US2191924A - Breakwater - Google Patents

Breakwater Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US2191924A
US2191924A US244464A US24446438A US2191924A US 2191924 A US2191924 A US 2191924A US 244464 A US244464 A US 244464A US 24446438 A US24446438 A US 24446438A US 2191924 A US2191924 A US 2191924A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
blocks
breakwater
pipes
tier
water
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US244464A
Inventor
Harvey J Humphrey
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
DUDLEY S HUMPHREY
Original Assignee
DUDLEY S HUMPHREY
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by DUDLEY S HUMPHREY filed Critical DUDLEY S HUMPHREY
Priority to US244464A priority Critical patent/US2191924A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US2191924A publication Critical patent/US2191924A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B3/00Engineering works in connection with control or use of streams, rivers, coasts, or other marine sites; Sealings or joints for engineering works in general
    • E02B3/04Structures or apparatus for, or methods of, protecting banks, coasts, or harbours
    • E02B3/06Moles; Piers; Quay walls; Groynes; Breakwaters Wave dissipating walls; Quay equipment
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A10/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE at coastal zones; at river basins
    • Y02A10/11Hard structures, e.g. dams, dykes or breakwaters

Description

Feb. 27, 1940; H J HUMPHREY 2,191,924
BREAKWATER Filed Dec. 7, 1938 /4 i /5 .2 ATTORNEYS.
Patented Feb. 27, 1940 BREAKWATER Harvey J. Humphrey, Euclid Beach Park, Ohio, assignor of one-half to Dudley S. Humphrey, Euclid Beach, Ohio Application December '7, 1938, Serial No. 244,464
4 Claims. (CL. 61--4) NT OFFICE.
My invention relates to breakwaters and has for its general object to provide a practically indestructible and comparatively inexpensive perforate breakwater for breaking the force of water adjacent exposed shorelines of lakes, oceans and other bodies of water.
A further object of the invention is to form a breakwater of a plurality of interchangeable spaced and readily removable units or blocks so {0 that the breakwater can be easily built and as easily removed, or the heighth thereof readily increased or decreased to meet changing conditions.
Another object of the invention is to provide a breakwater which will effectively break the force of incoming water as it passes therethrough in one direction, and slow down the receding body of water, passing therethrough in the opposite direction, to such. an extent that the maximum deposit of sand and gravel will take place between the breakwater and the shore.
A still further object of the invention is to so form a breakwater having interstices therein at regular intervals, that the size of the interstices can be. readily varied.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent as the description is considered with the accompanying drawing, in which:
Figure 1 is a plan view of a breakwater embodying my invention;
Figure 2 isa rear fragmental view of a portion of the improved breakwater showing seven tiers or layers of blocks;
Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view on the line 33, of Figure 1;
Figure 4 is a perspective view of a breakwater showing the. blocks of each tier as being parallel to each other and extending at the same angle to blocks of the next adjacent tier or course;
Figure 5 is a perspective View, partly broken away, of one of the reinforced concrete blocks; and
Figure 6 is a detail sectional view through one of the pipes showing the method of anchoring the pipes in place.
Referring more particularly to the drawing I denotes a breakwater positioned in the water 2, p
a short distance from the shore line 3 which the breakwater is designed to protect. The embodiment illustrated comprises a plurality of reinforced concrete blocks 4, connected together and anchored in the clay bottom 5, by means of iron pipes 6, which pass loosely through openings 7, formed in opposite ends of the blocks. These 5 blocks are identical one with the other but obviously their weight and dimensions will depend largely upon the conditions under which they are used, that is, the nature of the strains and stresses to which the breakwater will be subjected. While rectangular blocks are preferable, If because of the facility with which they can be molded and handled, blocks having rounded cor ners will function equally as well.
In practice two rows 8 and 9 of pipes 5 are anchored in the clay bottom 5, the pipes of one 10 row being preferably but not necessarily staggered with respect to the pipes of the other row. Various methods of sinking the pipe are available hut I have found that water under pressure jetted to the bottom of the pipe interiorly there- 16. of as by means of a nozzle it! quickly forms an excavation beneath the pipe into which the latter can be readily forced by an appropriate rocking movement, the lower extremity of the pipe being formed with serrations H, to facilitate this operation. The pipes lean or incline slightly away from the shore line for a purpose presently described.
After the rows vof pipe have suitably anchored the blocks are laid in tiers or courses by placing the blocks in interwoven somewhat loose relation over the pipes. It will also be noticed that individual blocks are connected to a pipe of each'row of piping and that each block with the exception of the endrnost block of each 30 tier is connected at its ends to two adjacent blocks. The diameter of the holes or openings- 1 in opposite ends of the blocks are considerably greater than the diameter of the pipes to provide a loose connection between adjacent blocks and, 35, courses and to facilitate assembly. These openings are provided with metal sleeves or linings i 2, which reduce wear at these points. The lower net work 13 of reinforcing rods M, for the con'- crete blocks 4, are welded together and to the 40 sleeve'l2 before the concrete is poured in the molds, not shown, and the upper layer or net work l5 of previously joined reinforcing rods is then placed in the mold. after the lower layer of rods is covered and the pouring is then continued and the block permitted to set.
