US2171338A - Building member and construction - Google Patents

Building member and construction Download PDF

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Publication number
US2171338A
US2171338A US232330A US23233038A US2171338A US 2171338 A US2171338 A US 2171338A US 232330 A US232330 A US 232330A US 23233038 A US23233038 A US 23233038A US 2171338 A US2171338 A US 2171338A
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slabs
building
flanges
slab
construction
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US232330A
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Henderson Albert
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WILLIAM P WITHEROW
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WILLIAM P WITHEROW
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/92Protection against other undesired influences or dangers
    • E04B1/94Protection against other undesired influences or dangers against fire
    • E04B1/941Building elements specially adapted therefor
    • E04B1/943Building elements specially adapted therefor elongated
    • E04B1/944Building elements specially adapted therefor elongated covered with fire-proofing material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/0023Building characterised by incorporated canalisations
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2481Details of wall panels
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2484Details of floor panels or slabs

Description

Aug. 29, 1939. A, HENDERSON 2,171
BUILDING 4MEMBER AND CONSTRUCTION Filed sept. 29, 1938 5 sheets-sheet 1 INVENTOR o) Albert Ifenderson Allg 29, 1939- A. HENDERSON 2,171,338
BUILDING MEMBER AND CONSTRUCTION Filed sept. 29, 1958v 5 sheets-sheet 2 IIVENTR [bert Henderson f7 eb Aug. 29, 1939. A. HENDERSON BUILDING MEMBER AND CONSTRUCTION Fiied'sept. 29, 195s 5 sheets-sheets lll/ll INVENTO R lb ert Henderson 44 M1 fm Aug. .'29, 1939. A. HENDERSON 2,171,338
BUILDING MEMBER AND CONSTRUCTION I |NVENTO`R l bert Hend erson 'lf I Y l 9 A119129, 1939.` ,1- HENDERSON 2,171,338
BUILDING MEMBER AND CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept'. 29, 1938 5 Sheets-Sheet INVENTOR l Z bertHencZeJzson y my UQ-0, MXM
' oors, partitions, spandrels, coping,
Patented Aug. 29,` 193i) UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,171,338 BUILDING MEMBER AND CONSTRUCTION Albert Henderson,y Pittsburgh. Pa., assigner to William P.Witherow, Pittsburgh, Pa.
' Application september 29,1938, serial N0. 232,330
8 Claims.
that buildings may be erected much more quickly and much nfore cheaply than at-present.
One method of laying the floors in steel frame buildings now widely practiced requires the crection of shorlng, the building of forms thereon, the placing of hollow tile on the forms, the distribution of reinforcing bars between thel tile, and the pouring of concrete on the form as Well as the pouring of a second or finishing layer of concrete to cover any conduits required to be imbedded in the form. 'I'his mode of construction is slow and very costly. The pouring of concrete in the i'eld'furthermore is dependent on weather conditions and sometimesrequires special precautions to avoid freezing. The manner of making provision for the numerous [conduits now required in modern building construction is quite a serious problem.
I have invented a building member and a construction Which the latter makes possible whereby the aforementioned objections to the previous types of building construction are largely overcome if not entirely eliminated. In a preferred form the inventionl comprises a precast slab adapted to serve a variety of purposes in the construction of a modern type building, such as roofing, pilasters', etc. The slabs serve as fire-proofing enclosures for the various members of the usual steel building frame. They are oi channel section and have elongated slots in their flanges to permit the passage of conduits therethrough in various directions. By the use.of these slabs it is possible to enclose a building substantially as rapidly as the steel framework is erected. Fur
ther details and advantages of the invention will be brought out in the course of the following description which refers to the accompanying drawings illustrating a preferred embodiment of slab and indicates certain of its uses.. In the draw` ings:
Fig. 1 is a partial plan View of a iioor composed of the slabs of my invention;
Fig.'2 is a sectional view taken substantially along lines II-II of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken substantially along lines III-III of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is an end view of the slab; Fig. 5 is a partial side elevation of a building eonstructed by the use ofthe slab of my invenion;
Fig. 6 is a sectional View taken substantially along the lines VI-VI of Fig. 5; 7 is a sectional View taken substantially along the lines VII-VII of Fig. 2 except that it -vshows two floors;
Fig. 8 is an enlarged transverse section through the slab;
Fig. 9 is a partial transverse section through a pair of slabs disposed in side-by-side abutting rcf lation and illustrating the manner of scaling the joint therebetween;
Fig. 10 isa transverse section through a slab having nailing strips incorporated therein;
Fig. l1 is a partial longitudinal section through a pair of'slabs disposed in end-to-end relation and resting on a supporting beam; Fig. 12 is a similar view illustrating a modified construction;
Fig. 13 is a horizontal section through a partition composed of my slabs;
Figs. lll` and 15 are similar views illustrating modified forms of partitions;
Fig. 16 is a sectional view taken substantially v Fig. 20 is a transverse section through a fractional slab for piecing out odd widths;
Fig.A 21 is a. perspective view of a iiller block adapted to be inserted in the ange openings on the slabs in cases where it is desirable to present a closed continuous surface;
Fig. 22 is a similar view of a ller block adapted to be disposed at the end of the slab;
Fig. 23 is a partial side elevation of a modified form of slab;
Fig. 24 is an end view thereof; and
Fig. 25 is a sectional View taken substantially along lines XXV-XXV of Fig. 24.
