US2053873A - Building structure - Google Patents

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US2053873A
US2053873A US73127034A US2053873A US 2053873 A US2053873 A US 2053873A US 73127034 A US73127034 A US 73127034A US 2053873 A US2053873 A US 2053873A
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building
ribs
slabs
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Eugene L Niederhofer
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Eugene L Niederhofer
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/04Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stone-like material

Description

QSL s, 1936.

E. L. NIEDERHOF- BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed June 19, 1954 7 Sheets-Sheet l SePf- 8, 1936- E. l.. NIEDERHol-E 2,053,873

BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed June 19, 1934 Sept. 8, 1936.

'7 Sheets-Sheet 3 BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed Juneflg, 1934 E, L. NIEDERHOFER Sept. 8, 1936. E. L. NIEDERHoFl-:R

BUILDING STRUCTURE 1934 '7 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed June 19 Sept. 8, 1936. E. l.. NIEDERHOFER BUILDING S TRUCTURE Filed June 19, 1934 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 FHIIHH II Ilvl BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed June l9,- 1954 n 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 f0.3 v I Z Sept' 8, 1935. A E. L. Nlr-:mERHor-y-ER 2,053,873

l BUILDING S TRUCTURE Filed June 19, 1934 7 sheets-sheet 7 Patented Sept. 8, 1936 l UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,053,873 BUILDING s'rnUc'rUnE Eugene L. Niederhofer, Chicago, Ill. Application June 19, 1934, Serial No. 731,270

` 11 Claims. (Cl. 72-1l This invention relates to building structures.

One of the objects'of the invention is the provision of a new and improved building unit, or slab, for use in the construction of buildings.

Another object of theinvention is the provision of new and improved means for connecting together building slabs or units in the construction of the sides, walls, oors and roofs of buildings of various types and designs.

1o A further object of the invention is the provision of new and improved means for alining, reinforcing, and bracing the side walls of buildings constructed of units or slabs precast from cementitious material.

A still further object of the invention is the provision of new and improved means for temporarily connecting the units or precast slabs of a building preparatory to applying the permanent connections.

A further object of the invention is the provision of a cementitious building unit having new and improved means for reinforcing and bracing the same together with novel means for connecting the same to adjacent slabs or units in building constructions.

Other objects of the invention are the provision of new and improved method and means of fabricating buildings from precast units or slabs of cementitious reinforced material, whereby buildings may be erected at a minimum of expense and wherein such buildings -will be sightly, strong, permanent and durable.

Other and further objects and advantages of theinvention will appear from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is an elevation of a building embodying applicants invention;

Fig. 2 is a section on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is an inside view of one of the walls of the building showing the construction above the window with parts in section and parts broken away;

Fig. 4 is a section on the line 4 4 o f Fig. 3;

` Fig. 5 is' a section on the line 5-5 of Fig. 3;

Fig. 6 is a perspective detail of the means for securing the window lintel;

Fig. 7 is a perspective view of a portion of one of the walls of the building and a portion of the 50 floor showing the parts in position to be secured together;

Fig. 8 is a perspective view of a connecting means for the units or panels, showing the parts in assembled relation with parts broken away;

Fig. 9 is a perspective view of one of the iioor units or slabs with parts in section and parts broken away;

Fig. 10 is a section on the line Ill-I0 of Fig. 1; Fig. 11 is a horizontal section through one corner of the building with parts broken away; 5 Fig. 12 is a section on the line l2-I2 of Fig. 11. Fig. 13 is a perspective view of a portion of one of the floor slabs or units, showing an interlocking lug thereon;

Fig. 14is an elevation of one of the reinforc- 10 ing members for the iioor slab or unit;

Fig. 15 is a section on the line |5-l5 of Fig. 2; Fig. 16 is a section on the line lli- I6 of Fig. 2; Fig; 17 is a vertical section of a portion of the roof and of the ceiling structure, with parts 15 broken away;

Fig. 18 is a vertical section of the ridge of the roof with parts broken away;

Fig. 19 is a vertical section of the building substantially on the line I9-I9 of Fig. 2; 20

Fig. 20 is a section on the line 20-20 of Fig. 16;

Fig. 21 is a vertical section through the floor and ceiling in the interior of the building showing the supporting beam for the floor and with parts broken away; g5

Fig. 22 is a section on the line 22--22 of Fig. 21;

Fig. 23 is a perspective view of one of the building slabs or units;

Fig. 24 is a section through the first floor of the building, showing a modied form of sup- 30 porting bar for the oor;

Fig. 25 is a cross section through one of the ribs of the building unit, showing the edge of the rib as being provided with a composition nailing strip molded or cast integral with the rib; 35

Fig. 26 is a similar view, but showing a wooden mailing strip rigidly secured to the rib;

Fig. 27 is a vertical section through an outer wall in the floor of a modified form of construction; 40

Fig. 28 is a section on the line 28--28 of Fig. 27;

Fig. 29 is a top plan view of a modified form of a building slab or unit;

Fig. 30 is a vertical section through the roof and one wall section of a modied form of build- Ing:

Fig. 31 is a section on the line 3I-3I of Fig. 30;

Fig, 32 is a vertical section transversely to the 50 roof through a still further modified form of building structure;

Fig. 33 is a section on the line 33-33 of Fig. 32;

Fig. 34 is a section on the line 34-34 of Fig. 32;

