beneath the cylinders. 'Ihe cylinders I6 can be formed directly in the housing I5 or may be in the form of open-ended sleeves I8 mounted in the hpusing. The engine also includes a crankshaft I9 mounted in suitable main bearings 25 2o of the housing and a pair of power pistons 2| and 22 reciprocable in each of the cylinders I 6 and connected with the crankshaft by linkage which will be presently described.
The housing I5 is constructed so as to contain a cooling jacket 23 surrounding the cylinders I6 and to which water or other cooling medium can be supplied through the pipe 2|. 'I he housing also contains an inlet passage or intake manifold!! and an exhaust passage or manifold 26. A supply pipe 21 is connected with the housing and through which air under pressure, or if desired a combustible mixture, can be supplied to the passage or manifold25. An exhaust pipe 28 is connected with the passage or manifold 2S to receive the exhaust gases therefrom. The wall of each of the cylinders I 6 is provided with longitudinally spaced groups of ports 29 and III of which the ports 2! are inlet ports communicating with the intake manifold 25 and the ports Il are outlet or exhaust ports, communicating with the exhaust manifold 28. The intermediate portion or section oi' the cylinders lying between the inlet and exhaust ports 29 and 3o provides an expansible power chamber or combustion space 32 in which the fuel charge is compressed and burned.
The crankshaft I9 extends transversely to the axis of the cylinders I6 and is offset therefrom soastolie inthecrankcase Il. `The crankshaft is rotatable about an axis lying in a plane which extends across the cylinders at substantially the midpoint thereof. As shown in the drawings the crankshaft is provided with a pair of adjacent cranks |9a and |9b for each of the cylinders I6 and which cranks are spaced apart suitable anguiar distances.
In Fig. 1 of the drawings the pistons 2| and 22 are shown at the inner end of their compression stroke. In Fig. 2 the pistons 2l and 22 are shown at the outer end of their power stroke at which time the inlet port 29 has been uncovered by the piston 2| and the exhaust port 39 has been uncovered bythe piston 22. When the pistons are in the position shown in' Fig. 2, compressed air from the manifold 25 enters the cylinder I6 through the port 29 displacing the burned gases from the cylinder through exhaust port 30 and at the same time scavenging the cylinder and leaving therein a quantity of fresh air for the compression stroke which immediately follows. During the inward or compression stroke of the pistons, the ports 29 and 38 are closed and the air remaining in the combustion chamber 32 is compressed as the compression space represented by the chamber progressively decreases.
At an appropriate point in the cycle of operation, preferably just before the pistons reach the inner end of their travel, a quantity of fuel such as gasoline or other suitable hydrocarbon is injected into the cylinder through the fuel nozzle .33. The fuel becomes thoroughly mixed with the air in the combustion chamber 32 as the result of the great turbulencewhich occurs in the cylinder during the' compression stroke of the pistons. lAt an appropriate point in the operating cycle, the compressed fuel mixture is ignited as by means of a spark plug or other suitable ignitor 34, or by compression. During the resulting power stroke of the pistons 2| and 22, thrust is transmitted to the crankshaft I9 through the linkage which will be described next.
The linkages which connect the pistons 2| and 22 with the pair of adjacent cranks |9a and 20a of the crankshaft |9 are of identical construction and therefore the same reference characters and the following detailed description apply to both linkages. This linkage comprises upper and lower connecting rods or links 38 and 31 and a rockable or oscillating lever 38 connecting such rods. The upper connecting rod 36 has one end thereof connected with one of the pistons by means of wrist pin 39 and its other end connected with the upper end of the lever 38 -by the pivot pin 40. The lower connecting rod 31 is provided at one end with a head or bearing 31a which is connected with one of the cranks of the crankshaft |9 and its other end is connected with the lower end of the lever 38 by a pivot pin 4|.
As previously indicated herein, an important feature of the improved engine is the means by which the compression ratio of the engine can be varied while the engine is in operation so as to meet or suit varying conditions under which the engine is being used. This means for varying the compression ratio includes an adjustable fulcrum 43 with which the lever 38 has rocking or oscillating cooperation during reciprocation of the power piston in the cylinder IB. In the form of the engine shown in Figs. l to 9 inclusive, the fulcrum 43 is in the form of a cam having a convex bearing surface 44 rockably engaged by an external ilat bearing face 45 recessed into the lever 38 and extending longitudinally thereof. The convex bearing surface 44 of the cam in cludes a substantially concentric portion 44a extending around the major portion of the periphery of the cam and an eccentric or lobular bearing portion 44h which constitutes a relatively smaller section of the periphery of the cam. As shown in the drawings, portions of the lever 38 which are located on opposite sides of the bearing face 45 form shoulders which overlap the ends of the fulcrum element 43.