Referring now in detail to the drawings, a slab I0 comprises a web Il and ilanges l2. The flanges are grooved longitudinally as at I3 and are provided with elongated openings Ul. The flanges terminate short of the ends of the slab providing shoulders I5 adapted to rest on the an'gcsI of supporting beams.
, The slabs Idare preferably precast oi suitable material such as concrete and are provided with longitudinal reinforcing bars I6 and transverse reinforcing bars I1. 'I'he webs of the slabs furthermore have a reinforcing mesh I8 (see Fig. 8) imbedded therein. made up in standard widths and lengths.
A convenient width is 30". A length of20' will be found most convenient for general application although slabs may be made in any length.
lil)
` or similar material, in standard lengths.
It should be stated, however, that the full advantage of the invention may best be realized by applying the slabs to fairly long spans for which their design makes them acceptable, in order to eliminate the necessity for intermediate supports.
Figs. 1, 2 and 3 illustrate the use of the slabs to provide a floor. As there shown, the slabs are disposed side by side in abutting relation with their shoulders l5 resting on then upper flanges of spaced beams I9 forming part of a building frame. Filler blocks 20 (see Fig. 22) are disposed within the flanges of the slabs at each end thereof. The lower flanges of the beams I9 are enclosed Within the reproofing channels or shoes 2| which are also precast from concrete joints between the channels 2I and between the latter and the filler blocks 20 are mortared and' the space between the ends of the long slabs above the beam is filled with grout as at 22. 'I'he space adjacent the beam is left clear for conduits as illustrated at 23. The elongated openings I4 also facilitate the insertion of conduits through the floor as indicated at 24 and 25. Because of the length of the openings I4, the conduits may be disposed at oblique angles to the slabs as well s parallel and perpendicular thereto.
Blocks 26 extend through certain aligned openings I4 in adjacent slabs and are mortared therein whereby to distribute the load rapplied to any individual slab to the adjacent slabs. Because of the channel section of the slabs, and the reinforcement thereof as shown, they can be designed to carry substantial loads over considerable spans. A smooth ceiling may easily be provided by.suspending metal lath 21 from the slabs by ties 28 and plastering thereover as shown at 29.
Figs. 5, 6 and 7 illustrate the use of the slabs as spandrels or sills and` lintels, pilasters, mullions, and lcolumn vfireproofing as Well as flooring. A pair of slabs I disposed about a column 30 with their flanges in abutment provide a fireproof enclosure therefor. The openings I4 of slabs used for column fireproof'lng are closed by filler blocks 3| (Fig. 21) mortared in place. Before being closed, they afford hand holes for working on vthe conduits enclosed by the slabs. Alternatively, the `openings -may be omitted from the slabs to be used for column fireproong. Figs. and 6 show slabs I0 serving as spandrels .32. The upper or sill spandrel 32, because of its channel section, provides a suitable recess for radiators, indicated at 34. 'I'he slabs I0 also serve as pilasters 35 extending between adjacent spandrels. As vshown in Fig. 5, the pilasters support the spandrels 32. 'I'he grooves I3 in the slabs serving as pilasters and spandrels define a continuous recess for receiving the edge of metal window sash 36. As a result of this construction, the exterior of the building is' composed of large panels of glass divided by broad horizontal bands of concrete and narrower vertical bands, thus conforming to the modern architectural trend. 'Ihe interior of the building The slabs may be concealing the flanges of the spandrel slabs, the reproofing channels 2|, and the bottoms of the floor slabs. It will be noted in all `the forms' of construction shown herein that the steel building frame is completely enclosed by flreproof memlbers which may be of the thickness required to also illustrates the use of slabs extending vertically from floor toceiling as shown at 38 to form partitions. Metal lath may be tied to ,the edges of the slab flanges as shown at 39 and plastered as at 43 to provide a sino'oth finished partition.
