US20020043045A1 - Modular panels for building construction - Google Patents

Modular panels for building construction Download PDF

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Publication number
US20020043045A1
US20020043045A1 US09/906,719 US90671901A US2002043045A1 US 20020043045 A1 US20020043045 A1 US 20020043045A1 US 90671901 A US90671901 A US 90671901A US 2002043045 A1 US2002043045 A1 US 2002043045A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
panel
panels
reinforcement
modular panel
plate
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Abandoned
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US09/906,719
Inventor
Maurizio Marino Del Din
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Schnell House SpA
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Schnell House SpA
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Publication date
Priority to SMSMA200000032 priority Critical
Priority to SM200000032A priority patent/SM200000032B/en
Application filed by Schnell House SpA filed Critical Schnell House SpA
Assigned to SCHNELL HOUSE S.P.A. reassignment SCHNELL HOUSE S.P.A. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: DEL DIN, MAURIZIO ATTILIO MARINO
Publication of US20020043045A1 publication Critical patent/US20020043045A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/842Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ by projecting or otherwise applying hardenable masses to the exterior of a form leaf
    • E04B2/845Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ by projecting or otherwise applying hardenable masses to the exterior of a form leaf the form leaf comprising a wire netting, lattice or the like
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/842Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ by projecting or otherwise applying hardenable masses to the exterior of a form leaf
    • E04B2/847Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ by projecting or otherwise applying hardenable masses to the exterior of a form leaf the form leaf comprising an insulating foam panel
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/16Load-carrying floor structures wholly or partly cast or similarly formed in situ
    • E04B5/17Floor structures partly formed in situ
    • E04B5/18Floor structures partly formed in situ with stiffening ribs or other beam-like formations wholly cast between filling members
    • E04B5/19Floor structures partly formed in situ with stiffening ribs or other beam-like formations wholly cast between filling members the filling members acting as self-supporting permanent forms
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/16Load-carrying floor structures wholly or partly cast or similarly formed in situ
    • E04B5/32Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements
    • E04B5/36Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements with form units as part of the floor
    • E04B5/38Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements with form units as part of the floor with slab-shaped form units acting simultaneously as reinforcement; Form slabs with reinforcements extending laterally outside the element
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2/8647Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with ties going through the forms

Abstract

A modular panel for the construction of buildings in general, having thermal and acoustic insulation characteristics, comprising at least one contoured plate-like element made of insulating material. On the faces of the plate-like element a first reinforcement net and a second reinforcement net are respectively provided, which are mutually joined by connecting elements which pass through the plate-like element.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to a modular panel for the construction of buildings in general, having thermal and acoustic insulation characteristics. [0001]
  • It is known that various kinds of prefabricated panels which must be assembled one another in order to obtain a vast range of civil and industrial buildings are already available in the building industry. [0002]
  • A common characteristic of all currently commercially available prefabricated panels is that such panels are relatively heavy and in any case require lifting means for their handling. Moreover, known panels are scarcely versatile and accordingly do not allow to perform modifications with respect to the originally intended structure; accordingly, the obtainable solutions are very limited. [0003]
  • Another problem of known solutions is due to the fact that a monolithic unit is not provided, and therefore such solutions are not always able to adequately withstand external stresses caused for example by natural phenomena. [0004]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The aim of the invention is to solve the above mentioned problems by providing a modular panel for the construction of buildings in general whose particular characteristic is that it is particularly light and can therefore be handled and installed manually and therefore even in sites not served by lifting means. [0005]
  • Within this aim, an object of the invention is to provide a modular panel which is particularly versatile, allowing to provide walls having any shape and to perform very simple interventions. [0006]
  • Another object of the present invention is to provide a modular panel which allows easy insertion of utilities, with the possibility of forming chases without having to perform the traditional cutting operations. [0007]
  • Another object of the present invention is to provide a panel which allows to provide a monolithic structure which is particularly rigid, with the possibility to withstand even intense external stresses, such as those arising from earthquakes and the like; moreover, the panel according to the invention allows to distribute the loads over the entire supporting surface, consequently simplifying the construction of the foundations. [0008]