Fig. 35 is a section through connecting plates 55 showing a modied form of gauge or positioning member;

Fig. 36 is a vertical section through the connecting mechanism for the panels showing a modified form of construction;

Fig. 37 is a vertical section through a press for molding the building slabs or units showing the same in released position;

Fig. 38 is a similar view, but showing the same in operative position with the material in place for forming the slab; f

Fig. Y39 is a vertical section through a portion of the press showing one of the brick attaching means in position in the slab;

Fig. 40 is a perspective view of the bottom wall of the press for holding the brick veneer in position while the slab is being cast;

Fig. 41 is a perspective view of a portion of one of the panels with the brick veneer in position thereon; and

Fig. 42 is an elevation of a portion of the building at the joint between two adjacent building units, showing one of the bricks extending across the meeting line and showing other blanks for the sealing bricks.

Referring now to the drawings, the reference character ID designates a building, which,for convenience of illustration is a dwelling constructed in accordance with the invention and represents one embodiment of the same by way of example' only. In this form of construction, the building is supported on a foundation II which maybe a continuation of the wall I2 of the basement extending below the level of the ground I3, as shown in Fig. 1, or it may be supported by pillars or columns set in the ground. The building is illustrated as being provided with a first oor, shown in dotted lines at I4, a ceiling and second floor, shown in dotted lines at I5, and a second floor ceiling shown in dotted lines at I6. The building is constructed of building units or slabs of cementitious material faced with brick, as will presently appear.

The building units or slabs may be of uniform size and construction, or they may be varied as to shape and size, depending on conditions and circumstances. Under ordinary building conditions, some, at least, of the units must be changed to meet the exigencies of the different requirements for the varied plans and specifications.

In the type of building units selected to illustrate one embodiment of the invention, the units are not all of uniform size, neither are they all of the same shape due to the type of roof shown, the height of the first floor above the foundation, the height of the other floor and ceilings, the provision for a Window opening, etc. However, the form of construction disclosed in Fig. 1 will serve to illustrate the invention. I n this form of structure, the vertical dotted lines I'I show the widths of the building units and the lengths or heights thereof are indicated by the horizontal dotted lines I4, I5 ,and I6. They preferably extend from floor to fioor of the building, `and the means for connecting the units together are utilized for connecting the Walls to the floor units, as will presently appear.

A window in the end wall of the building is shown at I8. the opening for which is partly in two adjoining panels or units, as clearly shown in Fig. 1.

A typical building slab unit or panel is shown at 2I in Fig. 23, portions of which are shown on an enlarged scale in Fig. 7, and comprises a plate and 2'I adjacent the upper and lower ends, re- 10 spectively, to strengthen the ribs at these points and through which extend openings 28 and 29 for bolts for connecting adjacent panels together, as will appear hereinafter.

The ribs may be braced by the reinforced bars 15 3| and' 32 adjacent the ends of the unit. These bars may be cast or molded with the unit and may be spaced from the Web or panel, as shown in Fig. 23, or, if desired, they may be integral with the web portion, as shown at 32 and 33 on the 20 slab 34 in Fig. 29.

The ribs 23, 24 and 25 constitute columns for supporting the weight of the building and for transferring the stress of said weight and of the weight of the iioors to the supporting foundation. 25

Suitable means are provided for reinforcing the units or slabs. Any suitable means may be employed for this purpose.

In the form of construction shown, a pair of rods 35 extend longitudinally of the slab or unit adjacent the base of each rib, and another pair 36 adjacent the outer edge of each rib (see Figs. 8 and 7). The arrangement is also shown in Fig. 9 which shows a floor slab, but since the arrangement of the reinforcing ends is substantially the 35 same, the showing in Fig. 9 will assist in under standing the arrangement. Adjacent to the ends of the rods, bracing rods 31, arranged diagonally and welded to the rods 35 and 36 (see Figs. 8 and 19) are provided for reinforcing the ribs at the points of greatest shearing stress and also where the stress in concrete is transferred to the steel. These lateral brace members may be formed from a single rod bent to extend diagonally from one set of rods to the other, and vice versa, as shown in said figures. Reinforcing rods 9 (see Fig. 7) extending transversely of the slabs may also be employed.

Appropriate means are provided for connecting the units together. As shown, it is accomplished 50 vided with openings in alignment with the open- 6( ings 28 and 29 through the concrete, as clearly shown in Fig. 20.

Each of the plates at the upper end of the panel 2I (see Figs. 7 and 23) is also provided with openings 45 and 46 outwardly of the ribs (see 55 Figs. 20 and 23) for receiving the holding or positioning bolts and with an enlarged opening 4'I for receiving the supporting keys or bolts. as will presently appear.

The exposed ends of the plates 42, 43 and 44 at 7( the lower end of the slab or panel are each provided with an opening 48 (see Figs. '7 and 23) for receiving a positioning bolt and an enlarged opening 49 for receiving a supporting key or bolt. Each of the plates at the ends of the outer ribs 7.

is provided with a threaded opening in which is adjustably secured gauging or positioning studs 50 (see Figs. 20 and 23) for positioning the units relative to each other. The studs abut each other or one may have a socket on its end for receiving the other, as shown at 500 (see Fig. 35) Suitable nuts on the ends of the studs 50 are adapted to hold the studs in adjusted position.

