Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20040100379A1
US20040100379A1 US10667282 US66728203A US2004100379A1 US 20040100379 A1 US20040100379 A1 US 20040100379A1 US 10667282 US10667282 US 10667282 US 66728203 A US66728203 A US 66728203A US 2004100379 A1 US2004100379 A1 US 2004100379A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
container
device
reader
sensor
door
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10667282
Inventor
Hans Boman
Eric Sandberg
Stig Ekstrom
Magnus Cederlof
Original Assignee
All Set Marine Security AB
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual entry or exit registers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q10/00Administration; Management
    • G06Q10/04Forecasting or optimisation, e.g. linear programming, "travelling salesman problem" or "cutting stock problem"
    • G06Q10/047Optimisation of routes, e.g. "travelling salesman problem"
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q10/00Administration; Management
    • G06Q10/06Resources, workflows, human or project management, e.g. organising, planning, scheduling or allocating time, human or machine resources; Enterprise planning; Organisational models
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08BSIGNALLING OR CALLING SYSTEMS; ORDER TELEGRAPHS; ALARM SYSTEMS
    • G08B21/00Alarms responsive to a single specified undesired or abnormal operating condition and not elsewhere provided for
    • G08B21/02Alarms for ensuring the safety of persons
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08BSIGNALLING OR CALLING SYSTEMS; ORDER TELEGRAPHS; ALARM SYSTEMS
    • G08B21/00Alarms responsive to a single specified undesired or abnormal operating condition and not elsewhere provided for
    • G08B21/18Status alarms
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04QSELECTING
    • H04Q9/00Arrangements in telecontrol or telemetry systems for selectively calling a substation from a main station, in which substation desired apparatus is selected for applying a control signal thereto or for obtaining measured values therefrom
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S19/00Satellite radio beacon positioning systems; Determining position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems
    • G01S19/01Satellite radio beacon positioning systems transmitting time-stamped messages, e.g. GPS [Global Positioning System], GLONASS [Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System] or GALILEO
    • G01S19/13Receivers
    • G01S19/14Receivers specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S19/16Anti-theft; Abduction
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/02Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual entry or exit registers
    • G07C9/00174Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys
    • G07C9/00896Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys specially adapted for particular uses
    • G07C2009/0092Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys specially adapted for particular uses for cargo, freight or shipping containers and applications therefore in general
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04QSELECTING
    • H04Q2209/00Arrangements in telecontrol or telemetry systems
    • H04Q2209/40Arrangements in telecontrol or telemetry systems using a wireless architecture
    • H04Q2209/43Arrangements in telecontrol or telemetry systems using a wireless architecture using wireless personal area networks [WPAN], e.g. 802.15, 802.15.1, 802.15.4, Bluetooth or ZigBee
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04QSELECTING
    • H04Q2209/00Arrangements in telecontrol or telemetry systems
    • H04Q2209/80Arrangements in the sub-station, i.e. sensing device
    • H04Q2209/82Arrangements in the sub-station, i.e. sensing device where the sensing device takes the initiative of sending data
    • H04Q2209/823Arrangements in the sub-station, i.e. sensing device where the sensing device takes the initiative of sending data where the data is sent when the measured values exceed a threshold, e.g. sending an alarm
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04QSELECTING
    • H04Q2209/00Arrangements in telecontrol or telemetry systems
    • H04Q2209/80Arrangements in the sub-station, i.e. sensing device
    • H04Q2209/88Providing power supply at the sub-station
    • H04Q2209/883Providing power supply at the sub-station where the sensing device enters an active or inactive mode

