US2180840A - Condenser apparatus - Google Patents

Condenser apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
US2180840A
US2180840A US176898A US17689837A US2180840A US 2180840 A US2180840 A US 2180840A US 176898 A US176898 A US 176898A US 17689837 A US17689837 A US 17689837A US 2180840 A US2180840 A US 2180840A
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Prior art keywords
tube
shell
nests
condenser
flow
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Expired - Lifetime
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US176898A
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Charles B Tuley
David W R Morgan
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CBS Corp
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Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28BSTEAM OR VAPOUR CONDENSERS
    • F28B1/00Condensers in which the steam or vapour is separate from the cooling medium by walls, e.g. surface condenser
    • F28B1/02Condensers in which the steam or vapour is separate from the cooling medium by walls, e.g. surface condenser using water or other liquid as the cooling medium
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S165/00Heat exchange
    • Y10S165/184Indirect-contact condenser
    • Y10S165/205Space for condensable vapor surrounds space for coolant
    • Y10S165/207Distinct outlets for separated condensate and gas
    • Y10S165/211Distinct outlets for separated condensate and gas including concave member adjacent to vapor outlet and partially covering a group of coolant tubes
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S165/00Heat exchange
    • Y10S165/917Pressurization and/or degassification

Description

Nov. 21, 1939. c'. B. TULEY ET AL 2,180,840
CONDENSER APPARATUS Filed Nov. 27, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 F'Ia..l
INVENTORS awn W- F1. Monc'nN am CHRRLES B.TULEY- BY I w. (2; 0W. ATTORNEY 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 CONDENSER APPARATUS Filed NOV. 27, 1937 c. B. TUI .EY ET AL Nov. 21, 1939.
Patented Nov. 21, 1939 UNITED STATES 2,180,840 CONDENSER APPARATUS Charles B. Tuley, Glenolden, and David W. R.
Morgan, Swarthmore, Pa., assignors to Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsyl- Vania Application November 27-, 1937, Serial No. 176,898
9 Claims. (01. 257-43) Our invention relates to steam condensers and more particularly to surface condensers of the radial-flow type.
I denser having an improved construction involving a novel arrangement of tubes whereby additional heat absorbing surface is provided.
A further object of our invention is to provide a condenser having a pair of radial flow tube nests arranged in a shallowshell, there being disposed at the bottom and between the tube nests a group of air cooler tubes separated from the 7 main shell interior by means of a triangular baffle forming an air cooler space of novel construction. I
A further object of our invention is to provide i an ofitake pipe which may be attached and detached without removal ofthe waterbox.
These and further objects are eifected by our invention as will be apparent from the following disclosure and claims taken in connection with the accompanying drawings forming a part of v this application in which: Fig. l is a view in transverse section taken '25 along the line I--I of Fig. 2 showing a preferred constructional form of the invention; and
Fig. 2 isa view in longitudinal section, the
left handportion being taken along the line IIII of Fig. 1 and the right hand portion being taken "30 along the line IIAIIA of Fig. 1.
- Referring now to the drawings more in detail, reference numeral ill indicates, in its entirety, a surface condenser comprising a shell I! havin a steam inlet opening !2 at the top thereof. Within the shell H are two tube nests. l3, E3 of the radial-flow type and an air cooler i l 10- cated at the bottom of the condenser and between the two tube nests 13, i3 and separated there- 1 from by a baflie l5 of generally triangular shape. 9 shell I! is provided with a pair of openings l6. I6;extending lengthwise of the shell. one beneath each of two tube nests l3. l3. These two openings I '5, it provide for flow of the condensate from the, interior of the shell. An air oiitake pipe 45 ll constitutes an outlet for the air and non-condensable gases from this air cooler.
The tubes herein shown are of the single-pass type with the result that, in operation, the tubes are cooler at the inlet end than elsewhere.