The unit or slab may have a coat 5| of any suitable finishing material on its outer side. As shown more particularly in Figs. 7, 23, 41 and' 42, the panel 2| is covered with a brick veneer 52, each alternate row of bricks stopping short of the edges of the panel a distance of one-half brick, as clearly shown in Fig. 42, so that when the slabs or units are' in position, additional bricks may be applied to occupy the space formed by the adjoining spaces of two adjacent units.

The plates 42, 43 and 44 have their lowerends offset, as shown in Fig. 20, so that when the parts are assembled, the ribs of the vertically aligned slabs will be held in vertical alignment or the plates at one end of rib may be arranged at one side of the center line of the same.

'I'he corner slabs or units 53 may, if desired, be constructed with heavy corner posts, as shown at 54 in Figs. 2 and 10. The unit 53 is provided with the usual ribs 55, 56 and 51 which correspond to the ribs 23, 25 and 24 of the panel 2|, see Fig. 23, with the exception that the rib 55 is moved inwardly from one edge of the panel in spaced relation to the post. 54. As shown more clearly in Figs. 11 and 12 of the drawings, the panel 53 of one end of the building is secured to Vthe rib 23a of the panel 2 la of a side of the build-` ing by suitable bolts 58 which are anchored in the post 54 by a metal insert 59 having a keyway 8| lior receiving the head of the bolt. In attaching Athe parts together, the bolt is inserted in the enlarged opening 62'of the keyway and is slid into the restricted opening 63 which retains the head in position, as shown more particularly in Fig. 1l. A suitable nut engaging the end of the bolt secures the parts in adjusted relation. If desired, shims 64 may be inserted between the vrib 23a and the post 54 to prevent breakage of the rib 23a when the parts are drawn together. The adjacent corners of the post 54 and thel web portion l22a o f the panel 2|a are beveled andform a recess 65 having inclined walls for receiving a mas-v tic 66 of any suitable waterproofing material for .preventing the entrance of moisture at the joint.

Preferably, though not necessarily, the floor supports are similar to the building units and comprise a plurality of floor slabs or units which are adapted to be attached to the walls of the building and engage supports within the building. Each of the floor slabs 81 (see Figs. 'I and 9) com- .prise a web or plate portion 68 having ribs 69 and 1| extending along the side edges thereof and one or more intermediate ribs 12. The ribs .are provided with reinforcing rods or bars 13 and 14 which correspond to the reinforcing rods 35 and 36 of the building unit 2|. These'rods may be provided with a bracing member 15 arranged diagonally between the two sets of rods, as in the previous construction. Attaching plates 16 and J1 rigidly attached to the rods embedded in the ribs, extend outwardly beyond the units to form attaching means, as clearly shown in Fig. 7. Each of these plates is provided with an opening 18 for the reception of the supporting key or bolt 'and with openings 19 and 8| above and below the bpening 18 for receiving the securing or positioning bolts. 'I'he web portion 68 of the slab may be provided with reinforcing rods 82 extending transversely of the slab. The slab that extends alongside the inner wall of the building is preferably provided with a lug orprojection 8,3 (see Figs. 7 and 13) for constituting means forv connecting the floor to the side wall, as will presently appear. The projection 83 is flush with the outer edge of the web 88 which extends slightly beyond the face of the rib 1|. The web `|8'als'o extends inwardly slightly beyond the rib 69,fas shown in Fig. 9 of the drawings.

In floors having long spans orv carrying heavy loads either uniformly distributed or concentrated, it may be necessary to provide additional shear reinforcement for theslabs. This may be accomplished by providing additional reinforcing rods 84 extending between the reinforcing rods 13 and 14, as shown in Fig. 14 of the drawings. An additional reinforcing rod 85between the rods 13 and 14 and extending longitudinally of the ribs, may also be provided for reinforcing said ribs.

Suitable means are provided forconnecting the building and oor units together to-form a building structure. In the erectionjo'f thej building, it is desirable that means be provided for temporarily holding certain of thepartstogether while the other parts are being placed'in position. In the form of construction selected to illustrate 'one embodiment of the invention, `suitablefbolts or pins are provided for this purpose. `"Assuming that a wall of the building has been partially erected, the building and floor'units'2l and 68 are erected ina manner that will now be' del scribed. The floor unit 68 is moved into position openings 48, 45 and 19 for holding the plates 4on the units in position, as, clearly shown infv Fig. 8 of the drawings. A key'or'bolt 88 may then be placed in position throughthe bearing openings 49, 41 and 18 (see Fig. 8) of the' platestonnthe center ribs of the building units and floor slabsl Adjacent units are attached in ther Vsame'manner to the units below and are vsecured.together by bolts 89 which extendthrough openings 29 in the outer ribs, as clearly shown in-Fig. 20. Ifde-r sired, shims 9| may be provided between adjacent ribs for forming a rigid'connection between the same. After these units are attached to the floor and walls, as described, the supporting keys88 are driven into position. These keys make a tight fit. A spacer block between the supporting plates on the bolt 88' is provided'for eachbolt that connects adjacent slabs. l

The oor slabs are connected togetherfbysuitai ble bolts 60 extending through adjacent'ribsrotfl adjacent slabs, as shown in Fig. 10.` shims 48 may be inserted between the ribs. The *gaugingl bolts or studs 50 are so'adju'sted that the ends of the same will come in Acontact for limiting the edgewise movement of the units and for insuring the walls due to wind pressure,but'pgtheylaens'e; ful in plumbing the walls an'dfformainytaini'ng them invertical position. 'l f suitable supports or beams 92, whichfix'i turn may 1n Fig". 2.

