US2277203A - Method of constructing concrete flooring and like surfaces - Google Patents

Method of constructing concrete flooring and like surfaces Download PDF

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Publication number
US2277203A
US2277203A US243661A US24366138A US2277203A US 2277203 A US2277203 A US 2277203A US 243661 A US243661 A US 243661A US 24366138 A US24366138 A US 24366138A US 2277203 A US2277203 A US 2277203A
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surface
layer
foundation layer
liquid
topping
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US243661A
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Boult Louise Gertrude
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Boult Louise Gertrude
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/16Load-carrying floor structures wholly or partly cast or similarly formed in situ
    • E04B5/32Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01CCONSTRUCTION OF, OR SURFACES FOR, ROADS, SPORTS GROUNDS, OR THE LIKE; MACHINES OR AUXILIARY TOOLS FOR CONSTRUCTION OR REPAIR
    • E01C7/00Coherent pavings made in situ
    • E01C7/08Coherent pavings made in situ made of road-metal and binders
    • E01C7/35Toppings or surface dressings; Methods of mixing, impregnating, or spreading them
    • E01C7/351Toppings or surface dressings; Methods of mixing, impregnating, or spreading them with exclusively hydraulical binders; Aggregate, fillers or other additives for application on or in the surface of toppings with exclusively hydraulic binders

Description

March 24, 1942. L. cs. BOULT METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING CONCRETE FLOORING AND LIKE SURFACES Filed Dec. 2, 1938 FIG.\.

Patented Mar. 24, 1942 METHOD OF CON STRUCTING CONCRETE FLOORING AND LIKE SURFACES Louise Gertrude Boult, Olton, Birmingham, England Application December 2, 1938, Serial No. 243,661 In Great Britain July 1,1938

4 Claims.

This invention relates to methods of constructing concrete floorings and like surfaces and has particular reference to the construction of nonskid and like road surfaces.

It has been the practice to construct a concrete flooring by laying a fairly thick foundation layer of a suitable concrete mix, with a topping layer, usually of a. different mix, to give the desired surface to the flooring.

Such topping layer, including granite chips or the like to give a dustless or other desired surface to the finished flooring, has been applied in dry or non-hydrated form before drying or hardening of the foundation layer, in which case the gauging water from the foundation layer was relied upon tohydrate and fix the dry topping layer. In certain cases a hardening agent in dry or powder form has been incorporated in the dry topping mix to harden the topping layer and improve the wearing or other desirable qualities of the flooring.

Liquid hardening agents have also been used in the construction of a floor comprising a single concrete layer, such hardening agents being embodied in the wet concrete mix as part of the liquid content thereof, by mixing the desired constituents, including the necessary liquid content, before application of such mix to form the flooring. This method has, however, a limited application owing to the cost of the hardening agent required for the construction of surfaces involving substantial thicknesses of concrete such as are necessary for road surfaces.

The object of the present invention is to provide an improved method of forming flooring and in particular road surfaces, to enable the construction of a surface or floor with greater uniformity and consistency and with better wearing and non-skid properties than has hitherto been possible.

One method according to this invention for the construction of a granolithic flooring or road surface is illustrated in the accompanying drawing, wherein Figure 1 is a view in section of a flooring as laid according to an initial step in the method, Figure 2 is a similar view illustrating the next step, and Figure 3 is a similar view illustrating the finished flooring. This method includes the formation over the desired surface of a concrete foundation layer 5 of substantial thickness say from six to eight inches in thickness.

This foundation layer is applied to a suitably prepared bedding 6 which, in the case of a road surface, may include the usual graded rock and/or other tamped road material of suitable gauge with or without a layer of waterproof paper, felt or like material between the bedding and the foundation layer.

The foundation layer may be formed from the normal 1.2.4 structural concrete mix and suitable reinforcement of metal bars or strips or Wire mesh or rods may be incorporated.

Ballast in the form of pieces or chippings of stone or other material may be embodied.

