US20010047662A1 - Air conditioning and thermal storage systems using clathrate hydrate slurry - Google Patents

Air conditioning and thermal storage systems using clathrate hydrate slurry Download PDF

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US20010047662A1
US20010047662A1 US09/396,291 US39629199A US2001047662A1 US 20010047662 A1 US20010047662 A1 US 20010047662A1 US 39629199 A US39629199 A US 39629199A US 2001047662 A1 US2001047662 A1 US 2001047662A1
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aqueous solution
hydrate
thermal storage
particles
cooling
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US09/396,291
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Shingo Takao
Hidemasa Ogoshi
Shigenori Matsumoto
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JFE Engineering Corp
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JFE Engineering Corp
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Priority to JP03629299A priority patent/JP3555481B2/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F13/00Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing
    • F28F13/06Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing by affecting the pattern of flow of the heat-exchange media
    • F28F13/12Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing by affecting the pattern of flow of the heat-exchange media by creating turbulence, e.g. by stirring, by increasing the force of circulation
    • F28F13/125Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing by affecting the pattern of flow of the heat-exchange media by creating turbulence, e.g. by stirring, by increasing the force of circulation by stirring
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K5/00Heat-transfer, heat-exchange or heat-storage materials, e.g. refrigerants; Materials for the production of heat or cold by chemical reactions other than by combustion
    • C09K5/02Materials undergoing a change of physical state when used
    • C09K5/06Materials undergoing a change of physical state when used the change of state being from liquid to solid or vice versa
    • C09K5/066Cooling mixtures; De-icing compositions
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OR DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C11/00Use of gas-solvents or gas-sorbents in vessels
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OR DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C11/00Use of gas-solvents or gas-sorbents in vessels
    • F17C11/007Use of gas-solvents or gas-sorbents in vessels for hydrocarbon gases, such as methane or natural gas, propane, butane or mixtures thereof [LPG]
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT COVERED BY ANY OTHER SUBCLASS
    • F25D16/00Devices using a combination of a cooling mode associated with refrigerating machinery with a cooling mode not associated with refrigerating machinery
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D20/00Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00
    • F28D20/003Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00 using thermochemical reactions
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F19/00Preventing the formation of deposits or corrosion, e.g. by using filters or scrapers
    • F28F19/008Preventing the formation of deposits or corrosion, e.g. by using filters or scrapers by using scrapers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2315/00Sorption refrigeration cycles or details thereof
    • F25B2315/003Hydrates for sorption cycles
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25CPRODUCING, WORKING OR HANDLING ICE
    • F25C1/00Producing ice
    • F25C1/12Producing ice by freezing water on cooled surfaces, e.g. to form slabs
    • F25C1/14Producing ice by freezing water on cooled surfaces, e.g. to form slabs to form thin sheets which are removed by scraping or wedging, e.g. in the form of flakes
    • F25C1/145Producing ice by freezing water on cooled surfaces, e.g. to form slabs to form thin sheets which are removed by scraping or wedging, e.g. in the form of flakes from the inner walls of cooled bodies
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT COVERED BY ANY OTHER SUBCLASS
    • F25D17/00Arrangements for circulating cooling fluids; Arrangements for circulating gas, e.g. air, within refrigerated spaces
    • F25D17/02Arrangements for circulating cooling fluids; Arrangements for circulating gas, e.g. air, within refrigerated spaces for circulating liquids, e.g. brine
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage
    • Y02E60/14Thermal storage
    • Y02E60/142Sensible heat storage
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E70/00Other energy conversion or management systems reducing GHG emissions
    • Y02E70/30Systems combining energy storage with energy generation of non-fossil origin

Abstract

The present invention includes a method and apparatus for making a hydrate slurry, which prepare an aqueous solution of a guest compound for forming a clathrate hydrate, cool the aqueous solution, and contact a nuclear particles; furthermore, a thermal storage method, a thermal storage apparatus, and a thermal storage medium by using an aqueous solution of clathrate hydrate, whose concentration is a congruent melting point or lower; furthermore, an refrigerating apparatus and an air conditioner for using the thermal storage method, the thermal storage apparatus and the thermal storage medium.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates to a method and to an apparatus for making a hydrate slurry, and relates to a thermal storage method, a thermal storage apparatus, and a thermal storage medium. [0001]
  • 2. Description of the Related Art [0002]
  • Some sorts of the storing heat methods have been known as follows. [0003]
  • (1) Thermal storage by chilled water [0004]
  • In air conditioning, chilled water having a temperature of 5 to 7° C. is stored in a thermal storage tank when the load on an air conditioner is low. Since chilled water has a specific heat of 1 kcal/kgK, the cooling potential is merely 7 kcal/kg per 1 kg of chilled water when the usable temperature difference is 7° C. Thus, in this method, a small amount of thermal storage is disadvantageous. [0005]
  • (2) Thermal storage by heat of fusion of ice, etc. [0006]
  • Since ice has a heat of fusion of approximately 80 kcal/kg, thermal storage by partial conversion of chilled water to ice has a larger thermal storage density. For example, chilled water containing 20 percent ice by volume has a thermal storage density of approximately 28 kcal/kg including the sensible heat of chilled water when the usable temperature difference is 7° C. [0007]
  • Since the chilled water is cooled to a temperature of 0° C. or less in this method, the refrigerating machine must have higher power compared to thermal storage by chilled water. [0008]
  • (3) Thermal storage by materials other than ice [0009]
  • Conventional thermal storage media other than water and ice are inorganic hydrated salts, such as LiClO[0010] 2.3H2O and Na2SO4.1OH2O+NH4Cl, and gaseous hydrates (see “Application of Gaseous Hydrates to Cooling Potential Storage Media” (Document 1) by Kawasaki and Akiya; Chemical Engineering, 27(8), 603-608 (1982), and “New Energy Technological System for Environmental and Energy Conservation” (Document 2); p. 802, edited by The Heat Transfer Society of Japan).