The inner ends of the floor slabsg I"rest on The side edges of the outermost floor slabs are secured to what for convenience of description will be termed the end walls of the building by anchoring bolts 95 (see Figs. 10 and 19) which extend through the rib 1| of the floor unit and has its outer end provided with an eye for receiving the supporting bolt 88 of the end panels. Additional I-bolt 96 may also be provided for anchoring the floor slab to the other ribs of the building units in the end wall of the structure, as clearly indicated in Fig. 10 of the drawings.

Suitable forms 91 and 98 (see Figs. 16 and 19) are provided adjacent to the connections between the floor and building slabs and when connecting plates have been secured together, these forms are filled with concrete which embeds the plates, bolts and nuts, and also lls in the space around the keys or projections 83, as indicated in Fig. 19 for locking the parts together. This concrete forms struts 99 between the ribs of the building units at the end of the building and also struts |0| extending longitudinally of the building between the ribs of the building units thereof, as shown more clearly in Fig. 10 of the drawings. In this gure, the struts 99 and |0| are broken away for the sake of clearness. Since they extend entirely around the building, they will prevent chimney action in removing the warm air from the building during the cold season, and, as a result, dead air space will be provided between the ribs.

The window opening may be located entirely within one of the panels, as shown in Fig. l5, or it may be located partly in one panel and partly in another, as shown in Figs. 1 and 3 of the drawings. When the opening is entirely within one of the panels, the window frame |02 may be molded integral with the side panel, as'

shown in Fig. 15. The usual wooden window frame may be inserted in this window opening.

When the window opening is formed in two adjacent panels, each panel has a laterally extending portion over the window frame |05 having short ribs |04. The lintel |06 of the window may be formed of`cement, embedded within which is an I-beam |01. The I-beam |01 has its upper flange cut away at each end and projects at each end oeyond the concrete of the lintel |06. The lower flanges of the ends of the'I-beam |01 each rest on and are secured to brackets |08 (see Fig. 6). Each bracket |08 is carried by a plate |09 embedded in concrete rib |0. A bifurcated plate is also rigidly secured to the plate |09 and before the parts are assembled extends upwardly adjacent to andY parallel with the plate |09. When the lintel|06 is secured in position, the

upper end of the plate is bent outwardly and.

downwardly to cause the bifurcated portions to engage on each side of the web ||2 of the I-beam |01. Wedge shims |00 are driven between the lintel and the metal plates in the ribs |04 for transmitting the stress of the weight to the lintel and to the side ribs of the adjacent panels. Suitable filler members ||3 may be inser'ted between the inner portion ||4 of the window casing and the window lintel. The reinforcing ribs of the slabs at each side of the window may be modified to accommodate the window opening and its frame.

The supporting portion of the roof may also be slabs or building units ||5 (see Figs. 16 to 19) having the attaching plates |6 at the lower ends of the roofing slabs or units turned down vertically, as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 16 for attachment to the corresponding attaching plates of the oor and building units or slabs. Each of the roof slabs or units has cast monolithically therewith a layer of light material ||1 capable of receiving nails for holding the roofing material in position on the slabs. The roofing slabs are 5 connected together in a manner similar to that already described. At the upper or ridge portion of the roof, the securing plates ||8 and ||9 of adjoining slabs from opposite sides of the roof overlap and are secured by pins or keys |20 for 10 holding the parts together. If desired, the upper ends of the slabs may be beveled to form a groove along the ridge of the roof for receiving a waterproof mastic |2|, as shown in Fig. 18.

In buildings where the ceiling for the upper 15 room is secured to the roof portion of the building, the roof slabs are provided with downwardly and inwardly extending plates secured to the re inforcing rods of the ribs, as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 17, to which the attaching plates |22 of the ceiling slabs |23 are secured by the positioning bolts |24 and the keys |25.

Forms |26 and |21 are provided beneath the connecting portions of the roof and side wall slabs and between the roof and ceiling slabs which are filled with concrete for embedding the exposed portions of the metal connecting plates and for strengthening the connecting parts.

The lower ends of the roof slabs are extended to form the eaves |28 of the roof beneath which 30 suitable finishing material |29 may be provided. The roof slabs at the ends of the roof are also extended outwardly beyond the end wall of the building as shown at |30 in Figs. 1 and 19.

The building slabs in the gables of the roof -e'ach has its upper end provided with an inwardly extending flange |3| (see Fig. 19) conforming to the inclination of the roof and this fiange is recessed as at |32 for receiving a waterproof mastic,

as asphalt or the like, for rendering the joint between the end and roof slabs waterproof.

When the parts are assembled, the recesses |32 in the adjacent slabs form a continuous groove the full height of the roof, as will be understood from an inspection of Figs. 19 and 33. 45

The building may be provided with load carrying partitions |33 (see Fig. 21) These partitions are preferably located above one of the supporting beams 92 at the juncture of the floor slabs 68. The partition comprises the building unit or slab ,.0 2 |-b which may be similar to the building slab 2| o (shown in Fig. 23). The reinforcing plates |34 of the slab 2 |b is connected to the plates 11 of the iloor slabs by the means above described, including the keys |35 which support the load. The slab |33 is provided on each side with the usual plaster base |36 having insulating properties and on which the plaster |31 for the wall is secured.