During the operation of the engine, the lever 38 is rocked by the compression stroke of the piston from the position shown in Fig. 2 to the position shown in Fig. 1, or in other words, is rocked from the concentric bearing portion 44a l5 of the cam onto the eccentric portion 44h. The
movement of the lever 38 onto the eccentric portion 44h causes the piston to be moved through a longer compression stroke and results in a higher compression ratio being obtained. During the power stroke the lever 38 is rocked from the position shown in Fig. 1 back to the position shown in Fig. 2 or, in other words, is rocked from the eccentric portion 44h of the cam onto the concentric portion 44a. The return of the lever 38 to the concentric portion 44a automatically shortens or limits the power stroke of the piston so that its outward travel will always terminate at the same point of the cylinder I8 with respect to the inlet ports 29. In this way the timing of the functions which occur during the cycle of operation and the valving of the engine are not disturbed as the resultof the variation in the compression ratio.
The cam constituting the fulcrum 43 can be in the form of a sleeve supported by a shaft 41 which extends substantially parallel with the crankshaft I9 and serves all of the cylinders of the engine. The shaft 41 provides a xed axis about which the cam 43 is arcuately movable, in
a. manner to be presently explained, for varying the compression ratio of the engine. The shaft 41 is supported by and extends across a hollow or stirrup shaped bracket 48 which is mounted adjacent the outer end of the cylinder I6. The
lever 38 extends through the hollow bracket 48,
as shown in Fig. l, so as to lie between the fulcrum 43 and the adjacent end of the cylinder, that is to say, the lever lies wholly on the cylinder side of the fulcrum. The bracket 48 is lo- 50 cated such that the axis of the shaft 41 will lie in a plane extending. substantially parallel with the axis of the cylinder I8 but lying between such axis and the axis of the crank shaft |9.
The cam 43 can be arcuately adjusted as above indicated for the purpose of shifting the point of rocking engagement of the lever 38 therewith so as to vary the compression ratio of the engine. For this purpose. I provide the cam with a gear sector 49 with which a gear sector 58 of oo an adjusting lever 5| meshes. The adjusting lever 5| is supported in the hollow bracket 48 by a short shaft 52 (see Fig. 8) and can be swung or actuated on such shaft by means of an actuating rod 53 to thereby rotate or arcuately shift the cam 43 about the fixed axis provided by the shaft 41. When the cam is shifted in a counterclockwise direction as seen in Fig. l and to a setting such as that represented in Fig. 6, the lobe or high point of the cam forming a part of the 7o eccentric bearing portion 44h becomes more effective in modifying the rocking movement of the lever 38 and increases the compression stroke of the piston which results in a higher compression ratio for the engine. When the cam is shifted in the opposite direction, that is, in a clock-wise direction as seen in Fig. 1 and to a setting such as that represented in Fig. 5, the lobe or high point of the cam becomes less effective on the lever 33 and the piston operates with a relatively decreased compression stroke and the compression ratio of the engine is lowered corre- SDOndingly.
The adjustment of the cam 43 in the manner just described above, is carried out simultaneously for both sides of the engine and can be accomplished by the use of any appropriate actuating mechanism. In this instance, I show a pivoted hand lever I6 for this purpose with a link 66 extending therefrom and connected wtih the lower ends of the actuating rods 53 by means of the pivoted bell-crank levers 61. The adjusting 1ever 6l can be retained in a position corresponding with the desired settings of the cams 43 by a suitable pawl and ratchet means lf3.
