US20120059216A1 - Remotely adjustable gastric banding system - Google Patents

Remotely adjustable gastric banding system Download PDF

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Publication number
US20120059216A1
US20120059216A1 US12877046 US87704610A US20120059216A1 US 20120059216 A1 US20120059216 A1 US 20120059216A1 US 12877046 US12877046 US 12877046 US 87704610 A US87704610 A US 87704610A US 20120059216 A1 US20120059216 A1 US 20120059216A1
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Prior art keywords
reservoir
coil
gastric
housing
fluid
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
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US12877046
Inventor
Christian Y. Perron
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Allergan Inc
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Allergan Inc
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F5/00Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints; Nursing devices; Anti-rape devices
    • A61F5/0003Apparatus for the treatment of obesity; Anti-eating devices
    • A61F5/0013Implantable devices or invasive measures
    • A61F5/005Gastric bands
    • A61F5/0053Gastric bands remotely adjustable
    • A61F5/0059Gastric bands remotely adjustable with wireless means
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F5/00Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints; Nursing devices; Anti-rape devices
    • A61F5/0003Apparatus for the treatment of obesity; Anti-eating devices
    • A61F5/0013Implantable devices or invasive measures
    • A61F5/005Gastric bands
    • A61F5/0053Gastric bands remotely adjustable
    • A61F5/0056Gastric bands remotely adjustable using injection ports

Abstract

A fluid reservoir for use in a remotely adjustable gastric banding system comprises a housing and a flexible reservoir pouch positioned within the housing. The flexible reservoir pouch is coupled to an inflatable portion of a gastric band via flexible tubing. A pump coupled to the flexible reservoir pouch facilitates filling and draining the inflatable portion of the gastric band. The pump may be located within or outside of the housing. A receiving coil may be coupled to the housing, and the receiving coil forms a loop around the housing. The receiving coil receives radio frequency signals to drive the pump. A circuit board may be disposed in the housing for driving the pump to move the fluid between the flexible reservoir pouch and the inflatable portion of the gastric band. A portion of the circuit board may be a flexible circuit board to allow the housing to flex.

Description

    FIELD
  • [0001]
    The present invention generally relates to medical systems and apparatus and uses thereof for treating obesity and/or obesity-related diseases, and more specifically, relates to gastric banding systems that are remotely adjustable.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    Adjustable gastric banding apparatus have provided an effective and substantially less invasive alternative to gastric bypass surgery and other conventional surgical weight loss procedures. Despite the positive outcomes of invasive weight loss procedures, such as gastric bypass surgery, it has been recognized that sustained weight loss can be achieved through a laparoscopically-placed gastric band, for example, the LAP-BAND® (Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.) gastric band or the LAP-BAND AP® (Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.) gastric band. Generally, gastric bands are placed about the cardia, or upper portion, of a patient's stomach forming a stoma that restricts the food's passage into a lower portion of the stomach. When the stoma is of an appropriate size that is restricted by a gastric band, the food is held in the upper portion of the stomach provides a feeling of satiety or fullness that discourages overeating. Unlike gastric bypass procedures, gastric band apparatus are reversible and require no permanent modification to the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [0003]
    Over time, a stoma created by a gastric band may need adjustment in order to maintain an appropriate size, which is neither too restrictive nor too passive. Accordingly, prior art gastric band systems provide a subcutaneous fluid access port connected to an expandable or inflatable portion of the gastric band. By adding fluid to or removing fluid from the inflatable portion by means of a hypodermic needle inserted into the access port, the effective size of the gastric band can be adjusted to provide a tighter or looser constriction. Naturally, it would be desirable to allow for non-invasive adjustment of gastric band constriction, for example, without the use of a hypodermic needle.
  • [0004]
    A remotely adjustable gastric band is a medical device which allows a healthcare worker to adjust a gastric band without utilizing hypodermic needles to connect to an implanted access port. A handheld controller may be used to send radio frequency waves for powering and communicating with the implanted device. The implanted device can fill or drain the gastric band as requested by the healthcare worker via the handheld controller.