  • These inorganic hydrated salts have relatively large latent heats. These salts, however, do not have congruent melting points (described later), and thus the compositions of the hydrates change with the concentrations of the anhydrous salts. As a result, phase separation will occur in cooling-heating cycles and required thermal storage efficiency will not be achieved. [0011]
  • The gaseous hydrates disclosed in Document 1 are materials having large ozone depletion factors, for example, R11 and R12. Since R12 are present as gas under atmospheric pressure, the thermal storage apparatus requires high-pressure hermetically sealed vessels and tubes, incurring higher facility costs. [0012]
  • Various thermal storage apparatuses used in air conditioners have been developed based on the above-mentioned known thermal storage methods. Such thermal storage apparatuses contribute to effective use of energy. For example, off-peak power in the midnight and variable-output forms of energy, such as exhaust heat from factories, are accumulated as a cooling potential, and the accumulated cooling potential is used in air conditioners. [0013]
  • A typical thermal storage apparatus uses ice. Ice is produced using off-peak power in the midnight and the cooling potential accumulated in the ice is used in an air conditioner during the daytime. As described above, although ice can store a larger amount of cooling potential than water, this apparatus forms a solid ice. By that reason, it needs for a coil for producing an ice. As a result, the air conditioner is inevitably complicated and large. Furthermore, in such a thermal storage apparatus, an ice exists as a solid. Therefore, it is difficult to transport a solid ice. Since the stored ice cannot be directly fed into a heat exchanger of the air conditioner, heat exchange is performed from the stored ice to brine, which is then fed into the air conditioner. Thus, the air conditioner requires additional equipment, increasing costs. In another proposed method, the formed ice is crushed and mixed with water, and the resulting slurry is fed into the air conditioner. The slurry, however, is not maintained in a stable and constant granular distribution, because the melting point of the pulverized ice and the freezing point of water are 0° C. In this point of view, the refrigerating machine needs for a high power. In some cases, there occurs a clogging by coagulation under floating. [0014]
  • Some thermal storage apparatuses use hydrates. Water molecules form a cage structure. Other molecules, that is, guest molecules, are included in the cage structure of host molecules to form clathrate hydrates. The hydrates have the appearance and physical properties which resemble those of ice. The temperatures for forming the hydrates change with the type and concentration of the guest molecules and other conditions. Some hydrates are formed at temperatures above the freezing point of water. [0015]
  • Thus, an aqueous slurry including hydrate particles can be formed at a temperature higher than the freezing point of water by selecting the type of the guest molecule and other conditions. The hydrate slurry has a large thermal storage capacity due to a large latent heat of the hydrate, can-be easily transferred via a pipe, and facilitates heat exchange. Such a hydrate slurry can be used in a conventional air conditioner using chilled water with minor modifications. [0016]
  • However, in actual, the hydrate are not produced on the solidification temperature. When they are cooled under the solidification temperature, the hydrate begins to be produced. It is called, the supercooling phenomenon. In case that this supercooling rate, which means ( the solidification temperature—the temperature just before being produced ), is large, it is necessary to lowen the refrigerant temperature. By that reason, in order to utilize the thermal storage apparatus, which uses a hydrant slurry, it is necessary to decrease said supercooling rate. [0017]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a thermal storage method, a thermal storage apparatus and a thermal storage medium for making a hydrate slurry, which have a high fluidity, a latent heat in 0-12° C., which will not result in coagulation of hydrate particles, and which will result in a small amount Of super-cooling rate. (‘Hydrate’ is one sort of clathrate hydrates. Hereinafter, ‘Hydrate’ has the same meaning with ‘Clathratre Hydrate’.) [0018]
  • It is another object of the present invention to provide a thermal storage method, a thermal storage apparatus, and a thermal storage medium using a clathrate hydrate which has a large thermal storage density (latent heat), stable thermal characteristics, which is economical and easy to handle, and which is safety. [0019]
  • It is another object of the present invention to provide an air conditioner having a thermal storage apparatus having a large thermal storage capacity, a simplified configuration, and which may be compact. [0020]
  • In order to attain the above-mentioned object, this present invention provides a method for producing hydrant slurry, the apparatus thereof and the product thereof. That is to say; [0021]
  • (a) A method in accordance with the present invention, for forming a hydrate slurry by cooling an aqueous solution containing a guest compound to form hydrate particles in the aqueous solution, comprises a preparing step, a cooling step of the aqueous solution being circulated by a heat transfer face, and a contacting step for bringing the nuclear particles contact with the circulated aqueous solution to form the hydrate particles. [0022]
  • The circulated aqueous solution is cooled on a heat transfer face. When the cooled aqueous solution comes into contact with nuclear particles, supercooling of the aqueous solution will not occur and fine hydrate particles are easily formed in the aqueous solution. Thus, the resulting slurry has high fluidity. Fractions of the circulated aqueous solution sequentially contact with the heat transfer face and are supercooled. When the supercooled aqueous solution comes in contact with nuclear particles, hydrate particles form and the supercooled state of the aqueous solution will disappear. That is, the locally supercooled state of the aqueous solution disappears by the formation of the hydrate slurry so that the overall aqueous solution is not supercooled. The hydrate particles have high fluidity. [0023]
  • (b) An apparatus in accordance with the present invention, for making a hydrate slurry by cooling an aqueous solution containing a guest compound to form hydrate particles in the aqueous solution, comprises a heat exchanger having a heat transfer face for cooling the aqueous solution, the aqueous solution being circulated and cooled by contacting with the heat transfer face, and a nuclear particle-supply mechanism for supplying nuclear particles to the aqueous solution circulating in the heat exchanger. This apparatus has a simplified configuration, and any conventional apparatus can be used as this apparatus with minor modifications and minimized additional expense. [0024]
  • (c) An apparatus in accordance with the present invention, for making a hydrate slurry by cooling an aqueous solution containing a guest compound to form hydrate particles in the aqueous solution, comprises a heat exchanger having a heat transfer face for cooling the aqueous solution, the aqueous solution being circulated and cooled by contact with the heat transfer face, and a fine particle layer adhered to at least a part of a surface of a member in the heat exchanger in contact with the aqueous solution, the fine particle layer acting as nuclei of the hydrate particles. [0025]
  • The fine particle layer can prevent supercooling of the aqueous solution and does not cause malfunction of the apparatus because the fine particle layer does not float in the aqueous solution. Furthermore, the apparatus can be operated without recovery and supplement of the fine particles. [0026]
  • (d) An apparatus in accordance with the present invention is for making the hydrant slurry, which comprises; [0027]
  • a means for cooling an aqueous solution containing a material for forming a clathrate compound hydrate as a guest compound so as to form a hydrate particles; [0028]
  • a heat exchange means for performing heat exchange between a refrigerating machine and a aqueous solution to cool the aqueous solution.e means. [0029]
  • a circulation means for circulating the aqueous solution through the heat exchange means. [0030]
  • (e) A method in accordance with the present invention for thermal storage using a clathrate hydrate comprises: [0031]
  • preparing an aqueous solution containing a material for forming the clathrate hydrate so that the aqueous solution has a concentration of the material which causes a congruent melting point; and [0032]
  • cooling the aqueous solution to form the clathrate hydrate. [0033]
  • achieving a thermal storage, by making use of the clathrate hydrant. [0034]
  • (f) A method for thermal storage using a clathrate hydrate comprises : [0035]
  • preparing an aqueous solution containing a material for forming the clathrate hydrate so that the aqueous solution has a concentration lower than the concentration causing a congruent melting point; [0036]
  • cooling the aqueous solution to form the clathrate hydrate; and [0037]
  • achieving a thermal storage, by making use of the clathrate hydrant. [0038]
  • (g) A product in accordance with the present invention is a thermal storage medium, which is an aqueous solution containing a material for forming a clathrate hydrate. [0039]
  • (h) An apparatus in accordance with the present invention is an air conditioner, which comprises [0040]
  • a refrigerating machine; and [0041]
  • a thermal storage apparatus, connected to the refrigerating machine by piping, for storing a guest compound solution forming a hydrate at a temperature higher than 0° C.; [0042]
  • the thermal storage apparatus comprising a heat exchanger for cooling the aqueous solution by a thermal medium from the refrigerating machine to form a slurry of hydrate particles; and [0043]
  • the thermal storage comprising a circulator for supplying the slurry to a load-side device of the air conditioner.[0044]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF the DRAWING
  • FIG. 1 is an outlined schematic diagram of an apparatus the Preferred Embodiment 1 of the present invention. [0045]
  • FIG. 2 is a longitudinal partial cross-sectional view of a heat exchanger of the Preferred Embodiment 1 of the present invention. [0046]
  • FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of a spiral blade member taken along line [0047] 3-3 in FIG. 2 of the Preferred Embodiment 1 of the present invention.