While the engine is in operation the lever 33 remains constantly in engagement with the convex bearing surface of its cam or fulcrum 43 but to prevent this lever from shifting away such bearing surface of the fulcrum at other times. a retaining means is preferably provided such as a plunger 53 having a roller 60 which engages an inner bearing face 6| of the lever. A compression spring 62 constantly urges the plunger 59 outwardly so as to hold the lever against the cam. 'I'he lever 36 is prevented from dropping downwardly through the hollow bracket I8 by means of one or more torque arms or retaining links 63 by which the lever 36 is suspended from the hollow bracket. As shown in the drawings, the upper end of the link 63 is pivotally connected with the bracket by means of a short shaft 6I and its lower end is connected with the pivot pin Il of the lower connecting rod 31. The lever 33 is also retained in proper operating position by the fact that the portion of the lever which carries the flat bearing surface 4'6 is recessed so that the cam 43 extends thereinto.
As shown in Fig. 1, the housing I5 is provided at opposite sides thereof with outwardly dished housing sections or covers 65 which can be removed to ail'ord access to the piston-actuated linkages and the adjustable fulcrums 43.
The air (or fuel mixture) which, as mentioned above, is supplied under pressure to the intake manifold 26 can be obtained from any available source such as a compressor or charge-forming device 66 which is driven from the crankshaft I3 and is connected with the intake manifold by the conduit 66a.
` i In Figs. 10, 11 and 12 of the drawings, I show a modified form of the improved engine in which the means for adjusting the compression ratio functions in substantially the same manner as the apparatus above described but in which the fulcrum for the rocking lever 81 is formed by an eccentric 66 instead of a cam. The eccentric 63 is mounted on a shaft 66 which extends across a hollow bracket 1li and provides a fixed axis about which the eccentric can be adjusted by arcuate movement. The lever 61 has a flat bearing surface 1i recessed therein which rockably cooperates with the convex bearing surface 12 of the eccentric during the operation of the engine. The lever 61 preferably does not engage the bearing surface of the eccentric directly but does so through a shoe 13 which is interposed therebetween The shoe 13 is slidable longitudinally oi' the lever 6'? on the recessed bearing surface 1I thereof and has a concave bearing surface 14 which is arcuately slidable on the convex bearing surface 12 oi' the eccentric Il.
The convex bearing surface oi' the eccentric 68 includes a section or portion 63a which is substantially concentric with the axis of the shaft 63 and a relatively longer peripheral portion 63h which is eccentric to the axis of this shaft. During the operation of the engine the lever 61 rocks back and forth causing the shoe 13 to slide back and forth on the fiat bearing surface 1| of the lever while its concave surface 14 shifts arcuately on the eccentric 66 from the substantially concentric portion 68a thereof onto the eccentric portion 68h and vice versa. During the power stroke of the engine theshoe 13 shifts arcuately onto the concentric portion 68a so as to always return the pistons to the same or nearly the same points of the cylinder with respect to the inlet and exhaust ports, as previously explained, and during the compression stroke the shoe shifts arcuately onto the eccentric portion 68h so as to increase the inward or compression stroke of the pistons and vary the compression ratio an amount depending upon the setting or adjustment of the eccentric 68.
The shoe 13 is constructed of a shape to enable it to accomplish the function just explained and, as shown in the drawings, may comprise a substantially flat block or body 13a having the arcuate or concave bearing surface 14 formed par tially in the body of the block and partially in an integral arm 13b projecting from the lower end of the block as seen in Figs. 10 and 1l. The
upper end of-the block is preferably truncated or, in other words, does not have such a projecting" arm because it is desirable to shorten this end of the concave bearing surface 14 so that when the lever 61 is rocked during the power stroke of the piston the shoe will remain on the concentric section 68a of the fulcrum so as to always return the piston to a desired point relative to the inlet ports of the cylinder.
The eccentric constituting the fulcrum 66 can be adjusted about the axis of the shaft 69 in the same manner as previously described for the cam 43 of Figs. 1 to 9 inclusiveand the various parts of the modified engine which are substantially identical with those of the embodiment previously described are indicated by the same reference characters. The setting of the eccentric 68 as shown in Fig. 10 corresponds with a. relatively lower compression ratio for the engine. Fig. 11 shows the eccentric 68 shifted arcuately on the shaft 69 in a counter-clockwisel direction so as to render the eccentric bearing portion 68h more effective on the lever 61. The full-line position of the eccentric in Fig. 11 produces a compression stroke of increased length for the piston and corresponds with a relatively higher compression ratio for the engine.
From the foregoing description and accompanying drawings it will now be readily understood that I have provided an internal combustion engine of a compact and efficient construction and in which the compression ratio can be varied while the engine is in operation.