  • [0005]
    Birk, et al., U.S. Patent Pub. No. 2007/0265645, and Birk, U.S. Patent Pub. No. 2007/0156013, which are commonly-assigned and co-pending with the present application, are incorporated herein in their entirety by this specific reference. Both of these applications disclose certain approaches to implantable pumping systems that may be relevant.
  • [0006]
    Some versions of remotely adjustable gastric band systems may include a receiving coil for power induction to drive the pump. However, the location and/or orientation of the receiving coil may not provide desired power to the pump and/or other system components. Furthermore, the presence of metallic objects near the receiving coil may adversely affect the power provided to the system.
  • [0007]
    Additionally, some attempts have been made to utilize a remotely driven pump to inflate an inflatable portion of a gastric band. For example, Hassler, Jr., et al., U.S. Patent Pub. Nos. 2006/0252982 and 2005/0288739; Hassler, Jr., U.S. Pat. No. 7,390,294, and U.S. Patent Pub. Nos. 2005/0267406 and 2005/0267500; and Jordan, et al., U.S. Patent Pub. No. 2008/0108862 generally disclose remote adjustment of a gastric band. However, the location and/or position of the induction coils in these systems may not provide the desired energy for the system.
  • [0008]
    Thus, there continues to be a need for more effective remotely adjustable gastric banding systems, particularly for systems that have more available power for driving the implantable pump and/or other system components. Further, there is a need for remotely adjustable gastric banding systems that have a more effective electric coil for receiving transmitted energy.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0009]
    Generally described herein are remotely adjustable and powered gastric banding systems. The apparatus and systems described herein aid in facilitating obesity control and/or treating obesity-related diseases while being non-invasive once implanted.
  • [0010]
    In an embodiment, a fluid reservoir for use in the remotely adjustable gastric banding system comprises a housing and a flexible reservoir pouch positioned within the housing. The flexible reservoir pouch is coupled to an inflatable portion of a gastric band via flexible tubing. A pump coupled to the flexible reservoir pouch facilitates filling and draining of the inflatable portion of the gastric band.
  • [0011]
    In another embodiment, a receiving coil may be coupled to the housing, and the receiving coil forms a loop around the housing. For example, the receiving coil may be disposed in a coil channel along the periphery of the housing. The receiving coil receives radio frequency signals from a remote transmitter to drive the pump coupled to the flexible reservoir pouch. Certain embodiments may include two receiving coils disposed along the periphery of the housing to facilitate enhanced energy reception by the coils.
  • [0012]
    According to another embodiment, the pump may be disposed in the housing and coupled to the flexible reservoir pouch via a valve. Some embodiments include a plurality of pumps, each coupled to the flexible reservoir pouch. The pumps move a fluid in the flexible reservoir pouch between the flexible reservoir pouch and the inflatable portion of the gastric band.
  • [0013]
    A circuit board may also be disposed in the housing for driving the pump to move the fluid between the flexible reservoir pouch and the inflatable portion of the gastric band. At least a portion of the circuit board may be a flexible circuit board to allow the housing to flex.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0014]
    FIGS. 1A and 1B illustrate a location of a gastric banding system within a patient's body according to an embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0015]
    FIG. 2A illustrates a sectional view of a fluid reservoir with a receiving coil according to an embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0016]
    FIG. 2B illustrates another sectional view of a fluid reservoir with a receiving coil according to an embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0017]
    FIG. 2C illustrates a sectional view of a fluid reservoir with two receiving coils according to an embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0018]
    FIG. 3 illustrates a center tap circuit for adding energy received through two receiving coils according to an embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0019]
    FIG. 4A illustrates a sectional view of a fluid reservoir with pumps and a circuit board according to an embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0020]
    FIG. 4B illustrates another sectional view of a fluid reservoir with pumps and a circuit board according to an embodiment of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0021]
    The present invention generally provides remotely adjustable gastric banding systems, for example, for treatment of obesity and obesity related conditions, as well as systems for controlling inflation and deflation of gastric banding systems.
