US2392933A - Internal-combustion engine - Google Patents

Internal-combustion engine Download PDF

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US2392933A
US2392933A US496141A US49614143A US2392933A US 2392933 A US2392933 A US 2392933A US 496141 A US496141 A US 496141A US 49614143 A US49614143 A US 49614143A US 2392933 A US2392933 A US 2392933A
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cylinder
engine
cylinders
power unit
intake
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US496141A
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Mallory Marion
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Mallory Marion
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D9/00Controlling engines by throttling air or fuel-and-air induction conduits or exhaust conduits
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D17/00Controlling engines by cutting out individual cylinders; Rendering engines inoperative or idling
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D2700/00Mechanical control of speed or power of a single cylinder piston engine
    • F02D2700/02Controlling by changing the air or fuel supply
    • F02D2700/0217Controlling by changing the air or fuel supply for mixture compressing engines using liquid fuel
    • F02D2700/0225Control of air or mixture supply
    • F02D2700/0228Engines without compressor
    • F02D2700/023Engines without compressor by means of one throttle device
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D2700/00Mechanical control of speed or power of a single cylinder piston engine
    • F02D2700/05Controlling by preventing combustion in one or more cylinders
    • F02D2700/052Methods therefor

Description

Jan. 15, 1946. M MALLQQRY 2,392,933

-INTERNALCOMBUSTION ENGINE INVENTOR Jan. l5, 1946. M. MALLORY I 2,392,933 v f INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE I l Filed l.July 2e, L1943 2 sheets-.sheet 2 WITNESSES: l INVENTOR ATTORNEYS.

Patented Jan. l5,` 1946 UNITED STATES j PATENT UFFICE 2,392,933 INTERNAL-COMBUSTION E NGINE Marion Mallory, Detroit, Mich. Application Juiyzc, 1943, serial No. 496,141

oi. I12s- 54) 13 Claims.

I'his invention relates to an internal combustion engine.

It is well known that an internal combustion engine develops more horse power per pound of fuel used when operating on wide open throttle than it does on part throttle. It is for this reason that a small engine gives better eiiiciency when used in a vehicle than a large engine does. For example; supposing a large engine having 400 cu. in. displacement lwas used in a vehicle having a certain load, and the engine would move that load at 40 miles per hour with the throttle only one-fourth open and the mileage was '.15 miles per gallon. Then supposing a small engine was put in the same vehicle, geared to the ve-I hicle with the same ratio as the large engine was, and more weight was added to the vehiclev to make up the dilerence Ain weight of the large and small engine, it would be necessary to open the throttle on the small engine much further than the throttle was opened on the large engine to maintain a speed of 40 miles per hour. Naturally, with the greater throttle opening on the small engine, it would be operating with much higher compression at 40 miles per hour than the large engine, which means the small engine would move the vehicle more miles on a gallon of fuel than the large engine would.

'I'he object of this invention is to 4provide an engine whereby less cubic inch displacement is used .when the engine is operating under light loads and more cubic inch displacement caribe used when full load or full power is desired. In other words,- when the engine is operating on Apart throttle, it is a small engine, and when operating on wide open throttle, it is a large engine. This gives the operatoralarge engine for acceleration and hardpulls, and at the same time gives him a small engine for economy when operating under light loads.

A further object -of this invention is to maintain a suincient number of power pulsations per crankshaft revolution when the engine is changed from a large engine to a small engine. For example; if one-half of the cylinders were cut out' on the conventional eight-cylinder four-cycle engine, two of the downward strokes of the crank having the above objects that is compact 'and takes up little more space than the ordinary engine. y

In my engine, the cylinders are arranged in pairs close together and parallel to each other. 'I'he pistons are connected to the crankshaft so that they operate practically simultaneously or together. The cylinders are charged, ignited and y exhausted in the same manner; each cylinder being charged and exhausted independent of each other, as well as ignited independent of each other.

In my engine, two cylindersconsist of one power unit, and, for example, supposing my engine having one power unit was installed in a motorcycle, both cylinders will be delivering power Fig. 4 is a section along the line d-d of Fig. 1.

Figs. 5, 6 and 7. are details showing the eccentric mounting for the valve rocker arms.