While I have illustrated and described my improved engine in considerable detail it will be understood, of course, that I do not wish to be correspondingly limited, but regard my invention as including al1 changes and modifications coming within the spirit of the invention and the scope of the appended claims.
Having thus descibed my invention. I claim:
1. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having an open end and a combustion space inwardly of said open end, a crankshaft extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and offset therefrom, a power piston reciprocable in said cylinder, means providing a fulcrum adjacent said open end of the cylinder, said fulcrum having a convex bearing surface which includes concentric and eccentric portions, means operably connecting said power piston with said crankshaft including a lever located wholly on the cylinder side of said fulcrum and having a bearing surface externally thereof, said lever being adapted to oscillate on said fulcrum by rocking of the external bearing surface of the lever against the convex bearing surface of the fulcrum such that the point of contact therebetween travels back and forth from the concentric bearing portion to the eccentric bearing portion and vice versa, and means for moving said fulcrum so as to vary the compression ratio of the engine.
2. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having an open end and a combustion space inwardly of said open end, a crankshaft extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and oifset therefrom, a power piston reciprocable in said cylinder, a fulcrum adjacent said open end of the cylinder and having a convex bearing surface which includes an eccentric portion, means operably connecting said piston with said crankshaft including a lever located wholly on the cylinder side of said fulcrum and having an external bearing surface engaging the fulcrum, said lever being rockable on said fulcrum and said external bearing surface being engageable with said eccentric portion during the compression stroke of the piston, and means for shifting said fulcrum to vary the extent of movement of said external bearing surface onto said eccentric portion for varying the compression stroke of the piston.
3. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having an open end and a combustion space inwardly of said open end, a crankshaft extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and offset therefrom, a power piston reciprocable in said cylinder, a fulcrum adjacent said open end of the cylinder and having concentric and eccentric convex bearing portions, and means operably connecting said piston with said crankshaft including a lever rockable on said fulcrum, said lever being located wholly on the cylinder side of said fulcrum and having an external bearing surface engaging the fulcrum and rockable from a concentric portion of said fulcrum onto an eccentric portion thereof during the compression stroke of the piston and being rockable from said eccentric portion onto the concentric portion during the power stroke.
4. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having an open end and a combustion space inwardly of said open end, a crankshaft extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and offset therefrom, a power piston reciprocable in said cylinder, said cylinder having a port communicating with Said combustion space and adapted to be uncovered by said piston during the power stroke thereof a fulcrum adjacent said open end of the cylinder and having concentric and eccentric convex bearing portions, means operably connecting said piston with said crankshaft including a lever rockable on said fulcrum, said lever being rockable from a concentric portion of said fulcrum onto an eccentric portion thereof during the compression stroke of the piston and being rockable from said eccentric portion onto the concentric portion durlng the power stroke of the piston so that the travel of the piston will always terminate at substantially the same pointrelative to said port, and means for shifting said fulcrum to vary the extent of movement of said lever onto said eccentric portion during the compression stroke of the piston for varying the compression ratio of the engine,
5. An internal combustion engine as defined in claim 2, in which said fulcrum is arcuately movable about a fixed axis and the means for shifting said fulcrum comprises cooperating gear elements.
6. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having open ends and a combustion space in an intermediate portion thereof, a crankshaft rotatable about an axis extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and offset therefrom, a pair of opposed power pistons reciprocable in said cylinder, fulcrums located adjacent said open ends of the cylinder and having concentric and eccentric convex bearing portions, and means operably connecting said pistons with said crankshaft including levers rockablek on said fulcrums, said levers being rockable from a concentric portion of said fulcrums onto an eccentric portion during the compression stroke of the pistons and being rockable from said eccentric portion onto a concentric portion during the power stroke of the pistons.
7'. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having open ends and a combustion space in an intermediate portion thereof, a crankshaft rotatable about an axis extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and offset therefrom, a pair of opposed power pistons reciprocable in -said cylinder, said cylinder having an exhaust port located to be uncovered by one of said pistons during its power stroke and an inlet port located to be uncovered by the other piston during its power stroke, fulcrums located adjacent said open ends of the cylinder and having concentric and eccentric convex bearing portions, means operably connecting said pistons with said crankshaft including levers rockable on said fulcrums, said levers being rockable from the concentric portions of said fulcrums onto the eccentric portions thereof during the compression stroke of the pistons and being rockable from said eccentric portions onto said concentric portions during the power stroke so that the piston travel during the latter stroke will always end at a desired point relative to said ports, and means for shifting said fulcrums to vary the extent of movement of said levers onto said eccentric portions during the 'compression stroke of the pistons for varying the compression ratio of the engine.
8. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder, a crankshaft offset from said cylinder and rotatable about an axis lying substantially in the transverse mid-plane of the cylinder, a pair of opposed power pistons reciprocable in said cylinder, cams spaced from the outer ends of said cylinder and mounted for arcuate movement about ilxed axes located between substantially parallel planes which include the axis of the cylinder and the axis of the crankshaft, linkages operably connecting said pistons with said crankshaft and fulcrumed on said cams, and means for imparting arcuate movement to said cams so as to shift the fulcrum points of said linkages and vary the compression ratio of the engine.
9. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder, a crankshaft offset from said cylinder and rotatable about an axis lying substantially in the transverse mid-plane of the cylinder, a pair of opposed power pistons reciprocable in said cylinder, cams spaced from the outer ends of said cylinder and mounted for arcuate movement about nxed axes located between substantially parallel planes which include the axis of the cylinder and the axis of the crankshaft, linkages operably connecting said pistons with said crankshaft and including levers rockably engaging said cams on the cylinder side thereof, means for holding said levers against said cams, and means for imparting arcuate movement to said cams so as to shift the points of rocking engagement of said levers therewith and vary the compression ratio of the engine.
10. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder, a crankshaft ollset from said cylinder and rotatable about an axis lying substantially in the transverse mid-plane of the cylinder, a pair of opposed power pistons reciprocable in said cylinder hollow brackets adjacent the outer ends of said cylinder, fulcrums mounted in said brackets for arcuate movement about xed axes and having concentric and eccentric convex bearing portions, means operably connecting said pistons with said crankshaft including levers extending through said brackets and rockable on said fulcrums, said levers being rockable from said concentric portions of said fulcrums onto the eccentric portions during the compression stroke of said pistons, and means for shifting said fulcrums on said xed axes for varying the extent of movement oi said levers onto said eccentric portions so as to vary the compression ratio of the engine.
11. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having an open end and a combustion space inwardly of said open end, a crankshaft extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and offset therefrom, a power piston reciprocable in said cylinder, a fulcrum adjacent said open end of the cylnder and having a convex bearing surface, means operably connecting said power piston with said crankshaft including an elongated lever rockable on said fulcrum, a shoe interposed between said lever and fulcrum, said shoe being slidable on said lever longitudinally thereof and having a recessed portion engaging said convex bearing surface, and means for moving said fulcrum so as to vary the rocking movement of said lever and alter the compression ratio of the engine.
12. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having open ends and a combustion space in an intermediate portion thereof, a crankshaft rotatable about an axis oiset from the cylinder and extending transversely to the cylinder at substantially the midplane thereof, a pair of opposed power pistons reciprocable in said cylinder, said cylinder having inlet and exhaust ports located to be uncovered by said pistons during the power stroke thereof, hollow brackets mounted adjacent the ends of said cylinder, fulcrums mounted in said brackets for arcuate movement about xed axes and having concentric and eccentric convex bearing portions, levers extending through said brackets and rockable on said fulcrums, rods connecting the ends of the respective levers with said pistons and said crankshaft, said levers being rockable from said concentric portions of said fulcrums onto said eccentric portions during the compression stroke of the pistons, and means including cooperating gear elements for arcuately shifting said fulcrums to alter the positions of said eccentric portions and vary the compression ratio of the engine.
- 13. An internal combustion engine as defined in claim 11, in which the fulcrum is an eccentric and the recessed portion of said shoe is arcuately shiftable on said eccentric during the rocking of said lever.
14. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having open ends and a combustion space in an intermediate portion thereof, a crank shaft rotatable about an axis extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and offset therefrom, a pair of opposed power pistons reciprocable in said cylinder, means providing fulcrums adjacent the open ends of the cylinder and each having a convex bearing surface which includes concentric and eccentric portions, means operably connecting said pistons with said crank shaft including levers located wholly on the cylinder side of said fulcrums and each having a bearing surface externally thereof, said levers being adapted to oscillate on said fulcrums by rocking of the external bearing surfaces of the levers against the convex bearing surfaces of the fulcrum such that the points of contact therebetween travel back and forth from the concentric portions to the eccentric portions and vice versa during reciprocation of said pistons.
15. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having an open end and a combustion space inwardly of said open end, a crank shaft extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and offset therefrom, a power piston reciprocable in said cylinder, means providing a fulcrum adjacent said open end of the cylinder, said fulcrum having a convex bearing surface which includes concentric and eccentric portions, means operably connecting said power piston with said crank shaft including a lever located wholly on the cylinder side of said fulcrum and having a bearing surface externally thereof, said lever being adapted to oscillate on said fulcrum by rocking of the external bearing surface of the lever against the convex bearing surface of the fulcrum such that the point of contact therebetween travels back and forth from the concentric portion to the eccentric portion and vice versa during reciprocation of said piston, and resiliently acting means for holding said lever against said fulcrum.
16. In an internal combustion engine, a frame containing a cylinder having an open end and `provided with a combustion space inwardly of said open end, a crank shaft extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and offset therefrom, a, power piston reciprocable in said cylinder, a hollow bracket connected with said frame adjacent the open end of said cylinder, a fulcrum supported by said bracket and having a convex bearing surface which includes concentric and eccentric portions, means operably connecting said power piston with said crank shaft including a lever extending through said hollow bracket and located wholly on the cylinder side of said fulcrum and having a, bearing surface externally thereof, said lever being adapted to oscillate onfsaid fulcrum by rocking of the external bearing surface of the lever against the convex bearing surface of the fulcrum such that the point of contact therebetween travels back and forth from the concentric portion to the eccentric portion and vice versa during the reciprocation of said piston.
17. In an internal combustion engine, having a frame containing a cylinder having an open end and provided with a combustion space inwardly of said open end, a crank shaft extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and offset therefrom, a power piston reciprocable in said cylinder, a hollow bracket connected with said frame and located adjacent said open end of the cylinder, a fulcrum supported by said bracket and having a convex bearing surface which includes concentric and eccentric portions, means operably connecting said power piston with said crank shaft including a lever extending through said hollow bracket and located .wholly on 'the cylinder side of said fulcrum and having a bearing surface externally thereof. said lever being adapted to oscillate on said fulcrum by rocking of the external bearing surface of the lever against the convex bearing surface of the fulcrum such that the point of contact therebetween travels back and forth from the concentric portion to the eccentric and vice versa during reciprocation of the piston, and a link having pivotal connection with said bracket and said connecting means for supporting the latter.
18. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having an open end and a combustion space inwardly of said open end, a crank shaft extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and offset therefrom, a power piston reciprocable in said cylinder, a fixed shaft adjacent said open end of the cylinder. a fulcrum element carried by said fixed shaft and having a convex bearing surface which includes concentric and eccentric portions, said fulcrum element being of a larger cross-sectional dimension than said fixed shaft and having ends spaced longitudinally Yof the fixed shaft, and means operably connecting said power pistcnwith said crank shaft including a lever located wholly on the cylinder side of said fixed shaft and having a bearing surface externally thereof, said lever being adapted to oscillate on said fulcrum element by rocking of the 35 e external bearing surface of the lever against the convex Abearing surface of the fulcrum element such that the point of contact therebetween travels back and forth from the concentric bearing portion to the eccentric bearing portion and vice versa during the reciprocation of said piston and said lever having shoulder portions on opposite sides of said external bearing surface which overlap the ends of the fulcrum element.
19. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having an open end and a combustion space inwardly of said open end, a crank shaft extending transversely to the axis of the cylinder and offset therefrom, a power piston reciprocable in said cylinder, a fixed shaft adjacent said open end of the cylinder, a fulcrum sleeve journaled on said fixed shaft and having a convex bearing surface which includes concentric and eccentric portions, means operably connecting said power piston with said crank shaft including a lever located wholly on the cylinder side of said fixed shaft and having a bearing surface externally thereof, said lever being adapted to oscillate on said fulcrum sleeve by rocking of the external bearing surface of the lever against the convex bearing surface of the fulcrum sleeve such that the point of contact therebetween travels back and forth from the concentric portion to the eccentric portion and vice versa during the reciprocation of said piston, said fulcrum sleeve being arcuately shiftable on said fixed shaft, and means for causing such arcuate shifting of the fulcrum sleeve to vary the compression ratio of the engine.