Fig. 9 illustrates the manner of closigig the joints between adjacent slabs. Tar or mastic is poured into the joint as shown at 4I and when it has cooled, the joint is filled with grout as at 42. This type of joint is used between floor )slabs as in Fig. 1. The joints between slabs laid horizontally such as spandrel slabs 32 are perfectly sealed by an asphalt strip laid therebetween. The groove formed by the beveled edges of abutting slabs is then pointed to complete the seal. The joints between the abutting ends of the spandrel and pflaster sla/bs may be similarly sealed. 'i v Fig. illustrates a slab similar to that of Figs. 1 through ll except that nailing strips 43 are imbedded in the web of the slab to facilitate nailing thereto a floor or other sheathing, and that portions 43a are thickened.
Fig. 11 shows how the longitudinal reinforcing bars I6 of the slabs maybe welded together as at 44 and to the supporting beams as at 45. The
proofing composed of slabs 48 similar to the slabs I0. In this construction the floor slabs indicated at 49 rest on the upper flanges of the slabs 48 composing the beam fireproong. 'I'he slabs 48 will naturali;T be made without the holes I4 in their flanges. It will be noted in Fig. 12 that the shoulders I5 of the slabs 49 provide a clear space 50 for the reception of conduits over the beam.
Fig. 13 illustrates a modified form of partition composedof pairs of slabs disposed with their flanges in abutment. The openings I4 in the slabs permit the passage of conduits therethrough .as shown at 5I.
Fig. 14 illustrates a different form of partition in which the flanges of one slab engage the web of two oppositely disposed overlapping slabs.
Fig. 15 shows a partition similar to that illustrated in Fig. 7;
. The ease with which conduits may be extended through the several forms of partitions will be apparent, horizontal conduits being shown at 5I and vertical conduits at 52.
Fig. 16 is a horizontal section showing the complete enclosure forthe columns 30 provided by the spandrel slabs 32 and an inner slab I0, the flanges of which engage the flanges of the is plaster finished as indicated at 3'I,l thereby spandrel slabs and the filler blocks 20 inserted Fig. 12 shows a modified form of beam flre' therein. Fig. 16 also shows how conduits 53 may be positioned adjacent the columns and within the enclosures therefor. Similarly, horizontal conduits spandrel slabs by notching the fillerl blocks 20 to admit them. Metal boxes I Ili may beset in suitable holes to receive lighting fixtures.
Fig. 17 is a detail of the roof construction of a building embodying 'the invention. As there shown, roof slabs 331 rest on a girder 55. The lower flange of the lower or lintel spandrel slab 32 rests on pilasters such as those shown at 35 in Fig. 6. Sheet metal or othernsheathing 51 is laid on the .roof slabs 331. A- smooth surface for the interior of the upper or coping spandrel 321 may be provided by a panel 58 of sheet metal or the like, the upper edge of which laps the upper edge of the slab and is seated in the groove I3 thereof.
Fig. 18 shows a modification according to which the ller blocks 20 are replaced by continuous slabs 59 which close the space between the chan lnels 2l and the beam indicated at 80. 'Ihis leaves a clear 'space for the passage of a conduit 6I over the beam.
Fig. 19 shows how the transverse members of the reinforcing mesh I8 may be Welded together y Figs. z3 through 25 iuustrate a modified form' of slab 84 which is similar to the slab I0 except that it has integral end walls 65 which replace the filler blocks 20 and the continuous slabs 59. When the slabs are' used for column fireprooiing they may be bolted or otherwise tied together. It may prove desirable, furthermore,t to omit the groove I3 from the slabs to be used for this purpose.
Instead of welding the longitudinal reinforcing members of the slabs to the beams as shown in Fig. 11, the ends of the reinforcing bars may be threaded and inserted through lugs welded to the beams and secured thereto by nuts threaded on the bars. The arrangement of the reinforcing bars I 8 relative to the mesh I8 as shown in Fig. 11 constitutes a truss foreach flange of the slab.
It will be apparent that the invention is characterized by numerous advantages over present building practice. In the first place, the speed with which a building may be erected'is greatly increased. In fact the building may be enclosed substantially as rapidly as the steel work is erected. The slalxs forming the oors and other parts of the building may be handled by the same derrick which is used in the erection of the steel. By laying the floor slabs as soon as the steel is in place I avoid the necessity for' temporary wood planking which is required bybuilding codes for safety reasons on the upper floors while the erection of steel thereabove continues.