  • [0022]
    A remotely adjustable gastric band is a medical device which allows a healthcare worker to adjust a gastric band without utilizing hypodermic needles to connect to an implanted access port. An external, handheld controller can be used to send radio frequency signals for powering and communicating with the implanted device. The implanted device can fill or drain the gastric band as requested by the healthcare worker via the handheld controller. The handheld controller may be a remote device configured to produce a telemetric signal that controls the various components of the gastric banding system.
  • [0023]
    The filling and draining of the band is accomplished by a set of fluidic elements including pumps, valves, and sensors which monitor and/or move fluid between the gastric band and a reservoir. In accordance with various embodiments, different numbers, types, and orientations of the fluidic elements may be utilized to obtain the desired results. Any and/or all of these various components may be configured to be controlled by a remote transmitter, such as a handheld controller.
  • [0024]
    Turning now to FIGS. 1A-1B, in accordance with an embodiment, a gastric banding system 100 includes a gastric band 105, a reservoir unit 108, an access port 114, and a receiving coil 116. The flexible tubing 106 connects the gastric band 105 and the access port 114 to the reservoir unit 108. Each of the components of the system 100 is implantable in a patient using conventional surgical techniques. The reservoir unit 108 and the coil unit 116 may be used instead of or in addition to the conventional access port 114. In various embodiments, as will be discussed further below, the coil unit 116 may be incorporated into other components of the gastric banding system 100.
  • [0025]
    The reservoir unit 108 may move precisely metered volumes of fluid (e.g., saline, a drug, and/or combinations thereof) from the reservoir unit 108 through the flexible tubing 106 into the gastric band 105. The reservoir unit 108 may comprise a compressible reservoir, such as an elastic polymer, a balloon, a rubber container, a silicone container, a collapsible container, a non-elastomeric container, a bellows, and combinations thereof that are configured to contain the fluid. The gastric banding system 100 may include various pumps, motors, and the like that are configured to facilitate filling or draining the gastric band 105 by moving fluid between the reservoir unit 108 and the gastric band 105. The various pumps, motors, and the like may be separate components of the system 100, or they may be incorporated into existing components. For example, the reservoir unit 108 may comprise pumps, motors, and the like.
  • [0026]
    Moving the fluid into the gastric band 105 causes inflation of at least one bladder, or inflatable member of the gastric band 105, and constricts around the cardia, or upper portion of the stomach, forming a stoma that restricts the passage of food into a lower portion of the stomach. This stoma may provide a patient with a sensation of satiety or fullness that discourages overeating. In contrast, moving the fluid out of at least one inflatable member of the gastric band 105 contracts the pressure around the cardia and allows a stoma to be at least partially released and regains the patient's hunger sensation.
  • [0027]
    The receiving coil 116 receives radio frequency signals from an external/remote handheld controller or transmitter to control operation of the system 100. For example, the receiving coil 116 receives radio frequency energy to provide power to various system components (e.g., a pump, a motor, a circuit board, and the like). As noted above, and as will be discussed further below, the receiving coil 116 may be located in or near other components of the gastric banding system 100, such as in or near the reservoir unit 108 or the access port 114.
  • [0028]
    Although “transmitter” may be used herein, it should be understood that the remote transmitter may also be a wireless receiver and/or transceiver operable to take readings from the system 100 to determine the amount of fluid entering and/or exiting the gastric band 105, and/or to send or receive other types of information associated with the gastric banding system 100.
  • [0029]
    In accordance with various embodiments, the gastric banding system 100 allows for a remotely controlled adjustment without needles, non-invasively, by using the remote transmitter. A conventional access port 114 may be included as part of system 100 in order to provide alternate filling and draining capabilities, for example, to provide a fail-safe alternative in case the non-invasive functionality (e.g., motor, electronics, driving mechanism) becomes inoperative and/or ineffective. The access port 114 may be used to extract fluid from the system in case of an emergency or as a safety measure. However, non-invasively filling and draining the gastric band 105 using the reservoir unit 108 represents advantages over gastric banding systems that only use standard access ports. The access port 114 may further be used to prime the system with a desired amount of fluid upon implantation.