  • FIG. 4 is a line graph showing the experimental results performed for confirming the effects of the Preferred Embodiment of the present invention. [0048]
  • FIG. 5 is a line graph showing the experimental results performed for confirming the effects of the Preferred Embodiment 1 of the present invention. [0049]
  • FIG. 6 is a line graph showing the experimental results performed for confirming the effects of the Preferred Embodiment 1 of the present invention. [0050]
  • FIG. 7 is a line graph showing the experimental results performed for confirming the effects of the Preferred Embodiment 1 of the present invention. [0051]
  • FIG. 8 is an outlined schematic diagram of the Preferred Embodiment 2 in accordance with the present invention; [0052]
  • FIG. 9 is an outlined schematic diagram of a modification of the Preferred Embodiment 2 in accordance with the present invention; [0053]
  • FIG. 10 is an outlined schematic diagram of an another modification of the Preferred Embodiment 2 in accordance with the present invention; [0054]
  • FIG. 11 is an outlined schematic diagram of another modification of the Preferred Embodiment 2 in accordance with the present invention; [0055]
  • FIG. 12 is a graph of the relationship between the melting point and the concentration of a material for forming a clathrate hydrate in the aqueous solution in the Preferred Embodiment 3 in accordance with the present invention; [0056]
  • FIGS. [0057] 13(a),13(b),13(c),13(d) are illustrative charts of a concept of heat exchanger and a change in temperature in a heat exchanger when an aqueous solution containing a material for forming a clathrate hydrate is used as a thermal storage medium in the Preferred Embodiment 3, and the aqueous solution has a concentration of the material which causes a congruent melting point in FIGS. 13(a),13(b) or a concentration lower than the concentration causing a congruent melting point in FIGS. 13(c),13(d) in the Preferred Embodiment 3.
  • FIG. 14 is an outlined schematic diagram of the Preferred Embodiment 4 in accordance with the present invention; [0058]
  • FIG. 15 is an outlined schematic diagram of the Preferred Embodiment 4 in accordance with the present invention; [0059]
  • FIG. 16 is an outlined schematic diagram of the Preferred Embodiment 4 in accordance with the present invention; [0060]
  • FIG. 17 is an outlined schematic diagram of the Preferred Embodiment 4 in accordance with the present invention. [0061]
  • FIG. 18 is an outlined schematic diagram of the Preferred Embodiment 4 in accordance with the present invention.[0062]
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Preferred Embodiment 1
  • This preferred embodiment characterizes in that a method, described with the present invention, for forming a hydrate slurry by cooling an aqueous solution containing a guest compound to form hydrate particles in the aqueous solution. This preferred Embodiment comprises a cooling step of the aqueous solution being circulated by a heat transfer face, and a contact step for bring the nuclear particles contact with the circulated aqueous solution to form the hydrate particles. [0063]
  • This preferred embodiment of the method and apparatus in accordance with the present invention will now be described with reference to the attached drawings. In this embodiment, an aqueous solution containing tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) as a guest compound is cooled to form a hydrate slurry. Furthermore, in this embodiment, several different mechanisms are described. All of these mechanisms are not always necessary in an actual method and an actual apparatus, although method of the embodiment includes a plurality of mechanisms for facilitating description and understanding. [0064]
  • With reference to FIG. 1, a heat exchanger [0065] 1 is provided to cool the aqueous solution and to form a hydrate slurry. The heat exchanger 1 in this embodiment is cylindrical as shown in FIG. 2, and the inner face acts as a heat transfer face 1 a. The heat transfer face la is surrounded with a cooling jacket 8. A refrigerant is fed from a refrigerating machine 2 by a pump 3 and is circulated through the cooling jacket 8 so as to cool the aqueous solution in the heat exchanger 1 and to form the hydrate.
  • A rotating shaft [0066] 5 is provided along the shaft axis of the heat exchanger, and has a spiral blade 9 as a rotating blade member. A driving mechanism 4 rotates the rotating shaft 5 at a given rate. The spiral blade 9 rotates on the rotating shaft 5 and slides on the heat transfer face la to detach the hydrate adhering to the heat transfer face 1 a. Thus, the heat exchange efficiency on the heat transfer face 1 a is not decreased. Since the detached hydrate is dispersed into the aqueous solution, the hydrate slurry is homogenized.
  • In addition, the spiral blade [0067] 9 circulates the aqueous solution in the heat exchanger 1. The aqueous solution may be circulated by any unit which can prevent formation of laminar flow of the aqueous solution along the heat transfer face 1 a.
  • With reference to FIG. 3, two surfaces of the spiral blade [0068] 9 are provided with fine particle layers 10. The fine particle layers 10 are formed by, for example, coating a mixture of fine aqueous pulverized slag, which is produced by jetting water into slag in a blast furnace, and a binder. Alternatively, the fine particle layer 10 may adhere to any element in contact with the circulated aqueous solution other than the spiral blade.
  • A mechanism for supplying and circulating the aqueous solution to the heat exchanger [0069] 1 will now be described. An aqueous solution reservoir 11 stores the aqueous solution. The aqueous solution in the aqueous solution reservoir 11 is supplied to an inlet 6 of the heat exchanger 1 by a pump 13 via a supply tube 15 and a mixer 16.
  • The hydrate slurry formed by cooling in the heat exchanger [0070] 1 is discharged from an outlet 7 and is stored in a hydrate slurry tank 22. The slurry tank 22 and the aqueous solution reservoir 11 have stirrers 12.
  • The hydrate slurry in the hydrate slurry tank [0071] 22 is supplied to a hydrate concentration regulator 23 from the bottom of the hydrate slurry tank 22. The aqueous solution in the aqueous solution reservoir 11 is fed to the hydrate concentration regulator 23 via a tube 29 by a pump 28 to mix the hydrate slurry so that the concentration of the hydrate slurry (solid component) is controlled. The aqueous solution containing the hydrate slurry is then supplied to a load-side device 26, such as an air conditioner, via a tube 25 by a pump 24. The aqueous solution used in the load-side device 26 is recycled to the aqueous solution reservoir 11 via an inward tube 27.
  • A nuclear particle supply mechanism will now be described. The nuclear particle supply mechanism is provided in the above pipe line in order to prevent supercooling. The aqueous solution circulating the system contains a predetermined amount of fine particles. Various types of fine particles may be used, and aqueous pulverized slag which is inexpensive, has stable characteristics and can effectively suppress supercooling is preferably used. The aqueous pulverized slag has a specific gravity larger than that of the aqueous solution, and thus has precipitating characteristics. [0072]
  • A part of hydrate slurry discharged from the outlet [0073] 7 of the heat exchanger 1 is supplied to the mixer 16 from the distributor 21 via a tube 31 by a pump 32, and is supplied to the inlet 6 together with the heat exchanger 1.