After one or more courses of blocks have been assembled the partially completed breakwater is permitted to rest until the bottommost course has settled through the sand I 6 and comes to rest 50 upon the solid clay bottom 5. However the settling process being a very rapid one, these operations can be carried out with practically no interruption or delay. The topmost courses or layers of blocks are preferably tied together by readily removable straps or the like [1. Should any slight pivotal or vibrational or other movement of the blocks be caused by the action of water or ice, the same will be distributed to and absorbed at the respective loose pivotal connections between the blocks and sup-porting pipes.
The angular relationship between adjacent blocks can be varied to suit conditions encountered at any particular point in the breakwater as indicated in Figure 1. Thus the relative angularity of those blocks at the left of Figure 1 is much greater than those at the right of this figure. However, it will be understood that the angularity may and probably will be uniform throughout the entire length of any particular breakwater, in most instances. If the angle is obtuse or opened up, as illustrated in the left hand portion of Figure 1, less resistance is offered to the flow of water between the blocks and the build up of deposited sand and gravel back of the breakwater will be less and damage to the shore line will be greater, under most conditions, than would be the case where the angularity is more acute, as the closing of the angle between adjacent blocks results in a reduction in the capacity or size of the interstices l8, and a corresponding increased resistance to the un interrupted flow of waves therethrough. It is a comparatively simple matter to completely or partially disassemble the parts of the breakwater for the purpose of changing the relative angularity of the blocks or for moving the breakwater away from or toward the shore line as experience dictates. Or having answered its purpose, the
,breakwater can be economically disassembled and shipped to a distant point or stored for future use.
By inclining the pipes 6, forwardly or away from the shore line, the concrete blocks 4 will slope correspondingly and water surging through the interstices l8, will be directed upwardly and consequently will not have a tendency to dig into the beach or shore line with excavating effect. The most effective slope for a particular .location can be quickly determined by varying the inclination of the pipes at different places throughout the length of the breakwater for purposes of observation. Any change in the slope of the blocks which experience indicates as being advisable can be readily made without injury to the blocks or pipes.
Observation over a period of several weeks, of a breakwater constructed in accordance with the present invention and placed some distance from the beach in several feet of water, has proven that the washing away of a considerable length of shore line was not only quickly checked, but that the beach was actually extended several feet, almost to the breakwater, by the deposit of sand and gravel carried through the interstices it by the waves or water 2 from. outside the breakwater and deposited by the subdued or receding body of water 2 as the latter recedes from the beach toward and outwardly through the breakwater.
Water is excluded from the pipes 6 by filling the latter with cement, with or without reinforcing rods, not shown, but sand will effectively answer this purpose and prevent bursting of the pipes in most climates. Contraction and expansion due to changes in temperature is compensated for by reason of the angular arrangement of the blocks and the loose and more or less pivotal connection between adjacent blocks of each tier of blocks.
When the prevailing wind is in a direction oblique to the shore line littoral currents set up between the shore line and the breakwater will have a tendency to offset the beneficial effects of the breakwater. To overcome this, I provide at one or both ends of the breakwater, a jetty l9 constructed in the same manner as the breakwater I.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:
1. A breakwater comprising tiers of superimposed blocks, certain of the blocks of a tier extending in substantially the same parallel directlon, and certain of the blocks of the next adjacent tier extending substantially parallel to each other but at an angle to said first mentioned certain blocks, and means for loosely connecting the blocks of one tier with each other and with the blocks of the next adjacent tier.
2. A breakwater comprising substantially horizontally disposed layers of blocks arranged substantially parallel to the shore line, the blocks of one layer being angularly arranged with respect to each other and to the blocks of the next adjacent layer to form openings, and common means for connecting said blocks together and for anchoring the breakwater in place, and at least certain of said blocks being inclined from a horizontal plane downwardly and rearwardly toward said shore line.
3. A breakwater comprising tiers of superimposed blocks, the blocks of each layer being spaced from the next adjacent blocks of that layer, each block of one layer, except the end blocks thereof, resting at its ends upon the ends of the block of the next adjacent layer therebeneath, the blocks of one tier having end openings adapted to register with corresponding openings in the blocks of the other tiers, and means extending loosely through said openings for connecting the blocks of each pair together for relative pivotal movement with respect to each other and for anchoring the breakwater in place.
4. A breakwater comprising tiers of superimposed blocks, the blocks of each tier being spaced apart from. each other and the blocks of one tier being angularly arranged with respect to the blocks of the next adjacent tier to form interstices, all of said blocks being inclined upwardly and rearwardly from the horizontal, and means for readily detachably and pivotally securing said tiers of blocks together and for anchoring the breakwater in place.
HARVEY J. I-IUMPHREY.
US244464A 1938-12-07 1938-12-07 Breakwater Expired - Lifetime US2191924A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US244464A US2191924A (en) 1938-12-07 1938-12-07 Breakwater