HENRI J. HICKEY.
US542941A 1944-06-30 1944-06-30 Internal-combustion engine Expired - Lifetime US2398640A (en)

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Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2530884A (en) * 1945-12-15 1950-11-21 Auxiliaire Ind L Internal-combustion engine with opposed pistons
US2647498A (en) * 1947-06-17 1953-08-04 Henri J Hickey Internal-combustion engine
US3014469A (en) * 1959-07-02 1961-12-26 John C Rogers Internal combustion engine
US4092957A (en) * 1974-10-16 1978-06-06 Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. (Engineers) Ltd. Compression ignition internal combustion engine
EP0248655A2 (en) * 1986-06-04 1987-12-09 The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York Swing beam internal combustion engines
US4938186A (en) * 1986-09-01 1990-07-03 Pal Leonhard J G Internal combustion engine variable stroke mechanism
US5255572A (en) * 1992-03-12 1993-10-26 Pickens William C Variable stroke mechanism
DE19857734A1 (en) * 1998-12-15 2000-06-29 Michael Meyer Opposed piston engine has Hall sensor arrangement for changing induction valve between two, four stroke modes, holding magnet controlling valve during compression, control electronics
US20060005502A1 (en) * 2004-07-07 2006-01-12 Markus Bodingbauer Double-wall frame member
US20070245892A1 (en) * 2004-06-10 2007-10-25 Achates Power, Llc Two-Cycle, Opposed-Piston Internal Combustion Engine
US7469663B1 (en) 2007-10-31 2008-12-30 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Tapered latch pin
WO2009017423A1 (en) * 2007-07-27 2009-02-05 Dennis Smith Internal combustion engine
US20090107465A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Berger Alvin H Variable compression ratio engine with external actuation impulse
US20090107464A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Berger Alvin H Variable compression ratio engine with isolated actuator
US20090107466A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Berger Alvin H Variable compression ratio engine with dedicated bumper
US20090107467A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Berger Alvin H Variable compression ratio engine with lost motion coupling
US20100212637A1 (en) * 2009-02-20 2010-08-26 Achates Power, Inc. Cylinder and piston assemblies for opposed piston engines
US20100212613A1 (en) * 2009-02-20 2010-08-26 Achates Power, Inc. Multi-Cylinder opposed piston engines
US20100212638A1 (en) * 2009-02-20 2010-08-26 Achates Power, Inc. Opposed piston engines with controlled provision of lubricant for lubrication and cooling
US20120037130A1 (en) * 2010-08-16 2012-02-16 Achates Power, Inc. Opposed-piston engine having a single crankshaft coupled to the opposed pistons by linkages with pivoted rocker arms
WO2012020384A3 (en) * 2010-08-10 2012-04-26 Manousos Pattakos Reciprocating piston engine
US10190492B2 (en) 2013-04-08 2019-01-29 Achates Power, Inc. Dual crankshaft, opposed-piston engines with variable crank phasing

Cited By (43)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2530884A (en) * 1945-12-15 1950-11-21 Auxiliaire Ind L Internal-combustion engine with opposed pistons
US2647498A (en) * 1947-06-17 1953-08-04 Henri J Hickey Internal-combustion engine
US3014469A (en) * 1959-07-02 1961-12-26 John C Rogers Internal combustion engine
US4092957A (en) * 1974-10-16 1978-06-06 Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. (Engineers) Ltd. Compression ignition internal combustion engine
EP0248655A3 (en) * 1986-06-04 1989-01-11 The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York Swing beam internal combustion engines
EP0248655A2 (en) * 1986-06-04 1987-12-09 The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York Swing beam internal combustion engines
US4938186A (en) * 1986-09-01 1990-07-03 Pal Leonhard J G Internal combustion engine variable stroke mechanism
US5255572A (en) * 1992-03-12 1993-10-26 Pickens William C Variable stroke mechanism
DE19857734A1 (en) * 1998-12-15 2000-06-29 Michael Meyer Opposed piston engine has Hall sensor arrangement for changing induction valve between two, four stroke modes, holding magnet controlling valve during compression, control electronics
DE19857734C2 (en) * 1998-12-15 2002-02-21 Michael Meyer Opposed piston engine