50 is of particular advantage in the cooling of the air and non-condensing gases, as will be hereinafter explained. However, it is to be understood that our invention is not limited to tube structure of the single-pass type as it can also be 5 used to advantage with other types of tube structure. I
The shell H, as illustrated in the drawings, is from steel plate and welded together. The shell is curved in cross-section as clearly shown 60 in Fig. 1 and is reenforced internally by steel n An object of our invention is to provide a con-' shapes welded thereto. We have shown circumferentially exte'nding shapes l8. preferably of T- shape, having their webs l9 welded at 2! (Fig. 2) to the interior of the shell, and being joined at, their upper ends by transversely extending shapes 6 22. Fabricated lateral feet 23 are welded to the shell externally thereof. Inlet opening I2 extends the full width of the shelland for a major portion of the length thereof. I
The two symmetrical cylindrical nests of tubes 10 4313 are the main condensing surface. These tubenests are so arranged with respect to the condenser shell H that a liberal steam space 25, 2F, and 27 surrounds them, providing for steam flow into the nests on the entire peripheries thereof. As clearly shown in Fig.1 the tube nests it, I 3
are eccentrically located within the shell; i. e.,
the nests are closer to the bottom of the shell than to the sides or center thereof. This results ,V in the provision of steam pathstli and 21 which are of diminishing cross-sectional area as the bottom of the nests are approached. The tube nests are supported by end tube sheets 29 and 31 and intermediate tube support sheets 30 in a manner wellknownin the art. The tube sup-(" port sheets are in turn supported by attachment to the shell reenforcing shapes i8 and 22,
as shown at 32 and 33 (Fig. 1); Each tube nest i3 is provided with a central air offtake opening 34 extending the entire tube length. This open- '30 ing 34 is protected from falling condensate by a bafiie 35. 7
The air cooler, Hi comprises a generally triangular nest of tubes 31 separated from the remainder of the condenser interior by baffle l5 of1 35 the same generally triangular shape. At each side of the air cooler. near the bottom, vertical channels 38, extending the entire tube length and formed by parallelbaflie plates 39 and 4%,
connect the air cooler it with the central air-40' oiftake openings 34, thereby forming passageways for the flow of air and non-condensable gases from the central air oiitake openings 3 to the air cooler M. The twoouter baiiie plates 39 form the opposite sides of the air cooler chain her, the inclinedsides of the bafiie !5 being connected thereto as best shown in Fig. 1. At spaced regions along the juncture of plates 39 with bafiie l5, openings are provided for flow of condensate from the inclined sides of bafile i5, past plate 39 to the, condensate trough 2&1, as shown at the right in Fig. 1. The channels 38 are closed at these regions by horizontal plates 95a. The structure at alternative points, where air passages 38 are uninterrupted, is shown at the left in Fig. l. The triangular nest of tubes 3'! is supported by end tube sheets 29 and 3! and intermediate tube support sheets 63 in a manner well known in the art. The tube support sheets :13 are in turn supported by attachment to the shell reenforcing shapes I8 and to the main intermediate tube sheets 38 as shown at 44 and 45.
The free space 46 above the tubes 31 of the air cooler under the baffle I5 at the top thereof constitutes an exit path for the air and non condensable gases. To insure proper cooling of the air during its passage through the cooler, bafiies 41 are provided at suitable points on the interior of the triangular baffie I5 to direct the flow of air into and through the triangular nest of tubes 31. (Fig. 1.) These baffles 41, in the form of the invention herein disclosed, are of steel plate welded to the inner side of bafile I5.