The engine hereinshown comprises cylinders i and 2. These' cylinders canloe of the same size or dierent sizes, but for purposes of description rather than by way of limitation they are herein shown as the same in size. Cylinders l and 2 are provided witli 'the usual pistons 3 and Il, respectively, which are connected to the same throw 5 of a common crankshaft 8 by connecting rods .'l and 8, respectively. The connecting of each pair`of pistons 3 and to a comor crank power strokes would receive no. power.

but if one-half of the cylinders were cut out on my engine, the downward crank strokes that were receiving power when all .of the cylinders mon crankshaft is preferred but not essential provided the pistons of each pair travel substantially together on their intake, compression, power, and exhaust strokes.` For purposes of description and not by way of limitation, piston is shown as lagging a very few degrees behind piston 3..

Cylinders I and 2 are provided with spark plugs 9 and l0, respectively, for igniting the fuel and air mixture in the combustion chambers of their respective cylinders. Spark plugs 9 and I0 `are arranged to fire cylinders l and 2.

Cylinders l and 2 are provided with intake manifold passageways Il and l2, respectively. Manifold passageway lil communicates with cylindex' I through an intake port I3 controlled by ate off the accelerator.

communicates with cylinder 2 through an intake port `I 5 controlled by intake valve I3. Fig. 4. The

two intake valves I4 and I 9 are opened by cams I1 (only one oil which is shown) which act through the usual tappets I9 and rocker arms I9.

Cylindersl and 2 are provided with exhaust passageways 25 and 2I, respectively, which are controlled by the usual poppet valves 22 and 23. respectively. The exhaust valves 22 and 23 are arranged to be opened by cams 24 (only one cf which is shown) the usual tappets 25 and rocker arms'26. Cams I1 are mounted on cam shaft 29 which is driven of! of the main crankshaft by means of chain 29 and sprocket 39. Cams 24 are mounted on cam shaft 3i which also is driven 'off of the maincrankshaft by chain 32 and sprocket 33.

Manifold passageway II is controlled by the usual buttery throttle valve 34 and manifold passageway I2 is controlled by the usual buttery throttle valve 35. Throttle valves 34 and 35 are ilxed to a common shaft 95 and opened and closed in unison.

The engine is provided with a duplex carburetor generally designated 31, having a fuel bowl (not shown) connected with a source of liquid fuel in' the customary manner. The carburetor is provided with fuel nozzles or Jets 39 and 99 positioned in the venturis in passageways I I and I2. The exhaust valves 22 and 23 are closed by the usual compression springs 49 and the intake valves I4 and I9 are closed by the usual compression springs 4I.

In the event that the engine is idling or working with light load and part throttle, it is proposed to reduce the cubic displacement of the engine by cutting out one cylinder in each power unit. As above described, each power unit comprises two cylinders, such as I and 2. Therefore, it is proposed under such condition tc cut out cylinder I of each power unit by keeping the'exhaust valve 22 and intake valve I4 closed. This can be done in any one of several ways; it can be done manually or by connections which oper- By way of example rather than for purposes of illustration, I have shown an arrangement for cutting off cylinder I by connection with the accelerator pedal pivoted to the floor of the vehicle as at 43. Accelerator pedal 42 operates a sliding push rod 44 which carries a roller 45 at its upper end for rolling contact with the pedal 42. The lower end of push rod 44 contacts arm 45 of a bell crank lever pivoted on pin 41 carried by a fixed bracket 49. Tension spring 49 yhas one` end connected to 2,892,988 intake valve I4 and manifold passageway I2 tion shown in Fig. 1. This elevates the rocker arm bearings 54 for rocker arms 29 and I9 for cylinder I only of each power unit. This raised position of the rocker arm bearings 54 and the rocker arms 29 and I9 for cylinder I is also shown in full lines, Fig. '1. At this time valves I4 and 22 for cylinder I are held closed by their springs. At this time, of course, cylinder 2 operates as usual through its four-cycles but the intake and exhaust valves for cylinder I remain closed.

'Ihus, on its down stroke piston 3 forms a vacbracket 48 as at 50 and the other end connected to arm 5I of the bell crank lever as at 52. The rocker arms I9 and 29 for the intake and exhaust valves, respectively, of cylinder I are pivoted upon eccentric bearings 54 xed on rockenarm shaft 55. Shaft 55 is journaled in bearing supports 59 Aso that it can be rotated to raise or lower eccentric rocker arm bearings 54. For this purpose shaft 55 is provided with a crank arm 51 having a pin 58 mounted adjacent the end thereof. A link 59 having an elongated slot is interengaged in said slot by pin 59 (Figs. 2, 5) Link 59 is pivoted to bell crank arm 5I as at 5I.