US20100186723A1 (en) * 2004-06-10 2010-07-29 Achates Power, Llc Two-cycle, opposed-piston internal combustion engine
US20070245892A1 (en) * 2004-06-10 2007-10-25 Achates Power, Llc Two-Cycle, Opposed-Piston Internal Combustion Engine
US20080163848A1 (en) * 2004-06-10 2008-07-10 Achates Power, Inc. Opposed piston engine with piston compliance
US7591235B2 (en) * 2004-06-10 2009-09-22 Achates Power, Inc. Opposed piston engine with piston compliance
US7549401B2 (en) 2004-06-10 2009-06-23 Achates Power, Inc. Two-cycle, opposed-piston internal combustion engine
US7861679B2 (en) 2004-06-10 2011-01-04 Achates Power, Inc. Cylinder and piston assemblies for opposed piston engines
US20100012055A1 (en) * 2004-06-10 2010-01-21 Achates Power, Inc. Cylinder and piston assemblies for opposed piston engines
US7546819B2 (en) 2004-06-10 2009-06-16 Achates Power. Two-stroke, opposed-piston internal combustion engine
US7784436B2 (en) 2004-06-10 2010-08-31 Achates Power, Inc. Two-cycle, opposed-piston internal combustion engine
US20060005502A1 (en) * 2004-07-07 2006-01-12 Markus Bodingbauer Double-wall frame member
WO2009017423A1 (en) * 2007-07-27 2009-02-05 Dennis Smith Internal combustion engine
US7527026B1 (en) 2007-10-31 2009-05-05 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Variable compression ratio engine with external actuation impulse
CN101424217A (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-05-06 福特环球技术公司 A variable compression ratio engine with lost motion coupling
US20090107467A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Berger Alvin H Variable compression ratio engine with lost motion coupling
US7546820B2 (en) 2007-10-31 2009-06-16 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Variable compression ratio engine with lost motion coupling
US7469663B1 (en) 2007-10-31 2008-12-30 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Tapered latch pin
US7533638B1 (en) 2007-10-31 2009-05-19 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Variable compression ratio engine with dedicated bumper
US7685974B2 (en) 2007-10-31 2010-03-30 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Variable compression ratio engine with isolated actuator
US20090107466A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Berger Alvin H Variable compression ratio engine with dedicated bumper
CN101424217B (en) * 2007-10-31 2014-09-17 福特环球技术公司 A variable compression ratio engine with lost motion coupling
US20090107465A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Berger Alvin H Variable compression ratio engine with external actuation impulse
US20090107464A1 (en) * 2007-10-31 2009-04-30 Berger Alvin H Variable compression ratio engine with isolated actuator
US20100212637A1 (en) * 2009-02-20 2010-08-26 Achates Power, Inc. Cylinder and piston assemblies for opposed piston engines
US20100212638A1 (en) * 2009-02-20 2010-08-26 Achates Power, Inc. Opposed piston engines with controlled provision of lubricant for lubrication and cooling
US8539918B2 (en) 2009-02-20 2013-09-24 Achates Power, Inc. Multi-cylinder opposed piston engines
US20100212613A1 (en) * 2009-02-20 2010-08-26 Achates Power, Inc. Multi-Cylinder opposed piston engines
US9328692B2 (en) 2009-02-20 2016-05-03 Achates Power, Inc. Opposed piston engines with controlled provision of lubricant for lubrication and cooling
US8550041B2 (en) 2009-02-20 2013-10-08 Achates Power, Inc. Cylinder and piston assemblies for opposed piston engines
WO2012020384A3 (en) * 2010-08-10 2012-04-26 Manousos Pattakos Reciprocating piston engine
US20120037130A1 (en) * 2010-08-16 2012-02-16 Achates Power, Inc. Opposed-piston engine having a single crankshaft coupled to the opposed pistons by linkages with pivoted rocker arms
US9359896B2 (en) * 2010-08-16 2016-06-07 Achates Power, Inc. Opposed-piston engine having a single crankshaft coupled to the opposed pistons by linkages with pivoted rocker arms
US9488099B2 (en) * 2010-08-16 2016-11-08 Achates Power, Inc. Opposed-piston engine having a single crankshaft coupled to the opposed pistons by linkages with pivoted rocker arms
US10190492B2 (en) 2013-04-08 2019-01-29 Achates Power, Inc. Dual crankshaft, opposed-piston engines with variable crank phasing

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