  • A part of slurry discharged from the reservoir [0074] 22 is supplied to a hydrate particle tank 34 for preventing supercooling via a tube 33 and stored therein. The hydrate particle tank 34 is preferably a heat-insulating tank in order to store the hydrate particles without melting for a predetermined period.
  • The hydrate slurry in the hydrate particle tank [0075] 34 is fed to the mixer via a tube 36 by a pump 35, and then fed to the inlet 6 of the heat exchanger 1 with the aqueous solution.
  • This apparatus has a hydrate particle forming mechanism [0076] 14, which can be operated independently the hydrate-forming unit including the heat exchanger and produces hydrate slurry containing small amounts of hydrate particles.
  • The hydrate slurry produced in the hydrate particle forming mechanism [0077] 14 is supplied to the mixer 16 and then to the inlet 6 of the heat exchanger 1 with the aqueous solution.
  • The operation of the apparatus and the method for suppressing the supercooling will now be described. The circulated aqueous solution comes into contact with the heat transfer face [0078] 1 a in the heat exchanger 1 and is cooled. The fraction of the aqueous solution is supercooled, immediately circulated in the heat exchanger 1, and then comes into contact with fine particles, that is, aqueous pulverized slag, in the fine particle layers 10 on the spiral blade 9. As a result, hydrate particles are formed to compensate the supercooling of the fraction. Accordingly, the overall aqueous solution is not supercooled in the heat exchanger 1.
  • Fine particles of the aqueous pulverized slag contained in the aqueous solution are partially fed into the heat exchanger with the aqueous solution. Contact of the fine particles with the supercooled fraction of the aqueous solution also forms hydrate particles to compensate the supercooling. [0079]
  • After these fine particles as nuclei initiate the formation of hydrate particles, these are excluded from the formed hydrate particles. The excluded fine particles in the aqueous solution are transferred to the hydrate slurry tank [0080] 22 together with the hydrate slurry. In the hydrate slurry tank 22, the fine particles are separated from the aqueous solution and precipitated on the bottom of the hydrate slurry tank 22. Thus, the fine particles floating in the aqueous solution gradually decrease during a continuous operation.
  • In order to solve such a problem, a part of hydrate slurry discharged from the tube [0081] 31 is fed to the heat exchanger 1 via the mixer 16 by the pump 32. The hydrate particles in the hydrate slurry can also form hydrate particles to compensate the localized supercooling. Since the type of the added hydrate particles is the same as the type of the hydrate particles to be formed, these most effectively works as nuclei for forming the hydrate. Thus, the supercooling is most effectively suppressed.
  • When the apparatus is reoperated after pause, no hydrate is discharged from the heat exchanger [0082] 1. In such a case, the hydrate slurry stored in the hydrate particle tank 34 is supplied to the heat exchanger 1 via the tube 36 and the inlet 6.
  • Even when the hydrate slurry in the hydrate particle tank [0083] 34 is completely melted, the aqueous solution in the hydrate particle tank 34 can suppress supercooling in the heat exchanger 1. That is, the fine particles deposited on the bottom of the hydrate slurry tank 22 are recovered in the hydrate particle tank 34, as described above. The fine particles supplied to the heat exchanger 1 together with the aqueous solution can suppress supercooling. Accordingly, the hydrate particle tank 34 and relevant piping lines thereof also function as a recovery and recycle mechanism of fine particles.
  • In a case that the hydrate slurry is not fed to the hydrate particle tank [0084] 34 when the apparatus starts up, the hydrate particle forming mechanism 14 is independently operated in advance to feed hydrate slurry formed in this mechanism 34 to the heat exchanger 1.
  • When the apparatus is further operated, fine particles may be completely deposited on the bottom of the hydrate slurry tank [0085] 22. Thus, fine particles floating in the aqueous solution will disappear in such a case. Before the apparatus restarts up, hydrate particles are fed to the heat exchanger 1 from the hydrate particle forming mechanism to effectively suppress supercooling in the aqueous solution.
  • In order to avoid description of undesirable number of embodiments, this method of the embodiment includes a plurality of mechanisms for facilitating description and understanding. All of these mechanisms, however, are not always necessary in an actual method and in an actual apparatus, and these mechanisms may be used alone or in combination. [0086]
  • The experimental results performed to confirm the effects of the above-mentioned embodiments will be described with reference to FIGS. [0087] 4 to 7. For comparison, an aqueous TBAB solution (25% by weight) was cooled without agitation. According to differential scanning calorimetry, the aqueous solution was supercooled to −16° C.
  • FIG. 4 shows supercooling when no material is added to the aqueous solution. Both aqueous solutions having TBAB concentrations of 40% and 19.8%, respectively, were supercooled to approximately −2° C., as shown in FIG. 4. [0088]
  • FIG. 5 shows supercooling when aqueous pulverized slag is added to the aqueous solution. The aqueous solutions were supercooled to approximately 5° C. Thus, the aqueous pulverized slag is effective for suppressing the supercooling. [0089]
  • FIG. 6 shows supercooling when a glass rod on which aqueous pulverized slag adheres is immersed into the aqueous solution. The aqueous solutions were supercooled to approximately 1° C. for the TBAB concentration of 19.8% and to approximately 6° C. for the TBAB concentration of 40%. The results suggest that a higher TBAB concentration is effective for suppressing the supercooling in this case. [0090]
  • FIG. 7 shows supercooling of the aqueous solution containing hydrate particles, wherein distilled water and clean water are used for preparation of the aqueous solutions. The aqueous solutions were supercooled to approximately 7° C. for the TBAB concentration of 19.8% and to approximately 10° C. for the TBAB concentration of 40% in both the distilled water and the clean water. Thus, this method shows significantly high effects. [0091]
  • The present invention is not limited to the above embodiment. For example, the use of a cooling barrel-type heat exchanger provided with spiral blade is described in the above embodiment. The present invention is applicable to a shelled-and-tube-type heat exchanger and a plate-type heat exchanger, in addition to the above type. [0092]
  • The fine particles used in the present invention are not limited to those having a large specific gravity. For example, fine particles having a specific gravity substantially equal to that of the aqueous solution may be used. Since such fine particles can be circulated with the aqueous solution without sedimentation, disadvantages caused by the precipitation of the fine particles can be prevented. [0093]
  • Furthermore, the slurry including the hydrate particles has a high fluidity. Thus, the slurry can be transferred by a pump with reduced pressure loss and without deposition of the hydrate particles on the inner wall of a tube. The hydrate slurry can be stored and transferred with small heat loss. [0094]
  • In addition, in this embodiment, the solution is cooled and the haydrate particles are formed with a small superheating And without increasing the power of the refrigeration. [0095]
  • In this embodiment, the guest compound is any one of tetra-n-butylammonium salts, tetra-iso-amylammonium salts, tetra-iso-butylphosphonium salts, and tri-iso-amylsulfonium salts. Hydrates of these guest compounds are formed at temperatures ranging from approximately 5° C. to 25° C. Thus, hydrate particles can be formed by cooling the aqueous solution using a vapor-absorption refrigerating machine. The vapor-absorption refrigerating machine can effectively use exhaust heat having a low temperature as a heat source. [0096]
  • Preferred Embodiment 2
  • This Preferred Embodiment will be described in more detail with reference to the attached drawings. [0097]
  • FIGS. [0098] 8 shows an apparatus of this Preferred Embodiment 2. This apparatus produces a hydrate slurry as a cooling potential source for air conditioners, etc. This air conditioner includes an absorption refrigerating machine, a thermal storage apparatus using a hydrate slurry, and a load-side device of the air conditioner.