  • [0030]
    When compared to conventional gastric banding systems having standard access ports which exclusively require syringe access, the presently described systems and apparatus offer several benefits. First, for conventional access ports located under a thick layer of fatty tissue, which is generally the case as the devices are typically used to treat obesity, the access port can be difficult to locate. The present systems reduce or eliminate the need for port location as the use of the remote transmitter removes the necessity of adjustment using a syringe.
  • [0031]
    In various embodiments, the access port 114 may be incorporated into other system components in order to provide for backup and/or emergency filling and draining of the gastric band (e.g., when the remote filling and draining functionalities are ineffective or unresponsive). For example, an implantable pump may incorporate the access port 114 and may be implanted at a location similar to where the access port 114 may be implanted. Such an implantable pump may be referred to as a gastric restrictive implantable pump. The implantable pump may further include fluidics (e.g., pumps and valves) and associated electronics. In some embodiments, the receiving coil 116 for power induction may be included within the implantable pump housing. However, the size of the implantable pump housing, the depth of the implantable pump (e.g., up to four or more inches), and the presence of metal within the housing may affect the ability to achieve specific power requirements.
  • [0032]
    According to various embodiments, components of the gastric banding system 100 may be placed in their respective positions within a patient 101 using common surgical techniques. The surgical techniques may be similar to those used in the placement of conventional gastric banding systems. For example, the gastric band 105 may be placed around the stomach using laparoscopic techniques, as known to those of skill in the art.
  • [0033]
    Like a conventional access port, various components of the gastric banding system 100 may be sutured onto the rectus muscle sheath 102 or any other conveniently accessible muscle. For example, the access port 114 and/or the reservoir unit 108 may be sutured to the rectus muscle sheath 102. The rectus muscle sheath 102 provides a secure surface on which to attach the access port 114 under a layer of fat 103 that separates the patient's skin 104 from the muscle 102.
  • [0034]
    The receiving coil unit 116 may be located near the sternum of the patient 101, and a wire 117 may electronically couple the receiving coil unit 116 to the reservoir unit 108. In an embodiment, the reservoir unit 108 is located in the peritoneal cavity of the patient 101. In other embodiments, the components of the system 100 may be positioned in other locations in the patient 101 to facilitate filling or draining of the gastric band 105. For example, in an embodiment, the access port 114 may be incorporated into the reservoir unit 108, such that the reservoir unit 108 may be implanted on the rectus muscle sheath.
  • [0035]
    Turning to FIGS. 2A-2C, in various embodiments, the reservoir unit 108 comprises a housing 209 that is generally and/or substantially cylindrical in shape. Other shapes may be used without departing from the scope of the present invention. The housing 209 may be flexible, semi-flexible, semi-rigid, and/or rigid. A reservoir, such as a flexible reservoir pouch 210 is disposed in the housing 209. The flexible reservoir pouch 210 may be a compressible pouch, an elastic polymer, a balloon, a rubber container, a silicon container, and/or combinations thereof. Further, the flexible reservoir pouch 210 may be formed in the shape of a donut, a circle, an ellipse, a rectangle, and combinations thereof.
  • [0036]
    In an embodiment, the coil 116 may be implemented at the level of the reservoir unit 108, for example, by winding the coil 116 around the reservoir unit 108. The housing 209 of the reservoir unit 108 may comprise a coil channel 272 that receives the coil 116 and orients the coil 116 in a loop around the reservoir unit 108. The coil channel 272 may extend along the sides of the housing 209, extend parallel to a central axis of the housing 209, and/or extend around/along the periphery of the housing 209.
  • [0037]
    In various embodiments, the coil 116 is wound around the periphery of the reservoir unit 108 so as to be near the surface of the housing 209. In such a configuration, less of the material of the housing 209 would interfere with the induction between the coil 116 and the external transmitter. Further, locating the coil 116 near the periphery of the housing 209 would place the coil 116 nearer the transmitter to increase the power made available to the system 100.