  • Another object of the present invention is to provide a modular panel which, thanks to its particular constructive characteristics, is capable of giving the greatest assurances of reliability and safety in use and is further competitive from a merely economical point of view. [0009]
  • This aim and these and other objects which will become better apparent hereinafter are achieved by a modular panel for the construction of buildings in general, having thermal and acoustic insulation characteristics, characterized in that it comprises at least one contoured plate-like element made of insulating material, a first reinforcement net and a second reinforcement net being provided respectively on the faces of said at least one plate-like element and being joined one another by connecting elements which pass through said at least one plate-like element.[0010]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • Further characteristics and advantages will become better apparent from the description of a preferred but not exclusive embodiment of a modular panel for the construction of buildings in general, having thermal and acoustic insulation characteristics, illustrated only by way of non-limitative example in the accompanying drawings, wherein: [0011]
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic plan view of two single panels which can be arranged side by side; [0012]
  • FIG. 2 is an enlarged-scale view of two panels arranged side by side; [0013]
  • FIG. 3 is an exploded perspective view of the composition of a single panel; [0014]
  • FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a single panel; [0015]
  • FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a double panel; [0016]
  • FIG. 6 is a top plan view of a double panel; [0017]
  • FIG. 7 is an enlarged-scale view of two double panels which can be arranged side by side; [0018]
  • FIG. 8 is a view of a detail of the side-by-side arrangement of two double panels; [0019]
  • FIG. 9 is a view of two corner panels which can be arranged side by side; [0020]
  • FIG. 10 is a view of the corner panels arranged side by side; [0021]
  • FIG. 11 is a view of a corner element for forming the corner by means of double panels; [0022]
  • FIG. 12 is a view of the panels of FIG. 11, shown assembled to each other; [0023]
  • FIG. 13 is a schematic perspective view of a floor panel; [0024]
  • FIG. 14 is a sectional elevation view, taken along a transverse plane, of a floor panel; [0025]
  • FIG. 15 is a schematic view of a structure of a building which can be built with the panels according to the invention; [0026]
  • FIG. 16 is a view of a single panel with concrete applied to its outer faces; [0027]
  • FIG. 17 is a view of a double panel with the concrete poured on the inside, between the two plate-like elements, and the concrete on the outer faces; [0028]
  • FIG. 18 is a view of a double panel which provides a flight of stairs.[0029]
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • With reference to the figures, the modular panel for the construction of buildings in general, having thermal and acoustic insulation characteristics, according to the invention, comprises a single panel, generally designated by the reference numeral [0030] 1 and shown in FIGS. 1 to 4, which is provided with a contoured plate-like element 2 made of insulating material, preferably foamed polystyrene.
  • A first reinforcement net [0031] 3 and a second reinforcement net 4 are provided respectively on the faces of the plate-like element 2 and are advantageously made of electrically welded nets which have a plurality of intersecting rods.
  • The nets [0032] 3 and 4 are kept connected to the plate-like element 2 by way of connecting elements which are provided by way of through bars 5 which are welded, at their ends, to the rods of the corresponding nets or are in any case tied or coupled to said nets by seaming.
  • The bars [0033] 5 pass through the plate-like element.
  • According to a preferred embodiment, the plate-like element has a shape which is sinusoidal in transverse cross-section and a thickness which is variable according to the insulation requirements to be obtained. [0034]
  • The vertical rods that form the nets [0035] 3 and 4 are preferably arranged at the hollows that are formed at the surface on the faces of the plate-like element; said vertical rods are equally arranged on the inside or on the outside of the horizontal rods.
  • The assembly is completed by producing, on both faces of the panels, a concrete casting [0036] 9 which in practice incorporates the reinforcement nets, providing a plurality of micropiles which have, as explained hereinafter, an excellent structural behavior.
  • At the longitudinal edges, the reinforcement nets can have a protruding portion [0037] 7 on opposite faces, so as to achieve the side-by-side arrangement of two panels, as shown in FIG. 2, thus achieving the possibility to provide walls of any size.
  • It is also possible to provide a double modular panel, generally designated by the reference numeral [0038] 20, which is substantially provided by means of two single panels 1 which are arranged side by side and spaced one another.
  • The single panels [0039] 1 are joined by cross-members 21 which connect to the reinforcement nets of the corresponding single panels 1, forming an assembly in which the two insulating plate-like elements are spaced by means of a region in which it is possible to perform a concrete casting 30 which incorporates the entire structure, obtaining a truly stable and monolithic unit.
  • In this case also, it is possible to provide the mutual connection of multiple double panels by using the protruding portions [0040] 7, if provided, of the single panels that form the panels 20.