To this foundation layer prior to the completion of the drying or hardening thereof is applied a liquid hardener i such as is obtainable in the open market for use with concrete structures or surfaces, this hardener being added in quantities sufficient to cover the surface of the foundation layer to a degree which will hereinafter he referred to.

One example of a liquid hardener for this purpose is that known by the trade name of C. C. Premix manufactured by Concrete Casehardening Co. Ltd. of Crescent Wharf, Birmingham 1, England, the liquid for use being obtained by diluting this liquid hardener in the proportions of three parts of water to one part of liquid hardener, this mixture being liberally applied to the surface of the concrete foundation layer.

To this treated surface is then applied in mixed but dry form the ingredients to form a good granolithic topping 8, namely, suitable proportions of cement and granite or like chips with or without other ingredients.

One example of a suitable topping mix is as follows:

Granite chips from 6 to 9 lbs. by weight per yard super.

Dry cement from 4 to 6 lbs. by weight per yard super.

These dry materials after intimate mixing are applied in sufficient quantities to form a topping of the desired thickness and this mix may be spread over the surface of the foundation layer by hand or by suitable mechanical means, or alternatively, may be sprinkled or suitably projected over the surface.

This topping mix is .then tamped to compact the materials and to cause the topping mix to unite with, and penetrate the surface of the foundation layer, as shown in Figure 3, to give a monolithic flooring with a granolithic finished surface 9. The topping mix may be forced to penetrate the surface of the foundation layer.

The liquid hardener partially penetrates the upper surface of the foundation layer and com.

blues with the gauging water or liquid of this foundation layer, whilst in addition the liquid hardener penetrates the dry topping layer thus hydrating and fixing the materials of the topping layer.

The combination of the liquid hardener with the gauging water of the foundation layer provides a partial hardening of the foundation layer, such hardening being graduated from the upper surface of such layer through the thickness of the layer to a depth depending upon the degree of penetration of the layer by the hardening agent.

The hardening agent together with surplus gauging water from the foundation layer completes the fixing or hardening of the topping layer in a uniform manner and due to the graduated hardening of the foundation layer as above referred to, the hardening action of the liquid agent is distributed through the thickness'of the toppinglayer and into the adjacent portions of the foundation layer.

The general effect is to obtain a graduated hardening which decreases substantially uniformly from the exposed surface of the topping layer downwardly through this layer and into the upper portions of the foundation layer due to the graduated dilution of the hardening agent by the grading water or liquid of the foundation layer.

It may be necessary under certain circumstances to tamp the foundation layer to facilitate passage of the gauging water of this layer to the v surface thereof but in general the normal application and smoothing operations on the foundation layer are sufficient to bring to the surface thereof sufficient gauging water to combine with the liquid hardener to produce the effect above referred to.

fter application of the materials as above referred to the layers are allowed to harden completely and the topping layer sets with the foundation layer to give a monolithic construction.

Where used, the granite chips in the topping layer give a dustless and good non-skid surface particularly suitable for road surfaces and the hard topping with the graduated hardening throughout the thickness of the surface gives good wearing and rupture-resisting properties to the surface.

By applying the hardeningagent to the surface of the foundation layer the desired hardening of the exposed surface can be obtained in .a relatively inexpensive manner since the hardening agent, which is fairly expensive, is concentrated adjacent the surface to be hardened, It would be a relatively expensive matter to construct a thick road surface by mixing with the materials for the entire surface, an amount of hardening agent sufficient to give the desired hardening at the exposed surface but with the method according to the present invention the desired hardening can be obtained with a relatively small body of liquid hardener concentrated in or adjacent the exposed surface to be hardened.

Further, the degree of hardeningcan. readily be regulated with the method according to the present invention by regulating the amount of liquid hardener applied to the surface of the foundation layer and if necessary by adding liquidto the surface of the topping layer after the latter has been applied to the foundation layer.

-In some cases an improvement of the finished surface can beeffected by treating the flooring-or other surface with suitably diluted liquid har' dener after final setting of the surface.