  • [0038]
    Where the coil 116 forms a single loop around the reservoir unit 108, more power will be induced into the system 100 when the coil 116 is parallel to the skin surface 104 of the patient 101, compared to the coil 116 being perpendicular to the skin surface 104. In an embodiment, the reservoir unit 108 may be sutured in place to properly orient the coil 116 with respect to the skin surface 104, for example, so that the loop formed by the coil 116 is substantially parallel to the skin surface 104.
  • [0039]
    Other embodiments account for the situation where the coil 116 may be perpendicular to the skin surface 104. For example, with particular reference to FIG. 2C, and in accordance with an embodiment, the coil 116 may form one loop around the housing 209 through the coil channels 272, and a second coil 218 may form a second loop around the housing 209 and through coil channels 273. The coils 116 and 218 may be substantially perpendicular to each other, so that if one coil is oriented perpendicularly with respect to the skin surface 104, the other coil would be substantially parallel to the skin surface 104, allowing the parallel coil to pick up the RF energy from the transmitter.
  • [0040]
    In other embodiments, both of the coils 116 and 218 may pick up RF energy from the transmitter, for example, where neither of the coils 116 and 218 are perpendicular to the skin surface 104. As such, the energy picked up from both of the coils 116 and 218 would need to be added.
  • [0041]
    With reference to FIG. 3, and in accordance with an embodiment, the energy from the coils 116 and 218 may be added through a circuit, such as a center tap 375. A resistor (R1) 379 and a capacitor (C1) 378 may represent the load of the system 100. A rectifying diode 376 is coupled to the coil 116, and a rectifying diode 377 is coupled to the second coil 218. The rectifying diodes 376 and 377 restrict the flow of current from the coils 116 and 218 to one direction into the capacitor 378 and the resistor 379. In various embodiments, depending on the orientation of the coils 116 and 218, the center tap 375 may result in half-wave rectification. It should be understood that other circuits and/or components may be utilized to facilitate transferring inducted energy from the coils 116 and 218 to the components of the system 100 that utilize the energy, and that such other circuits and/or components are within the scope of the present invention.
  • [0042]
    In accordance with various embodiments, circuitry, such as the center tap circuit 375 may be located in or near the reservoir unit 108. In other embodiments, the circuitry may be located in or near other components of the system 100, such as in or near the access port 114.
  • [0043]
    Where the coils 116 and 218 are looped around the reservoir unit 108, in an embodiment, tuning capacitors may also be located in or near the reservoir unit 108. The tuning capacitors may facilitate adjusting the resonant frequency of the system, and locating the tuning capacitors closer to the coils 116 and 218 advantageously results in proper adjustment of the resonant frequency. For example, locating the tuning capacitors further away from the coils 116 and 218 may result in greater parasitic capacitance.
  • [0044]
    Further, in accordance with various embodiments, it may be desirable to reduce the distance between the skin surface 104 and the coils 116 and 218 which are looped around the reservoir unit 108. For example, the RF coupling between the transmitter and the coils 116 and 218 is inversely proportional to the distance between the coils 116 and 218 and the transmitter by a power of approximately 3. In other words, the closer the coils 116 and 218 are to the skin surface 104, the more RF energy may be received by the coils 116 and 218, resulting in more power for the system 100. Therefore, in various embodiments, the coils 116 and 218 are advantageously located near the skin surface 104.
  • [0045]
    Configurations of the system 100 according to embodiments of the present invention remedy deficiencies in prior art systems where the prior induction coils may be located in a manner that reception by the coils is poor. On the other hand, embodiments of the present invention increase energy reception by the coils 116 and 218 due to the advantageous location and configuration of the coils 116 and 218.
  • [0046]
    As noted above, in various embodiments, a pump may be located in or near the access port 114. In other embodiments, and with reference to FIGS. 4A-4B, a pump or pumps 481 may be located within the reservoir unit 108. Further, other components of the system 100 may be located within or near the reservoir unit 108 to facilitate simpler implantation of the system 100. Where other components are contained within the reservoir unit 108, the reservoir housing 209 may be semi-flexible, semi-rigid, and/or rigid. In various embodiments, currently existing access ports may be coupled to the reservoir unit 108 resulting in simpler and less expensive incorporation of the reservoir unit 108 into existing gastric banding systems.