The operation of the engine is as follows: When the engine is idling or working with a light load and part throttle, Fig. l, accelerator pedal 42 is in idle or part throttle position so that tension spring 49 acts through bell crank 5| link 59. pin 59 and arm 51 to rotate shaft il t0 the P051- throttle valves 34 and 35 wider.

uum in cylinder I whereas on its up stroke piston 3 is assisted by this vacuum owing to the pressure outside of the cylinder being atmospheric. Thus, the power lost on the down stroke of piston 3 tends to be compensated for on each up stroke of piston 3 as long as intake valve I4 and exhaust valve 22 for cylinder I remain closed.

As more power is required from the engine the accelerator pedal 42r is pressed down to open When the throtthe valves reach about half open position link 59 picks up crank 51 and turns rocker arm shaft 55 and its eccentric bearings 54 so that the rocker arms for the intake and exhaust valves of cylinder I begin to. lower. As the rocker arms for cylinder I lower they gradually increase the amount that each valve I4 and 22 is opened on each stroke of its respective tappet.- The position of the accelerator, the rocker arm and rocker arm bearings 54 at somewhat more than half throttle position is shown in Figs. 2 and 6. Further depressing of the accelerator pedal 42 opens the throttle valves still wider and acts through rocker arm shaft 55 and eccentric bearings 54 to fully lower the rocker arms for cylinder I at wide open throttle so that the tappets act on the rocker arms to fully open the intake valve i4 and exhaust valve 22 on their up strokes. The engine under such conditions would be operating at full or nearly full load.

In the event it is desired to reduce the load on the engine, the throttle valves will be moved toward a closed position. As the throttle valve approaches half openposition spring 49, acting through bell crank arm 5I, link 59, would rotate rocker arm shaft 55 to permit the valve springs to keep the intake and exhaust valves for cylinder I closed and thereby throw cylinder I out o! operation. Cylinder 2 would then have to carry the load. Naturally, pulling even a light load with cylinder 2 would require more throttle opening than pulling the same load with both cylinders operating and therefore the engine would be operating on a higher compression and with greater efciency.

In the drawings piston s is shown slightly leading piston 4. Naturally the valve timing and ignition timing in cylinder 2 would slightly lag behind the valve and ignition timing in cylinder I.

'I'his arrangement of the pistons and timing is by -fully into operation at other positions of throttle' 35 than above described. The point at which cylinder I cuts in partly or fully can be varied and yet not depart from the essential characterthrottle 35 fully or nearly fully open beforecylinder I cuts in, or one may prefer to have cylinder l start to gradually cut in" before half open throttle position of throttle 35 and have cylinder I yfully cut in before throttle 35 reaches wide open position.

Iclaim:

1. In an internal combustion engine comprising at least one power unit which consists of a plurality `of cylinders, a piston for each cylinder,

intake and exhaust ports for each cylinder, valves for controlling said ports, the cylinders of each power unit being arranged to charge, compress, fire and exhaust approximately simultaneously, and means for holding the intake and exhaust valves for one of said cylinders of said power unit closed whereby when only part ofl the potential power of said engine is desired said cylinder of each'power unit can be rendered inoperative but the number of power strokes per crankshaft revolution-oi said engine remains the same as when all the cylinders of said power unit are operating.

2. In an internal combustionengine comprising at least. one power unit which consists of a plurality of cylinders, a piston for each cylinder,

intake and exhaust ports for each cylinder, valves for controlling said ports, ignition means for firing the compressed charge in each cylinder, the cylinders of each power unit being arranged to charge, compress, fire and exhanst approximately simultaneously, and means for holding the intake and exhaust valves for one of said cylinders of said power unit closed whereby whenonly part of the potential power of said engine is desired said cylinder of each power unit can be rendered inoperative but the number of power strokes per crankshaft revolution of said engine remains the same as when all the cylinders of said power unit are operating. s

3. In an internal combustion engine comprising at least one power unit which consists of a plu.

rality of cylinders, a piston for each cylinder, intake and exhaust ports for each cylinder, valves for controlling said ports, means for opening and closing the said valves in timed relation, the cylinders of eachpower unit being arranged to charge, compress, iire and exhaust approximately simultaneously, and means for rendering the aforesaid means ineffective to open the intake and exhaust valves for one of said cylinders of said power unit when only part of the potential power of said engine is desired whereby said cylinder is thrown out of operation and the load is carried by another cylinder of said unit.

i. In an internal combustion engine comprising at least one powerunit which consists of a plurality of cylinders, a piston for each cylinder, intake and exhaust ports for each cylinder, valves for controlling said ports, means for opening said valves in timed relation, and spring means for closing said valves in'timed relation, the cylinders of each power unit being arranged to charge, compress, fire and exhaust approximately simultaneously, and means for rendering the aforesaid means ineffective to open the intake and exhaust valves for one of said cylinders of said power unit when only part of the potential power of said engine is desired whereby said cylinder is thrown out of operation and the load is carried -by another cylinder of said unit.