The proportions hereinbefore specified for the various parts of the structure are only given by way of example and may be varied without departing from the essence of the invention. the constituents and proportions depending upon the use to which the flooring or like structure is to be put.

Further, the strength of the liquid hardener applied to or incorporated in the structure may be varied to alter the hardening effect. The strength of the hardening liquid specifically mentioned hereinabove is given only as an example of one suitable strength of the particular hardening liquid referred to and other proportions may be adopted or necessary with liquid hardeners other than that mentioned.

In any of the above alternatives the topping layer may include any or any combination of any usual ingredients for the construction of concrete surfaces or flooring as, for example, granite, stone or other chippings, grit sand or well-washed gravel, the grading and proportions of such materials depending upon the surface desired, or the loading to be applied to the flooring or road being constructed.

What I claim then is:

l. A method of constructing concrete floorings and like surfaces involving the steps of constructing a foundation layer, applying to said layer prior to the completion of the drying thereof a liquid hardening agent comprising three parts water and one part commercial liquid hardener and a dry mixture of aggregate in the proportion of from six to nine pounds by weight per yard super and dry cement in the proportion of from four to six pounds by weight per yard super, said dry mixture being forced into the surface of the foundation layer to form a monolithic structure, the liquid hardener being relied on to hydrate and to fix said materials to form a topping layer and treating the finished surface of the topping layerwith :a liquid hardening agent.

2. A methodiof constructing concrete fioorings and like'surfaces'involving the steps of constructing a foundation layer, applying to the surface of said layer a :liquid hardening agent and applying thereon a'dryimixture of aggregate. particles and cement withoutipremixingsaid dry mixture withse'tting liquid, the liquidihardener being relied on to 'hydraterand to fix said materials to form a cement toppinglayer and said topping layer being applied before completion of the setting of the foundation layer so that the two Iayersunite togetherto form a monolithicstructure with a hardened top surface.

'3. A method of constructing concretefloorings and like surfaces involving the steps ofconstructing a foundation layer, applying to' saidlayer prior-to the completion of the setting thereof a liquidhardening agent and a dry mixture of granite chips in the proportion ofiifrom six to nine pounds by weight per yard super and dry cement in the proportion of from four to six pounds by weight per yard super and working said dry mixture into the surface of said unset foundation layer to form a monolithic structure the surface stratum of which is hardened by said liquid'harden'er.

4. A method of constructing concrete floorings and like surfaces involving the steps of constructing .a foundation layer, applying to said layer prior tothe completion of the setting'thereof a to fix said materials to form a hardened topping layer and working said dry mixture into the surface of said unset foundation layer to form a monolithic structure the surface stratum of which is hardened by said liquid hardener.

LOUISE GERTRUDE BOULT.

US243661A 1938-07-01 1938-12-02 Method of constructing concrete flooring and like surfaces Expired - Lifetime US2277203A (en)