An additional vertical cross-baffle 48 (Fig. 2) is provided in the exit path 46 at the top of the air cooler beneath the baffle I5 near the inlet end of the condenser, whereby air and noncondensable gases are caused to flow down across the tubes 3! and upwards again into the exit path, thus obtaining a final cooling from contact with the coldest tubes before flowingout the air outlet pipe H at the inlet tube plate,
In addition to the two main tube nests I3, I3 we provide additional and novel condensing surface by means of two other groups or nests of tubes. A triangular nest of tubes 5i is located centrally at the top of the condenser. This nest serves as a guide for the entering steam, directing it downwardly in the two radial flow lanes surrounding the halves of the main tube nests I3, is nearest the center of the condenser. Where the condenser is used with a turbine of the double-flow type, such as illustrated in Fig. 1 of the patent to Smith, 1,845,542, February 16, 1932, most of the steam enters the condenser at two separated points substantially directly above the centers of the main radial-flow tube nests. This arrangement produces a central area or zone at the exhaust steam inlet wherein the flow of steam is much less than that at the two points previously mentioned. It is the present practice to provide the partitions separating this central zone from the side zones with openings or perforations permitting a limited flow of steam to said central zone and directly downward to the region in the condenser occupied by the triangular or wedge-shaped tube nest. This limited volume of steam from the central zone of the turbine exhaust casing is, in applicants condenser arrangement, condensed by the tube nest 5I. The two main volumes of steam, entering directly over the two radial-flow tube nests, tend to flow towards the central zone of the condenser occupied by the triangular tube nest. However, this tube nest 5|, in addition to condensing the steam from the central zone, serves as a bafiie to prevent flow from the two main volumes of steam to this portion of the condenser and to direct the same downwardly into the vapor paths 2%; and into the tube nests I3. Since this triangular tube nest 5I is located at the steam outlet, the natural heat head existing between the steam and the water in the tubes will cause this nest to be highly active condensing surface. This triangular tube nest 5I is supported by end tube sheets 29 and 3! and intermediate tube support sheets 53 in a manner well known in the art.
Tube support sheets 53 are in turn supported at the top from the transversely extending shapes 22 and at the bottom from the main tube sheets 3i! as indicated at 54 and 55.
Above and alongside the triangular shaped bafile I5 which encloses the air cooler space I4, there are one or more rows of tubes 58 on each side of the vertical center line of the condenser.
These tubes are supported by the same tube sheets 29, 3| and 43 that support the air cooler tubes 31. As these tubes 58 are located in the direct flow of steam the heat transfer will be as high as that of the outer tubes of the main tube banks, thus further increasing the overall heat transfer. While we have herein shown two rows of tubes 58, it will be obvious that our invention contemplates the use of any desired number of rows.
As previously pointed out, the main condenser shell I! is provided with a pair of openings I 5, I6 serving as exhausts for the condensate and extending lengthwise of the shell for substantially the full tube length, one beneath each of the main tube nests I3, I3. Condensate from the outer halves of the main tube nests will flow along the outer wall of the shell I I to the openings I5. In a similar manner condensate from the inner halves of the main tube nests I3, I 3 and from the auxiliary nests 5| and 58 will flow down the inclined sides of the bafile I5 to the same openings I6, I6. Beneath the openings I6 are collecting troughs 20 secured to the outside of shell I I.
Any condensate which may find its way into, or be formed within the air cooler I4 flows through exhaust opening 60.
It should be noted that. the condensate which drains into the collecting troughs 20 falls through a belt of steam at entrance pressure and tem-.
per-ature, and temperature of the condensate leaving the condenser is, therefore, very close to that of the entering steam.
In the embodiment herein illustrated, we have' shown, in Fig. 2 an inlet waterbox 62 attached by flange G3 to the end tube sheet 29. An outlet waterbox 64 is attached by flange 65 to the end tube sheet 3i. Extending from the outside of end tube sheet 29 to the outside of inlet waterbox 62 is the air offtake pipe I'I. Inlet waterbox 62 is provided with a neck 61 having an external flange 6B. Oiftake pipe I! has an external flange I59 at its inner end adapted to form a water tight seal with the end tube sheet 29. Such a seal may be effected by use of a compressible gasket II between the flange E9 and the tube sheet 29. At the outer end of the offtake pipe I! is an external flange I2 of materially greater diameter than the flange I39. Flange I2 is recessed as shown at 13 in order to center the offtake pipe I! inrelation to the neck 61 and the air exit path 46 from the air cooler. Flange I2 may be bolted or otherwise secured to flange 68. The length of pipe I! is of such length that bolting together of flanges I2 and 58 compresses gasket ,II to produce the desired seal. The internal diameter of neck El is slightly greater than the external diameter of flange I59, whereby the offtake pipe I! can be removed or assembled without the necessity of removing the waterbox 62.