Wedge shims |38 may be driven beneath the plates 11 and the slab |33 for transferring the 60 stresses directly to the beam 92.

Filler or spacer plates |30 and |40 are welded to the supporting plates 16 of adjacent floor slabs (see Fig. 22) and constitute means for preventing the bending of the bolt |35 by placing the G5 same under shear.

Suitable means are provided for anchoring the building to the foundation, as shown more particularly in Figs. 16, 27 and 28. The foundation 2 is provided with an enlarged opening |39 which 70 is adapted to receive the lower end of an anchor |4|. In securing the parts in assembled relation, the Wall slabs are placed in position, after which the anchor |4| is inserted in the opening |39.and grout or cement placed in the opening around the lower end of the anchor |4|l as clearly shown in said figures.

The vupper end of the anchor |4| which is bent laterally after being placed inposition is enclosed in cement, as shown f in said gures, thereby anchoring the walls to the foundation. A suitable number of these anchoring devices are employed along both the sides and ends of the building for properly anchoring the same to the foundation.

Where the floor is at the ground level, as shown in Figs. 27 and 28, the connecting plates |42 of the ribs of the building unit adjacent to the foundation may be provided with feet or flanges |43 for resting on said foundation, as clearlyv shown in Fig. 28.

Instead of using floor supporting beams of cementitious material, as shown at 92 in Fig. 21, metal beams |44 may be provided as shown in Fig.

Suitable angle plates |45 (see-Fig. 24) have their horizontal flanges connected to the flanges ofthe beam |44, as by means of bolts |46, and have their vertical portions provided with an opening for receiving the supporting key or bolt |41, thus rigidly securing the iloor slabs together and to the metal beam |44.

In Figs. 32, 33 and 34 is shown'a modification of the device in which the floors and roof are Vsupported by metal beams or bars instead of floor and roof slabs. As shown, these members are channel bars 200 and have-their web portions provided with openings for the reception of the posi-y tioning bolts 86and 81 and the supporting key or bolt 88,` as shown in Fig. 32. These supports are anchored to the end walls of the building by the eye-bolts 95 and 96 (see Fig. 33) which extend through the webs of the channel bars, as clearly shown in said figures. The flanges of these bars may have nailing strips |48 and |49 (see Fig. 32) to which the floors and ceilings may be attached.

The roof supporting bars ||v may also be U-shaped in cross section and have their web portionv attached to the upper ends ofthe supporting plates of the building units at the-side of the building. Their upper ends are connected together by a. plate |52 (see Fig. 32) kwhich is bolted to the upper ends of adjacent bars; These bars or beams may have. nailing strips |53 secured to their upper flanges to which the roof |54 may be attached. The floor supporting beams may have angle bars |59 secured thereto which function as keys similar to the keys or lugs 83 (see Fig. 13). Shims |60 between the floor beams and walls slabs are employed to func# tion as the shims |03, Fig. 19.

In Figs. 30 and 31 is shown a further' modified form of structure. In this construction the roof is flat and supported by the roof slabs |55. The roof slabs |55 are connected to the building units or slabs 2| in the manner already described. An additional wall slab |56 is attached to the slab 2| and extend upwardly therefrom to forma finished appearance to the upper portion of the building. AThe roof slab |55 ls similar to-the floor slab 68. and is provided vwith a flange |51 which is adapted to be attached to the end wall by eye bolts 95 similar to the oor slabs.

In Fig. 36 is shown a modified form of spacer member for the ribs of ,the building units 2|. Instead of using the shms 9| (see Fig. 20) a suitable member |58-preferably, compressible--such as fiber or composition material is employed. The adjacent bosses 26 of adjacent ribs 23 and 24 of theunits 2| are provided with conical recesses for receiving the spacer member |58, and when the holding bolt 89 is attached, the nut is screwed down to cause the compressible material to occupy the entire space of these recesses, thereby holding the building slabs or units'rmly together, and preventing uneven settling of the building with the consequent cracking of the walls.

In Figs. 37 to 40 is shown a means of casting the brick veneer onto the slab 2|. As shown, the reference character |59 indicates a mold having a bottom wall |6| on which is adapted to rest a plate of rubber or other compressible material The plate |62 is provided with a series of ribs |63 outlining recesses for receiving brick which are placed in position therein before the casting operation. The mold is provided with fixed side walls` |64 and with a movable side wall |65. The wall '|65 is'moved in and out by means of ascre |66 extending through a fixed lug |61.

The screw |66 is adapted to be operated by a. hand crank |68. `A slab form |69 is adapted t0 be detachably inserted in the mold |59. The recesses for the bricks are arranged in rows and each alternate rowis provided at its ends with projections |1| and |12, respectively. Each of these projections is provided with a recess |13 for receiving an anchoring member |14."

The projections |1| and |12 at each alternate y row are substantially one-half the length rof a brick; so that when the slab is cast, each alternate row of brick will be flush with the end of the slab and each of the other rows will stop short of the end of the length of one-half brick, as-shown at |14 in Fig. 41.

'In lmolding the slab, the bricks are placed in position in the recesses in the mold |62 and the movable wall advanced to cause the ribs |63 to be clamped between the bricks, thereby prevent-` ing cementitious material from passing tothe underside of the brick when the slab is cast.