5. In an internal combustion engine comprising at least one power unit which consists of a plurality of cylinders, a piston for each cylinder, intake and exhaust ports for each cylinder, valves for controlling said ports, rocker arms for opening said valves in timed relation and spring meansfor closing said valves in timed relation, the cylinders of each Y power unit being arranged to charge, compressilre and exhaust approximately simultaneously, and means for rendering the rocker -arms for the valves of one of said cylinders of said power unit ineffective to open the valves of said cylinder when only part of the potential power of said engine is desired whereby said cylinder is rendered inoperative and the engine load is carried by another cylinder of said power unit. 1

i 6. In an internal combustion engine comprising at least one power unit which consists of a plurality of cylinders, a piston for each cylinder, intake and exhaust ports for each cylinder, an intake passageway for each of said intake ports, throttle vvalve means for said intake -passageways, valves for controlling said ports, ignition means for firing the compressed charge in each cylinder, the cylinders of each power unit being arranged to charge, compress, fire and exhaust approximately simultaneously, and means effective when the throttle valve means are at idle or partly opened throttle position icr ,holding the intakeand exhaust valves for one of said cylinders of-said power unit closed whereby said cylinder is rendered inoperative and the engine load is carried by another cylinder oi said power unit.

7. In an internal combustion engine comprising Y at least one power unit which consists of a pluposition for holding the intake and exhaust valves for one of said cylinders of said power unit closed whereby said cylinderris rendered inoperative and the engine vload is carried by another cylinder of said power unit.

8. In an internal combustion engine comprising at least one power unit which consists of a plurality of cylinders, a piston for each cylinder, in-

take and exhaust ports for each cylinder, sepa-v,

rate intake passageways for each of said intake ports, a throttle valve for each of said intake passageways, the throttle valves for each power unit being arranged to open and close in unison, valves for controlling said ports, ignition means for firing the compressed charge in each cylinder, the cylinders of-each power unit being arranged to charge, compress, fire and exhaust approximately simultaneously, a source of fuel for said intake ports, and means effective when said throttle valves are .in idle or partly opened position for holding the intake and exhaust valves for one of said cylinders of said power unit closed whereby said cylinder is rendered inoperative and the engine load is carried by another cylinder of said power unit.

9. In an internal combustion engine comprising at least one power unit which consists of a plurality of cylinders, a piston for each cylinder, a crankshaft, connecting rods connecting each of the pistons of said power unit to the same 5 unit being arranged to charge, compress, fire and exhaust approximately simultaneously, land means for holding the intake and exhaust valves t for one of said cylinders of said power unit closed whereby when only part of the potential power of said engine is desired said cylinder of each power unit can be rendered inoperative but the number of power strokes per crankshaft revolution of said engine remains the same as when all the cylinders of said power unit are operating.

10. In an internal combustion engine comprising at least one power unit which consists of a plurality of cylinders, a piston for each cylinder, a crankshaft, connecting rods connecting each of the pistons of said power unit to the same Icrank throw of the crankshaft, intake and exhaust ports for each cylinder, valves for controlling said ports, ignition means for ring the compressed charge in each cylinder, the cylinders of each power unit being arranged to charge, compress, tire and exhaust approximately simultaneously. and means for holding the intake and exhaust valves for one of said cylinders of said power unit closed whereby when only part of the re and exhaust approximately simultaneously, a rocker arm shaft for one of the cylinders of said unit having eccentric bearings thereon, rocker arms mounted for rocking on said bearings, and means for rotating said rocker arm shaft and eccentric bearings to raise said rocker arms for one of said cylinders of said powerrunit so that these rocker arms are ineilective to open the intake and exhaust valves for said cylinder whereby said one of said cylinders of the power unit can be rendered inoperative when only part of the potential power of said engine is desired.

l2. In an internal combustion engine comprising a plurality of cylinders, a piston for each cylinder, intake and exhaust ports for each cylinder, valves for controlling said ports, and means Vfor holding the intake and exhaust valves for one of said cylinders closed whereby when only part of the potential power of said engine is desired such cylinder can be rendered inoperative and the power lost on the down stroke of the piston for such cylinder tends to be compensated for on the up stroke of such piston while the intake and exhaust valves remain closed.