Abstract

A container and contents monitoring system includes a device, a reader, a server, and a software backbone. The device communicates with the reader in order to determine the security and/or location of the container to which the device is attached. The reader transmits the information from the device to the server. The device determines if a security condition has occurred based on at least one sensor located on or in the container.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application for patent claims priority from, and hereby incorporates by reference for any purpose the entire disclosure of, co-pending Provisional Patent Application No. 60/470,435 filed on May 15, 2003, and co-pending Provisional Patent Application No. 60/411,042 filed on Sep. 17, 2002.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    1. Technical Field
  • [0003]
    The present invention relates to a method of and system for monitoring the security of a container and tracking its location and, more particularly, but not by way of limitation, to a method of and system for monitoring the security of and tracking intermodal freight containers throughout a supply chain to discourage or prevent such urgent problems as terrorism, and also illegal immigration, theft or adulteration of goods, and other irregularities.
  • [0004]
    2. History of the Related Art
  • [0005]
    The vast majority of goods shipped throughout the world are shipped via what are referred to as intermodal freight containers. As used herein, the term “containers” includes any container (whether with wheels attached or not) that is not transparent to radio frequency signals, including, but not limited to, intermodal freight containers. The most common intermodal freight containers are known as International Standards Organization (ISO) dry intermodal containers, meaning they meet certain specific dimensional, mechanical and other standards issued by the ISO to facilitate global trade by encouraging development and use of compatible standardized containers, handling equipment, ocean-going vessels, railroad equipment and over-the-road equipment throughout the world for all modes of surface transportation of goods. There are currently more than 12 million such containers in active circulation around the world as well as many more specialized containers such as refrigerated containers that carry perishable commodities. The United States alone receives approximately six million loaded containers per year, or approximately 17,000 per day, representing nearly half of the total value of all goods received each year.
  • [0006]
    Since approximately 90% of all goods shipped internationally are moved in containers, container transport has become the backbone of the world economy.
  • [0007]
    The sheer volume of containers transported worldwide renders individual physical inspection impracticable, and only approximately 2% to 3% of containers entering the United States are actually physically inspected. Risk of introduction of a terrorist biological, radiological or explosive device via a freight container is high, and the consequences to the international economy of such an event could be catastrophic, given the importance of containers in world commerce.
  • [0008]
    Even if sufficient resources were devoted in an effort to conduct physical inspections of all containers, such an undertaking would result in serious economic consequences. The time delay alone could, for example, cause the shut down of factories and undesirable and expensive delays in shipments of goods to customers.
  • [0009]
    Current container designs fail to provide adequate mechanisms for establishing and monitoring the security of the containers or their contents. A typical container includes one or more door hasp mechanisms that allow for the insertion of a plastic or metal indicative “seal” or bolt barrier conventional “seal” to secure the doors of the container. The door hasp mechanisms that are conventionally used are very easy to defeat, for example, by drilling an attachment bolt of the hasp out of a door to which the hasp is attached. The conventional seals themselves currently in use are also quite simple to defeat by use of a common cutting tool and replacement with a rather easily duplicated seal.
  • [0010]
    A more advanced solution proposed in recent time is an electronic seal (“e-seal”). These e-seals are equivalent to traditional door seals and are applied to the containers via the same, albeit weak, door hasp mechanism as an accessory to the container, but include an electronic device such as a radio or radio reflective device that can transmit the e-seal's serial number and a signal if the e-seal is cut or broken after it is installed. However, the e-seal is not able to communicate with the interior or contents of the container and does not transmit information related to the interior or contents of the container to another device.
  • [0011]
    The e-seals typically employ either low power radio transceivers or use radio frequency backscatter techniques to convey information from an e-seal tag to a reader installed at, for example, a terminal gate. Radio frequency backscatter involves use of a relatively expensive, narrow band high-power radio technology based on combined radar and radiobroadcast technology. Radio backscatter technologies require that a reader send a radio signal with relatively high transmitter power (i.e., 0.5-3 W) that is reflected or scattered back to the reader with modulated or encoded data from the e-seal.
  • [0012]
    In addition, e-seal applications currently use completely open, unencrypted and insecure air interfaces and protocols allowing for relatively easy hacking and counterfeiting of e-seals. Current e-seals also operate only on locally authorized frequency bands below 1 GHz, rendering them impractical to implement in global commerce involving intermodal containers since national radio regulations around the world currently do not allow their use in many countries.
  • [0013]
    Furthermore, the e-seals are not effective at monitoring security of the containers from the standpoint of alternative forms of intrusion or concern about the contents of a container, since a container may be breached or pose a hazard in a variety of ways since the only conventional means of accessing the inside of the container is through the doors of the container. For example, a biological agent could be implanted in the container through the container's standard air vents, or the side walls of the container could be cut through to provide access. Although conventional seals and the e-seals afford one form of security monitoring the door of the container, both are susceptible to damage. The conventional seal and e-seals typically merely hang on the door hasp of the container, where they are exposed to physical damage during container handling such as ship loading and unloading. Moreover, conventional seals and e-seals cannot monitor the contents of the container and are not able to interface with or (since containers are manufactured from steel that is opaque to radio signals) transmit data to the outside world from other sensors which may be placed in the interior of the container such as, for example, temperature, light, combustible gas, motion, or radioactivity sensors (without modifying the container door or wall).
  • [0014]
    In addition to the above, the monitoring of the integrity of containers via door movement can be relatively complex. Although the containers are constructed to be structurally sound and carry heavy loads, both within the individual containers as well as by virtue of containers stacked upon one another, each container is also designed to accommodate transverse loading to accommodate dynamic stresses and movement inherent in (especially) ocean transportation and which are typically encountered during shipment of the container. Current ISO standards for a typical container may allow movement on a vertical axis due to transversal loads by as much as 40 millimeters relative to one another. Therefore, security approaches based upon maintaining a tight interrelationship between the physical interface between two container doors are generally not practicable.
  • [0015]
    It would therefore be advantageous to provide a method of and system for: (i) monitoring the movement of the doors of a container relative to the container structure in a cost effective, always available, yet reliable fashion; (ii) providing for a data path for other security sensors placed in a container to detect alternative means of intrusion or presence of dangerous or illicit cargo to receivers in the outside world; and (iii) simultaneously provide a means for tracking transport movements of containers for reasons of security and logistics efficiency.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0016]
    These and other drawbacks are overcome by embodiments of the present invention, which provides a method of and system for efficiently and reliably monitoring a container and its contents as well as tracking containers to maintain the security thereof. More particularly, one aspect of the invention includes a device for monitoring the condition of a container. The device includes a means for sensing at least one condition of the container, a means for transmitting information relative to the at least one sensed condition to a location outside the container, and a means for interpreting the at least one sensed condition. The means for interpreting is adapted to be disposed inside the container. The sensed condition may be a sensed pressure and the the means for sensing may be a pressure sensor. Alternatively, the sensed condition may be a sensed light or a sensed motion and the means for sensing may be a light sensor or a motion sensor respectively.
  • [0017]
    In another aspect, the present invention relates to a method of electronically securing a container. The method includes the steps of selecting a container to seal, disposing an electronic securing device within the container, transmitting a request to a server, and generating by the server of a mathematically-unique security key in response to receipt of the request. The method also includes the steps of encrypting, by the server, of the security key, transmitting the unique and encrypted security key to the device disposed within the container, use by the device of the encrypted security key to calculate a unique result, and storing, by the device, of the unique result.
  • [0018]
    In another aspect, the present invention relates to a device for determining whether a security breach of a container has occurred. The device includes means for detecting pressure exerted by a door of the container and means for establishing a baseline pressure value. The baseline pressure value is related to a calculated mean value from at least two pressure detections. The device also includes a means for defining a pressure threshold and a means for determining from the pressure threshold and the detected pressure whether a security breach has occurred.
  • [0019]
    In another aspect, the present invention relates to a method of detecting a security breach of a container. The method includes the steps of placing a pressure sensor adjacent a structural member and a door of the container, monitoring the pressure sensor via a data unit located within the container, determining, by the data unit, whether a security breach of the door has occurred based on a change in pressure sensed by the pressure sensor, communicating, by the data unit, of a result of the determining step to an antenna interoperably connected to the data unit and located adjacent to and outside of the container, and transmitting, by the antenna, of information relative to the communicating step.
  • [0020]
    In another aspect, the present invention relates to a method of checking a security status of a previously electronically secured container of the type wherein a security device is disposed therein. The method includes the steps of transmitting, by a reader, of a device challenge to a device associated with the container, generating, by the device, of a device response to the device challenge, and transmitting, by the device, of the device response to the reader. The method also includes the steps of transmitting, by the reader, of a server challenge to a server, generating, by the server, of a server response to the server challenge, and transmitting, by the server, of the server response to the reader. The method also includes the steps of comparing the server response and the device response. If the server response and the device response are equal, a security breach is deemed to not have occurred since the container was electronically sealed.
  • [0021]
    In another aspect, the present invention relates to a device for determining whether a security breach of a container has occurred. The device includes a means for sensing at least one condition of the container, means for establishing a baseline value for the sensed condition, means for defining a sensed condition value threshold, and means for determining from the sensed condition value threshold and the sensed condition whether a security breach has occurred.
  • [0022]
    In another aspect, the present invention relates to a device for determining a security condition of a container and its contents. The device includes a means for detecting a condition of the container and its contents and a means for establishing a baseline condition value. The baseline condition value is related to normal fluctuations in the condition of the container and its contents experienced during transport. The device also includes a means for defining a condition threshold and a means for determining from the condition threshold and the detected condition, the security condition of the container.
  • [0023]
    In another aspect, the present invention relates to a method of detecting a security condition in a container and its contents. The method includes the steps of placing a sensor within the container, monitoring the sensor via a data unit located within the container, and determining by the data unit whether a security condition has occurred based on sensed changes in value sensed by the sensor. The method also includes the steps of communicating by the data unit, of a result of the determining step to an antenna interoperably connected to the data unit and located relative to the container in a position for transmitting data to a location outside the container, and transmitting by the antenna of information relative to the communication step.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • [0024]
    A more complete understanding of exemplary embodiments of the present invention can be achieved by reference to the following Detailed Description of Exemplary Embodiments of the Invention when taken in conjunction with the accompanying Drawings, wherein:
  • [0025]
    [0025]FIG. 1A is a diagram illustrating communication among components of a system according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0026]
    [0026]FIG. 1B is a diagram illustrating an exemplary supply chain;
  • [0027]
    [0027]FIG. 2A is a schematic diagram of a device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0028]
    [0028]FIG. 2B is a top view of a device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0029]
    [0029]FIG. 2C is a side view of a device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0030]
    [0030]FIG. 2D is a first perspective cut-away view of a device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0031]
    [0031]FIG. 2E is a second perspective cut-away view of a device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0032]
    [0032]FIG. 2F is a front view of a device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0033]
    [0033]FIG. 2G is a back view of a device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0034]
    [0034]FIG. 2H is a bottom view of a device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0035]
    [0035]FIG. 2I is a top view of a device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0036]
    [0036]FIG. 2J is a front view of the device of FIG. 2F as installed on a container;
  • [0037]
    [0037]FIG. 2K is a perspective view of the device of FIG. 2F as installed on a container;
  • [0038]
    [0038]FIG. 3A is a schematic diagram of a reader according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0039]
    [0039]FIG. 3B is a diagram of a reader in accordance with the principles of the present invention;
  • [0040]
    [0040]FIG. 4 is a first application scenario of the system of FIG. 1A according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0041]
    [0041]FIG. 5 is a second application scenario of the system of FIG. 1A according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0042]
    [0042]FIG. 6 is a third application scenario of the system of FIG. 1A according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0043]
    [0043]FIG. 7 is a fourth application scenario of the system of FIG. 1A according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0044]
    [0044]FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating a container-securing process in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0045]
    [0045]FIG. 9 is a diagram illustrating a container-security-check process in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention; and
  • [0046]
    [0046]FIG. 10 is a flow diagram illustrating a door-sensor calibration process in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS OF THE PRESENT INVENTION
  • [0047]
    It has been found that a container security device of the type set forth, shown, and described below, may be positioned in and secured to a container for effective monitoring of the integrity and condition thereof and its contents. As will be defined in more detail below, a device in accordance with principles of the present invention is constructed for positioning within a pre-defined structural portion of the container which generally manifests minimal structural movement due to routine loading and handling and extending through a conventional interface between the container frame and door region therealong. An elastomeric gasket is conventionally placed around the door and extends through the interface region to ensure the container is watertight and the goods thus protected from weather. The device is adapted for: (a) easy tool-free installation; (b) self powered intermittent signal transmission; and (c) sensing of the pressure of the elastomeric door seal relative thereto for transmitting deviations thereof indicative of door movements of the container, including an intrusion therein.
  • [0048]
    [0048]FIG. 1A is a diagram illustrating communication among components of a system in accordance with principles of the present invention. The system includes a device 12, at least one variety of reader 16, a server 15, and a software backbone 17. The device 12 ensures that the container has not been breached after the container 10 has been secured. The container 10 is secured and tracked by a reader 16. Each reader 16 may include hardware or software for communicating with the server 15 such as a modem for transmitting data over GSM, CDMA, etc. or a cable for downloading data to a PC that transmits the data over the Internet to the server 15. Various conventional means for transmitting the data from the reader 16 to the server 15 may be implemented within the reader 16 or as a separate device. The reader 16 may be configured as a handheld reader 16(A), a mobile reader 16(B), or a fixed reader 16(C). The handheld reader 16(A) may be, for example, operated in conjunction with, for example, a mobile phone, a personal digital assistant, or a laptop computer. The mobile reader 16(B) is basically a fixed reader with a GPS interface, typically utilized in mobile installations (e.g., on trucks, trains, or ships using existing GPS, AIS or similar positioning systems) to secure, track, and determine the integrity of the container in a manner similar to that of the hand-held reader 16(A). In fixed installations, such as, for example, those of a port or shipping yard, the fixed reader 16(C) is typically installed on a crane or gate. The reader 16 serves primarily as a relay station between the device 12 and the server 15.
  • [0049]
    The server 15 stores a record of security transaction details such as, for example, door events (e.g., security breaches, container security checks, securing the container, and disarming the container), location, as well as any additional desired peripheral sensor information (e.g., temperature, motion, radioactivity). The server 15, in conjunction with the software backbone 17, may be accessible to authorized parties in order to determine a last known location of the container 10, make integrity inquiries for any number of containers, or perform other administrative activities.
  • [0050]
    The device 12 communicates with the readers 16 via a short-range radio interface such as, for example, a radio interface utilizing direct-sequence spread-spectrum principles. The radio interface may use, for example, BLUETOOTH or any other short-range, low-power radio system that operates in the license-free Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band, which operates around e.g. 2.4 GHz. Depending on the needs of a specific solution, related radio ranges are provided, such as, for example, a radio range of up to 100 m.
  • [0051]
    The readers 16 may communicate via a network 13, e.g. using TCP/IP, with the server 15 via any suitable technology such as, for example, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Pacific Digital Cellular System (PDC), Wideband Local Area Network (WLAN), Local Area Network (LAN), Satellite Communications systems, Automatic Identification Systems (AIS), or Mobitex. The server 15 may communicate with the software backbone 17 via any suitable wired or wireless technology. The software backbone 17 is adapted to support real-time surveillance services such as, for example, tracking and securing of the container 10 via the server 15, the readers 16, and the device 12. The server 15 and/or the software backbone 17 are adapted to store information such as, for example, identification information, tracking information, door events, and other data transmitted by the device 12 and by any additional peripheral sensors interoperably connected to the device 12. The software backbone 17 also allows access for authorized parties to the stored information via a user interface that may be accessed via, for example, the Internet.
  • [0052]
    Referring now to FIG. 1B, there is shown a diagram illustrating a flow 2 of an exemplary supply chain from points (A) to (I). Referring first to point (A), a container 10 is filled with cargo by a shipper or the like. At point (B), the loaded container is shipped to a port of embarkation via highway or rail transportation. At point (C), the container is gated in at the port of loading such as a marine shipping yard.
  • [0053]
    At point (D), the container is loaded on a ship operated by a carrier. At point (E), the container is shipped by the carrier to a port of discharge. At point (F), the container is discharged from the ship. Following discharge at point (F), the container is loaded onto a truck and gated out of the port of discharge at point (G). At point (H), the container is shipped via land to a desired location in a similar fashion to point (B). At point (I), upon arrival at the desired location, the container is unloaded by a consignee.
  • [0054]
    As will be apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art, there are many times within the points of the flow 2 at which security of the container could be compromised without visual or other conventional detection. In addition, the condition of the contents of the container could be completely unknown to any of the parties involved in the flow 2 until point (H) when the contents of the container are unloaded.
  • [0055]
    [0055]FIG. 2A is a block diagram of the device 12. The device 12 includes an antenna 20, an RF/baseband unit 21, a microprocessor (MCU) 22, a memory 24, and a door sensor 29. The device 12 may also include an interface 28 for attachment of additional sensors to monitor various internal conditions of the container such as, for example, temperature, vibration, radioactivity, gas detection, and motion. The device 12 may also include an optional power source 26 (e.g., battery); however, other power arrangements that are detachable or remotely located may also be utilized by the device 12. When the power source 26 includes a battery (as shown herein), inclusion of the power source 26 in the device 12 may help to prolong battery life by subjecting the power source 26 to smaller temperature fluctuations by virtue of the power source 26 being inside the container 10. The presence of the power source 26 within the container 10 is advantageous in that the ability to tamper with or damage the power source 26 is decreased. The device 12 may also optionally include a connector for interfacing directly with the reader 16. For example, a connector may be located on an outer wall of the container 10 for access by the reader 16. The reader 16 may then connect via a cable or other direct interface to download information from the device 12.
  • [0056]
    The microprocessor 22 (equipped with an internal memory) discerns door events from the door sensor 29, including, for example, container-security requests, container-disarming requests, and container-security checks. The discerned door events also include security breaches that may compromise the contents of the container 10, such as opening of a door after the container 10 has been secured. The door events may be time-stamped and stored in the memory 24 for transmission to the reader 16. The door events may be transmitted immediately, periodically, or in response to an interrogation from the reader 16. The door sensor 29 shown herein is of the pressure sensitive variety, although it may be, for example, an alternative contact sensor, a proximity sensor, or any other suitable type of sensor detecting relative movement between two surfaces. The term pressure sensor as used herein thus includes, but is not limited to, these other sensor varieties.
  • [0057]
    The antenna 20 is provided for data exchange with the reader 16. In particular, various information, such as, for example, status and control data, may be exchanged. The microprocessor 22 may be programmed with a code that uniquely identifies the container 10. The code may be, for example, an International Standards Organization (ISO) container identification code. The microprocessor 22 may also store other logistic data, such as Bill-of-Lading (B/L), a mechanical seal number, a reader identification with a time-stamp, etc. A special log file may be generated, so that tracking history together with door events may be recovered. The code may also be transmitted from the device 12 to the reader 16 for identification purposes. The RF/baseband unit 21 upconverts microprocessor signals from baseband to RF for transmission to the reader 16.
  • [0058]
    The device 12 may, via the antenna 20, receive an integrity inquiry from the reader 16. In response to the integrity query, the microprocessor 22 may then access the memory to extract, for example, door events, temperature readings, security breaches, or other stored information in order to forward the extracted information to the reader 16. The reader 16 may also send a security or disarming request to the device 12. When the container 10 is secured by the reader 16, the MCU 22 of the device 12 may be programmed to emit an audible or visual alarm when the door sensor 29 detects a material change in pressure after the container is secured. The device 12 may also log the breach of security in the memory 24 for transmission to the reader 16. If the reader 16 sends a disarming request to the device 12, the microprocessor 22 may be programmed to disengage from logging door events or receiving signals from the door sensor 29 or other sensors interoperably connected to the device 12.