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Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2999432A (en) * 1956-09-25 1961-09-12 Carl F Ytterberg Road surfaces
US3109350A (en) * 1958-09-30 1963-11-05 Acme Steel Co Machine for expanding metal
US4398842A (en) * 1980-12-29 1983-08-16 Harry Hodson Method of overlay and sandwich formation of pervious concrete
US4748788A (en) * 1987-07-01 1988-06-07 Shaw Ronald D Surface seeded exposed aggregate concrete and method of producing same
WO1995006789A1 (en) * 1993-09-01 1995-03-09 Hi-Tech Floors, Inc. High gloss, hardened concrete floors and method
US5487249A (en) * 1994-03-28 1996-01-30 Shaw; Ronald D. Dowel placement apparatus for monolithic concrete pour and method of use
US5505987A (en) * 1989-10-10 1996-04-09 Jennings; Hamlin M. Processes for improving the bond between hydrating cement-based materials and existing cement-based substrates
US5678952A (en) * 1995-11-16 1997-10-21 Shaw; Lee A. Concrete dowel placement apparatus
US5695811A (en) * 1989-10-10 1997-12-09 E. Khashoggi Industries Methods and compositions for bonding a cement-based overlay on a cement-based substrate
US5794401A (en) * 1997-06-03 1998-08-18 Shaw; Lee A. Durable architectural flooring and method of fabricating the same
US6016635A (en) * 1999-03-23 2000-01-25 Shaw; Lee A. Surface seeded aggregate and method of forming the same
US6033146A (en) * 1955-06-23 2000-03-07 Shaw; Lee A. Glass chip lithocrete and method of use of same
US6210070B1 (en) 1999-04-14 2001-04-03 Ron D. Shaw Concrete dowel slip tube with clip
US6454632B1 (en) * 1998-10-30 2002-09-24 Curecrete Chemical Company, Inc. Method of hardening and polishing concrete floors, walls, and the like
US6568146B2 (en) 2000-11-07 2003-05-27 James Harvey Method of manufacturing decorative cementuous floor surface
US6610224B2 (en) * 2001-02-22 2003-08-26 Sullivan Concrete Textures Processes for producing monolithic architectural cementitious structures having decorative aggregate-containing cementitious surfaces
US20040041295A1 (en) * 2002-01-28 2004-03-04 Shaw Lee A. Method of forming surface seeded particulate
US20060083591A1 (en) * 2003-09-02 2006-04-20 Shaw Lee A Method of forming surface seeded particulate
US20070086860A1 (en) * 2005-10-17 2007-04-19 Shaw Lee A Concrete template and method of use
US20070134063A1 (en) * 2005-12-14 2007-06-14 Shaw And Sons, Inc. Dowel device with closed end speed cover
US20100180528A1 (en) * 2009-01-21 2010-07-22 Shaw Ronald D Decorative concrete and method of installing the same
US20110008594A1 (en) * 2009-07-07 2011-01-13 Shaw Lee A Concrete template and method of use
US9340969B1 (en) 2014-11-13 2016-05-17 Shaw & Sons, Inc. Crush zone dowel tube
US9617694B2 (en) 2014-01-15 2017-04-11 Shaw & Sons, Inc. Concrete dowel system
US9695602B2 (en) 2013-08-20 2017-07-04 Shaw & Sons, Inc. Architectural concrete and method of forming the same