  • A refrigerating machine of this apparatus is an absorption refrigerating machine [0099] 301 which supplies a refrigerant, that is, chilled water at approximately 4° C. The absorption refrigerating machine 101 has a cooling tower 102 and a thermal storage tank 103 for storing a hydrate slurry S composed of a mixture of an aqueous solution of a guest compound and hydrate particles. The aqueous solution in the thermal storage tank 103 is fed to a heat exchanger 104 and is cooled by heat exchange with the chilled water from the absorption refrigerating machine and forms hydrate particles. The slurry containing the hydrate particles is recycled to and stored in the thermal storage tank 103. The hydrate slurry is fed to a thermal load site of an air conditioner and used as a cooling potential source.
  • The absorption refrigerating machine [0100] 101 is provided with an evaporator 110. In the evaporator 110, water as a refrigerant is sprayed from a nozzle 113 and evaporated to form a low-temperature atmosphere. The evaporator 110 contains a heat exchange element of a heat transfer tube 112, and water is circulated in the heat transfer tube 12 and the heat exchanger 104 by a pump 111. For example, water at approximately 12° C. from the heat exchanger 104 is cooled to approximately 4° C. in the heat transfer tube 112 and is recycled to the heat exchanger 104.
  • The water vapor evaporated in the evaporator [0101] 110 is fed into an absorber 115 through a tube 114. The absorber 115 contains, for example, a lithium bromide absorbing solution. The absorbing solution is sprayed through a nozzle 116 so that the vapor from the evaporator 110 is absorbed in the absorbing solution.
  • The diluted absorbing solution is sent to a first generator [0102] 118 by a pump 117. The first generator 118 has a heat exchange element 120. Vapor, which is generated from a heat source at a relatively low temperature, such as exhaust heat from a factory, is fed into the heat exchange element 120. The diluted absorbing solution is thereby heated and concentrated. The concentrated absorbing solution is fed into a second generator 122 via a tube 121.
  • Water vapor evaporated from the absorbing solution in the first generator [0103] 118 is sent to a heat exchange element 123 in the second generator 122 and heats the absorbing solution in the second generator 122 so that the absorbing solution is further concentrated. The absorbability of the absorbing solution concentrated in two stages is sufficiently recovered. The absorbing solution is fed into the nozzle 116 in the absorber 115 to absorb vapor from the evaporator 110.
  • Water vapor generated in the first and second generators [0104] 118 and 122 is sent to a condenser 126. The condenser 126 has a heat exchange element 128. Cooling water is fed to the heat exchange element 128 through the cooling tower 102 by a pump 127. The water vapor is cooled and condensed in the heat exchange element 128, and the recovered water is sent to the nozzle 113 in the evaporator 110 by a pump 132 and sprayed in the evaporator 110. The cooling water from the cooling tower 102 is fed into the heat exchange element 131 in the absorber 115 through a tube 129 and cools the absorbing solution so that the vapor absorbability of the absorbing solution is improved. And then, the cooling water is returned to the cooling tower,again.
  • In the absorption refrigerating machine [0105] 101, water as refrigerant and the absorbing solution is circulated. Such an absorption refrigerating machine enables utilization of heat from a heat source at a relatively low temperature, and thus can effectively use exhaust heat from factories. In the absorption refrigerating machine, the cooling temperature is generally in a range of 3° C. to 15° C. Changing the type of the absorbent can expand this cooling range. When the refrigerant contains an antifreeze solution, the refrigerant has a cooling ability to temperatures below 0° C.
  • The configuration of the heat exchanger [0106] 104 for producing the hydrate slurry will now be described. In this embodiment, tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (hereinafter referred to as TBAB) is used as a guest compound for forming the hydrate. In case that aqueous solution concentration is 40 wt %, TBAB has a melting point of 11.8° C. And thus the aqueous solution S of TBAB forms clathrate compound hydrate when the solution S is cooled to less than 11.8° C. The TBAB hydrate has a heat of fusion of 40 to 50 kcal/kg, and thus has a high cooling potential.
  • The guest compound is not limited to TBAB. Examples of other usable guest compounds include tetra-n-butylammonium salts, tetra-iso-amylammonium salts, tetra-iso-butylphosphonium salts, and tri-iso-amylsulfonium salts. The melting points of the hydrates of these guest compounds are in a range of approximately 5° C. to 25° C. This range corresponds to the cooling temperature range of the absorption refrigerating machine [0107] 101. Thus, these guest compounds are preferably used in such absorption refrigerating machines.
  • As described above, this apparatus can effectively produce the hydrate slurry. Therefore, the hydrate slurry is stored in the thermal storage tank [0108] 103, using an exhaust heat from factories, and then the stored hydrate slurry can be supplied to air conditioners. Such a system compensates for an imbalance between a change in the supplied exhaust heat and a change on load in the air conditioners. Furthermore, this system can more effectively use energy.
  • The hydrant materials can be formed in the following process. [0109]
  • First, one molecule of the guest compound is included in the host structure composed of several numbers of water molecules. Suppose that the host structure is composed of 26 water molecules in TBAB. When an aqueous solution composed of water molecule:guest molecule =26:1 is prepared and cooled, a hydrate is formed at a constant temperature of the mixture of the aqueous solution and the hydrate and at a constant concentration of the guest compound in the aqueous solution. Such a temperature is called a congruent temperature. [0110]
  • When the concentration of the guest compound in the aqueous solution is lower than the above concentration, for example, when an aqueous solution in a ratio of 40 water molecules to 1 guest molecule is prepared, the aqueous solution is diluted as the hydrate is formed, because the formed hydrate contains 26 water molecules per guest molecule. Thus, the concentration of the guest compound in the aqueous solution and the temperature for forming the hydrate is decreased as the formed hydrate is increased. [0111]
  • In such a case, the slurry is not coagulated. The slurry has a high fluidity. Thus, the slurry is easily stored and transported. The slurry which has the high fluidity can be applied to the conventional air conditioners using the chilled water, as is or after minor modifications. Consequently, the use of the slurry contributes to decreased facility costs. [0112]
  • This embodiment is not limited to the above-mentioned apparatus. [0113]
  • FIG. 9 shows an modification of the Preferred Embodiment 2 in the present invention. In this modification, a heat exchanger [0114] 280 is provided in place of the evaporator in the absorption refrigerating machine 201. An aqueous solution of, for example, TBAB is cooled to form a hydrate slurry by direct heat exchange between the water as a refrigerant, which is evaporated in the heat exchanger 280, and the aqueous solution.