.It is also possible to eliminate external steel beams betweenv adjacent columns since the spandrel slabs have Avery high strength and may bel welded to the external columns or bolted thereto.
The welding of the reinforcing members of aligned slabs ties the entire floor system together and eliminates' the usual secondary beams tying the columns together.
The erection of a building utilizing my inven- 54y may be positioned within the tion may proceed regardless of freezing Weather conditions and since the building is enclosed4 substantially as rapidly as the franie is erected, the interior work can be started much sooner and the over-all building time materially vreduced.
Floors made in accordance with the invention. furthermore, are lighter than ordinary reinforced concrete floors Yand this makes possible a saving in the size of the frame members themselves. Since the slabs are precast, there is no dimculty with shrinkage of the members after installation.
'I'hepossibility of introducing conduits in the floors, partitions and Wall slabs is a highly important advantage. Air conditioning ducts may also be disposed between the slab flanges.
lli-
` Partitions may be formed of the slabs by setting them either horizontally or vertically as may be most convenient under the circumstances. When the slabs are used as spandrels,v the /beveled edge thereof facilitates thev drainage of rain water away from the sash groove. The slabs which are used as portions of the exterior wall may readily be provided with an insulating layer 4bonded to the inner side of the slab web. The
exterior of the slabs may be faced with ornamental glass, tile, ror other finishes of various types or colors. Y The floor slabs furthermore may have wood, mastic, or terrazo finishes applied thereto before delivery to the building site.
While the slabs are chiey useful in connection with steel frame buildings, there are many places wherevthey may also be used in buildings without steelxframes. v 4
Although I have illustrated and described a preferred embodiment and certain modifications .of the invention, it will be understood that claims. y.,
I claim: 1. In a building construction, a standard structural steel frame including columns and girders 1 extending between adjacent columns and supported thereby, and a fioor composed of a plurality of precast reinforced cementitious slabs of channel section, each having anges and a web, disposed side by side with their flanges extending downwardly and with their ends resting on adjacent pairs of said girders, the ends of the reinforcing projecting beyond Ithe ends of each slab and being welded to the girders on which the slab rests.
2. In a building construction, astandard structural` steel frame including columns and girders extending between adjacent columns and supported thereby, and a floor composed of a plurality of precast reinforced cementitious slabs of channel section, each having flanges and a Web, disposed side by side with their flanges extending downwardly and with their ends resting on adjaside by side with their flanges extendingy down` i Wardly and with their ends resting on` adjacent ,pairs of said girders, and spandrel slabs similar to said floor slabs extending between adjacent columns and being braced thereby at each end.
4. In a building construction, a standard struc-v spaced relation, and pilasters extending between vertically spaced spandrel slabs, said pilasters being composed of slabssimilar to the floor and spandrel slabs and forming part of a reprooflng enclosure for said columns.
5. In a building construction, a'standard structural steel frame including columns and girders extending between adjacent columns and supported thereby, and a iioor composed ,of a plurality of precast reinforced cementitious slabs of channel section, each having flanges and a web,
disposed side by side with their flanges extend#` ing downwardly and with their ends resting on adjacent pairs of said girders, `the ends of said A flanges being recessed providig shoulders adapted to engage said girders and position the slabs with their lower faces above the girders whereby Vconduits may extend between the slabs and girders, and holes spaced along said flanges whereby conduits may extend transversely there- 35 through.
6. In a'building construction, a standard structural` steel frame including columns and glrders extending between adjacent columns and sup-` `ported thereby, a floor composed of a plurality of precast reinforced cementitious slabs of channel section, each having flanges and a web, disposed side by side with their flanges extending downwardly and with their ends resting on adjacent pairs of said girders, and reprooflng enclosures for each column composed of a pair of slabs similar to said first-mentioned floor slabs, said pair of slabs being disposed about said column with their flanges abutting, resting on said floor, and extending in single length upwardly to the slabs of the oor above thereby completely enclosing said column.
7. In a building construction, a standard struc- -tural steel frame including columns and girders extending between adjacent columns and supported thereby, and a floor composed of :a plurality of precast reinforced cementitious member's disposed side by side with their ends resting on adjacent pairs of said girders, the ends of the f reinforcing projecting beyond the ends of each member and being welded to the girders on which the member rests.
8. In a building construction, `a structural "steel frame comprising columns and beams and` a floor composed of a plurality of precast cementitious members disposed side by side and supported on the beams, the cementitious members y having reinforcements therein, which reinforcements have end portions projecting from the cementitious members and lying adjacent one another between adjacent slabs, such ends being welded together.
ALBERT HENDERSON.