  • To complete the assembly, it is possible to provide corner panels, designated by the reference numeral [0041] 40 in FIG. 9, which are constituted in practice by double panels in which the internal single panel, designated by the reference numeral 1′, is retracted or cut in place with respect to the external single panel 1″, so as to allow the mating of the corner region, as shown in FIG. 10.
  • It is also possible, as shown in FIG. 11, to provide a corner panel [0042] 50 which is formed by means of portions 51 of single panels arranged at an angle, allowing to mate one another double panels 20 by completing the outer region of the corner.
  • It is also possible to provide, as shown in FIG. 12, the insertion of corner reinforcement rods, designated by the reference numeral [0043] 52, which help to reinforce the casting.
  • The floor panels, designated by the reference numeral [0044] 60 in FIG. 13, use a plate-like base element 61 which has an external reinforcement net 62 and, on the other face, spacer blocks made of insulating material 63 which form, between them, channels 64 in which load-bearing reinforcement frames 65 can be inserted.
  • An upper reinforcement net [0045] 66 is applied to the free face of the blocks 63 and is connected to the lower reinforcement net 62.
  • In this manner it is possible to cast the floor so as to provide a complete structural unit. [0046]
  • In order to complete the building it is also possible to provide a staircase element constituted by a double panel, designated, in FIG. 18, by the reference numeral [0047] 70, which is arranged at an angle and to which lower reinforcement rods 71 for connection to the lower landing, lateral reinforcement rods 72, and upper rods 73 for connection to the upper landing are connected.
  • In practice, casting is performed together with the rest of the building, so that the staircase, or more specifically the ramp, is integrated with the monolithic structure. [0048]
  • After the ramp has been obtained, it is completed by means of one of the different conventional methods that provide the steps according to the required types. [0049]
  • Experimental tests that have been conducted have shown that the plate-like elements are preferably made of expanded polystyrene with a density of 25 kg/m[0050] 3 in order to have a resistance which is sufficient to avoid deformation under the hydrostatic thrust of the concrete; the blocks used in the floor slab can have a lower density, down to approximately 15 kg/m3.
  • Moreover, experimental tests that have been conducted have shown that the minimum distance between the plate-like elements for providing the double panel is 8-10 cm, so as to allow the concrete to flow freely without separating. Moreover, the optimum distance of the joints provided by the elements for connecting one another the reinforcement nets is preferably 15 cm in order to avoid unwanted deformations under the thrust of the concrete. [0051]
  • The above described modular panel has an exceptional resistance to impacts, which became apparent when testing the behavior of the single or double panel when being hit by bullets, shrapnels and the like, and can be explained scientifically with the elasticity of the external plate-like elements formed by the panels. [0052]
  • Moreover, the panel is particularly versatile, allowing to provide, with the single panel, curved walls simply by cutting the transverse rods of the reinforcement element that lies on the inside of the curve, cutting appropriately the polystyrene into vertical panels and shaping the outward net. [0053]
  • It is also possible to achieve simple insertion of the utility elements, such as pipes for the hydraulic and electrical systems, since the chases can be produced by means of hot air on the internal polystyrene, both in the walls and in the floor slab, thus avoiding the onerous provision of conventional chases. [0054]
  • An important aspect is further constituted by the fact that as soon as the central region of the double panel has been cast and the outer cladding alone of the single panel has been completed, the built spaces provide workers with immediate shelter from any kind of climate; by merely placing screens on the windows or doors, the workers can work while the space being built is heated or conditioned. [0055]
  • It should be noted that the mechanical characteristics of the panel can be improved by using concretes with the addition of additives and that, for example, the single panel or the floor slab panel can be given greater load-bearing capacity by cladding their opposite surfaces and the corresponding nets with bands of unidirectional glass fibers and resin, after applying a coat of two-part epoxy resin to the surface of the polystyrene. [0056]
  • The protection of the casting offered in double panels is decisive in coping with extreme climates at very low and very high temperatures; it has in fact been possible to pour concrete in a space at −30° C. without measuring, during setting, which is an exothermic phenomenon, any temperatures below +5° C. [0057]
  • The same occurs at temperatures above 40° C., even in direct sunlight: in this case, the polystyrene not only insulates the casting but, by being impermeable, does not allow the cement mortar to dry too quickly. [0058]
  • The parameters that regulate the hardening reaction of the concrete are ideal, since the curing of the casting in terms of temperature and humidity is perfect; moreover, it is possible to use any kind of additives to provide impermeable walls having particularly high-level mechanical characteristics. [0059]