  • [0059]
    The microprocessor 22 may also be programmed to implement power-management techniques for the power source 26 to avoid any unnecessary power consumption. In particular, one option is that one or more time window(s) are specified via the antenna 20 for activation of the components in the device 12 to exchange data. Outside the specified time windows, the device 12 may be set into a sleep mode to avoid unnecessary power losses. Such a sleep mode may account for a significant part of the device operation time, the device 12 may as a result be operated over several years without a need for battery replacement.
  • [0060]
    In particular, according to the present invention, the device 12 utilizes a “sleep” mode to achieve economic usage of the power source 26. In the sleep mode, a portion of the circuitry of the device 12 is switched off. For example, all circuitry may be switched off except for the door sensor 29 and a time measurement unit (e.g., a counter in the microprocessor 22) that measures a sleep time period tsleep. In a typical embodiment, when the sleep time period has expired or when the door sensor 29 senses a door event, the remaining circuitry of the device 12 is powered up.
  • [0061]
    When the device 12 receives a signal from the reader 16, the device 12 remains to communicate with the reader 16 as long as required. If the device 12 does not receive a signal from the reader 16, the device 12 will only stay active as long as necessary to ensure that no signal is present during a time period referred to as a radio-signal time period or sniff “period” (“tsniff”).
  • [0062]
    Upon tsniff being reached, the device 12 is powered down again, except for the time measurement unit and the door sensor 29, which operate to wake the device 12 up again after either a door event has occurred or another sleep time period has expired.
  • [0063]
    In a typical embodiment, the reader-signal time period is much shorter (e.g., by several orders of magnitude less) than the sleep time period so that the lifetime of the device is prolonged accordingly (e.g., by several orders of magnitude) relative to an “always on” scenario.
  • [0064]
    The sum of the sleep time period and the reader-signal time period (cycle time”) imposes a lower limit on the time that the device 12 and the reader 16 must reach in order to ensure that the reader 16 becomes aware of the presence of the device 12. The related time period will be referred to as the passing time (“tpass.”)
  • [0065]
    However, a passing time (“tpass”) is usually dictated by the particular situation. The passing time may be very long in certain situations (e.g., many hours when the device 12 on a freight container is communicating with the reader 16 on a truck head or chassis carrying the container 10) or very short in other situations (e.g., fractions of a second when the device 12 on the container 10 is passing by the fixed reader 16(C) at high speed). It is typical for all the applications that each of the devices 12 will, during its lifetime, sometimes be in situations with a greater passing time and sometimes be in situations with a lesser passing time.
  • [0066]
    The sleep time period is therefore usually selected such that the sleep time period is compatible with a shortest conceivable passing time, (“tpass,min.”) In other words, the relation—
  • t sleep ≦t pass,min −t sniff
  • [0067]
    should be fulfilled according to each operative condition of the device. Sleep time periods are assigned to the device in a dynamic matter depending on the particular situation of the device (e.g., within its life cycle).
  • [0068]
    Whenever the reader 16 communicates with the device 12, the reader 16 reprograms the sleep time period of the device 12 considering the location and function of the reader 16, data read from the device 12, or other information that is available in the reader 16.
  • [0069]
    For example, if the container 10 equipped with device 12 is located on a truck by a toplifter, straddle carrier, or other suitable vehicle, the suitable vehicle is equipped with the reader 16, whereas the truck and trailer are not equipped with any readers 16. It is expected that the truck will drive at a relatively-high speed past the fixed reader 16(C) at an exit of a port or a container depot. Therefore, the reader 16(C) on the vehicle needs to program the device 12 with a short sleep time period (e.g., ˜0.5 seconds).
  • [0070]
    Further ramifications of the ideas outlined above could be that, depending on the situation, the reader 16 may program sequences of sleep periods into the device 12. For example, when the container 10 is loaded onboard a ship, it may be sufficient for the device 12 to wake up only once an hour while the ship is on sea. However, once the ship is expected to approach a destination port, a shorter sleep period might be required to ensure that the reader 16 on a crane unloading the container 10 will be able to establish contact with the device 12. The reader 16 on the crane loading the container 10 onboard the ship could program the device 12 as follows: first, wake up once an hour for three days, then wake up every ten seconds.
  • [0071]
    In another scenario, the reader 16 is moving together with the device 12 and could modify the sleep time period in dependence on the geographical location. For example, it may be assumed that the device 12 on the container 10 and the reader 16 of a truck towing the container 10 may constantly communicate with each other while the container 10 is being towed. As long as the container 10 is far enough away from its destination, the reader 16 could program the device 12 to be asleep for extended intervals (e.g., one hour.) When the reader 16 is equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver or other positioning equipment, the reader may determine when the container 10 is approaching its destination. Once the container approaches the destination, the reader 16 could program the device 12 to wake up more frequently (e.g., every second).
  • [0072]
    While the above-described power-management method has been explained with respect to the device 12 in the context of trucking of freight containers or other cargo in transportation by sea, road, rail or air, it should be understood for those skilled in the art that the above-described power-management method may as well be applied to, for example, trucking of animals, identification of vehicles for road toll collection, and theft protection, as well as stock management and supply chain management.
  • [0073]
    Referring now to FIG. 2B, there is shown a first perspective view of the device 12. The device 12 includes a housing 25 containing the data unit 100 (not shown), a support arm 102 extending therefrom, and an antenna arm 104 extending outwardly thereof in an angular relationship therewith. As will be described below, the size of the housing 25, the length of the support arm 102, and the configuration of the antenna arm 104 are carefully selected for compatibility with conventional containers. The housing 25, the support arm 102, and the antenna arm 104 are typically molded within a polyurethane material 23 or the like in order to provide protection from the environment.
  • [0074]
    Still referring to FIG. 2B, a portion of material 23 of the support arm 102 is cut away to illustrate placement of at least one magnet 27 therein and at least one door sensor 29 thereon. The magnet 27 permits an enhanced securement of the device 12 within the container as described below, while the door sensor 29 detects variations in pressure along a sealing gasket (not shown) of the container discussed below.
  • [0075]
    A second perspective view of the device 12 as illustrated in FIG. 2C, further illustrates the placement of the magnet 27 in the support arm 102. The magnet 27 is positioned within corresponding apertures 27A formed in the support arm 102 and are bonded thereto in a manner facilitating the installation of the device 12.
  • [0076]
    Now referring to FIG. 2D, a top view of the device 12 is illustrated before any of the molding material 23 has been applied. In this way, the position of the power source 26, the data unit 100, and the antenna 20 are shown more clearly. The device 12 includes the data unit 100 and power source 26, the microprocessor 22 (not shown), the memory 24 (not shown), and the optional interface 28 (not shown). The support arm 102 extends from the data unit 100 and includes the apertures 27A to house the at least one magnet 27 as well as a support surface to which the door sensor 29 is attached. Extending from the support arm 102 is the antenna arm 104 for supporting the antenna 20.
  • [0077]
    Now referring to FIG. 2E, a side view of the device 12 before any of the molding material 23 has been applied is illustrated. As shown, the support arm 102 extends upwardly and outwardly from the data unit 100. The support arm 102 is relatively thin and substantially horizontal, although other configurations are available. As more clearly indicated in FIG. 2E, the antenna arm 104 extends angularly from the support arm 102.
  • [0078]
    Referring now to FIG. 2F, there is shown a front view of the device 12 after the molding material 23 has been applied. The device 12 is illustrated with the molded material 23 that forms the housing 25 encapsulating the device 12. The molding material 23 extends from the antenna arm 104 across the support arm 102 and around the data unit 100. The particular shape and configuration shown herein is but one embodiment of the device 12 and no limitation as to the precise shape of the device 12 is suggested herein.
  • [0079]
    Referring now to FIG. 2G, there shown a back view of the device 12 according to FIG. 1A. The angular configuration of the antenna arm 104 is likewise seen in a more simplified format for purposes of illustration in FIGS. 2H and 2I, which represent bottom and top views of the device 12.
  • [0080]
    [0080]FIG. 2J illustrates a front view of the device 12 as installed on the container 10. The container 10 is shown with a door 202 of the container 10 in an open position to show the orientation of the device 12 in greater detail. The device 12 is mounted to an area adjacent to the door 202 of the container 10. The device 12 may be mounted via a magnetic connection (as previously illustrated), an adhesive connection, or any other suitable connection, on a vertical beam 204 of the container 10. As can be seen in FIG. 2J, the device 12 is mounted so that, when the door 202 is closed, the antenna arm 104 is located on the exterior of the container 10, the door sensor 29, located within the support arm 102, is directly adjacent to a portion of the door 202, and the data unit 100 is located on the interior of the container 10. The device 12 may detect, via the door sensor 29, deviations of pressure to determine whether a door event (e.g., relative and/or absolute pressure change) has occurred. The device 12 may transmit data relative to the status of the door 202 via the antenna 20 to the server 15 as previously described. In addition, the interface 28 may be connected to any number of the external sensors 208 in order to capture information relative to internal conditions of the container 10 and the information obtained via the sensor 208 transmitted to the server 15.
  • [0081]
    Remaining with FIG. 2J, the device 12 is oriented within the container 10 so that the data unit 100 is disposed within a generally C-shaped recess or channel 206. The support arm 102, including the door sensor 29, extends across the vertical beam 204 between it and a portion of the door 202. When the door 202 is closed, pressure is maintained at the door sensor 29. When the door 202 is opened, the pressure is relieved, thereby alerting the microprocessor 22 that a door event has occurred. An electronic security key stored in the memory 24 will be erased or changed to indicate a “broken” seal or tampering event.
  • [0082]
    [0082]FIG. 2K is a perspective view of the device 12 of FIG. 2D as installed on the container 10. The device 12 is shown attached to the vertical beam 204 so that the door sensor 29 (not shown) within the support arm 102 is adjacent to the vertical beam 204, the antenna arm 104 is positioned in an area of the hinge channel of the container 10, and the data unit 100 is positioned inside the C-channel 206 of the container 10. As more clearly shown herein, the antenna arm 104 protrudes from the support arm 102 to an area substantially near the hinge portion of the container 10 in order to remain on the exterior of the container 10 when the door 202 is closed.
  • [0083]
    By placing the data unit 100 on the interior of the container 10, opportunities for tampering and/or damage to the device 12 are reduced. Because the data unit 100 is disposed in the C-channel 206, even though the contents of the container 10 may shift during transport, the contents are not likely to strike or damage the device 12.
  • [0084]
    Although the above embodiment is shown as a single unit including at least one sensor and an antenna 20 for communicating with the reader 16, the present invention may be implemented as several units. For example, a light, temperature, radioactivity, etc. sensor may be positioned anywhere inside the container 10. The sensor takes readings and transmits the readings via BLUETOOTH, or any short range communication system, to an antenna unit that relays the readings or other information to the reader 16. The sensors may be remote and separate from the antenna unit. In addition, the above embodiment illustrates a device 12 that includes a door sensor 29 for determining whether a security breach has occurred. However, an unlimited variety of sensors may be employed to determine a security breach in place of, or in addition to, the door sensor 29. For example, a light sensor may sense fluctuations in light inside the container 10. If the light exceeds or falls below a predetermined threshold, then it is determined a security breach has occurred. A temperature sensor, radioactivity sensor, combustible gas sensor, etc. may be utilized in a similar fashion.
  • [0085]
    The device 12 may also trigger the physical locking of the container 10. For instance, when a reader 16 secures, via a security request, the contents of the container 10 for shipment, the microprocessor 22 may initiate locking of the container 10 by energizing elecromagnetic door locks or other such physical locking mechanism. Once the container is secured via the security request, the container 10 is physically locked to deter theft or tampering.
  • [0086]
    As shown in FIG. 3A, the reader 16 includes a short range antenna 30, a microprocessor 36, a memory 38, and a power supply 40. The short range antenna 30 achieves the wireless short-range, low-power communication link to the device 12 as described above with reference to FIG. 2A. The reader 16 may include or separately attach to a device that achieves a link to a remote container-surveillance system (e.g., according to GSM, CDMA, PDC, or DAMPS wireless communication standard or using a wired LAN or a wireless local area network WLAN, Mobitex, GPRS, UMTS). Those skilled in the art will understand that any such standard is non-binding for the present invention and that additional available wireless communications standards may as well be applied to the long range wireless communications of the reader 16. Examples include satellite data communication standards like Inmarsat, Iridium, Project 21, Odyssey, Globalstar, ECCO, Ellipso, Tritium, Teledesic, Spaceway, Orbcom, Obsidian, ACeS, Thuraya, or Aries in cases where terrestrial mobile communication systems are not available.
  • [0087]
    The reader 16 may include or attach to a satellite positioning unit 34 is for positioning of a vehicle on which the container 10 is loaded. For example, the reader 16 may be the mobile reader 16(B) attached to a truck, ship, or railway car. The provision of the positioning unit 34 is optional and may be omitted in case tracking and positioning of the container 10 is not necessary. For instance, the location of the fixed reader 16(C) may be known; therefore, the satellite positioning information would not be needed. One approach to positioning could be the use of satellite positioning systems (e.g., GPS, GNSS, or GLONASS). Another approach could be the positioning of the reader 16 utilizing a mobile communication network. Here, some of the positioning techniques are purely mobile communication network based (e.g., EOTD) and others rely on a combination of satellite and mobile communication network based positioning techniques (e.g., Assisted GPS).
  • [0088]
    The microprocessor 36 and the memory 38 in the reader 16 allow for control of data exchanges between the reader 16 and the device 12 as well as a remote surveillance system as explained above and also for a storage of such exchanged data. Necessary power for the operation of the components of the reader 16 is provided through a power supply 40.
  • [0089]
    [0089]FIG. 3B is a diagram of a handheld reader 16(A) in accordance with the principles of the present invention. The handheld reader 16(A) is shown detached from a mobile phone 16(A1). The handheld reader 16(A) communicates (as previously mentioned) with the device 12 via, for example, a short-range direct sequence spread spectrum radio interface. Once the handheld reader 16(A) and the device 12 are within close range of one another (e.g., <100 m), the device 12 and the handheld reader 16(A) may communicate with one another. The handheld reader 16(A) may be used to electronically secure or disarm the container via communication with the device 12. The handheld reader 16(A) may also be used to obtain additional information from the device 12 such as, for example, information from additional sensors inside the container 10 or readings from the door sensor 29.
  • [0090]
    The handheld reader 16(A) shown in FIG. 3B is adapted to be interfaced with a mobile phone shown as 16(A1) or PDA. However, as will be appreciated by those having skill in the art, the handheld reader 16(A) may be a standalone unit or may also be adapted to be interfaced with, for example, a personal digital assistant or a handheld or laptop computer. The reader 16 draws power from the mobile phone and utilizes Bluetooth, or any similar interface, to communicate with the mobile phone.
  • [0091]
    Additional application scenarios for the application of the device 12 and reader 16 will now be described with respect to FIGS. 4-8. Insofar as the attachment and detachment of the reader 16(B) to different transporting or transported units is referred to, any resolvable attachment is well covered by the present invention (e.g., magnetic fixing, mechanic fixing by screws, rails, hooks, balls, snap-on mountings, further any kind of electrically achievable attachment, e.g., electro magnets, or further reversible chemical fixtures such as adhesive tape, scotch tape, glue, pasted tape).
  • [0092]
    [0092]FIG. 4 shows a first application scenario of the device 12 and the reader 16. As shown in FIG. 4 one option related to road transportation is to fix the reader 16 to the gate or a shipping warehouse or anywhere along the supply chain. In such a case, the reader 16 may easily communicate with the device 12 of the container 10 when being towed by the truck when exiting the shipping area. Another option is to provide the reader 16 as a handheld reader 16(A) as described above and then either scan the device 12 as the truck leaves the area or carry the hand-held reader 16(A) within the cabin of the truck during surveillance of the container 10.
  • [0093]
    [0093]FIG. 5 shows a second application scenario for the device 12 and the reader 16 as related to rail transportation. In particular, FIG. 5 shows a first example where the reader 16 is attachably fixed along the rail line for short-range wireless communication to those containers located in the reach of the reader 16. The reader 16 may then achieve a short range communication with any or all of the devices 12 of the containers 10 that are transported on the rail line.
  • [0094]
    The same principles apply to a third application scenario for the container surveillance components, as shown in FIG. 6. Here, for each container to be identified, tracked, or monitored during sea transport, there must be provided a reader 16 in reach of the device 12 attached to the container 10. A first option would be to modify the loading scheme according to the attachment schemes for the wireless communication units. Alternatively, the distribution of the readers 16 over the container ship could be determined in accordance with a loading scheme being determined according to other constraints and parameters. Again, the flexible attachment/detachment of readers 16 for the surveillance of containers allows to avoid any fixed assets that would not generate revenues for the operator. In other words, once no more surveillance of containers is necessary, the reader 16 may easily be detached from the container ship and either be used on a different container ship or any other transporting device. The reader 16 may also be connected to the AIS, based on VHF communication, or Inmarsat satellites, both often used by shipping vessels.
  • [0095]
    While above the application of the inventive surveillance components has been described with respect to long range global, regional or local transportation, in the following the application within a restricted area will be explained with respect to FIG. 7.
  • [0096]
    In particular, the splitting of the short range and long range wireless communication within a restricted area is applied to all vehicles and devices 12 handling the container 10 within the restricted area such as a container terminal, a container port, or a manufacturing site in any way. The restricted area includes in-gates and out-gates of such terminals and any kind of handling vehicles such as top-loaders, side-loaders, reach stackers, transtainers, hustlers, cranes, straddle carriers, etc.
  • [0097]
    A specific container is not typically searched for using only a single reader 16; rather, a plurality of readers 16 spread over the terminal and receive status and control information each time a container 10 is handled by, for example, a crane or a stacker. In other words, when a container passes a reader 16, the event is used to update related status and control information.
  • [0098]
    [0098]FIG. 8 illustrates a flow diagram of a securing process in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. First, at step 800, identification is requested from the device 12 by the reader 16. At step 802, the device 12 transmits the identification to the reader 16 and, at step 804, the reader 16 selects a container 10 to secure. A request is sent from the reader 16 to the server 15 at step 806. At step 808, the server 15 generates a security key and encrypts the security key with an encryption code. At step 810, the encrypted security key is transmitted to the device 12 via the reader 16 in order to secure the container 10. At step 812, the security key is decrypted and stored in the device 12. A similar procedure may be initiated to disarm the container 10. The container 10 may be secured automatically when passing in range of a reader 16, or a user may secure or disarm specific chosen containers 10 at a time.
  • [0099]
    [0099]FIG. 9 illustrates a security-check process in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. At step 900, the reader 16 transmits a challenge to the container 10 in question. At step 902, the device 12 of the container 10 generates a response using a security key and an encryption code. At step 904, the response is sent from the device 12 to the reader 16. At step 906, the reader 16 also sends a challenge to the server 15. The challenges to the server 15 and the device 12 may be transmitted substantially simultaneously or at alternate points in time. The server 15 generates and sends a response utilizing the security key and an encryption code to the reader 16 at steps 908 and 910 respectively. At step 912, the reader 16 determines if the responses are equal. If the responses are equal, then the container 10 remains safely secured. Alternatively, if the responses are not equal, then a security breach (i.e., door event) of the container 10 has occurred. Similarly to the securing and disarming processes, a security-check may be performed automatically as the container 10 passes in range of a reader 16 or a user may initiate a security-check at any time during transport.
  • [0100]
    Referring now to FIG. 10, a flow diagram of a calibration and filter process for the door sensor 29 is illustrated. At step 1000, the door sensor 29 is activated to sense a current pressure value every 0.5 seconds, although other time increments may be implemented. The current pressure value is read from the door sensor 29 at step 1002. At step 1004, a number of readings (X), with a time distance of 30 microseconds between each, are accumulated in order to calculate a mean pressure value at step 1006. At step 1008, it is determined whether the door is open. The door is considered open if the mean value is above an open threshold calculated in previous iterations at step 1012 below. If the door is open, then the flow proceeds to step 1010, at which step the mean pressure value is added to a slow low pass filter to get the value for the sensor without any pressure attached (upper limit reference). If it is determined that the door is closed at step 1008, then the flow proceeds to step 1012, at which open, close, and tamper thresholds are calculated using the upper limit reference from step 1010 and the armed limit reference from step 1020 and step 1024 (described below) from previous iterations. The open, close, and tamper thresholds are used to determine if the door is opened or closed at step 1008 and 1022 so that, if either of the open or tamper thresholds is exceeded at step 1022, it is concluded that a security breach has occurred.
  • [0101]
    At step 1014, it is determined whether the device 12 is currently in an armed state (i.e., whether the container 10 has been secured. If the device 12 is not armed, then the door status is updated at step 1016 using the open and close thresholds from step 1012. If the device 12 is armed, then it is determined at step 1018 whether the device 12 was previously armed. If the device 12 was not previously armed, then at step 1020, an armed limit reference is set to the current mean pressure value from step 1006. At step 1022, it is determined whether the current pressure value exceeds the open or tamper limits. If the mean value from step 1006 does not exceed the open or tamper limits, then at step 1024 the mean value from step 1006 is inserted to the filter for the armed limit reference. If the mean value from step 1006 exceeds the open or tamper limits, then at step 1026 it is determined whether the condition is persistent. If the condition is persistent (i.e., the condition occurs consistently for 2 seconds or more), then at step 1028 the tamper alarm is set to alert the system and/or user that a security breach has occurred.
  • [0102]
    Although embodiment(s) of the present invention have been illustrated in the accompanying Drawings and described in the foregoing Detailed Description, it will be understood that the present invention is not limited to the embodiment(s) disclosed, but is capable of numerous rearrangements, modifications, and substitutions without departing from the invention defined by the following claims.