13. In an internal combustion engine comprising at least one power unit which consists of a plurality ofcylinders, a piston for each cylinder, a crankshaft, connecting rods connecting each of the pistons 'of said power unit to the same crank throw of the crankshaft, intake and exhaust ports for each cylinder, valves for control- .ling said ports, the cylinders of each power unit being arranged to charge, compress, re and exhaust approximately simultaneously.

MARION MALLORY.

US496141A 1943-07-26 1943-07-26 Internal-combustion engine Expired - Lifetime US2392933A (en)

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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2429270A (en) * 1945-03-30 1947-10-21 Mallory Marion Multiple cylinder engine throttle control
US4070971A (en) * 1974-06-05 1978-01-31 Alden Henry Studebaker Engine efficiency
US4151824A (en) * 1975-01-13 1979-05-01 Gilbert Raymond D Valve train system of internal combustion engines
US4151817A (en) * 1976-12-15 1979-05-01 Eaton Corporation Engine valve control mechanism
US4221200A (en) * 1975-09-05 1980-09-09 Eaton Corporation Control for valve disablers
US4230076A (en) * 1975-09-05 1980-10-28 Eaton Corporation Control for valve disablers
US4337738A (en) * 1975-06-19 1982-07-06 General Motors Corporation Valve control mechanism
US4338892A (en) * 1980-03-24 1982-07-13 Harshberger Russell P Internal combustion engine with smoothed ignition
JPS57126501U (en) * 1981-01-31 1982-08-06
US4380219A (en) * 1975-05-16 1983-04-19 Eaton Corporation Valve disabling mechanism
US4386590A (en) * 1976-06-11 1983-06-07 Ford Motor Company Multi-cylinder internal combustion engine having selective cylinder control
US4442805A (en) * 1980-11-29 1984-04-17 Fuji Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Internal combustion engine provided with a plurality of power units
US4475496A (en) * 1981-07-13 1984-10-09 Nippon Piston Ring Co., Ltd. Valve mechanism
US4945866A (en) * 1987-03-26 1990-08-07 Chabot Jr Bertin R Altered piston timing engine
US20050000314A1 (en) * 2002-10-18 2005-01-06 Dhruva Mandal Roller follower body
US20090151399A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2009-06-18 Dikai International Enterprise Co., Ltd. Dehydrating device

Cited By (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2429270A (en) * 1945-03-30 1947-10-21 Mallory Marion Multiple cylinder engine throttle control
US4070971A (en) * 1974-06-05 1978-01-31 Alden Henry Studebaker Engine efficiency
US4151824A (en) * 1975-01-13 1979-05-01 Gilbert Raymond D Valve train system of internal combustion engines
US4380219A (en) * 1975-05-16 1983-04-19 Eaton Corporation Valve disabling mechanism
US4337738A (en) * 1975-06-19 1982-07-06 General Motors Corporation Valve control mechanism
US4221200A (en) * 1975-09-05 1980-09-09 Eaton Corporation Control for valve disablers
US4230076A (en) * 1975-09-05 1980-10-28 Eaton Corporation Control for valve disablers
US4386590A (en) * 1976-06-11 1983-06-07 Ford Motor Company Multi-cylinder internal combustion engine having selective cylinder control
US4151817A (en) * 1976-12-15 1979-05-01 Eaton Corporation Engine valve control mechanism
US4338892A (en) * 1980-03-24 1982-07-13 Harshberger Russell P Internal combustion engine with smoothed ignition
US4442805A (en) * 1980-11-29 1984-04-17 Fuji Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Internal combustion engine provided with a plurality of power units
JPS57126501U (en) * 1981-01-31 1982-08-06
US4475496A (en) * 1981-07-13 1984-10-09 Nippon Piston Ring Co., Ltd. Valve mechanism
US4945866A (en) * 1987-03-26 1990-08-07 Chabot Jr Bertin R Altered piston timing engine
US20050000314A1 (en) * 2002-10-18 2005-01-06 Dhruva Mandal Roller follower body
US20090151399A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2009-06-18 Dikai International Enterprise Co., Ltd. Dehydrating device
US7743528B2 (en) * 2007-12-18 2010-06-29 Dikai International Enterprise Co., Ltd. Dehydrating device

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