  • It should also be added that the single or double cavity wall that the panels provide in any building not only offers the highest values of thermal insulation and makes condensation impossible, but also provides high thermal inertia which prevents the temperature variations that occur when heating elements are switched on or off. [0060]
  • The thickness of the roughcast and of the reinforced plaster provided on the inside of the building in fact has a mass which ensures a considerable accumulation of heat which is sufficient to extend the durations of the thermal cycles. [0061]
  • Essentially, the internal layer of the casting acts like the inner glass pane of a double-glazing unit, where the polystyrene takes the place of the air. [0062]
  • Fire resistance is particularly high, since the polystyrene, at temperatures of approximately 300-400° C., shrinks without producing emissions and forms vacuum regions which insulate the subsequent layers, producing drastic temperature drops. [0063]
  • Underfloor heating systems find an ideal type of seating in the floor slabs of the system, since their copper or plastic pipes rest on the polystyrene elements, which prevent any form of downward loss. [0064]
  • In practice, only the upper concrete casting is heated and, by being reinforced by the net of the panel, is not subject to cracks which might damage the floor. [0065]
  • It is also possible to heat spaces, by means of the same system, even on their side walls, by arranging the copper piping in chases formed in the polystyrene, in the same manner that can be used to install water or electricity distribution systems. [0066]
  • The acoustic attenuation obtained has remarkable values, thanks to the various densities and consequent barriers that the panel provides to sound wave transmission; the panel in fact ranges from thicknesses with a density of 2000/2500 kg/m[0067] 3 of the roughcast, plaster and concrete, to 25 kg/m3 for the polystyrene, which cannot vibrate since it is properly contained by the castings that surround it.
  • All the components required by the building industry to produce any kind of building by means of panels are further obtained simply with two production machines, i.e., the machine for shaping the polystyrene and the machine for stapling and welding the nets. [0068]
  • It is also possible to provide the conventional lattice having a triangular cross-section for floor slabs simply by using the same net of the panels, shaped so as to mutually lock the three rods that compose it. [0069]
  • In this manner, there is no need of having to keep in stock the various conventional components, which must include all ranges of clay building components with their various heights, countless types of flat tiles, large hollow tiles, wood for formwork, and all the associated accessories. [0070]
  • The structure formed by means of this panel allows to obtain a construction method which is particularly effective, since the building is monolithic and particularly rigid and capable of withstanding even intense external stresses. [0071]
  • Since the entire structure is load-bearing, the loads transmitted to the ground are no longer concentrated but are distributed over the entire supporting surface; accordingly, it is no longer necessary to resort to extremely expensive foundation work and piling in the presence of clayey soils, since a simple perimetric curb is sufficient. [0072]
  • The heat conduction coefficient is particularly low, thanks to the considerable layer of insulating material, since the entire structure is uniform; moreover, thermal bridges are eliminated and the entire structure has a wall temperature which is higher than the dew point temperature, avoiding formation of mold and condensation; the entire room is therefore more favorable from the point of view of microclimate, since the comfort in terms of temperature and humidity is improved by the higher average radiating temperature. [0073]
  • It should also be added that the panel according to the invention as described above constitutes a throwaway formwork which allows to construct the building in a much shorter time than with conventional methods, with a significant saving of labor force, which need not be particularly specialized, yet allows to provide a very precise final casting. [0074]
  • Another important aspect consists in that in the building under construction, where windows have to be provided, it is sufficient to simply cut the net and the polystyrene and the walled frame of the window is directly inserted in the resulting opening and thus closes the hole opened in the throwaway formwork of the double panel. When the concrete is poured, the walled frame is embedded directly in the structure, thus ensuring a perfectly airtight seal between the walls and the walled frame, obtaining results which cannot be obtained assuredly with other methods. [0075]
  • Moreover, the lack of pillars protruding inside the building avoids unsightly constraints in arranging interior decoration, improving the flexibility of the enclosed spaces. [0076]
  • It should also be added that by being able to provide thinner walls than with conventional methods, the useful available surface is consequently increased for an equal paid surface. [0077]
  • In any case, the main advantage of the system is constituted by the considerable saving that can be achieved in building structures by using this type of construction, achieving at the same time an improvement in quality. [0078]
  • Moreover, construction time also is reduced significantly, fully to the advantage of production costs and allowing, as mentioned, to work even at very low or very high temperatures, since once the panels have been positioned casting can be performed and the temperature of the casting remains optimum by way of the insulating effect of the formwork, which stores the heat generated in the exothermic reaction of the concrete. [0079]