Claims (46)

What is claimed is:
1. A device for monitoring the condition of a container, the device comprising:
means for sensing at least one condition of the container;
means for transmitting information relative to the at least one sensed condition to a location outside the container;
means for interpreting the at least one sensed condition; and
wherein the means for interpreting is adapted to be disposed inside the container.
2. The device as set forth in claim 1, wherein the container includes at least one door and the device is adapted for mounting relative to the container between a region of the door and an adjacent region of the container.
3. The device as set forth in claim 2, wherein the adjacent region of the container comprises a vertical beam and adjacent C-channel and the location within the container for mounting at least a portion of the device comprises an area across the vertical beam and adjacent C-channel.
4. The device as set forth in claim 3, wherein the at least one sensed condition comprises a sensed pressure of the door against the region of the container, and the means for sensing comprises at least one pressure sensor adapted to extend between the door and the region of the container.
5. The device as set forth in claim 4, wherein the container door further includes a gasket, and the sensed pressure comprises the pressure of the door gasket against the pressure sensor.
6. The device as set forth in claim 1, wherein the at least one sensed condition comprises a sensed light, and wherein the means for sensing comprises a light sensor disposed inside the container.
7. The device as set forth in claim 1, wherein the at least one sensed condition comprises a sensed motion, and wherein the means for sensing comprises a motion sensor disposed inside the container.
8. The device as set forth in claim 1, wherein the at least one sensed condition comprises a sensed radioactivity, and wherein the means for sensing comprises a radioactivity sensor disposed inside the container.
9. The device as set forth in claim 1, wherein the means for transmitting information is disposed outwardly of the sensor and adapted for positioning outside the door of the container.
10. The device as set forth in claim 1, further including means for receiving information.
11. The device as set forth in claim 1, further comprising means for interfacing at least one peripheral sensor inside the container.
12. The device as set forth in claim 11, wherein the at least one peripheral sensor comprises at least one of a pressure sensor, light sensor, radioactivity sensor, temperature sensor, motion sensor, combustible gas sensor, ammonia sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, fire sensor, smoke sensor, noise sensor, humidity sensor, and digital camera.
13. The device as set forth in claim 1, wherein the means for interpreting includes at least one power source for the device.
14. A method of electronically securing a container, the method comprising the steps of:
selecting a container to secure;
disposing an electronic securing device within the container;
transmitting a request to a server;
generating by the server of a mathematically-unique security key in response to receipt of the request;
encrypting, by the server, of the security key;
transmitting the unique and encrypted security key to the device disposed within the container;
use by the device of the encrypted security key to calculate a unique result; and
storing, by the device, of the unique result.
15. The method as set forth in claim 14, wherein the step of selecting a container to secure includes the steps of:
selecting an intermodal container of the type having at least one door in a pivotal relationship with the container to electronically secure; and
disposing the device within the obtainer.
16. The method as set forth in claim 14, wherein the step of selecting a container to secure includes the step of selecting, by a reader, a container to secure.
17. The method as set forth in claim 14, wherein the step of selecting a container to secure includes the steps of:
allowing at least one authorized party access to a software backbone; and
selecting, by the at least one authorized party, a container to secure via the software backbone.
18. The method as set forth in claim 14, wherein the step of disposing the electronic securing device within the container includes the step of positioning the electronic securing device adjacent the door for sensing the pivotal relationship thereof relative to the container.
19. The method as set forth in claim 14, wherein the step of disposing the electronic securing device within the container includes the steps of:
securing at least one sensor inside the container; and
securing at least one transmitter relative to the container in a position permitting radio transmission to a location outside of the container.
20. The method as set forth in claim 19, wherein the step of securing at least one sensor inside the container includes the step of securing a light sensor inside the container.
21. The method as set forth in claim 19, wherein the step of securing at least one sensor inside the container includes the step of securing a motion sensor inside the container.
22. The method as set forth in claim 19, wherein the step of securing at least one sensor inside the container includes the step of securing a temperature sensor inside the container.
23. A device for determining whether a security breach of a container has occurred, the device comprising:
means for detecting pressure exerted by a door of the container;
means for establishing a baseline pressure value, the baseline pressure value being related to a calculated mean value from at least two pressure detections;
means for defining a pressure threshold; and
means for determining from the pressure threshold and the detected pressure whether a security breach has occurred.
24. The device as set forth in claim 23, wherein the means for defining a pressure threshold accumulates at least two sensed pressure values and calculates an average pressure value from the at least two sensed pressure values.
25. The device as set forth in claim 23, wherein the means for defining a pressure threshold calculates a window of acceptable pressure values, the window of acceptable pressure values defining a range of pressure values that are experienced during shipment of a container and that do not indicate a security breach.
26. A method of detecting a security breach of a container, the method comprising the steps of:
placing a pressure sensor adjacent a structural member and a door of the container;
monitoring the pressure sensor via a data unit located within the container;
determining, by the data unit, whether a security breach of the door has occurred based on a change in pressure sensed by the pressure sensor;
communicating, by the data unit, of a result of the determining step to an antenna interoperably connected to the data unit and located adjacent to and outside of the container; and
transmitting, by the antenna, of information relative to the communicating step.
27. The method of claim 26, further comprising:
receiving, by a reader, of the information from the antenna; and
forwarding, by the reader, of the information to the server.
28. A method of disarming an electronically secured container having a security device therein, the method comprising the steps of:
selecting a container to disarm;
transmitting a disarming request to a server;
generating, by the server, of a disarming key in response to receipt of the disarming request;
encrypting, by the server, of the disarming key;
transmitting the encrypted disarming key to a device associated with the container;
decrypting, by the device, of the encrypted disarming key; and
storing, by the device, of the decrypted disarming key.
29. The method as set forth in claim 28, wherein the step of selecting a container to disarm comprises the steps of:
selecting, by a reader, a container to disarm; and
determining that further information relative to electronic securement of the container is not needed.
30. The method as set forth in claim 29, further comprising the step of disengaging from logging at least one condition sensed by the device of the disarmed container.
31. The method as set forth in claim 28, wherein the step of selecting a container to disarm comprises the steps of:
allowing authorized parties access to a software backbone; and
selecting, by at least one of the authorized parties, a container to disarm via the software backbone.
32. A method of checking a security status of a previously electronically secured container of the type wherein a security device is disposed therein, the method comprising the steps of:
transmitting, by a reader, of a device challenge to a device associated with the container;
generating, by the device, of a device response to the device challenge;
transmitting, by the device, of the device response to the reader;
transmitting, by the reader, of a server challenge to a server;
generating, by the server, of a server response to the server challenge;
transmitting, by the server, of the server response to the reader;
comparing the server response and the device response; and
wherein, if the server response and the device response are equal, a security breach is deemed to have not occurred since the container was electronically secured.
33. A device for determining whether a security breach of a container has occurred, the device comprising:
means for sensing at least one condition of the container;
means for establishing a baseline value for the sensed condition;
means for defining a sensed condition value threshold; and
means for determining from the sensed condition value threshold and the sensed condition whether a security breach has occurred.
34. The device as set forth in claim 33 wherein the container is of the type having at least one door pivotally mounted relative to the container, and wherein the device is adapted for positioning between the door and the container for sensing the pressure exerted by the door against the device.
35. The device as set forth in claim 34 wherein the means for establishing a base line pressure value includes at least one pressure value existing at the time of electronic securement of the container.
36. The device as set forth in claim 35 and further including means for transmitting the sensed condition of the container.
37. The device as set forth in claim 36 wherein the means for transmitting information is disposed outwardly of the pressure sensor and adapted for positioning outside the door of the container.
38. The device as set forth in claim 33, wherein the at least one sensed condition comprises a sensed light, and wherein the means for sensing comprises a light sensor disposed inside the container.
39. The device as set forth in claim 33, wherein the at least one sensed condition comprises a sensed motion, and wherein the means for sensing comprises a motion sensor disposed inside the container.
40. The device as set forth in claim 33, wherein the means for sensing a condition comprises at least one of a pressure sensor, light sensor, radioactivity sensor, temperature sensor, motion sensor, combustible gas sensor, ammonia sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, fire sensor, smoke sensor, noise sensor, humidity sensor, and a digital camera.
41. A device for monitoring the condition of a container of the type having at least one door pivotally mounted thereto, the device comprising:
means for sensing movement of the container door;
means for transmitting information relative to the sensed container door movement;
means for interpreting the sensed door movement;
wherein the means for interpreting is disposed inside the container; and
wherein the means for transmitting is disposed relative to the container for transmission of the sensed door movement to a location outside the container.
42. A device for determining a security condition of a container and its contents, the device comprising:
means for detecting a condition of the container and its contents;
means for establishing a baseline condition value, the baseline condition value being related to normal fluctuations in the condition of the container and its contents experienced during transport;
means for defining a condition threshold; and
means for determining from the condition threshold and the detected condition, the security condition of the container.
43. The device as set forth in claim 42, wherein the means for detecting a condition comprises at least one of a pressure sensor, light sensor, radioactivity sensor, temperature sensor, motion sensor, combustible gas sensor, ammonia sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, fire sensor, smoke sensor, noise sensor, humidity sensor, and a digital camera.
44. A method of detecting a security condition of a container and its contents, the method comprising the steps of:
placing a sensor within the container;
monitoring the sensor via a data unit located within the container;
determining by the data unit whether a security condition has occurred based on sensed changes in value sensed by the sensor;
communicating by the data unit, of a result of the determining step to an antenna interoperably connected to the data unit and located relative to the container in a position for transmitting data to a location outside the container;
transmitting by the antenna of information relative to the communication step.
45. A method of detecting a security breach of a container, the method comprising the steps of:
placing a sensor inside the container;
monitoring the sensor via a data unit located within the container;
determining, by the data unit, whether a security breach of the door has occurred based on a change in a condition sensed by the sensor;
communicating, by the data unit, of a result of the determining step to an antenna interoperably connected to the data unit and located adjacent to and outside of the container; and
transmitting, by the antenna, of information relative to the communicating step.
46. A device for monitoring the condition of and tracking a container, the device comprising:
means for sensing at least one condition of the container;
means for transmitting information relative to the container position and the at least one sensed condition to a location outside the container;
means for interpreting the at least one sensed condition; and
wherein the means for interpreting is adapted to be disposed inside the container.
US10667282 2002-09-17 2003-09-17 Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof Abandoned US20040100379A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US41104202 true 2002-09-17 2002-09-17
US47043503 true 2003-05-15 2003-05-15
US10667282 US20040100379A1 (en) 2002-09-17 2003-09-17 Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof

Applications Claiming Priority (8)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10667282 US20040100379A1 (en) 2002-09-17 2003-09-17 Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
US10786633 US20040215532A1 (en) 2003-02-25 2004-02-25 Method and system for monitoring relative movement of maritime containers and other cargo
PCT/SE2004/000260 WO2004077091A1 (en) 2003-02-25 2004-02-25 Method and system for monitoring relative movement of maritime containers and other cargo
EP20040752419 EP1623526A4 (en) 2003-05-15 2004-05-17 Method and system for utilizing multiple sensors for monitoring container security, contents and condition
US10847185 US7479877B2 (en) 2002-09-17 2004-05-17 Method and system for utilizing multiple sensors for monitoring container security, contents and condition
PCT/US2004/015403 WO2004104768A3 (en) 2003-05-15 2004-05-17 Method and system for utilizing multiple sensors for monitoring container security, contents and condition
CN 201010128012 CN101813703A (en) 2003-05-15 2004-05-17 Method and system for utilizing multiple sensors for monitoring container security, contents and condition
US11198738 US7564350B2 (en) 2002-09-17 2005-08-05 Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof

Related Child Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10786633 Continuation-In-Part US20040215532A1 (en) 2002-09-17 2004-02-25 Method and system for monitoring relative movement of maritime containers and other cargo
US11198738 Continuation US7564350B2 (en) 2002-09-17 2005-08-05 Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20040100379A1 true true US20040100379A1 (en) 2004-05-27

Family

ID=32033529

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10667282 Abandoned US20040100379A1 (en) 2002-09-17 2003-09-17 Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
US11198738 Expired - Fee Related US7564350B2 (en) 2002-09-17 2005-08-05 Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11198738 Expired - Fee Related US7564350B2 (en) 2002-09-17 2005-08-05 Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (2) US20040100379A1 (en)
KR (1) KR101012977B1 (en)
CN (1) CN102054303A (en)
EP (1) EP1540620A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2004027727A1 (en)