Cement or cementitious material is then poured in the mold, thereby casting the kslab with the brick veneer on its. outer surface. In order to locate the brick more firmly in position, .brick having dove-tail slots.|15 therein (see'Fig. 41) may be employed. The ribs |63 leave sufcient space between the bricks, as shown at |16, for receiving a suitable mortar trim, as may be desired.

It willthus be seen that when the slabs are connected together to form a wall, as shown in Fig. 42, theV space |14 will form a recess for receiving an additionall brick, thereby completing the wall. This brick, as shown at |11, is attached by cementand the anchoring member |14 entering the groovev |15 and cement contained therein wlll=anchor the brick'in position.r

While forms for the'concrete struts are not shown about all of the slab connecting plates, it is understood that such'construction is ldesirable although in some instances not necessary. Embedding these plates inconcrete will protect them andthe concrete will also form struts between the ribs. v Y f `Preferably, though not necessarily, all four edges of the slabs or units are beveled and that a. mastic of waterproof material as asphalt or the like is inserted in the grooves or channels formed by these beveled edges, thereby rendering the joints waterproof. Mortar of the desired color to match the brick veneer or finishing surface of the building may be Aapplied in the outerportions of these grooves to causethe walls to have a finished appearance.

It will thus be seen that with a minimum of effort a building may be erected and that when erected it will be strong and durable and if the slabs have a brick veneer on their outer surface, the walls when nished will have the appearance of solid brick walls.

It will also be appreciated that by the use of the connecting plates extending from the reinforcing ribsthe openings for the load supporting bolts or keys and for the holding and gauging bolts may be accurately drilled so that with the aid of wedging shims the walls will be true and the load supporting keys will be maintained under shear and will not be subjected to a bending action. This is considered an important feature of the invention since these keys constitute an important element in theload supporting structure. Furthermore. the weight on the floors will be transferred to the walls and from there through the plates, keys and ribs of the building units of the walls directly to the foundation.

It is thought from the foregoing taken in connection with the accompanying drawings that the construction and operation of my device will be apparent to those skilled in the art and that changes in size, shape, proportion and details of construction may be made without departing from the .spirit and scope of the appended claims.

What I claim, therefore, is:-

l. In a building structure formed of concrete building slabs, each slab having vertically extending strengthening ribs, means including plates for connecting said ribs together whereby a wall is formed, said wall having a window opening therein, a lintel extending across the top of said opening, said lintel having an iron bar extending through said lintel, means on adjacent ribs for connecting said bar thereto for supporting the same, and means on said 'ribs for positioning said bar.

2. In a building structure formed of concrete building slabs, each slab having vertically extending strengthening ribs, means including plates for connecting said ribs together whereby a wall is formed, said wall having a window opening therein, a lintel extending across the top of said opening, said lintel having an iron bar extending through said lintel, means on adjacent ribs for connecting said bar thereto for supporting the same, a bifurcated plate on an adjacent rib bent outwardly for engaging said bar for positioning the same, and wedge shims driven between said bar and certain of said plates.

3. In a building structure, a plurality of building slabs, each slab comprising a plate portion, ribs adjacent the edges of said plate portion and at least one other rib between said first-named ribs, reinforcing members embedded within said plate portion and ribs, attaching plates extending outwardly from the ends of said ribs, certain of said plates having their outer ends offset, a plurality of floor slabs having strengthening ribs, reinforcing members embedded within said ribs and slabs, said members comprising a pair of parallel rods adjacent the base of said ribs, another pair of rods adjacent the outer edge of said ribs and rods extending diagonally from one pair of rods to the other adjacent the ends thereof, connecting plates welded'to the ends of said pairs of rods, means for connecting ribs of laterally adjacent slabs together, positioning bolts for connecting said platestogetlier and supporting keys for connecting said plates together and for supporting said slabs, and means for preventing bending action on said keys, said means maintaining said keys under shear.

4. In a building structure, a concrete slab having a plurality of parallel ribs extending longi'- tudinally thereof, one adjacent each edge of said slab, reinforcing rods within each rib, attaching plates rigidly secured to the ends of said rods and extending outwardly beyond the ends of said ribs, each of said plates having an opening for the reception of a supporting key and an opening above and below said first-named opening for the reception of retaining bolts, bosses on the sides of said ribs having openings extending therethrough and through the inner ends of said plates for the reception of slab connecting bolts, and positioning bolts adjustably mounted in certain of said ribs and extending laterally therefrom.

5. In a building structure, a concrete slab having a rib extending along each longitudinal edge of the slab, reinforcing rods within each rib extending longitudinally thereof, attaching plates welded to said rods and extending outwardly bebeyond the ends of said ribs, and a layer of light cernentitious nail retaining material cast on the outer surface of said slab.

6. In a building structure, a plurality of concrete building slabs arranged in horizontal and vertical rows, each slab having a plate portion and strengthening ribs along the side edges of said slab, reinforcing rods extending longitudinally of said ribs, reinforcing rods extending transversely of said plate portion, attaching plates embedded within the ends of said ribs and extending outwardly therefrom, means for connecting the ribs of laterally adjacent slabs together, metallic floor supporting beams, and means for connecting the ends of said beamsl an'd connecting plates together.