  • FIG. 10 shows another modification of this embodiment using a compression refrigerating machine in place of the absorption refrigerating machine. The compression refrigerating machine has a compressor [0115] 390. The refrigerant( e.g. flon ) compressed by the compressor 390 is cooled and condensed in a condenser 392 by cooling water from a cooling tower 302 and is evaporated in an evaporator 393 to be cooled. Heat exchange is performed between the cooled refrigerant and the water in the evaporator 393. The refrigerant is circulated via a heat exchanger 395 by a pump 394 to cool, for example, an aqueous TBAB solution in the heat exchanger 395 so as to form a hydrate slurry.
  • A variety of energy sources can be used as driving forces for the compressor [0116] 390 in this modification. For example, in case of using an electric power, the hydrate slurry is produced and stored using off-peak power in the midnight and the cooling potential can be used in air conditioners during the daytime.
  • FIG. 11 shows another modification of this embodiment. In this modification, a refrigerant cooled in a condenser [0117] 392 is directly evaporated in a heat exchanger 395 to cool, for example, an aqueous TBAB solution fed into the heat exchanger 395 by a pump 343 so as to form a hydrate slurry. The system in this modification has a simplified configuration and a high heat exchange efficiency due to direct heat exchange between the refrigerant in the refrigerating machine and the aqueous solution. In FIG. 11, parts having the same functions as in the above-mentioned FIG. 10 are referred to with the same numerals, and a detailed description thereof with reference to drawings has been omitted.
  • In this embodiment, any refrigerating machine and any energy source may be used in addition to the above-described refrigerating machines and energy sources. The apparatuses in the this embodiment also may be used in thermal storage apparatuses other than air conditioners. [0118]
  • Preferred Embodiment 3
  • The clathrate hydrates in this embodiment include crystallized compounds in which guest molecules are trapped in cage clathrate lattices of water molecules (host molecules). Examples of the guest compounds include tetra-n-butylammonium salts, such as tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (n-C[0119] 4H9)4NF), tetra-n-butylammonium chloride (n-C4H9)4NCl), and tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (n-C4H9)4NBr); tetra-iso-amylammonium salts; tetra-n-butylphosphonium salts; and tri-iso-amylsulfonium salts.
  • The fluoride, chloride, and bromide may be replaced with acetate (CH[0120] 3CO2), bicarbonate (HCO2), chromate (CrO4), tungstate (WO4), oxalate (C2O4), and phosphate (HPO4). The other guest compounds may have these anionic groups.
  • The thermal storage system in this embodiment will now be described with reference to tetra-n-butylammonium bromide TBAB, (C[0121] 4H9)4NBr.
  • FIG. 12 is a graph showing the relationship between the melting point and the salt concentration in the aqueous solution. The formation and decomposition of the clathrate hydrate are represented by the following reaction formula (1):[0122]
  • (C4H9)4NBr+nH2Oη→(C4H9)4NBr. nH2O  (1)
  • wherein n is the number of water molecules participating in hydration, is approximately 26. [0123]
  • With reference to FIG. 12, the aqueous solution containing the material for forming the clathrate hydrate, that is, the guest compound, has a maximum melting point of 11.8° C. when the salt concentration in the aqueous solution is approximately 40 percent by weight. The maximum melting point is called a congruent melting point. At the maximum melting point, the TBAB concentration in the aqueous solution is equal to the TBAB concentration in the clathrate hydrate. [0124]
  • When an aqueous solution having a TBAB concentration (40 percent by weight) causing the congruent melting point is cooled, clathrate hydrate starts to be formed at the congruent melting point (11.8° C.), and the congruent melting point is maintained until the aqueous solution is completely changed into the clathrate compound hydrate. When the clathrate hydrate is decomposed or melted, the cooling potential is released at a constant melting point. The latent heat of fusion is approximately 46 kcal/kg. When the utilized maximum temperature is 12° C., the volume fraction of the hydrate is 56% and the thermal storage density is 26 kcal/kg. [0125]
  • This thermal storage medium having such a large thermal storage density has stable thermal characteristics. Since this TBAB has been used as a catalyst, this is commercially available, economical and safe. [0126]
  • When an aqueous solution having a salt concentration lower than the salt concentration causing the congruent melting point (for example, 27.2 percent by weight at room temperature) is cooled, the hydrate starts to be formed at approximately 9.4° C., the TBAB concentration in the aqueous solution is gradually decreased and the temperature for forming the hydrate is simultaneously decreased. Along the curve of the hydrate number [0127] 26, as shown in FIG.12, the temperature for forming the hydrate is decreased. When the aqueous solution is cooled to 5° C. in order to produce water or air at 15° C. suitable for air conditioning, the TBAB concentration in the aqueous solution reaches approximately 17 percent by weight. Herein, 43% of the aqueous solution is converted to the hydrate, and the accumulated heat is approximately 26 kcal/kg, wherein the specific heat of the hydrate is 0.53 kcal/kgK, and the specific heat of the aqueous solution is 0.96 kcal/kgK.
  • Furthermore, the clathrate hydrate by TBAB generates a hydrate whose number is approximately 36, when TBAB concentration is approximately 20 wt % or less, as shown in FIG.12. When the hydrate is generated in the absorption refrigerating machine and when the latent heat of the clathrate hydrate is used, the TBAB concentration must be at least 4 percent by weight at room temperature. [0128]
  • The aqueous solution having a salt concentration lower than the congruent concentration has the following additional advantages. [0129]
  • (1) Since the melting point (forming temperature) of the hydrate is shifted to the lower temperature side, a cooling potential having a lower temperature can be accumulated. Thus, a cooling potential having a lower temperature is used. [0130]
  • (2) Since the melting point (forming temperature) of the hydrate is shifted to the lower temperature side, the difference in temperature during heat exchange between the hydrate and water or air is constant and large. Thus, a high heat exchange efficiency is achieved, and the heat exchanger can be made compact. When water or air at 20° C. is cooled to 15° C. by a heat exchanger, the temperature of the thermal storage medium at the outlet side of the water or air (or inlet side of the thermal storage medium) is 11.8° C. and the difference in temperature is merely 3.8° C. for the congruent concentration, as shown in FIG. 13([0131] a), FIG. 13(b), whereas the temperature of the thermal storage medium is 5° C. and the difference in temperature is 10° C. for a salt concentration lower than the congruent concentration, as shown in FIG. 13(c) (d).
  • (3) For substantially the same utilized maximum temperature and the same thermal storage density, the TBAB concentration in the aqueous solution can be decreased. Thus, material costs can be decreased. [0132]
  • (4) For substantially the same utilized maximum temperature and the same thermal storage density, the volume fraction of the hydrate can be reduced. Transfer and storage of the hydrate slurry can be easily performed. The accumulated heat is represented by the sum of the latent heat and the sensible heat. When the accumulated heat is the same, a salt concentration lower than the congruent concentration causes a larger sensible heat. Thus, the volume fraction of the hydrate can be reduced, as estimated in Table 1. (In case that the hydrate number is approximately 26.) [0133]
    TABLE 1
    Initial Utilized
    Concentration of Hydrate Accumulated Temperature
    Aqueous Solution Fraction Heat Range *1
    40% by weight 56% 26 kcal/kg 11.8 to 12° C.
    27% by weight 43% 26 kcal/kg   5 to 12° C.