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US244464A US2191924A (en) 1938-12-07 1938-12-07 Breakwater

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US2191924A true US2191924A (en) 1940-02-27

Family

ID=22922877

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US244464A Expired - Lifetime US2191924A (en) 1938-12-07 1938-12-07 Breakwater

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US2191924A (en)

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2474786A (en) * 1946-09-09 1949-06-28 Harvey J Humphrey Permeable breakwater
US2639587A (en) * 1949-10-12 1953-05-26 Beach & Shore Inc Protection of beaches from erosion
US3252287A (en) * 1962-12-10 1966-05-24 Suzuki Bunko T-shaped concrete block
US3265364A (en) * 1963-10-30 1966-08-09 Norman V Frye Fence or like construction
US3309876A (en) * 1964-02-13 1967-03-21 John M Potter Erosion prevention apparatus
US3379015A (en) * 1965-12-07 1968-04-23 Macks Elmer Fred Pier construction
US3888209A (en) * 1973-11-14 1975-06-10 Edmund R Boots Artificial reef
DE3235602A1 (en) * 1982-09-25 1984-04-12 Bodan Werft Motoren Und Schiff CONSTRUCTION, FOR PROTECTION AGAINST SEASIDE
US4479740A (en) * 1979-08-21 1984-10-30 Paul A. Kakuris Erosion control device and method of making and installing same
EP0255495A1 (en) * 1986-07-29 1988-02-03 Antonio Ferruccio Prefabricated composite element for the building of a sea wall
US4978247A (en) * 1986-05-05 1990-12-18 Lenson Walter J Erosion control device
US5087150A (en) * 1989-10-12 1992-02-11 Mccreary Donald R Method of constructing a seawall reinforcement or jetty structure
US5174681A (en) * 1989-01-23 1992-12-29 Atkinson Mcdougal Corporation Permeable breakwater
US5380124A (en) * 1993-06-14 1995-01-10 Sand & Sea Corporation Beach stabilizer having pile guides
WO2000075433A1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2000-12-14 Gary Deaton Erosion control apparatus

Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2474786A (en) * 1946-09-09 1949-06-28 Harvey J Humphrey Permeable breakwater
US2639587A (en) * 1949-10-12 1953-05-26 Beach & Shore Inc Protection of beaches from erosion
US3252287A (en) * 1962-12-10 1966-05-24 Suzuki Bunko T-shaped concrete block
US3265364A (en) * 1963-10-30 1966-08-09 Norman V Frye Fence or like construction
US3309876A (en) * 1964-02-13 1967-03-21 John M Potter Erosion prevention apparatus
US3379015A (en) * 1965-12-07 1968-04-23 Macks Elmer Fred Pier construction
US3888209A (en) * 1973-11-14 1975-06-10 Edmund R Boots Artificial reef
US4479740A (en) * 1979-08-21 1984-10-30 Paul A. Kakuris Erosion control device and method of making and installing same
US5062739A (en) * 1982-09-25 1991-11-05 Albrecht Klockner Zigzag breakwater
DE3235602A1 (en) * 1982-09-25 1984-04-12 Bodan Werft Motoren Und Schiff CONSTRUCTION, FOR PROTECTION AGAINST SEASIDE
WO1985004436A1 (en) * 1982-09-25 1985-10-10 Kloeckner Albrecht Zigzag breakwater
US4978247A (en) * 1986-05-05 1990-12-18 Lenson Walter J Erosion control device
US4767235A (en) * 1986-07-29 1988-08-30 Antonio Ferruccio Prefabricated composite element for the building of a sea wall
EP0255495A1 (en) * 1986-07-29 1988-02-03 Antonio Ferruccio Prefabricated composite element for the building of a sea wall
US5174681A (en) * 1989-01-23 1992-12-29 Atkinson Mcdougal Corporation Permeable breakwater
US5087150A (en) * 1989-10-12 1992-02-11 Mccreary Donald R Method of constructing a seawall reinforcement or jetty structure
US5380124A (en) * 1993-06-14 1995-01-10 Sand & Sea Corporation Beach stabilizer having pile guides
WO2000075433A1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2000-12-14 Gary Deaton Erosion control apparatus
US6250845B1 (en) * 1999-06-04 2001-06-26 Gary Deaton Erosion control apparatus

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US2191924A (en) Breakwater
DK141256B (en) Method of preventing coastal erosion.
US2803113A (en) Erosion preventive device
WO2010111947A1 (en) Construction method for building underwater structures by liquefying and discarding soil
US3906734A (en) Fixed marine platform with dispersed base
US3402559A (en) Process of forming a large-diameter tubular pile foundation
CN106400824A (en) Method for landfill of large-diameter water well
CN109440723B (en) Hydraulic engineering retaining wall and construction method thereof
US1423884A (en) Ocean pier
USRE24632E (en) Artificial blocks for structures ex-
US3744255A (en) Canal bank retaining wall means and method
US1753776A (en) Filled concrete block and method of making the same
CN213773200U (en) River and sea dike defense with stable structure and scouring resistance
US4664557A (en) Method and apparatus for constructing an underwater fill
US2496532A (en) Portable marine foundation
RU147752U1 (en) Triangular drainage pipe from slds
CN209873823U (en) Impervious protective structure of embankment side slope soaks
US1112018A (en) Protection of levees, embankments, dams, and other natural or artificial structures.
JPH0611980B2 (en) Construction method of revetment using natural stone
CN205348098U (en) A retaining wall structure for river course
CN105926653A (en) Cofferdam construction method through stone, thick plastic cloth and bagged clay on dam slope of earth and rockfill dam
RU2704277C1 (en) Gabion construction for strengthening bank slope
RU2588251C2 (en) Rectangular water inlet tube from srdp plate
CN212506117U (en) Reservoir bottom geomembrane scour prevention water filling structure
CN211057816U (en) V-shaped groove for steep rock slope