'7. In a building structure, a plurality of concrete building slabs arranged in horizontal and vertical rows, each slab having a plate portion and strengthening ribs along the side edges of said slab, reinforcing rods extending longitudinally of said ribs, reinforcing rods extending transversely of said plate portion, attaching plates embedded within the ends of said ribs and extending outwardly therefrom, means for connecting the ribs of laterally adjacent slabs together, roof supporting metallic beams and means for connecting said beams to certain of the upper plates of the upper horizontal row of said slabs, and means for connecting the inner ends of said beams together for supporting a roof.

8. A building unit comprising a pre-cast slab of concrete having a rib extending along each side edge thereof and each terminating at one end short of the end of said slab and at the other end flush with the end of said slab, reinforcing rods within each of said ribs, and plates secured to said rods within said ribs and extending outwardly beyond the ends of said ribs, each plate being provided with an opening for receiving a supporting key and other openings for receiving assembling bolts, each of said ribs being provided adjacent each end with adjustable positioning studs extending through the inner ends of said plates.

9. A building unit comprising a pre-cast slab having a rib along each side edge of said slab on one side thereof, said ribs having bosses on their outer sides at their ends and having openings therethrough for connecting bolts, said ribs having metallic reinforcing elements extending longitudinally thereof, plates having their inner ends within said ribs and secured to said elements and having their outer ends extending outwardly beyond said ribs, said plates having openings through their outer end portions for receiving assembling bolts and supporting keys, and adjustable positioning bolts extending through said ribs' for positioning said slab when the same is used in a building structure.

10. A building unit comprising a pre-cast slab of concrete having ribs disposed on a face along the longitudinal edges thereof and provided with reinforcing members within said ribs terminating in apertured connecting portions projecting beyond the respective ends of the ribs for connection to similar connecting portions of subjacent and superjacent slabs, and positioning members projecting laterally from the slab adjacent the ends thereof for abutting contact with similarly positioned cooperating members of adjacent slabs.

11. A building unit comprising a pre-cast slab of concrete, having ribs disposed on a face adjacent the longitudinal edges thereof and provided with reinforcing members within said ribs terminating in apertured connecting portions projecting beyond the respective ends of the ribs for connection to cooperating connecting portions of subjacent and superjacent slabs, and spacing members at the lateral edges of the ribs for spacing and aligning the unit with respect to adjacent units during erection.

EUGENE L. NIEDERHOFER.

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Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2543122A (en) * 1945-02-13 1951-02-27 Henry C Mortenson Building structure
US2711786A (en) * 1953-11-10 1955-06-28 Alexander C Weiss Combined bench and advertising device
US2950786A (en) * 1954-01-27 1960-08-30 Markle Lafayette Building system
US3162982A (en) * 1959-02-09 1964-12-29 Jr Clarence B Monk Load bearing multiple panel unit
US3204376A (en) * 1962-04-18 1965-09-07 Elgenstierna Reinhold Magnus Wall unit with plural layers and transverse tie
US3248836A (en) * 1963-06-17 1966-05-03 Structural Clay Products Inst External wall panel and wall formed therefrom
US3251165A (en) * 1962-12-24 1966-05-17 Bennie M Tyler Unitary brick and concrete tilt-up wall sections and molds for producing
US3304673A (en) * 1964-03-26 1967-02-21 Louis V Ramoneda Simulated brick structure
US3436892A (en) * 1966-01-07 1969-04-08 Haim Slavin Method of producing concrete panel assemblies
US3495367A (en) * 1965-12-21 1970-02-17 Hideya Kobayashi Precast lightweight reinforced concrete plank
US3579937A (en) * 1969-05-29 1971-05-25 Edward E Lukens Foam plastic panel without truss members
US3882649A (en) * 1971-03-05 1975-05-13 Francis Mah Interlocked modular building system
US3990193A (en) * 1972-04-18 1976-11-09 Ray Orlando F Prefabricated building module and modular construction method for the module
US4185423A (en) * 1978-03-27 1980-01-29 Systems Concept, Inc. Lightweight building module
DE2908995A1 (en) * 1979-03-08 1980-09-11 Cichos Geb Schloesser Baerbel Structure with plate-beam-
US5507124A (en) * 1991-09-17 1996-04-16 The Board Of Regents Of The University Concrete framing system
US5950390A (en) * 1998-04-20 1999-09-14 Jones; Jack Pre-cast concrete building module
US6494639B1 (en) 1999-05-01 2002-12-17 Universal Services, Inc. Primary connector for pre-cast structures
US20030154674A1 (en) * 2000-01-20 2003-08-21 Oliver Matthaei Reinforced or pre-stressed concrete part which is subjected to a transverse force
US20050210785A1 (en) * 2004-03-10 2005-09-29 Way Alven J Multi-storey insulated foam building
US20070152551A1 (en) * 2006-01-03 2007-07-05 Lg Electronics Inc. Fixing structure of insulation panel of prefabricated refrigerator and prefabricated refrigerator having the same
US20090188193A1 (en) * 2008-01-24 2009-07-30 Nucor Corporation Flush joist seat
US20100077675A1 (en) * 2008-09-30 2010-04-01 Seavy Richard J Dwelling complex
US20100107514A1 (en) * 2008-11-04 2010-05-06 Integrated Structures, Inc. Methods and apparatus for a building roof structure
US20100162655A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Methods and apparatus for concrete panel connections
US20100162658A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
US20100162651A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Concrete roof panel
US20100192507A1 (en) * 2008-01-24 2010-08-05 Nucor Corporation Flush joist seat
US7784223B1 (en) 2000-05-31 2010-08-31 Ramey Larry E Three hundred mile per hour wind resistive building
US20110203217A1 (en) * 2010-02-19 2011-08-25 Nucor Corporation Weldless Building Structures
US8490363B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2013-07-23 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
US9004835B2 (en) 2010-02-19 2015-04-14 Nucor Corporation Weldless building structures