While we have shown our invention in but one form, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that it is not so limited, but is susceptible of changes and modifications, without departing from the spirit thereof, and we desire, therefore, that only such limitations shall be placed thereon as are imposed by the prior art or as are specifically set forth in the appended claims.
What we claim is:
1. In a condenser, a shell having an exhaust steam inlet and outlet means, a pair of radialflow tube nests, and means to direct flow of vapor against said tube nests comprising a wedgeshaped tube nest.
2. In a condenser, a relatively wide and shallow shell having an inlet for exhaust steam at the top thereof, means dividing the shell interior into condensing and cooling spaces and cooperating with an intermediate portion of the shell bottom to define said cooling space, a pair of radial-flow tube nests in the condensing space and arranged above and exteriorly of the cooling space, a nest of tubes in the cooling space, an
air offtake communicating with said cooling space, means for conducting media from. the central portion of each radial-flow nest to said cooling space for passage among the tubes of the nest therein before entering the oiftake, and ofitake means for condensate communicating with the lowermost portions of said condensing space.
3. In a condenser, a shell having an exhaust steam inlet and condensate outlet means, a main condensing surface therein comprising a pair of tube nests of the radial-flow type arranged parallel in a horizontal plane and spaced apart whereby a vapor path. is provided therebetween, a supplemental condensing surfaceof generally inverted V-shape cross-section adjacent the bottom of the shell between the radial flow tube nests, and an air cooler between the V-legs of said supplemental condensing surface.
4. In a condenser, shell having an exhaust steam inlet and condensate outlet means, condensing surface therein comprising a pair of tube nests of the radial-flow type arranged parallel to each other in a horizontal plane and spaced apart and from the shell whereby both tube nests are completely surrounded circumferentially by vapor paths, an air cooler comprising a tube nest of generally triangular cross-section adjacent the bottom of the shell between the said pair of tube nests, said air cooler being separated from the remainder of the shell interior by a baffle of generally triangular shape, pairs of baffies defining air passages from the central portions of the radial-flow tube nests to the air cooler, the air cooler having an exit consisting of an air oiftake pipe extending from said cooler to the eX- terior of the shell, and additional condensing surfaces within said shell, one of said additional surfaces comprising one or more rows of tubes adjacent and above each side of the triangular baffle and another of said surfaces comprising a triangular tube nest'adjacent the top of the shell and between the pair ofradial-flow tube nests.
5. In a condenser, a shell having an exhaust steam inlet and condensate outlet means, condensing surfacetherein comprising a pair of tube nests of the radial flow type arranged parallel in a horizontal plane and spaced apart whereby a vapor path is formed therebetween, an air cooler adjacent the bottom of the shell between the tube nests, additional condensing surfaces within said shell, one of said surfaces comprising one or more rows of tubes at each side of and above said air coolerbetween the latter and the radialfiow tube nests and another of said surfaces comprising a tube nest of generally triangular crosssection adjacent the top of the shell with its apex extending downwardly between said pair of radial-flow tube nests, said triangular tube nest serving to guide vapors into the vapor path between the radial-fiow tube nests, an oiftake for the air cooler, and means for conductingair and non-condensable gases from said condensing /surface to the cooler.
6. In a surface condenser, a shell enclosing a vapor space and having an exhaust steam inlet and condensate outlet means, condensing surface therein comprising a pair of substantially circular cross sectional tube nests of the radial-flow typeextending transversely of the vapor space, said pair of tube nests being arranged parallel to each other in a horizontal plane and spaced from each other and from the shell, whereby both tube nests are surrounded by a vapor path, an air cooler adjacent the bottom of the shell between the tube nests, pairs of baffies defining air passages from the central portions of the tube nests to the air cooler, and an additional condensing surface comprising a tube nest of triangular cross-section near the top of the shell and between and parallel to the pair of radialflow tube nests, said triangular nest serving as a guide to direct entering vapor into the paths surrounding the radial-flow tube nests.