  • In this embodiment, the aqueous solution may contain a compound having a freezing point lower than that of water in order to decrease the melting point (forming temperature) of the clathrate compound hydrate. [0134]
  • For example, the congruent melting point of n-butylammonium bromide TBAB (C[0135] 4H9)4NBr is 11.8° C., and the relationship between the melting point and the salt concentration in the aqueous solution is shown in FIG. 12. When a melting-point-lowering agent (having a lower melting point than that of water), such as ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, is added to the aqueous solution, the melting point of the aqueous solution is decreased in response to the content of the agent. A thermal storage medium having a desired melting point can be formed by adding an adequate amount of melting-point-lowering agent when the lower limit of the utilized temperature range is decreased.
  • As described above, the thermal storage medium in this embodiment has a large thermal storage density and stable thermal characteristics. Since this TBAB has been used as a catalyst, this is commercially available, economical and safe. When an aqueous solution having a salt concentration lower than the congruent concentration is used, a cooling potential having a lower temperature can be accumulated and used. Since this aqueous solution has a high heat exchange efficiency, a compact heat exchanger can be used at low cost. In addition, transport and storage of the hydrate slurry are simplified. [0136]
  • By adding an adequate amount of compound having a lower melting point than that of water, a thermal storage medium having a lower melting point can be prepared using an aqueous solution containing the same hydrate. This method can expand the use of the thermal storage medium and can decrease material costs. [0137]
  • Preferred Embodiment 4
  • This embodiment of the present invention relates to an air conditioner having a refrigerating machine and a thermal storage apparatus containing an aqueous solution of a guest compound forming a hydrate at a temperature of higher than 0° C. This air conditioner has a heat exchanger for cooling the aqueous solution by a heat transfer medium from the refrigerating machine to form a hydrate slurry including hydrate particles, and a circulation system for feeding the hydrate slurry to a load-side device of the air conditioner. [0138]
  • By the latent heat of the hydrate, a large amount of cooling potential can be accumulated. Such a system compensates for imbalances between a change in supplied exhaust heat and a change in load on air conditioners and can more effectively use energy. For example, off-peak power in the midnight and variable-output forms of energy, such as exhaust heat from factories, are accumulated as a cooling potential, and the accumulated cooling potential is used in air conditioners. Furthermore, the hydrate slurry is stable and has high fluidity. Thus, the hydrate slurry, as it is, can be fed into a load-side device by a pump, as in conventional refrigerants and brine. Accordingly, the air conditioner can be simplified and made compact. [0139]
  • In this embodiment, the guest compound contains at least one compound selected from the group consisting of tetra-n-butylammonium salts, tetra-iso-amylammonium salts, tetra-iso-butylphosphonium salts, and tri-iso-amylsulfonium salts. [0140]
  • Since the melting points of these guest compounds range from 4° C. to 25° C., there is a small difference in temperature between a heat absorption section and a heat dissipation section in the refrigerating machine, resulting in improved heat efficiency. Since the temperature of the heat absorption section is higher than 0° C., the refrigerating machine may be an absorption refrigerating machine using water as a refrigerant. Since this absorption refrigerating machine can use exhaust heat at a relatively low temperature, such as low-temperature vapor, from factories, as an energy source. [0141]
  • In this embodiment, the refrigerating machine may be another absorption refrigerating machine which produces a cooling potential by evaporation of water as a refrigerant, and absorbs the formed water vapor in an absorbing solution, and concentrates the absorbing solution by heat from a heat source. This refrigerating machine can effectively use exhaust heat at a relatively low temperature. [0142]
  • In this embodiment, the refrigerating machine may be a compression refrigerating machine which condenses a refrigerant by compression and evaporates the condensed refrigerant to produce a cooling potential. The compression can more effectively use electrical power by accumulating off-peak power in the midnight. [0143]
  • The methods and apparatuses in accordance with the this embodiment will now be described with reference to the attached drawings. [0144]
  • FIG. 14 shows a configuration of the heat exchanger [0145] 504 for forming the hydrate slurry. The aqueous TBAB solution S is fed from the thermal storage tank 506 into a cooling vessel 540 via a tube 541. The aqueous solution including the hydrate slurry is recycled to the thermal storage tank 506 from the bottom of the cooling vessel 540 via a tube 542.
  • The cooling vessel [0146] 540 is an open type communicating with the atmosphere. The internal pressure thereof is atmospheric pressure, and the open surface of the circulating aqueous solution S is in contact with air.
  • A heat exchange element [0147] 550, such as a cooling tube, is provided on the cooling vessel 540. The cooling water as the refrigerant formed in the absorption refrigerating machine 501 is fed into the heat exchange element 550 via tubes 545 and 545 to cool the circumferential aqueous solution. The cooling vessel 540 has a circulation mechanism including a pump 551 and a tube 552 and recycles the aqueous solution S to the heat exchange element 550.
  • FIG.[0148] 15 shows another concept of this embodiment.
  • FIG.[0149] 15 shows a heat exchanger 604, a thermal storage tank 606, and a piping system connected to a load side of an air conditioner, as an modification of this embodiment. In this modification, a refrigerating machine is effectively operated during the night to form and accumulate a hydrate slurry, and the cooling potential accumulated in the hydrate is used for load operation of an air conditioner.
  • The piping system includes an outward tube [0150] 667 for supplying the hydrate slurry from the heat exchanger 604 to the load side of the heat exchanger for the air conditioner and an inward tube 668 for recycling the hydrate slurry from the load side. The outward tube 667 is provided with a valve 666 midway thereof, and a tube 676 connected to the thermal storage, tank 606 is branched there from. A pump 665 supplies the hydrate slurry at the thermal storage tank 603 to a midway portion of the outward tube 667. A valve 669 provided midway of the inward tube 668 communicates with the thermal storage tank 606 via a tube 675.
  • In this modification, a diluted aqueous solution not causing the congruent temperature is used. [0151]
  • Solid arrows in FIG. 15 indicate the stream of the hydrate slurry during a thermal storage operation during off-peak times in the night and broken arrows indicate the stream of the hydrate slurry during a load operation during the daytime. [0152]
  • In the thermal storage operation, the aqueous solution in the thermal storage tank [0153] 606 is fed into the heat exchanger 604 via the tube 675, the valve 669, the tube 641 and the pump 643 to form the hydrate slurry. The hydrate slurry is recycled to the thermal storage tank 606 via the valve 666 and the tube 676.
  • In the load operation during the daytime, the pump [0154] 665 draws the hydrate particles from the thermal storage tank 606 and supplies them to the load side of the heat exchanger for the air conditioner via the outward tube 667. The hydrate slurry heat-exchanged in the load side is recycled to the thermal storage tank 606 via the inward tube 668, the valve 669 and the tube 675.
  • When the cooling load is large during the load operation during the daytime, a refrigerating machine is simultaneously operated. A fraction of the hydrate slurry in the inward tube [0155] 668 is divided by the valve 669, fed into the heat exchanger 604 via the tube 641 and the pump 643 to form the hydrate slurry. The hydrate slurry in the heat exchanger 604 is recycled to the outward tube 667 by the valve 666 and joins the hydrate slurry drawn from the thermal storage tank 606.