  • [0047]
    In an embodiment, where the pumps 481 are located within the reservoir unit 108, the coil 116 may also be located within or around the reservoir unit 108, as discussed above. However, as illustrated in FIG. 1A, the coil 116 may be located near the sternum to facilitate increased power inducted through the coil 116. Although the pumps 481 may be described herein as being located within the reservoir unit 108, it should also be understood that various embodiments of the invention include systems 100 where the reservoir unit 108, the pumps 481, and/or other components may be located in or near the access port 114 to facilitate simpler implantation of the system 100.
  • [0048]
    With continued reference to FIGS. 4A-4B, various embodiments of the present invention include a pump or pumps 481 disposed in the housing 209 of the reservoir unit 108. The valves 482 couple the pumps 481 to the flexible reservoir pouch 210. The pumps 481 are also coupled to the tubing 106 to facilitate moving fluid between the flexible reservoir pouch 210 and the inflatable portion of the gastric band 105. The pumps 481 are coupled to a circuit board 483, such as a flexible circuit board, which drives the pumps 481. In an embodiment, the flexible reservoir pouch 210 comprises a flaccid reservoir on top of fluidic and electronic elements such as the pumps 481, the valves 482, and the circuit board 483. The flexible reservoir pouch 210 adds flexibility to the reservoir unit 108, for example, in the cross-sectional plane.
  • [0049]
    The circuit board 483 may include various circuits for driving the gastric banding system 100. For example, the circuit board 483 may include the center tap circuit 375 for adding the signals received through the coils 116 and 218.
  • [0050]
    The pumps 481 operate on the fluid in the flexible reservoir pouch 210 to facilitate moving the fluid between the flexible reservoir pouch 210 and the inflatable portion of the gastric band 105. In an embodiment, the pumps 481 comprise piezoelectric pumps. Further in an embodiment, each pump 481 may comprise two or more piezoelectric actuators to increase pumping capability without adding additional pumps. For example, in an embodiment, six piezoelectric actuators may be utilized to provide the desired pumping capability, but these six actuators may be included in only three pumps 481 which allows for a reduced amount of space needed in the housing 209 for the pumps 481. In other embodiments, more or fewer pumps 481 or piezoelectric actuators may be utilized depending on the designed pumping capacity. Additionally, other types of pumps may be utilized without departing from the scope of the present invention.
  • [0051]
    In various embodiments, the circuit board 483 may comprise a flexible circuit board. The entire circuit board 483 may be a flexible circuit board, or only portions of the circuit board 483 may comprise a flexible circuit board. In an embodiment, the center of the circuit board 483 is a flexible circuit board to allow the reservoir unit 108 to flex in the middle of the unit 108.
  • [0052]
    As noted above, the coil 116 may be looped around the reservoir unit 108, or the coil 116 may be located near the sternum of the patient 101, or in another advantageously determined location. Locating the coil 116 around the periphery of the reservoir unit 108 may allow the coil 116 to have a larger area for increased power transfer. However, locating the coil 116 near the sternum may allow the coil 116 to be nearer the skin surface 104 to also allow for increased power transfer. Thus, depending on the patient 101 and/or other variables, some embodiments comprise the coil 116 near the sternum, and other embodiments comprise the coil 116 near the reservoir unit 108. Locating the coil 116 near the reservoir unit 108 as opposed to near the access port 114 reduces the amount of metallic elements near the coil 116, which in turn increases the amount of RF energy available to be absorbed by the coil 116. Locating the coil 116 near the reservoir unit 108 also reduces the length of the wiring utilized to couple the coil 116 to the pumps 481, thereby advantageously reducing the possibility that these wires will fail.
  • [0053]
    Various embodiments of the present invention provide for modular design of gastric banding system 100. For example, the reservoir unit 108 may contain components that allow a remotely adjustable gastric banding system to be utilized in connection with access ports that are currently used in existing gastric banding systems. Thus, a physician may have the option of implanting an existing system or a system 100 according to embodiments of the present invention depending on the circumstances of a particular implantation procedure.