Cited By (78)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040183673A1 (en) * 2003-01-31 2004-09-23 Nageli Hans Peter Portable detachable self-contained tracking unit for two-way satellite communication with a central server
US20040227630A1 (en) * 2003-04-09 2004-11-18 Shannon David L. Continuous security state tracking for intermodal containers transported through a global supply chain
US20040246130A1 (en) * 2003-04-09 2004-12-09 Lambright Stephen J. State monitoring of a container
US20050024200A1 (en) * 2003-04-09 2005-02-03 Lambright Stephen J. Nested visibility for a container hierarchy
US20050030175A1 (en) * 2003-08-07 2005-02-10 Wolfe Daniel G. Security apparatus, system, and method
US20050110612A1 (en) * 2003-11-24 2005-05-26 Battelle Memorial Institute Communication device with RFID functions
US20050156736A1 (en) * 2003-05-13 2005-07-21 Rajapakse Ravindra U. Federated system for monitoring physical assets
US20050162269A1 (en) * 2003-05-07 2005-07-28 Lambright Stephen J. Dual mode reader device
US20050162270A1 (en) * 2003-05-07 2005-07-28 Lambright Stephen J. Item-level visibility of nested and adjacent containers
US20050171738A1 (en) * 2004-02-02 2005-08-04 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. Systems and methods for transporting a product using an environmental sensor
US20050179545A1 (en) * 2003-11-13 2005-08-18 All Set Marine Security Ab Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
US20050179541A1 (en) * 2001-08-31 2005-08-18 Red Wolf Technologies, Inc. Personal property security device
US20050247775A1 (en) * 2003-12-30 2005-11-10 Gloekler John S Methods and apparatus of meshing and hierarchy establishment for tracking devices
US20050253708A1 (en) * 2004-04-07 2005-11-17 Karl Bohman Method and system for arming a container security device without use of electronic reader
US20050252259A1 (en) * 2004-03-24 2005-11-17 All Set Marine Security Ab Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
WO2005065363A3 (en) * 2003-12-30 2006-02-02 G2 Microsystems Pty Ltd Methods and apparatus of aggregating and communicating tracking information with routing set-up for tracking devices
WO2006025790A1 (en) * 2004-09-03 2006-03-09 All Set Marine Lashing Ab Remotely controlled twist-lock and a method for controlling such a lock to be connected to a container.
WO2006026401A2 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-09 L-3 Communications Security And Detection Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus to detect event signatures
US20060068853A1 (en) * 2004-09-28 2006-03-30 Thomas Dejanovic GPS receiver having RF front end power management and simultaneous baseband searching of frequency and code chip offset
DE102004044010A1 (en) * 2004-09-09 2006-03-30 Clausthaler Umwelttechnikinstitut Gmbh, (Cutec-Institut) Means for monitoring a plurality of mobile objects
US20060109106A1 (en) * 2004-11-22 2006-05-25 Maersk Logistics Usa, Inc. Shipping container monitoring and tracking system
US20060122944A1 (en) * 2004-07-20 2006-06-08 Ryan Philip J Methods and systems for enabling communication to and from asset tracking devices
US20060144940A1 (en) * 2004-05-06 2006-07-06 Shannon David L Portable deployment kit
US20060164239A1 (en) * 2003-01-14 2006-07-27 Loda David C Shipping container and method of using same
US20060173721A1 (en) * 2005-02-02 2006-08-03 Gregg Jerry E Computer-based transportation-safety system
US20060181413A1 (en) * 2005-01-28 2006-08-17 Systems Microtechnologies, Inc. Transportation security system and associated methods
US20060202825A1 (en) * 2004-03-18 2006-09-14 Rajapakse Ravindra U Two-phase commit synchronizing seal state
US7136711B1 (en) * 2002-11-21 2006-11-14 Global Network Security, Inc. Facilities management system
WO2006124377A2 (en) 2005-05-13 2006-11-23 Ge Commerceguard Ab Method and apparatus for arming a multi-layered security system
US20070005953A1 (en) * 2002-09-17 2007-01-04 Hans Boman Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
US20070085688A1 (en) * 2004-05-06 2007-04-19 Zhu Liping J Expanded compatibility rfid tags
EP1812914A2 (en) * 2004-10-27 2007-08-01 Paceco Corp. Method and apparatus using radio-location tags to report status for a container handler
WO2007089279A2 (en) * 2006-01-26 2007-08-09 United States Government System and method for tactical distributed event warning notification for individual entities, and computer program product therefor
WO2007110467A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2007-10-04 4Ts Finland Oy Security device for monitoring integrity of closed objects
US20070262574A1 (en) * 1982-06-18 2007-11-15 Intelligent Technologies International, Inc. Optical Monitoring of Vehicle Interiors
US20070273484A1 (en) * 2006-05-11 2007-11-29 Magnus Cederlof Method of and reader for automatic synchronization of reader wakeup signals to radio tags
US7315281B2 (en) 2004-07-30 2008-01-01 G2 Microsystems Pty. Ltd. Location determination method and system for asset tracking devices
US20080036580A1 (en) * 1992-05-05 2008-02-14 Intelligent Technologies International, Inc. Optical Monitoring of Vehicle Interiors
US20080042809A1 (en) * 2006-08-18 2008-02-21 Black & Decker Inc. Asset monitoring system and portable security system therefor
US20080211711A1 (en) * 2006-12-06 2008-09-04 Kirsen Technologies, Inc. System and Method for Detecting Dangerous Objects and Substances
US20080278322A1 (en) * 2005-03-07 2008-11-13 Peter Villiger Process and Overall System For the Secure Transportation of Valuable Objects
US20080278318A1 (en) * 2005-03-10 2008-11-13 Micha Auerbach Smart Container Monitoring System
US20080303897A1 (en) * 2000-12-22 2008-12-11 Terahop Networks, Inc. Visually capturing and monitoring contents and events of cargo container
US20080315596A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2008-12-25 Terry Daniel J Shipping Container Security System
US20090016308A1 (en) * 2000-12-22 2009-01-15 Terahop Networks, Inc. Antenna in cargo container monitoring and security system
US20090026773A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2009-01-29 Terahop Networks, Inc. Bolt-type seal with usb interface for use with shipping containers
US20090058711A1 (en) * 2007-08-30 2009-03-05 Walter Vincent Dixon Method of and system for monitoring security of containers
US20090128330A1 (en) * 2007-07-12 2009-05-21 Henry Schein, Inc. Injection device and case with reporting ability
US20090309729A1 (en) * 2008-06-16 2009-12-17 Bank Of America Corporation Monetary package security during transport through cash supply chain
US20090309722A1 (en) * 2008-06-16 2009-12-17 Bank Of America Corporation Tamper-indicating monetary package
US20090322510A1 (en) * 2008-05-16 2009-12-31 Terahop Networks, Inc. Securing, monitoring and tracking shipping containers
US20100010664A1 (en) * 2008-07-08 2010-01-14 Nagesh Kadaba Apparatus For Monitoring A Package Handling System
US20100013635A1 (en) * 2008-05-16 2010-01-21 Terahop Networks, Inc. Locking system for shipping container including bolt seal and electronic device with arms for receiving bolt seal
US20100027737A1 (en) * 2007-10-24 2010-02-04 Kirsen Technologies Corporation System and Method For Space Control and Remote Monitoring
US20100097118A1 (en) * 2008-10-17 2010-04-22 Dell Products L.P. Activating an Information Handling System Battery From a Ship Mode
US7764185B1 (en) 2006-01-26 2010-07-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army System, user warning and positioning device for use therein, and computer program product therefor, for tactical distributed event warning notification for individual entities
US20100194348A1 (en) * 2009-01-30 2010-08-05 Ligong Wang Systems and methods for waking up a battery system
US20100245105A1 (en) * 2009-03-24 2010-09-30 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. Transport system evaluator
US20100257115A1 (en) * 2007-01-09 2010-10-07 Robinson Thomas A Identification and Association of Refrigerated Containers with Dispatch Orders
WO2011073972A1 (en) 2009-12-14 2011-06-23 Starcom Gps Systems Ltd T racking and monitoring device and system for a shipping container
US8149118B2 (en) 2005-01-13 2012-04-03 Robert Bosch Gmbh Device and method for registering the opening of closures of spaces to be secured
US20120119935A1 (en) * 2010-11-16 2012-05-17 Tialinx, Inc. Remote interrogation for detection of activity or living organisms inside electronically conductive containers
US8210429B1 (en) 2008-10-31 2012-07-03 Bank Of America Corporation On demand transportation for cash handling device
US20120235815A1 (en) * 2004-10-19 2012-09-20 Coveley Michael E Passive Tamper-Resistant Seal And Applications Therefor
US8280345B2 (en) 2000-12-22 2012-10-02 Google Inc. LPRF device wake up using wireless tag
US8284045B2 (en) 2000-12-22 2012-10-09 Google Inc. Container tracking system
US8334703B2 (en) 2007-11-20 2012-12-18 Roiksimt Apparatus for remote detection and monitoring of concealed objects
US8456302B2 (en) 2009-07-14 2013-06-04 Savi Technology, Inc. Wireless tracking and monitoring electronic seal
US20130154829A1 (en) * 2005-01-28 2013-06-20 Kirill Mostov Transportation Security System and Associated Methods
US8514082B2 (en) 2009-08-28 2013-08-20 Deal Magic, Inc. Asset monitoring and tracking system
US8593280B2 (en) 2009-07-14 2013-11-26 Savi Technology, Inc. Security seal
US20130321122A1 (en) * 2012-06-01 2013-12-05 Petari USA, Inc. Method and system for airplane container tracking
WO2014169375A1 (en) 2013-04-18 2014-10-23 Bluenica Corporation Sensing device and method to monitor perishable goods
US8973835B2 (en) 2011-10-21 2015-03-10 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. Systems and methods for collecting primary and secondary data associated with shipping containers
US9024722B2 (en) 2008-06-16 2015-05-05 Bank Of America Corporation Remote identification equipped self-service monetary item handling device
US9177282B2 (en) 2009-08-17 2015-11-03 Deal Magic Inc. Contextually aware monitoring of assets
US9532310B2 (en) 2008-12-25 2016-12-27 Google Inc. Receiver state estimation in a duty cycled radio
US9860839B2 (en) 2004-05-27 2018-01-02 Google Llc Wireless transceiver

Families Citing this family (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080272923A1 (en) * 2002-06-11 2008-11-06 Intelligent Technologies International, Inc. Monitoring of an Asset for Chemicals
US20080088441A1 (en) * 2002-06-11 2008-04-17 Intelligent Technologies International, Inc. Asset Monitoring Using the Internet
US8482399B2 (en) * 2000-09-08 2013-07-09 Intelligent Technologies International, Inc. Asset monitoring using the internet
US9015071B2 (en) 2000-09-08 2015-04-21 Intelligent Technologies International, Inc. Asset monitoring using the internet
US8786437B2 (en) 2000-09-08 2014-07-22 Intelligent Technologies International, Inc. Cargo monitoring method and arrangement
US7851766B2 (en) 2001-10-26 2010-12-14 Innovative American Technology Inc. Multi-stage system for verification of container contents
US7760103B2 (en) 2001-10-26 2010-07-20 Innovative American Technology, Inc. Multi-stage system for verification of container contents
JP2010511153A (en) * 2006-11-28 2010-04-08 イノベイティブ アメリカン テクノロジー, インコーポレイテッド Multi-stage system to verify the container contents
US8110808B2 (en) 2001-10-26 2012-02-07 Innovative American Technology, Inc. Floating intelligent perimeter sensor system
US8247781B2 (en) 2005-12-01 2012-08-21 Innovative American Technology, Inc. Fabrication of a high performance neutron detector with near zero gamma cross talk
DE602004023645D1 (en) * 2003-10-06 2009-11-26 Ibm Documentation of safety-related aspects in the process of container transport
US20100250461A1 (en) * 2005-12-22 2010-09-30 Greenpak Development, Inc. System and methods for transportation utilization and control
US7737840B2 (en) * 2006-04-10 2010-06-15 The Boeing Company Container security system
WO2007121493A1 (en) * 2006-04-21 2007-11-01 Katoram Safety Solutions Ag Alarm apparatus
KR100812769B1 (en) 2006-05-02 2008-03-12 조중삼 Tracking Location and Realtime Management System of a Container using RF
US7936266B2 (en) * 2006-10-27 2011-05-03 Maritime Container Security, Inc. Shipping container seal monitoring device, system and method
DE102006059000A1 (en) * 2006-12-14 2008-06-19 Rainer Koch A device for detecting the stacking condition of a container
CN101911103A (en) * 2007-11-08 2010-12-08 安东尼奥斯·艾卡特里尼迪斯 Apparatus and method for self-contained inspection of shipping containers
US8031069B2 (en) * 2008-01-14 2011-10-04 Oded Yair Cohn Electronic security seal and system
US8284039B2 (en) * 2008-03-05 2012-10-09 Earthwave Technologies, Inc. Vehicle monitoring system with power consumption management
US8304740B1 (en) 2008-05-19 2012-11-06 Innovative American Technology, Inc. Mobile frame structure with passive/active sensor arrays for non-invasive identification of hazardous materials
US8410923B2 (en) * 2008-11-25 2013-04-02 Randall Wang Single MCU-based motion detection, local alarm and supervisory arrangement for alarm system
US20110291815A1 (en) * 2009-01-14 2011-12-01 Bemmel Jeroen Van Method and apparatus for configuring a tag
KR101041214B1 (en) * 2009-02-17 2011-06-13 동아대학교 산학협력단 Container security system and method for monitoring container security
US8838985B1 (en) * 2009-08-11 2014-09-16 Vesper Marine Limited Method and apparatus for authenticating static transceiver data and method of operating an AIS transceiver
WO2011112672A3 (en) * 2010-03-10 2011-11-17 Apl Limited Real time monitoring of ship cargo
KR101149428B1 (en) * 2011-02-28 2012-05-24 (주)디에이치테크놀로지 Container security system using portable memory and service method thereof
EP2559996B1 (en) * 2011-08-16 2017-11-22 Nxp B.V. Gas sensor
KR101272405B1 (en) * 2012-02-28 2013-06-07 부산대학교 산학협력단 System and device for container security based on multi hop
US9453807B2 (en) 2014-04-08 2016-09-27 Ams International Ag Thermal conductivity gas sensor with amplification material
DE102016201089A1 (en) * 2016-01-26 2017-07-27 Bender Gmbh & Co. Kg A method for detecting damage to a stationary electric device and stationary electrical device with a sensor
CN105739415A (en) * 2016-05-05 2016-07-06 青岛陆鑫达工贸有限公司 Remote centralized monitoring system and remote centralized monitoring method for refrigerated container