Cited By (45)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2543122A (en) * 1945-02-13 1951-02-27 Henry C Mortenson Building structure
US2711786A (en) * 1953-11-10 1955-06-28 Alexander C Weiss Combined bench and advertising device
US2950786A (en) * 1954-01-27 1960-08-30 Markle Lafayette Building system
US3162982A (en) * 1959-02-09 1964-12-29 Jr Clarence B Monk Load bearing multiple panel unit
US3204376A (en) * 1962-04-18 1965-09-07 Elgenstierna Reinhold Magnus Wall unit with plural layers and transverse tie
US3251165A (en) * 1962-12-24 1966-05-17 Bennie M Tyler Unitary brick and concrete tilt-up wall sections and molds for producing
US3248836A (en) * 1963-06-17 1966-05-03 Structural Clay Products Inst External wall panel and wall formed therefrom
US3304673A (en) * 1964-03-26 1967-02-21 Louis V Ramoneda Simulated brick structure
US3495367A (en) * 1965-12-21 1970-02-17 Hideya Kobayashi Precast lightweight reinforced concrete plank
US3436892A (en) * 1966-01-07 1969-04-08 Haim Slavin Method of producing concrete panel assemblies
US3579937A (en) * 1969-05-29 1971-05-25 Edward E Lukens Foam plastic panel without truss members
US3882649A (en) * 1971-03-05 1975-05-13 Francis Mah Interlocked modular building system
US3990193A (en) * 1972-04-18 1976-11-09 Ray Orlando F Prefabricated building module and modular construction method for the module
US4185423A (en) * 1978-03-27 1980-01-29 Systems Concept, Inc. Lightweight building module
DE2908995A1 (en) * 1979-03-08 1980-09-11 Cichos Geb Schloesser Baerbel Structure with plate-beam-
US4372088A (en) * 1979-03-08 1983-02-08 Barbel Cichos Structure with slab beams
US5507124A (en) * 1991-09-17 1996-04-16 The Board Of Regents Of The University Concrete framing system
US5950390A (en) * 1998-04-20 1999-09-14 Jones; Jack Pre-cast concrete building module
US6494639B1 (en) 1999-05-01 2002-12-17 Universal Services, Inc. Primary connector for pre-cast structures
US20030154674A1 (en) * 2000-01-20 2003-08-21 Oliver Matthaei Reinforced or pre-stressed concrete part which is subjected to a transverse force
US7874110B2 (en) * 2000-01-20 2011-01-25 Oliver Matthaei Reinforced or pre-stressed concrete part which is subjected to a transverse force
US7784223B1 (en) 2000-05-31 2010-08-31 Ramey Larry E Three hundred mile per hour wind resistive building
US8186128B2 (en) * 2004-03-10 2012-05-29 Way Alven J Multi-storey insulated concrete foam building
US20050210785A1 (en) * 2004-03-10 2005-09-29 Way Alven J Multi-storey insulated foam building
US20070152551A1 (en) * 2006-01-03 2007-07-05 Lg Electronics Inc. Fixing structure of insulation panel of prefabricated refrigerator and prefabricated refrigerator having the same
US8117792B2 (en) * 2006-01-03 2012-02-21 Lg Electronics Inc. Fixing structure of insulation panel of prefabricated refrigerator and prefabricated refrigerator having the same
US8186122B2 (en) * 2008-01-24 2012-05-29 Glenn Wayne Studebaker Flush joist seat
US8245480B2 (en) 2008-01-24 2012-08-21 Nucor Corporation Flush joist seat
US20100192507A1 (en) * 2008-01-24 2010-08-05 Nucor Corporation Flush joist seat
US20090188193A1 (en) * 2008-01-24 2009-07-30 Nucor Corporation Flush joist seat
US20100077675A1 (en) * 2008-09-30 2010-04-01 Seavy Richard J Dwelling complex
US8484907B2 (en) * 2008-11-04 2013-07-16 Integrated Structures, Inc. Methods and apparatus for a building roof structure
US20100107514A1 (en) * 2008-11-04 2010-05-06 Integrated Structures, Inc. Methods and apparatus for a building roof structure
US8763317B2 (en) * 2008-12-31 2014-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Concrete roof panel
US20100162658A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
US8132388B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2012-03-13 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
US20100162655A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Methods and apparatus for concrete panel connections
US8397467B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2013-03-19 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Methods and apparatus for concrete panel connections
US20100162651A1 (en) * 2008-12-31 2010-07-01 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Concrete roof panel
US8490363B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2013-07-23 The Spancrete Group, Inc. Modular concrete building
US9267527B2 (en) 2010-02-19 2016-02-23 Nucor Corporation Weldless building structures
US8529178B2 (en) 2010-02-19 2013-09-10 Nucor Corporation Weldless building structures
US8636456B2 (en) 2010-02-19 2014-01-28 Nucor Corporation Weldless building structures
US20110203217A1 (en) * 2010-02-19 2011-08-25 Nucor Corporation Weldless Building Structures
US9004835B2 (en) 2010-02-19 2015-04-14 Nucor Corporation Weldless building structures

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