  • [0054]
    Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of ingredients, volumes of fluids, and so forth used in the specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term “about.” Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in the specification and attached claims are approximations that may vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained by the present invention. At the very least, and not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalents to the scope of the claims, each numerical parameter should at least be construed in light of the number of reported significant digits and by applying ordinary rounding techniques. Notwithstanding that the numerical ranges and parameters setting forth the broad scope of the invention are approximations, the numerical values set forth in the specific examples are reported as precisely as possible. Any numerical value, however, inherently contains certain errors necessarily resulting from the standard deviation found in their respective testing measurements.
  • [0055]
    The terms “a,” “an,” “the” and similar referents used in the context of describing the invention (especially in the context of the following claims) are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context. Recitation of ranges of values herein is merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate value falling within the range. Unless otherwise indicated herein, each individual value is incorporated into the specification as if it were individually recited herein. All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context. The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (e.g., “such as”) provided herein is intended merely to better illuminate the invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention otherwise claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element essential to the practice of the invention.
  • [0056]
    Groupings of alternative elements or embodiments of the invention disclosed herein are not to be construed as limitations. Each group member may be referred to and claimed individually or in any combination with other members of the group or other elements found herein. It is anticipated that one or more members of a group may be included in, or deleted from, a group for reasons of convenience and/or patentability. When any such inclusion or deletion occurs, the specification is deemed to contain the group as modified thus fulfilling the written description of all Markush groups used in the appended claims.
  • [0057]
    Certain embodiments of this invention are described herein, including the best mode known to the inventor for carrying out the invention. Of course, variations on these described embodiments will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon reading the foregoing description. The inventor expects skilled artisans to employ such variations as appropriate, and the inventor intends for the invention to be practiced otherwise than specifically described herein. Accordingly, this invention includes all modifications and equivalents of the subject matter recited in the claims appended hereto as permitted by applicable law. Moreover, any combination of the above-described elements in all possible variations thereof is encompassed by the invention unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context.
  • [0058]
    Furthermore, certain references have been made to patents and printed publications throughout this specification. Each of the above-cited references and printed publications are individually incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
  • [0059]
    Specific embodiments disclosed herein may be further limited in the claims using “consisting of” and/or “consisting essentially of” language. When used in the claims, whether as filed or added per amendment, the transition term “consisting of” excludes any element, step, or ingredient not specified in the claims. The transition term “consisting essentially of” limits the scope of a claim to the specified materials or steps and those that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristic(s). Embodiments of the invention so claimed are inherently or expressly described and enabled herein.
  • [0060]
    In closing, it is to be understood that the embodiments of the invention disclosed herein are illustrative of the principles of the present invention. Other modifications that may be employed are within the scope of the invention. Thus, by way of example, but not of limitation, alternative configurations of the present invention may be utilized in accordance with the teachings herein. Accordingly, the present invention is not limited to that precisely as shown and described.

Claims (23)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. A fluid reservoir for connecting to a remotely adjustable gastric banding system for the treatment of obesity, the fluid reservoir comprising:
    a housing;
    a flexible reservoir pouch positioned within the housing and coupled to an inflatable portion of a gastric band via tubing, the flexible reservoir pouch for storing a fluid for filling and draining the inflatable portion of the gastric band; and
    a receiving coil coupled to the housing, wherein the receiving coil forms a loop around the housing, and wherein the receiving coil receives radio frequency signals from a remote transmitter to drive a pump in the remotely adjustable gastric banding system.
  2. 2. The fluid reservoir of claim 1, wherein the housing is substantially cylindrical.
  3. 3. The fluid reservoir of claim 1, wherein the housing is at least one of flexible, semi-flexible, rigid, or semi-rigid.
  4. 4. The fluid reservoir of claim 1, further comprising a coil channel for looping the receiving coil around the housing.