Citations (48)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4688244A (en) * 1986-11-10 1987-08-18 Marwan Hannon Integrated cargo security system
US4750197A (en) * 1986-11-10 1988-06-07 Denekamp Mark L Integrated cargo security system
US4849927A (en) * 1987-06-12 1989-07-18 Ncr Corporation Method of controlling the operation of security modules
US4897642A (en) * 1988-10-14 1990-01-30 Secura Corporation Vehicle status monitor and management system employing satellite communication
US5097253A (en) * 1989-01-06 1992-03-17 Battelle Memorial Institute Electronic security device
US5189396A (en) * 1990-06-16 1993-02-23 Anatoli Stobbe Electronic seal
US5347274A (en) * 1990-05-17 1994-09-13 At/Comm Incorporated Hazardous waste transport management system
US5355511A (en) * 1990-08-08 1994-10-11 Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha Position monitoring for communicable and uncommunicable mobile stations
US5448220A (en) * 1993-04-08 1995-09-05 Levy; Raymond H. Apparatus for transmitting contents information
US5453733A (en) * 1992-07-20 1995-09-26 Digital Security Controls Ltd. Intrusion alarm with independent trouble evaluation
US5475597A (en) * 1993-02-24 1995-12-12 Amsc Subsidiary Corporation System for mapping occurrences of predetermined conditions in a transport route
US5565858A (en) * 1994-09-14 1996-10-15 Northrop Grumman Corporation Electronic inventory system for stacked containers
US5602526A (en) * 1994-11-21 1997-02-11 Read; Robert M. Vehicle open door warning system
US5712789A (en) * 1995-08-28 1998-01-27 K&T Ltd. Container monitoring system and method
US5828322A (en) * 1995-05-06 1998-10-27 Eberhard; Hans Joachim System for controlling delivery and return of printed matter
US5831519A (en) * 1994-11-22 1998-11-03 Pedersen; Heine Ewi Traffic supervision system for vehicles
US5832090A (en) * 1995-08-10 1998-11-03 Hid Corporation Radio frequency transponder stored value system employing a secure encryption protocol
US5917433A (en) * 1996-06-26 1999-06-29 Orbital Sciences Corporation Asset monitoring system and associated method
US5939982A (en) * 1997-06-09 1999-08-17 Auratek Security Inc. Apparatus for monitoring opening of sealed containers
US5959568A (en) * 1996-06-26 1999-09-28 Par Goverment Systems Corporation Measuring distance
US5999091A (en) * 1996-11-25 1999-12-07 Highwaymaster Communications, Inc. Trailer communications system
US6069563A (en) * 1996-03-05 2000-05-30 Kadner; Steven P. Seal system
US6133842A (en) * 1999-11-15 2000-10-17 Gariepy; Jason Alarm system for portable container
US6211907B1 (en) * 1998-06-01 2001-04-03 Robert Jeff Scaman Secure, vehicle mounted, surveillance system
US20010030599A1 (en) * 2000-04-13 2001-10-18 Uwe Zimmermann Device and method for monitoring the interior space of a transport container
US6381977B1 (en) * 1997-06-19 2002-05-07 Albert A. Austin, Jr. Cargo container and a pallet track assembly thereof
US20020061758A1 (en) * 2000-11-17 2002-05-23 Crosslink, Inc. Mobile wireless local area network system for automating fleet operations
US6400266B1 (en) * 2000-04-20 2002-06-04 Wabash Technology Corporation Door sensor for a trailer
US6437702B1 (en) * 2000-04-14 2002-08-20 Qualcomm, Inc. Cargo sensing system and method
US6483433B2 (en) * 2001-02-20 2002-11-19 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for notifying of receipt
US6556149B1 (en) * 1999-03-01 2003-04-29 Canpolar East Inc. Switches and joysticks using a non-electrical deformable pressure sensor
US6665585B2 (en) * 2000-01-31 2003-12-16 Ishikarajima-Harima Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method and apparatus for container management
US20030233189A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2003-12-18 Hsiao Victor K. Mobile-trailer tracking system and method
US20040041708A1 (en) * 2002-08-27 2004-03-04 Mico Products, Inc. Monitoring and security systems
US20040041705A1 (en) * 2002-08-27 2004-03-04 Hi-G-Tek Ltd. Smart container monitoring system
US6724303B2 (en) * 2001-10-18 2004-04-20 Corporate Safe Specialists, Inc. Method and apparatus for monitoring a safe
US6737962B2 (en) * 2000-04-26 2004-05-18 Maxxal International, Inc. Alarm system and kit with event recording
US6747558B1 (en) * 2001-11-09 2004-06-08 Savi Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for providing container security with a tag
US20040119588A1 (en) * 2001-05-02 2004-06-24 Marks Roger Julian Door mountable alarm system
US6788203B1 (en) * 2003-07-15 2004-09-07 Brian A. Roxbury Mailbox and counter combination device
US20040196152A1 (en) * 2003-04-02 2004-10-07 Tice Russell N. Method for enabling communication and condition monitoring from inside of a sealed shipping container using impulse radio wireless techniques
US20040233041A1 (en) * 2001-03-27 2004-11-25 Karl Bohman Container surveillance system and related method
US20050073406A1 (en) * 2003-09-03 2005-04-07 Easley Linda G. System and method for providing container security
US20050134457A1 (en) * 2003-10-27 2005-06-23 Savi Technology, Inc. Container security and monitoring
US20050179545A1 (en) * 2003-11-13 2005-08-18 All Set Marine Security Ab Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
US6963270B1 (en) * 1999-10-27 2005-11-08 Checkpoint Systems, Inc. Anticollision protocol with fast read request and additional schemes for reading multiple transponders in an RFID system
US7019640B2 (en) * 2003-05-19 2006-03-28 Raytheon Company Sensor suite and communication system for cargo monitoring and identification
US7081816B2 (en) * 2003-06-06 2006-07-25 Ion Digital Llp Compact wireless sensor

Family Cites Families (46)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR1515822A (en) 1963-09-03 1968-03-08 M E T O Soc D Applic Mecanique Method and apparatus for storing, removing and counting articles in storage containers
US4438428A (en) * 1981-02-20 1984-03-20 Omnitronics Research Corporation Multiple function personal security alarm
JPS60261754A (en) * 1984-06-11 1985-12-25 Nippon Soken Inc Theft preventing apparatus for car
US4808974A (en) * 1987-07-01 1989-02-28 Cantley Richard E Door alarm
US5072212A (en) * 1990-12-17 1991-12-10 Sorenson Gary R Entry alarm
GB2254506B (en) * 1991-02-16 1995-04-26 Dennis Richard Saunders Refrigeration monitoring systems
US6266008B1 (en) 1991-12-10 2001-07-24 Charles D. Huston System and method for determining freight container locations
CA2133057C (en) * 1993-10-20 2005-03-15 Gerald Lee Dawson Electronic combination lock utilizing a one-time use combination
US5341123A (en) * 1993-12-06 1994-08-23 Schuman Sr Ralph J Portable door alarm
US5499014A (en) * 1994-07-01 1996-03-12 Greenwaldt; Gordon E. Security alarm system
DE4434470C1 (en) * 1994-09-27 1996-04-11 Nukem Gmbh A method and system for generating a central message upon actuation of an alarm in a transportation organ
DE19504733A1 (en) * 1995-02-06 1996-08-08 Siemens Ag Object or travel path locating appts.
US5577696A (en) * 1995-06-01 1996-11-26 Kramer; Clarence J. Smoke alarm mount
US5686888A (en) * 1995-06-07 1997-11-11 General Electric Company Use of mutter mode in asset tracking for gathering data from cargo sensors
DE19534948A1 (en) 1995-09-20 1997-03-27 Siemens Ag Internal atmosphere monitoring method for CA-container
DE19704210A1 (en) 1997-02-05 1998-08-06 Orga Kartensysteme Gmbh Logistic system for containers
WO1999033040A1 (en) * 1997-12-19 1999-07-01 Transportonline As Method and system for surveillance of portable articles
US6148291A (en) * 1998-01-26 2000-11-14 K & T Of Lorain, Ltd. Container and inventory monitoring methods and systems
JPH11246048A (en) 1998-03-02 1999-09-14 Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Ind Co Ltd Marine-transported container and container unloading harbor facilities
JP2002544636A (en) * 1999-05-17 2002-12-24 スマート コンテナ ピーティーワイ リミテッド Monitoring mobility environment under control
GB9914711D0 (en) 1999-06-23 1999-08-25 Leck Michael J Electronic seal,methods and security system
BE1012912A6 (en) 1999-09-29 2001-05-08 Laureyssens Dirk Localization electronics and working method
DE19950532A1 (en) 1999-10-20 2001-07-12 Schoeller Plast Ag Reusable transportation apparatus with tracking systems has transponder storing information on readiness condition of merchandise and usability profile
WO2001033247A1 (en) * 1999-11-03 2001-05-10 Satsafe Mls Ab Position finder for vehicles and cargo carriers
JP2001261159A (en) 2000-03-24 2001-09-26 Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Ind Co Ltd Management apparatus and management method for container
JP2002039659A (en) 2000-07-28 2002-02-06 Sagawa Express Co Ltd Service and temperature administration system
WO2002025038A3 (en) * 2000-09-22 2003-01-03 Myung-Geun Jeong Electronic locking apparatus and control method thereof
US6577921B1 (en) 2000-11-27 2003-06-10 Robert M. Carson Container tracking system
US6745027B2 (en) 2000-12-22 2004-06-01 Seekernet Incorporated Class switched networks for tracking articles
RU2177647C1 (en) 2001-02-07 2001-12-27 Федеральный государственный имущественный комплекс "Радионавигационные системы" Procedure controlling transportation of cargoes
WO2003023439A3 (en) 2001-09-10 2003-09-18 Digital Angel Corp Container having integral localization and/or sensing device
EP1539617A4 (en) 2002-06-05 2008-03-19 Navitag Technologies Inc Reusable self contained electronic device providing in-transit cargo visibility
WO2004001551A3 (en) 2002-06-20 2004-06-24 Angel Secure Networks Inc Secure detection network system
WO2004009473A1 (en) 2002-07-19 2004-01-29 Jan Christoffel Greyling Container management system
US20040215532A1 (en) 2003-02-25 2004-10-28 Hans Boman Method and system for monitoring relative movement of maritime containers and other cargo
US7479877B2 (en) 2002-09-17 2009-01-20 Commerceguard Ab Method and system for utilizing multiple sensors for monitoring container security, contents and condition
WO2004027727A1 (en) 2002-09-17 2004-04-01 All Set Marine Security Ab. Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
US6973385B2 (en) 2002-10-08 2005-12-06 Ulrich Henry B Security intelligence tracking anti-terrorist system
US20040113783A1 (en) 2002-12-11 2004-06-17 Millennium Information Systems, Llc Container integrity management system
US20060164239A1 (en) 2003-01-14 2006-07-27 Loda David C Shipping container and method of using same
EP1614077B1 (en) 2003-03-20 2007-08-15 Powers International, Inc. Systems, methods and computer program products for monitoring transport containers
US6995669B2 (en) 2003-03-25 2006-02-07 Fernando Morales System and method to enhance security of shipping containers
US7129837B2 (en) 2003-04-09 2006-10-31 Savi Technology, Inc. Continuous security state tracking for intermodal containers transported through a global supply chain
CN2690346Y (en) * 2003-10-27 2005-04-06 中国国际海运集装箱(集团)股份有限公司 Hidden container safety device and container
US7317387B1 (en) * 2003-11-07 2008-01-08 Savi Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for increased container security
US20070008107A1 (en) * 2005-06-21 2007-01-11 Savi Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for monitoring mobile containers

Patent Citations (51)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4688244A (en) * 1986-11-10 1987-08-18 Marwan Hannon Integrated cargo security system
US4750197A (en) * 1986-11-10 1988-06-07 Denekamp Mark L Integrated cargo security system
US4849927A (en) * 1987-06-12 1989-07-18 Ncr Corporation Method of controlling the operation of security modules
US4897642A (en) * 1988-10-14 1990-01-30 Secura Corporation Vehicle status monitor and management system employing satellite communication
US5097253A (en) * 1989-01-06 1992-03-17 Battelle Memorial Institute Electronic security device
US5347274A (en) * 1990-05-17 1994-09-13 At/Comm Incorporated Hazardous waste transport management system
US5189396A (en) * 1990-06-16 1993-02-23 Anatoli Stobbe Electronic seal
US5355511A (en) * 1990-08-08 1994-10-11 Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha Position monitoring for communicable and uncommunicable mobile stations
US5453733A (en) * 1992-07-20 1995-09-26 Digital Security Controls Ltd. Intrusion alarm with independent trouble evaluation
US5475597A (en) * 1993-02-24 1995-12-12 Amsc Subsidiary Corporation System for mapping occurrences of predetermined conditions in a transport route
US5448220A (en) * 1993-04-08 1995-09-05 Levy; Raymond H. Apparatus for transmitting contents information
US5565858A (en) * 1994-09-14 1996-10-15 Northrop Grumman Corporation Electronic inventory system for stacked containers
US5602526A (en) * 1994-11-21 1997-02-11 Read; Robert M. Vehicle open door warning system
US5831519A (en) * 1994-11-22 1998-11-03 Pedersen; Heine Ewi Traffic supervision system for vehicles
US5828322A (en) * 1995-05-06 1998-10-27 Eberhard; Hans Joachim System for controlling delivery and return of printed matter
US5832090A (en) * 1995-08-10 1998-11-03 Hid Corporation Radio frequency transponder stored value system employing a secure encryption protocol
US5712789A (en) * 1995-08-28 1998-01-27 K&T Ltd. Container monitoring system and method
US6069563A (en) * 1996-03-05 2000-05-30 Kadner; Steven P. Seal system
US5917433A (en) * 1996-06-26 1999-06-29 Orbital Sciences Corporation Asset monitoring system and associated method
US5959568A (en) * 1996-06-26 1999-09-28 Par Goverment Systems Corporation Measuring distance
US5999091A (en) * 1996-11-25 1999-12-07 Highwaymaster Communications, Inc. Trailer communications system
US5939982A (en) * 1997-06-09 1999-08-17 Auratek Security Inc. Apparatus for monitoring opening of sealed containers
US6381977B1 (en) * 1997-06-19 2002-05-07 Albert A. Austin, Jr. Cargo container and a pallet track assembly thereof
US6211907B1 (en) * 1998-06-01 2001-04-03 Robert Jeff Scaman Secure, vehicle mounted, surveillance system
US6556149B1 (en) * 1999-03-01 2003-04-29 Canpolar East Inc. Switches and joysticks using a non-electrical deformable pressure sensor
US6963270B1 (en) * 1999-10-27 2005-11-08 Checkpoint Systems, Inc. Anticollision protocol with fast read request and additional schemes for reading multiple transponders in an RFID system
US6133842A (en) * 1999-11-15 2000-10-17 Gariepy; Jason Alarm system for portable container
US6665585B2 (en) * 2000-01-31 2003-12-16 Ishikarajima-Harima Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method and apparatus for container management
US20010030599A1 (en) * 2000-04-13 2001-10-18 Uwe Zimmermann Device and method for monitoring the interior space of a transport container
US6437702B1 (en) * 2000-04-14 2002-08-20 Qualcomm, Inc. Cargo sensing system and method
US6400266B1 (en) * 2000-04-20 2002-06-04 Wabash Technology Corporation Door sensor for a trailer
US6737962B2 (en) * 2000-04-26 2004-05-18 Maxxal International, Inc. Alarm system and kit with event recording
US20020061758A1 (en) * 2000-11-17 2002-05-23 Crosslink, Inc. Mobile wireless local area network system for automating fleet operations
US6483433B2 (en) * 2001-02-20 2002-11-19 International Business Machines Corporation Method and apparatus for notifying of receipt
US20040233041A1 (en) * 2001-03-27 2004-11-25 Karl Bohman Container surveillance system and related method
US20040119588A1 (en) * 2001-05-02 2004-06-24 Marks Roger Julian Door mountable alarm system
US6724303B2 (en) * 2001-10-18 2004-04-20 Corporate Safe Specialists, Inc. Method and apparatus for monitoring a safe
US6747558B1 (en) * 2001-11-09 2004-06-08 Savi Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for providing container security with a tag
US20030233189A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2003-12-18 Hsiao Victor K. Mobile-trailer tracking system and method
US20040041705A1 (en) * 2002-08-27 2004-03-04 Hi-G-Tek Ltd. Smart container monitoring system
US20040041708A1 (en) * 2002-08-27 2004-03-04 Mico Products, Inc. Monitoring and security systems
US6753775B2 (en) * 2002-08-27 2004-06-22 Hi-G-Tek Ltd. Smart container monitoring system
US20040196152A1 (en) * 2003-04-02 2004-10-07 Tice Russell N. Method for enabling communication and condition monitoring from inside of a sealed shipping container using impulse radio wireless techniques
US7019640B2 (en) * 2003-05-19 2006-03-28 Raytheon Company Sensor suite and communication system for cargo monitoring and identification
US7081816B2 (en) * 2003-06-06 2006-07-25 Ion Digital Llp Compact wireless sensor
US6788203B1 (en) * 2003-07-15 2004-09-07 Brian A. Roxbury Mailbox and counter combination device
US20060255934A1 (en) * 2003-09-03 2006-11-16 System Planning Corporation System and method for providing container security
US7098784B2 (en) * 2003-09-03 2006-08-29 System Planning Corporation System and method for providing container security
US20050073406A1 (en) * 2003-09-03 2005-04-07 Easley Linda G. System and method for providing container security
US20050134457A1 (en) * 2003-10-27 2005-06-23 Savi Technology, Inc. Container security and monitoring
US20050179545A1 (en) * 2003-11-13 2005-08-18 All Set Marine Security Ab Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof

Cited By (178)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070262574A1 (en) * 1982-06-18 2007-11-15 Intelligent Technologies International, Inc. Optical Monitoring of Vehicle Interiors
US8948442B2 (en) 1982-06-18 2015-02-03 Intelligent Technologies International, Inc. Optical monitoring of vehicle interiors
US9290146B2 (en) 1992-05-05 2016-03-22 Intelligent Technologies International, Inc. Optical monitoring of vehicle interiors
US20080036580A1 (en) * 1992-05-05 2008-02-14 Intelligent Technologies International, Inc. Optical Monitoring of Vehicle Interiors
US20080304443A1 (en) * 2000-12-22 2008-12-11 Twitchell Jr Robert W Standards based communictions for a container security system
US20080303897A1 (en) * 2000-12-22 2008-12-11 Terahop Networks, Inc. Visually capturing and monitoring contents and events of cargo container
US8284045B2 (en) 2000-12-22 2012-10-09 Google Inc. Container tracking system
US20090016308A1 (en) * 2000-12-22 2009-01-15 Terahop Networks, Inc. Antenna in cargo container monitoring and security system
US8280345B2 (en) 2000-12-22 2012-10-02 Google Inc. LPRF device wake up using wireless tag
US20050179541A1 (en) * 2001-08-31 2005-08-18 Red Wolf Technologies, Inc. Personal property security device
US20070005953A1 (en) * 2002-09-17 2007-01-04 Hans Boman Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
US7564350B2 (en) 2002-09-17 2009-07-21 All Set Marine Security Ab Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
US7136711B1 (en) * 2002-11-21 2006-11-14 Global Network Security, Inc. Facilities management system
US20060164239A1 (en) * 2003-01-14 2006-07-27 Loda David C Shipping container and method of using same
US20040183673A1 (en) * 2003-01-31 2004-09-23 Nageli Hans Peter Portable detachable self-contained tracking unit for two-way satellite communication with a central server
US20040227630A1 (en) * 2003-04-09 2004-11-18 Shannon David L. Continuous security state tracking for intermodal containers transported through a global supply chain
US7196622B2 (en) 2003-04-09 2007-03-27 Savi Technology, Inc. State monitoring of a container
US7173530B2 (en) 2003-04-09 2007-02-06 Savi Technology, Inc. Nested visibility for a container hierarchy
US20050024200A1 (en) * 2003-04-09 2005-02-03 Lambright Stephen J. Nested visibility for a container hierarchy
US7129837B2 (en) * 2003-04-09 2006-10-31 Savi Technology, Inc. Continuous security state tracking for intermodal containers transported through a global supply chain
US20040246130A1 (en) * 2003-04-09 2004-12-09 Lambright Stephen J. State monitoring of a container
US20050162270A1 (en) * 2003-05-07 2005-07-28 Lambright Stephen J. Item-level visibility of nested and adjacent containers
US7639134B2 (en) 2003-05-07 2009-12-29 Savi Technology, Inc. Item-level visibility of nested and adjacent containers
US20050162269A1 (en) * 2003-05-07 2005-07-28 Lambright Stephen J. Dual mode reader device
US20050156736A1 (en) * 2003-05-13 2005-07-21 Rajapakse Ravindra U. Federated system for monitoring physical assets
US20070120673A1 (en) * 2003-05-13 2007-05-31 Savi Technology, Inc. Federated System for Monitoring Physical Assets
US7382264B2 (en) 2003-05-13 2008-06-03 Savi Technology, Inc. Federated system for monitoring physical assets
US7307526B2 (en) 2003-05-13 2007-12-11 Savi Technology, Inc. Federated system for monitoring physical assets
US20050030175A1 (en) * 2003-08-07 2005-02-10 Wolfe Daniel G. Security apparatus, system, and method
US7417543B2 (en) 2003-11-13 2008-08-26 Commerceguard Ab Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
US20050179545A1 (en) * 2003-11-13 2005-08-18 All Set Marine Security Ab Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
US20050110612A1 (en) * 2003-11-24 2005-05-26 Battelle Memorial Institute Communication device with RFID functions
US7212122B2 (en) 2003-12-30 2007-05-01 G2 Microsystems Pty. Ltd. Methods and apparatus of meshing and hierarchy establishment for tracking devices
US20050247775A1 (en) * 2003-12-30 2005-11-10 Gloekler John S Methods and apparatus of meshing and hierarchy establishment for tracking devices
WO2005065363A3 (en) * 2003-12-30 2006-02-02 G2 Microsystems Pty Ltd Methods and apparatus of aggregating and communicating tracking information with routing set-up for tracking devices
US7930142B2 (en) 2004-02-02 2011-04-19 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. System and method for generating a transporting instruction using an environmental sensor
US20070095905A1 (en) * 2004-02-02 2007-05-03 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. System and Method for Automatic Redirection of a Product Under Transport Using an Environmental Sensor
US7937244B2 (en) 2004-02-02 2011-05-03 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. System and method for evaluating a shipping route and a package under transport in the shipping route using an environmental sensor
US20110169636A1 (en) * 2004-02-02 2011-07-14 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. System and Method for Generating a Transporting Instruction Using an Environmental Sensor
US8280686B2 (en) 2004-02-02 2012-10-02 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. System and method for generating a transporting instruction using an environmental sensor
US8412489B2 (en) 2004-02-02 2013-04-02 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. System and method for generating a transporting instruction using an environmental sensor
US7149658B2 (en) * 2004-02-02 2006-12-12 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. Systems and methods for transporting a product using an environmental sensor
US20050171738A1 (en) * 2004-02-02 2005-08-04 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. Systems and methods for transporting a product using an environmental sensor
US20090099818A1 (en) * 2004-02-02 2009-04-16 United Parcel Services Of America, Inc. System and method for generating a transporting instruction using an environmental sensor
US9230372B2 (en) 2004-02-02 2016-01-05 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. System and method for generating a transporting instruction using an environmental sensor
US8594978B2 (en) 2004-02-02 2013-11-26 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. System and method for generating a transporting instruction using an environmental sensor
US7358856B2 (en) * 2004-03-18 2008-04-15 Savi Technology, Inc. Two-phase commit synchronizing seal state
US20060202825A1 (en) * 2004-03-18 2006-09-14 Rajapakse Ravindra U Two-phase commit synchronizing seal state
US20050252259A1 (en) * 2004-03-24 2005-11-17 All Set Marine Security Ab Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
US7333015B2 (en) 2004-03-24 2008-02-19 Commerceguard Ab Method and system for monitoring containers to maintain the security thereof
US20050253708A1 (en) * 2004-04-07 2005-11-17 Karl Bohman Method and system for arming a container security device without use of electronic reader
US7382251B2 (en) 2004-04-07 2008-06-03 Commerceguard Ab Method and system for arming a container security device without use of electronic reader
US7307536B2 (en) 2004-05-06 2007-12-11 Savi Technology, Inc. Portable deployment kit for nested visibility
US7755486B2 (en) 2004-05-06 2010-07-13 Savi Technology, Inc. Expanded compatibility RFID tags
US20080088461A9 (en) * 2004-05-06 2008-04-17 Zhu Liping J Expanded compatibility rfid tags
US20070085688A1 (en) * 2004-05-06 2007-04-19 Zhu Liping J Expanded compatibility rfid tags
US20060144940A1 (en) * 2004-05-06 2006-07-06 Shannon David L Portable deployment kit
US9860839B2 (en) 2004-05-27 2018-01-02 Google Llc Wireless transceiver
US9872249B2 (en) 2004-05-27 2018-01-16 Google Llc Relaying communications in a wireless sensor system
US20060122944A1 (en) * 2004-07-20 2006-06-08 Ryan Philip J Methods and systems for enabling communication to and from asset tracking devices
US7315281B2 (en) 2004-07-30 2008-01-01 G2 Microsystems Pty. Ltd. Location determination method and system for asset tracking devices
WO2006026401A3 (en) * 2004-08-27 2007-09-20 L 3 Comm Security & Detection Method and apparatus to detect event signatures
US20070290842A1 (en) * 2004-08-27 2007-12-20 L-3 Communications Security And Detection Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus to detect event signatures
WO2006026401A2 (en) * 2004-08-27 2006-03-09 L-3 Communications Security And Detection Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus to detect event signatures
US7535355B2 (en) * 2004-08-27 2009-05-19 L-3 Communications Security and Detection Systems Inc. Method and apparatus to detect event signatures
US20080193246A1 (en) * 2004-09-03 2008-08-14 All Set Marine Lashing Ab Remotely Controlled Twist-Lock and a Method For Controlling Such a Lock to be Connected to a Container
WO2006025790A1 (en) * 2004-09-03 2006-03-09 All Set Marine Lashing Ab Remotely controlled twist-lock and a method for controlling such a lock to be connected to a container.
DE102004044010A1 (en) * 2004-09-09 2006-03-30 Clausthaler Umwelttechnikinstitut Gmbh, (Cutec-Institut) Means for monitoring a plurality of mobile objects
US20060068853A1 (en) * 2004-09-28 2006-03-30 Thomas Dejanovic GPS receiver having RF front end power management and simultaneous baseband searching of frequency and code chip offset
US7313421B2 (en) 2004-09-28 2007-12-25 G2 Microsystems Pty. Ltd. GPS receiver having RF front end power management and simultaneous baseband searching of frequency and code chip offset
US9070068B2 (en) * 2004-10-19 2015-06-30 Michael E. Coveley Passive tamper-resistant seal and applications therefor
US20120235815A1 (en) * 2004-10-19 2012-09-20 Coveley Michael E Passive Tamper-Resistant Seal And Applications Therefor
EP1812914A4 (en) * 2004-10-27 2012-01-04 Paceco Corp Method and apparatus using radio-location tags to report status for a container handler
EP1812914A2 (en) * 2004-10-27 2007-08-01 Paceco Corp. Method and apparatus using radio-location tags to report status for a container handler
US7339469B2 (en) * 2004-11-22 2008-03-04 Maersk Logistics Usa, Inc. Shipping container monitoring and tracking system
US20080094209A1 (en) * 2004-11-22 2008-04-24 Maersk Logistics Usa, Inc. Shipping container monitoring and tracking system
US20060109106A1 (en) * 2004-11-22 2006-05-25 Maersk Logistics Usa, Inc. Shipping container monitoring and tracking system
US8149118B2 (en) 2005-01-13 2012-04-03 Robert Bosch Gmbh Device and method for registering the opening of closures of spaces to be secured
US8164458B2 (en) 2005-01-28 2012-04-24 Systems Microtechnologies, Inc. Transportation security system and associated methods
US8643503B2 (en) * 2005-01-28 2014-02-04 Kirill Mostov Transportation security system and associated methods
US8907793B2 (en) * 2005-01-28 2014-12-09 Kirsen Technologies, Llc Transportation security system and associated methods
US7990270B2 (en) 2005-01-28 2011-08-02 Kirsen Technologies Corporation Inc. Transportation security system and associated methods
US9262896B1 (en) * 2005-01-28 2016-02-16 Kirsen Technologies, Llc Transportation security system and associated methods
US20060181413A1 (en) * 2005-01-28 2006-08-17 Systems Microtechnologies, Inc. Transportation security system and associated methods
US20130154829A1 (en) * 2005-01-28 2013-06-20 Kirill Mostov Transportation Security System and Associated Methods
US20060173721A1 (en) * 2005-02-02 2006-08-03 Gregg Jerry E Computer-based transportation-safety system
US20080278322A1 (en) * 2005-03-07 2008-11-13 Peter Villiger Process and Overall System For the Secure Transportation of Valuable Objects
US8054183B2 (en) * 2005-03-07 2011-11-08 Peter Villiger Process and overall system for the secure transportation of valuable objects
US7916016B2 (en) * 2005-03-10 2011-03-29 Hi-G-Tek, Ltd. Smart container monitoring system
US20080278318A1 (en) * 2005-03-10 2008-11-13 Micha Auerbach Smart Container Monitoring System
CN101176128B (en) 2005-05-13 2010-06-09 商业防护公司 Method and apparatus for arming a multi-layered security system
US7283052B2 (en) 2005-05-13 2007-10-16 Commerceguard Ab Method and system for arming a multi-layered security system
WO2006124377A2 (en) 2005-05-13 2006-11-23 Ge Commerceguard Ab Method and apparatus for arming a multi-layered security system
US20080315596A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2008-12-25 Terry Daniel J Shipping Container Security System
US20090115201A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2009-05-07 Terahop Networks, Inc. Shipping container security system
US20090026773A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2009-01-29 Terahop Networks, Inc. Bolt-type seal with usb interface for use with shipping containers
US7828345B2 (en) 2005-07-29 2010-11-09 Terahop Networks, Inc. Shipping container security system including RF door alarm module
US20090115200A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2009-05-07 Terahop Networks, Inc. Shipping container security system
US20090126424A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2009-05-21 Terahop Networks, Inc. Shipping container security system including rf door alarm module
US7828342B2 (en) 2005-07-29 2010-11-09 Terahop Networks, Inc. Reusable locking body, of bolt-type seal lock, having open-ended passageway and U-shaped bolt
US7828344B2 (en) 2005-07-29 2010-11-09 Terahop Networks, Inc. Bolt-type seal lock having separate housing, connected to locking body, with electronics for detecting and wireless communicating cutting of bolt
US7828343B2 (en) 2005-07-29 2010-11-09 Terahop Networks, Inc. Reusable locking body, of bolt-type seal lock, having open-ended passageway
US7828346B2 (en) * 2005-07-29 2010-11-09 Terahop Networks, Inc. Securing shipping container for transport
US20090127873A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2009-05-21 Terahop Networks, Inc. Bolt-type seal lock having separate housing, connected to locking body, with electronics for detecting and wireless communicating cutting of bolt
US7883126B2 (en) * 2005-07-29 2011-02-08 Terahop Networks, Inc. Bolt-type seal lock having locking body pivotably connected to mounting component for attachment to shipping container door
US7883128B2 (en) * 2005-07-29 2011-02-08 Terahop Networks, Inc. Security system for shipping containers
US7883127B2 (en) * 2005-07-29 2011-02-08 Terahop Networks, Inc. Shipping container security system
US7900980B2 (en) * 2005-07-29 2011-03-08 Terahop Networks, Inc. Locking body, of bolt-type seal lock, having electronics for detecting and wireless communicating cutting of bolt
US20090179437A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2009-07-16 Terahop Networks, Inc. Bold-type seal lock having locking body pivotably connected to mounting component for attachment to shipping container door
US20090146437A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2009-06-11 Terahop Networks, Inc. Reusable locking body, of bolt-type seal lock, having open-ended passageway
US20090108596A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2009-04-30 Terahop Networks, Inc. Shipping container security system
US7938459B2 (en) * 2005-07-29 2011-05-10 Terahop Networks, Inc. Bolt-type seal lock having locking body and separate mounting housing with electronics for wireless communications
WO2007089279A3 (en) * 2006-01-26 2007-11-15 Paul C Manz System and method for tactical distributed event warning notification for individual entities, and computer program product therefor
US7602281B2 (en) 2006-01-26 2009-10-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army System and method for tactical distributed event warning notification for individual entities, and computer program product therefor
WO2007089279A2 (en) * 2006-01-26 2007-08-09 United States Government System and method for tactical distributed event warning notification for individual entities, and computer program product therefor
US7764185B1 (en) 2006-01-26 2010-07-27 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army System, user warning and positioning device for use therein, and computer program product therefor, for tactical distributed event warning notification for individual entities
US20090295581A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2009-12-03 Jyrki Paananen Security Device for Monitoring Integrity of Closed Objects
WO2007110467A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2007-10-04 4Ts Finland Oy Security device for monitoring integrity of closed objects
US8339263B2 (en) 2006-03-29 2012-12-25 4Ts Finland Oy Security device for monitoring integrity of closed objects
US20070273484A1 (en) * 2006-05-11 2007-11-29 Magnus Cederlof Method of and reader for automatic synchronization of reader wakeup signals to radio tags
US20080042809A1 (en) * 2006-08-18 2008-02-21 Black & Decker Inc. Asset monitoring system and portable security system therefor
US7961088B2 (en) 2006-08-18 2011-06-14 Cattail Technologies, Inc. Asset monitoring system and portable security system therefor
US20080211711A1 (en) * 2006-12-06 2008-09-04 Kirsen Technologies, Inc. System and Method for Detecting Dangerous Objects and Substances
US8823581B2 (en) 2006-12-06 2014-09-02 Radical Development Holding S.A. System and method for detecting dangerous objects and substances
US20100257115A1 (en) * 2007-01-09 2010-10-07 Robinson Thomas A Identification and Association of Refrigerated Containers with Dispatch Orders
US8849723B2 (en) * 2007-01-09 2014-09-30 Startrak Information Technologies, Llc Identification and association of refrigerated containers with dispatch orders
US8044778B2 (en) * 2007-07-12 2011-10-25 Henry Schein, Inc. Injection device and case with reporting ability
US20090128330A1 (en) * 2007-07-12 2009-05-21 Henry Schein, Inc. Injection device and case with reporting ability
US20090058711A1 (en) * 2007-08-30 2009-03-05 Walter Vincent Dixon Method of and system for monitoring security of containers
US8115472B2 (en) 2007-10-24 2012-02-14 Kirsen Technologies Corporation Inc. System and method for space control and remote monitoring
US20100027737A1 (en) * 2007-10-24 2010-02-04 Kirsen Technologies Corporation System and Method For Space Control and Remote Monitoring
US8854029B2 (en) 2007-10-24 2014-10-07 Radical Development Holding S.A. System and method for space control and remote monitoring
US8334703B2 (en) 2007-11-20 2012-12-18 Roiksimt Apparatus for remote detection and monitoring of concealed objects
US20090322510A1 (en) * 2008-05-16 2009-12-31 Terahop Networks, Inc. Securing, monitoring and tracking shipping containers
US8279067B2 (en) 2008-05-16 2012-10-02 Google Inc. Securing, monitoring and tracking shipping containers
US8207848B2 (en) 2008-05-16 2012-06-26 Google Inc. Locking system for shipping container including bolt seal and electronic device with arms for receiving bolt seal
US20100013635A1 (en) * 2008-05-16 2010-01-21 Terahop Networks, Inc. Locking system for shipping container including bolt seal and electronic device with arms for receiving bolt seal
US8577802B1 (en) 2008-06-16 2013-11-05 Bank Of America Corporation On-demand cash transport
US8164451B2 (en) 2008-06-16 2012-04-24 Bank Of America Corporation Cash handling facility management
US20110210826A1 (en) * 2008-06-16 2011-09-01 Bank Of America Corporation Cash handling facility management
WO2009155262A1 (en) * 2008-06-16 2009-12-23 Bank Of America Corporation Tamper-indicating monetary package
US8094021B2 (en) 2008-06-16 2012-01-10 Bank Of America Corporation Monetary package security during transport through cash supply chain
US8341077B1 (en) 2008-06-16 2012-12-25 Bank Of America Corporation Prediction of future funds positions
US8078534B1 (en) 2008-06-16 2011-12-13 Bank Of America Corporation Cash supply chain surveillance
US20090309722A1 (en) * 2008-06-16 2009-12-17 Bank Of America Corporation Tamper-indicating monetary package
US7982610B1 (en) 2008-06-16 2011-07-19 Bank Of America Corporation Content-based prioritizing of deposits
US20090309729A1 (en) * 2008-06-16 2009-12-17 Bank Of America Corporation Monetary package security during transport through cash supply chain
US7965184B1 (en) 2008-06-16 2011-06-21 Bank Of America Corporation Cash handling facility management
US8550338B1 (en) 2008-06-16 2013-10-08 Bank Of America Corporation Cash supply chain notifications
US8556167B1 (en) 2008-06-16 2013-10-15 Bank Of America Corporation Prediction of future cash supply chain status
US8571948B1 (en) 2008-06-16 2013-10-29 Bank Of America Corporation Extension of credit for monetary items still in transport
US7982604B2 (en) 2008-06-16 2011-07-19 Bank Of America Tamper-indicating monetary package
US9024722B2 (en) 2008-06-16 2015-05-05 Bank Of America Corporation Remote identification equipped self-service monetary item handling device
US7982764B2 (en) 2008-07-08 2011-07-19 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. Apparatus for monitoring a package handling system
US20100010664A1 (en) * 2008-07-08 2010-01-14 Nagesh Kadaba Apparatus For Monitoring A Package Handling System
US8630537B2 (en) 2008-07-08 2014-01-14 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. Apparatus for monitoring a package handling system
US20100097118A1 (en) * 2008-10-17 2010-04-22 Dell Products L.P. Activating an Information Handling System Battery From a Ship Mode
US8138722B2 (en) 2008-10-17 2012-03-20 Dell Products L.P. Activating an information handling system battery from a ship mode
US8210429B1 (en) 2008-10-31 2012-07-03 Bank Of America Corporation On demand transportation for cash handling device
US9699736B2 (en) 2008-12-25 2017-07-04 Google Inc. Reducing a number of wake-up frames in a sequence of wake-up frames
US9532310B2 (en) 2008-12-25 2016-12-27 Google Inc. Receiver state estimation in a duty cycled radio
US8154255B2 (en) 2009-01-30 2012-04-10 Dell Products L.P. Systems and methods for waking up a battery system
US20100194348A1 (en) * 2009-01-30 2010-08-05 Ligong Wang Systems and methods for waking up a battery system
US20100245105A1 (en) * 2009-03-24 2010-09-30 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. Transport system evaluator
US8077050B2 (en) 2009-03-24 2011-12-13 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. Transport system evaluator
US8593280B2 (en) 2009-07-14 2013-11-26 Savi Technology, Inc. Security seal
US8456302B2 (en) 2009-07-14 2013-06-04 Savi Technology, Inc. Wireless tracking and monitoring electronic seal
US9142107B2 (en) 2009-07-14 2015-09-22 Deal Magic Inc. Wireless tracking and monitoring electronic seal
US9177282B2 (en) 2009-08-17 2015-11-03 Deal Magic Inc. Contextually aware monitoring of assets
US8514082B2 (en) 2009-08-28 2013-08-20 Deal Magic, Inc. Asset monitoring and tracking system
WO2011073972A1 (en) 2009-12-14 2011-06-23 Starcom Gps Systems Ltd T racking and monitoring device and system for a shipping container
US8779966B2 (en) * 2010-11-16 2014-07-15 Tialinx, Inc. Remote interrogation for detection of activity or living organisms inside electronically conductive containers
US20120119935A1 (en) * 2010-11-16 2012-05-17 Tialinx, Inc. Remote interrogation for detection of activity or living organisms inside electronically conductive containers
US8973835B2 (en) 2011-10-21 2015-03-10 United Parcel Service Of America, Inc. Systems and methods for collecting primary and secondary data associated with shipping containers
US20130321122A1 (en) * 2012-06-01 2013-12-05 Petari USA, Inc. Method and system for airplane container tracking
US9194932B2 (en) * 2012-06-01 2015-11-24 Senaya, Inc. Method and system for airplane container tracking
US9712893B2 (en) 2013-04-18 2017-07-18 Digi International Canada Inc. Sensing device and method to monitor perishable goods
WO2014169375A1 (en) 2013-04-18 2014-10-23 Bluenica Corporation Sensing device and method to monitor perishable goods