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Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2535494A (en) * 1944-06-09 1950-12-26 Kingsmill Building structure
DE923088C (en) * 1948-06-16 1955-02-03 Raymond Francois Emile Camus Construction method for producing a residential or industrial building from prefabricated panels
US2715953A (en) * 1947-03-31 1955-08-23 George M Marrow House
US3189140A (en) * 1959-08-05 1965-06-15 Designs For Business Inc Partitioning system
US3286421A (en) * 1963-07-31 1966-11-22 Wayne P Branstrator Floor and wall construction
US3546830A (en) * 1967-02-20 1970-12-15 Travaux Pour La Construction E Prefabricated reinforced concrete flooring slabs and floors as thus formed
US3788012A (en) * 1972-02-22 1974-01-29 Arnold Ass Inc Modular building structure elements of slabs with central support posts
US3913287A (en) * 1969-01-23 1975-10-21 Jr Roger S Chapman Structural system
US4190994A (en) * 1977-12-08 1980-03-04 Marsh Paul A Jr Filler panel clip for prestressed concrete double-tee roof or floor construction
FR2864835A1 (en) * 2004-01-07 2005-07-08 Chalets Daniel Lacroix Modular construction unit for self-supporting wall, has one vertical wall, extending from another vertical wall, and third vertical wall to form vertical canal, and fourth vertical wall with wing closing canal of juxtaposed modular unit
US20060130422A1 (en) * 2000-08-03 2006-06-22 De La Marche Peter W Modular buildings
US20090288355A1 (en) * 2008-05-14 2009-11-26 Platt David H Precast composite structural floor system
US20100132283A1 (en) * 2008-05-14 2010-06-03 Plattforms, Inc. Precast composite structural floor system
US8381485B2 (en) 2010-05-04 2013-02-26 Plattforms, Inc. Precast composite structural floor system
US8453406B2 (en) 2010-05-04 2013-06-04 Plattforms, Inc. Precast composite structural girder and floor system

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2535494A (en) * 1944-06-09 1950-12-26 Kingsmill Building structure
US2715953A (en) * 1947-03-31 1955-08-23 George M Marrow House
DE923088C (en) * 1948-06-16 1955-02-03 Raymond Francois Emile Camus Construction method for producing a residential or industrial building from prefabricated panels
US3189140A (en) * 1959-08-05 1965-06-15 Designs For Business Inc Partitioning system
US3286421A (en) * 1963-07-31 1966-11-22 Wayne P Branstrator Floor and wall construction
US3546830A (en) * 1967-02-20 1970-12-15 Travaux Pour La Construction E Prefabricated reinforced concrete flooring slabs and floors as thus formed
US3913287A (en) * 1969-01-23 1975-10-21 Jr Roger S Chapman Structural system
US3788012A (en) * 1972-02-22 1974-01-29 Arnold Ass Inc Modular building structure elements of slabs with central support posts
US4190994A (en) * 1977-12-08 1980-03-04 Marsh Paul A Jr Filler panel clip for prestressed concrete double-tee roof or floor construction
US20060130422A1 (en) * 2000-08-03 2006-06-22 De La Marche Peter W Modular buildings
US7673422B2 (en) * 2000-08-31 2010-03-09 Peter William De La Marche Modular buildings
FR2864835A1 (en) * 2004-01-07 2005-07-08 Chalets Daniel Lacroix Modular construction unit for self-supporting wall, has one vertical wall, extending from another vertical wall, and third vertical wall to form vertical canal, and fourth vertical wall with wing closing canal of juxtaposed modular unit
EP1553240A1 (en) * 2004-01-07 2005-07-13 Chalets Daniel Lacroix Modular building elements for load-carrying insulated wall
US20090288355A1 (en) * 2008-05-14 2009-11-26 Platt David H Precast composite structural floor system
US20100132283A1 (en) * 2008-05-14 2010-06-03 Plattforms, Inc. Precast composite structural floor system
US8161691B2 (en) * 2008-05-14 2012-04-24 Plattforms, Inc. Precast composite structural floor system
US8297017B2 (en) 2008-05-14 2012-10-30 Plattforms, Inc. Precast composite structural floor system
US8499511B2 (en) 2008-05-14 2013-08-06 Plattforms Inc. Precast composite structural floor system
US8745930B2 (en) 2008-05-14 2014-06-10 Plattforms, Inc Precast composite structural floor system
US8381485B2 (en) 2010-05-04 2013-02-26 Plattforms, Inc. Precast composite structural floor system
US8453406B2 (en) 2010-05-04 2013-06-04 Plattforms, Inc. Precast composite structural girder and floor system

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