7. In a condenser, a shell having an exhaust steam inlet and condensate outlet means, a main condensing surface therein comprising a pair of tube nests of the radial-flow type, said tube nests between and parallel to the pair of radial-flow tube nests, said triangular tube nest serving as a guide to direct entering vapor into the paths surrounding the radial-flow tube nests and an additional condensing surface comprising a tube nest arranged between the lower portions of the radial-flow tube nests and means providing for the discharge of air and non-condensable gases from the shell.
8. In a condenser, a shell having an exhaust steam inlet and condensate outlet means, condensing surface therein comprising a pair of tube nests of the radial-flow type, said tube nests being parallel to each other in a horizontal plane and spaced apart, thereby providing a vapor path therebetween, an aircooler adjacent the bottom of the shell between the tube nests, pairs of bailles defining air passages from the central portions of the tube nests to the air cooler and an additional condensing surface comprising one or more rows of tubes located in the space be rounded circumferentially' by vapor paths, and
an additional condensing surface comprising a tube nest arranged between the lower portions of the radial-flow tube nests and diverging downwardly and having its tubes which are directly exposed to the vapor paths so disposed as to provide'concave faces on said additional condensing surface, which faces, together with the opposed convex faces of the radialflow tube nests, define vapor paths of decreasing cross-sectional area as the bottom of the shell is approached.
CHARLES B. TULEY. DAVID W. R. MORGAN.
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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2873096A (en) * 1955-11-18 1959-02-10 Stone & Webster Eng Corp Steam condenser deaeration
US2903244A (en) * 1955-04-07 1959-09-08 Rolls Royce Oil coolers for engines
US3349841A (en) * 1966-08-04 1967-10-31 Ingersoll Rand Co Air cooler for surface condensers
US3938588A (en) * 1973-10-18 1976-02-17 Westinghouse Electric Corporation Deaerating feedwater heater
US4219077A (en) * 1977-05-27 1980-08-26 Hitachi, Ltd. Multitubular heat exchanger used in a power plant
US4224981A (en) * 1978-05-12 1980-09-30 Bbc Brown Boveri & Company Limited Feed-water heater for steam power plants
US4226283A (en) * 1976-08-27 1980-10-07 Hitachi, Ltd. Multitubular heat exchanger
US4254825A (en) * 1978-10-05 1981-03-10 Hitachi, Ltd. Multitubular heat exchanger
US4461346A (en) * 1980-09-29 1984-07-24 Hitachi, Ltd. Feedwater heater
EP0976998A1 (en) * 1998-07-30 2000-02-02 Asea Brown Boveri AG Steam condenser

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2903244A (en) * 1955-04-07 1959-09-08 Rolls Royce Oil coolers for engines
US2873096A (en) * 1955-11-18 1959-02-10 Stone & Webster Eng Corp Steam condenser deaeration
US3349841A (en) * 1966-08-04 1967-10-31 Ingersoll Rand Co Air cooler for surface condensers
US3938588A (en) * 1973-10-18 1976-02-17 Westinghouse Electric Corporation Deaerating feedwater heater
US4226283A (en) * 1976-08-27 1980-10-07 Hitachi, Ltd. Multitubular heat exchanger
US4219077A (en) * 1977-05-27 1980-08-26 Hitachi, Ltd. Multitubular heat exchanger used in a power plant
US4224981A (en) * 1978-05-12 1980-09-30 Bbc Brown Boveri & Company Limited Feed-water heater for steam power plants
US4254825A (en) * 1978-10-05 1981-03-10 Hitachi, Ltd. Multitubular heat exchanger
US4461346A (en) * 1980-09-29 1984-07-24 Hitachi, Ltd. Feedwater heater
EP0976998A1 (en) * 1998-07-30 2000-02-02 Asea Brown Boveri AG Steam condenser

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