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US7564350B2 (en) 2009-07-21 grant
US20070005953A1 (en) 2007-01-04 application
CN102054303A (en) 2011-05-11 application
WO2004027727A1 (en) 2004-04-01 application
KR20050067392A (en) 2005-07-01 application
EP1540620A1 (en) 2005-06-15 application
KR101012977B1 (en) 2011-02-10 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6737962B2 (en) Alarm system and kit with event recording
US4750197A (en) Integrated cargo security system
US20040227630A1 (en) Continuous security state tracking for intermodal containers transported through a global supply chain
US7471203B2 (en) Tamper monitoring system and method
US7457693B2 (en) System, method, and apparatus for collecting telematics and sensor information in a delivery vehicle
US8279067B2 (en) Securing, monitoring and tracking shipping containers
US20070200701A1 (en) Network centric sensor fusion for shipping container security
US7455225B1 (en) Method and system for monitoring and controlling goods while in transit
US20070008135A1 (en) Electronic security system for monitoring and recording activity and data relating to persons or cargo
US20060202824A1 (en) Electronic seal and method of shipping container tracking
US20040069850A1 (en) Truck cargo management rfid tags and interrogators
US20050236479A1 (en) Recording of location event information in RFID tags
US7274289B2 (en) System and device for detecting object tampering
US20090015400A1 (en) Shipping Container Monitoring Based on Door Status
US20080272906A1 (en) Vehicle Monitoring Using Cellular Phones
US6701776B2 (en) Apparatus and method for leak detection
US7002472B2 (en) Smart and secure container
US7196622B2 (en) State monitoring of a container
US20040246104A1 (en) Method for monitoring goods
EP1246094A1 (en) Container surveillance system and related method
US20130033381A1 (en) Cargo theft prevention using text messaging
US20070120736A1 (en) Method and system for discrete location triggering for enhanced asset management and tracking
US20090102653A1 (en) Method for Maintaining a Shipping Container Manifest
US7659816B2 (en) Method and a device for detecting intrusion into or tampering with contents of an enclosure
US6879257B2 (en) State surveillance system and method for an object and the adjacent space, and a surveillance system for freight containers

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: ALL SET TRACKING AB, SWEDEN

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BOMAN, HANS;SANDBERG, ERIC;EKSTROM, STIG;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:014883/0841

Effective date: 20031130

AS Assignment

Owner name: ALL SET MARINE SECURITY AB, SWEDEN

Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:ALL SET TRACKING AB;REEL/FRAME:015141/0950

Effective date: 20040227

AS Assignment

Owner name: ALL SET MARINE SECURITY AB, SWEDEN

Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:ALL SET TRACKING AB;REEL/FRAME:015141/0914

Effective date: 20040227

AS Assignment

Owner name: AB GRUNDSTENEN 103121, SWEDEN

Free format text: NUNC PRO TUNC ASSIGNMENT;ASSIGNOR:ALL SET MARINE SECURITY AB;REEL/FRAME:015759/0161

Effective date: 20040801

AS Assignment

Owner name: ALL SET MARINE SECURITY AB, SWEDEN

Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:AB GRUNDSTENEN 103121;REEL/FRAME:015954/0589

Effective date: 20041022