  • From the above description it is thus evident that the invention achieves the intended aim and objects, and in particular it is stressed once again that the installation of the panels is extremely simple and practical; being very light, such panels can be installed manually and can be arranged and shaped according to requirements before performing the concrete casting that covers the outer walls and is interposed, in the case of double panels, between the two plate-like elements. [0080]
  • The invention thus conceived is susceptible of numerous modifications and variations, all of which are within the scope of the appended claims. [0081]
  • All the details may further be replaced with other technically equivalent elements. [0082]
  • In practice, the materials used, as well as the contingent shapes and dimensions, may be any according to requirements. [0083]
  • The disclosures in San Marinese Patent Application No. SMA200000032 from which this application claims priority are incorporated herein by reference. [0084]

Claims (16)

What is claimed is:
1. A modular panel for the construction of buildings in general, having thermal and acoustic insulation characteristics, comprising: at least one contoured plate-like element made of insulating material; a first reinforcement net; a second reinforcement net and connecting elements; said first and second reinforcement nets being provided respectively on faces of said at least one plate-like element and being joined one another by said connecting elements which pass through said at least one plate-like element.
2. The modular panel of claim 1, wherein said first and second reinforcement nets are made of rods, said connecting elements comprising through bars which are rigidly coupled, at ends thereof, to corresponding ones of the rods of the first and second reinforcement nets.
3. The modular panel of claim 2, wherein said contoured plate-like element is shaped so as to form hollows in a transverse cross-section, the vertical rods of said reinforcement nets being arranged at a central portion of said hollows.
4. The modular panel of claim 3, further comprising on both faces, a concrete layer which incorporates said first and second reinforcement nets.
5. The modular panel of claim 3, further comprising protruding portions arranged at longitudinal edges of said first and second reinforcement nets, respectively, on opposite faces thereof, to allow mutual connection of panels arranged in a side-by-side configuration.
6. The modular panel of claim 1, formed as a double modular panel comprising: two said panels which are arranged side by side; cross-members connecting said panels in a spaced configuration, said crossed members being connected to the reinforcement net of each one of the panels forming said double modular panel so as to form a structure; and a concrete casting provided at a region between the two panels, so as to incorporate the entire structure.
7. The modular panel of claim 6, further comprising corner panels which are constituted by double panels, an internal and an external one, and in which the internal panel is shifted backwards with respect to the outer panel.
8. The modular panel of claim 6, further comprising a corner panel which is constituted by panel portions are arranged at an angle, said corner panel being coupled to double panels in order to complete a corner outer region.
9. The modular panel of claim 8, further comprising corner reinforcement rods for reinforcing concrete casting.
10. The modular panel of claim 1, formed as a floor panel comprising: a plate-like base element made of insulating material; a first, lower-external reinforcement net connected on an outer-lower face of the base element; spacer blocks made of insulating material being connected on a face opposite to said outer-lower face; channels formed between said spacer blocks; supporting frames insertable in said spaces; an upper, second reinforcement frame, connected to said lower-external reinforcement net, being applicable to a free face of said blocks.
11. The modular panel of claim 10, wherein said plate-like elements are made of foamed polystyrene.
12. The modular panel of claim 11, wherein said foamed polystyrene has a density of substantially 25 kg/m3.
13. The modular panel of claim 10, wherein said spacer blocks are made of foamed polystyrene with a density of approximately 15 kg/m3.
14. The panel of claim 6, wherein said double modular panel is arranged at an angle to provide a flight of stairs, and further comprising lower reinforcement rods, lateral reinforcement rods, and upper reinforcement rods all of which are associated with said double modular panel.
15. A method for constructing a building, comprising the steps of: providing panels being of any of a double and single modular panel type, as set forth in claim 6; laying said panels for forming a perimetric region; pouring concrete between the plate-like elements; and applying, on an outer face of the plate-like elements, a layer of concrete which incorporates the reinforcement frames of said plate-like elements made of insulating material.
16. The method of claim 15, further comprising the step of providing internal walls of a building by way of single modular panels on faces of which, a layer of concrete is applied.
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CN108179828A (en) * 2018-01-30 2018-06-19 苏州柯利达装饰股份有限公司 Skeleton partition wall
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