  5. 5. The fluid reservoir of claim 4, wherein the coil channel extends along the sides of the housing, substantially parallel to a central axis of the housing.
  6. 6. The fluid reservoir of claim 1, wherein the loop formed by the receiving coil defines a plane that is substantially parallel to a surface of the patient's skin.
  7. 7. The fluid reservoir of claim 6, wherein the housing is sutured to a muscle of a patient to facilitate maintaining the loop of the receiving coil substantially parallel to the surface of the patient's skin.
  8. 8. The fluid reservoir of claim 1, wherein the receiving coil is a first receiving coil forming a first loop around the housing, the fluid reservoir further comprising a second receiving coil forming a second loop around the housing.
  9. 9. The fluid reservoir of claim 8, wherein the housing further comprises a second coil channel for receiving the second receiving coil.
  10. 10. The fluid reservoir of claim 9, wherein the first loop formed by the first receiving coil is substantially perpendicular to the second loop formed by the second receiving coil.
  11. 11. The fluid reservoir of claim 10, further comprising a center tap circuit for adding the radio frequency energy received through the first receiving coil and the second receiving coil when both the first receiving coil and the second receiving coil receive the radio frequency energy.
  12. 12. The fluid reservoir of claim 11, wherein the center tap circuit comprises a first rectifying diode coupled between the first receiving coil and a load so that current from the first receiving coil is restricted to one direction.
  13. 13. The fluid reservoir of claim 12, wherein the center tap circuit comprises a second rectifying diode coupled between the second receiving coil and the load.
  14. 14. The fluid reservoir of claim 1, further comprising a pump disposed within the housing to move fluid between the flexible reservoir pouch and the inflatable portion of the gastric band, wherein the pump receives energy from the radio frequency signals received through the receiving coil.
  15. 15. The fluid reservoir of claim 14, further comprising a circuit board for driving the pump.
  16. 16. The fluid reservoir of claim 15, wherein at least a portion of the circuit board comprises a flexible circuit board.
  17. 17. The fluid reservoir of claim 14, wherein the pump is a piezoelectric pump comprising a piezo actuator.
  18. 18. The fluid reservoir of claim 14, wherein the pump is a piezoelectric pump comprising a plurality of piezo actuators.
  19. 19. A fluid reservoir for a remotely adjustable gastric banding system, the reservoir comprising:
    a housing;
    a flexible reservoir pouch disposed in the housing;
    a pump disposed in the housing and coupled to the flexible reservoir pouch via a valve, wherein the pump moves a fluid in the flexible reservoir pouch between the flexible reservoir pouch and an inflatable portion of a gastric band; and
    a circuit board disposed in the housing for driving the pump to move the fluid between the flexible reservoir pouch and the inflatable portion of the gastric band.
  20. 20. The fluid reservoir of claim 19, further comprising a receiving coil disposed in the housing, wherein the receiving coil receives radio frequency energy for driving the pump.
  21. 21. The fluid reservoir of claim 19, wherein a receiving coil located near a sternum of a patient receives radio frequency energy for driving the pump.
  22. 22. The fluid reservoir of claim 19, further comprising a second pump and a third pump, each of the pump, the second pump, and the third pump comprising two piezoelectric actuators for moving the fluid between the flexible reservoir pouch and the inflatable portion of the gastric band.
  23. 23. A remotely adjustable gastric banding system for filling and draining an inflatable portion of a gastric band, the system comprising:
    a housing defining a fluid reservoir;
    a flexible reservoir pouch disposed in the housing;
    a pump disposed in the housing and coupled to the flexible reservoir pouch via a valve, wherein the pump moves a fluid in the flexible reservoir pouch between the flexible reservoir pouch and the inflatable portion of the gastric band;
    a circuit board disposed in the housing for driving the pump to move the fluid between the flexible reservoir pouch and the inflatable portion of the gastric band;
    a coil channel disposed along a periphery of the housing; and
    a receiving coil disposed in the coil channel of the housing, wherein the receiving coil forms a loop around the housing, and wherein the receiving coil receives radio frequency signals from a remote transmitter to drive the pump.
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