Cited By (44)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6033146A (en) * 1955-06-23 2000-03-07 Shaw; Lee A. Glass chip lithocrete and method of use of same
US2999432A (en) * 1956-09-25 1961-09-12 Carl F Ytterberg Road surfaces
US3109350A (en) * 1958-09-30 1963-11-05 Acme Steel Co Machine for expanding metal
US4398842A (en) * 1980-12-29 1983-08-16 Harry Hodson Method of overlay and sandwich formation of pervious concrete
US4748788A (en) * 1987-07-01 1988-06-07 Shaw Ronald D Surface seeded exposed aggregate concrete and method of producing same
US5695811A (en) * 1989-10-10 1997-12-09 E. Khashoggi Industries Methods and compositions for bonding a cement-based overlay on a cement-based substrate
US5505987A (en) * 1989-10-10 1996-04-09 Jennings; Hamlin M. Processes for improving the bond between hydrating cement-based materials and existing cement-based substrates
WO1995006789A1 (en) * 1993-09-01 1995-03-09 Hi-Tech Floors, Inc. High gloss, hardened concrete floors and method
US5441677A (en) * 1993-09-01 1995-08-15 Hi-Tech Floors, Inc. Method of making high gloss, hardened concrete floors
US5487249A (en) * 1994-03-28 1996-01-30 Shaw; Ronald D. Dowel placement apparatus for monolithic concrete pour and method of use
US5678952A (en) * 1995-11-16 1997-10-21 Shaw; Lee A. Concrete dowel placement apparatus
US5934821A (en) * 1995-11-16 1999-08-10 Shaw; Lee A. Concrete dowel placement apparatus
WO1998055707A1 (en) * 1997-06-03 1998-12-10 Shaw Lee A Durable architectural flooring and method of fabricating the same
US5794401A (en) * 1997-06-03 1998-08-18 Shaw; Lee A. Durable architectural flooring and method of fabricating the same
US6454632B1 (en) * 1998-10-30 2002-09-24 Curecrete Chemical Company, Inc. Method of hardening and polishing concrete floors, walls, and the like
USRE38364E1 (en) * 1998-10-30 2003-12-23 Curecrete Chemical Company, Inc. Method for hardening and polishing concrete floors, walls, and the like
US6016635A (en) * 1999-03-23 2000-01-25 Shaw; Lee A. Surface seeded aggregate and method of forming the same
US6210070B1 (en) 1999-04-14 2001-04-03 Ron D. Shaw Concrete dowel slip tube with clip
US6568146B2 (en) 2000-11-07 2003-05-27 James Harvey Method of manufacturing decorative cementuous floor surface
US6610224B2 (en) * 2001-02-22 2003-08-26 Sullivan Concrete Textures Processes for producing monolithic architectural cementitious structures having decorative aggregate-containing cementitious surfaces
US20040035329A1 (en) * 2001-02-22 2004-02-26 Sullivan Francis W. Compositions for producing architectural cementitious structures having decorative aggregate-containing cementitious surfaces and processes therefor
US20080112757A1 (en) * 2002-01-28 2008-05-15 Shaw Lee A Method of forming surface seeded particulate
US20040041295A1 (en) * 2002-01-28 2004-03-04 Shaw Lee A. Method of forming surface seeded particulate
US20100111604A1 (en) * 2002-01-28 2010-05-06 Shaw Lee A Method of forming surface seeded particulate
US20070104538A1 (en) * 2002-01-28 2007-05-10 Shaw Lee A Method of forming surface seeded particulate
US7670081B2 (en) 2002-01-28 2010-03-02 Lithocrete, Inc. Method of forming surface seeded particulate
US20060083591A1 (en) * 2003-09-02 2006-04-20 Shaw Lee A Method of forming surface seeded particulate
US20070248411A1 (en) * 2005-10-17 2007-10-25 Shaw Lee A Concrete template and method of use
US20070086860A1 (en) * 2005-10-17 2007-04-19 Shaw Lee A Concrete template and method of use
US7874762B2 (en) 2005-12-14 2011-01-25 Shaw & Sons, Inc. Dowel device with closed end speed cover
US20100003080A1 (en) * 2005-12-14 2010-01-07 Shaw Lee A Dowel device with closed end speed cover
US20070134063A1 (en) * 2005-12-14 2007-06-14 Shaw And Sons, Inc. Dowel device with closed end speed cover
US8007199B2 (en) 2005-12-14 2011-08-30 Shaw & Sons, Inc. Dowel device with closed end speed cover
US20110085857A1 (en) * 2005-12-14 2011-04-14 Shaw Lee A Dowel device with closed end speed cover
US20080085156A1 (en) * 2005-12-14 2008-04-10 Shaw Lee A Dowel device with closed end speed cover
US20100180528A1 (en) * 2009-01-21 2010-07-22 Shaw Ronald D Decorative concrete and method of installing the same
US9267284B2 (en) 2009-01-21 2016-02-23 Lithocrete, Inc. Decorative concrete and method of installing the same
US9580915B2 (en) 2009-01-21 2017-02-28 Lithocrete, Inc. Decorative concrete and method of installing the same
US20110008594A1 (en) * 2009-07-07 2011-01-13 Shaw Lee A Concrete template and method of use
US9695602B2 (en) 2013-08-20 2017-07-04 Shaw & Sons, Inc. Architectural concrete and method of forming the same
US9617694B2 (en) 2014-01-15 2017-04-11 Shaw & Sons, Inc. Concrete dowel system
US9951481B2 (en) 2014-01-15 2018-04-24 Shaw & Sons, Inc. Concrete dowel system
US9546456B2 (en) 2014-11-13 2017-01-17 Shaw & Sons, Inc. Crush zone dowel tube
US9340969B1 (en) 2014-11-13 2016-05-17 Shaw & Sons, Inc. Crush zone dowel tube

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