  • This modification can improve the operational efficiency of the refrigerating machine. As the amount of the hydrate particles increases in the aqueous solution, the temperature for forming the hydrate decreases due to dilution of the aqueous solution. The temperature of the endothermic section of the refrigerating machine is decreased in response to such a phenomenon to decrease the operational energy necessary for the refrigerating machine. [0156]
  • When the load operation and the operation of the refrigerating machine are simultaneously performed during the daytime, the aqueous solution concentrated and heated by the heat exchange is predominantly fed into the heat exchanger [0157] 604 from the load side. Hydrate particles are formed from this aqueous solution at a higher temperature so that the temperature of the endothermic section of the refrigerating machine is increased. Since the difference in temperature between the endothermic section and the heat dissipating section is small, the operational efficiency of the refrigerating machine is improved.
  • As the amount of the hydrate particles increases in the thermal storage tank [0158] 606, the aqueous solution is diluted and the temperature for forming the hydrate is decreased, resulting in a decreased efficiency of the refrigerating machine. When the capacity of the thermal storage tank 606, that is, the total volume of the aqueous solution is controlled to a proper level taking into consideration the capacity of the load side of the air conditioner and the capacity of the refrigerating machine, the refrigerating machine can be operated with the above-mentioned high efficiency in ordinary operational modes.
  • FIG. 16 shows another modification of this embodiment. This modification uses a compression refrigerating machine, which forms a cooling potential evaporating a refrigerant which was condensed by compression. This modification is suitable for compact air conditioners for domestic use and small buildings. [0159]
  • In this FIG. 16, the air conditioner includes an outdoor unit [0160] 780 and a load-side device 781. The load-side device 781 has a plurality of indoor units 794. The outdoor unit 780 has a refrigerating machine 783 and a thermal storage apparatus 784.
  • The refrigerating machine [0161] 783 is provided with a compressor 785. A refrigerant such as flon is compressed by the compressor 785 and condensed by a condenser 786. The condensed refrigerant is evaporated to form a cooling potential via a control valve 787 and an expansion valve 788. The evaporated refrigerant is recycled to the compressor 785.
  • The thermal storage apparatus [0162] 784 include an integrated thermal storage tank 790 having a heat insulating structure. The thermal storage tank 790 contains an aqueous solution S of a guest compound, for example, TBAB. The thermal storage tank 790 has a heat exchanger 791 therein. The refrigerant from the refrigerating machine 783 is fed into the heat exchanger 791 to cool the aqueous solution in the thermal storage tank 790 and to form hydrate particles.
  • The hydrate slurry of a mixture of the hydrate particles and the aqueous solution is stored in the thermal storage tank [0163] 790, is fed into each indoor unit 794 via the control valve 792 by a pump 793. The hydrate slurry or aqueous solution after heat-exchange with air is recycled to the thermal storage tank 790. A flow control valve 795 controls the flow rate of the hydrate slurry fed into each indoor unit 794.
  • In this modification, the hydrate slurry is formed by operation of the compressor [0164] 785 using off-peak power in the midnight or the like and is stored in the thermal storage tank 790. During the daytime, the hydrate slurry stored in the thermal storage tank 790 is fed to each indoor unit 794 for air conditioning. Thus, this system can effectively use off-peak power in the midnight. In addition, the overall system can be made compact.
  • FIG. 17 shows another modification of this embodiment in the present invention. In this modification, the stored hydrate slurry is fed into a load side to heat-exchange with a refrigerant such as flon. Furthermore, the refrigerating machine is operable while the hydrate slurry stored in the thermal storage tank [0165] 890 is used as a cooling potential source.
  • The thermal storage apparatus has a refrigerant heat exchanger [0166] 800 performing heat exchange between the hydrate slurry from the thermal storage tank 890 and the refrigerant. The refrigerant is circulated between the refrigerant heat exchanger 800 and indoor units 894 at a load side via an outward tube 802 and an inward tube 803. The hydrate slurry in the thermal storage tank 890 is fed into the refrigerant heat exchanger 800 via a valve 892 and a pump 893. The refrigerant is cooled or condensed by heat exchange with the hydrate slurry. The refrigerant in the refrigerant heat exchanger 800 is circulated to a compression refrigerating machine via valves 804 and 805.
  • Solid arrows in the drawing indicate the stream of the refrigerant in a thermal storage operation during off-peak ours, and broken arrows indicate the stream in a load operation during the daytime. [0167]
  • In this modification, the refrigerating machine is operated in the load operation during the daytime. A part of gaseous or liquid refrigerant from the condenser [0168] 886 is fed into the refrigerant heat exchanger 800 and cooled or condensed by heat exchange with the hydrate slurry. The cooled refrigerant is fed into the indoor units 894 at the thermal load side. The refrigerant recycled from the indoor units 894 is compressed by the compressor 885 and is circulated to the condenser 886.
  • In this modification, the refrigerant is delivered to the indoor units [0169] 894. Thus, any conventional indoor units using any refrigerant can be used in this modification as is. In addition, the hydrate slurry in the thermal storage tank 890 and the refrigerating machine can be simultaneously used as a cooling potential sources. Thus, the apparatus can be flexibly respond to a change in load. Any type of refrigerating machine can be used in the present invention.
  • Since a cooling potential is stored using the hydrate in the third embodiment, as described above, a large thermal storage capacity can be achieved using a compact apparatus. When the guest compound for forming the hydrate is selected so that the temperature for forming the hydrate is higher than 0° C., the hydrate slurry of the aqueous solution can be formed. A simplified and compact apparatus can easily deliver the slurry to a load-side device. [0170]
  • FIG. 18 shows another modification of this embodiment in the present invention. In this modification, a refrigerant gas pump [0171] 911,and valves 912,913,914 and 915 are provided midway of the inward tube 903 for a refrigerant so that the refrigerant can be directly circulated between indoor units 994 and a refrigerant heat exchanger 900, not via the compressor 985 of the refrigerating machine.
  • Also, in this modification, the refrigerant is delivered to the indoor units [0172] 994. Thus, any conventional indoor units using any refrigerant can be used in this modification as is. This apparatus may be operated in various modes in consideration of environmental conditions; operation using only the hydrate slurry in the thermal storage tank 990 as a cooling potential source, operation using only the refrigerating machine as a cooling potential source, and operation using both the hydrate slurry and the refrigerating machine as a cooling potential sources. Furthermore, this invention is not limited to the above-mentioned modification. For example,the heat exchanger (e.g. 800,900) can be installed in the thermal storage tank. A various types of refrigerating machine can be used in the present invention. Since a cooling potential is stored using the hydrate in the third embodiment, as described above, a large thermal storage capacity can be achieved using a compact apparatus.

Claims (29)

What is claimed is:
1. A method for making a hydrate slurry comprising the steps of:
(a) preparing an aqueous solution of a guest compound for forming a clathrate hydrate in a channel of the aqueous solution;
(b) cooling the aqueous solution to form a hydrate particles in the aqueous solution;
(c) cooling the aqueous solution being circulated by a heat transfer face; and,
(d) contacting a nuclear particles with a surface of a member in the circulated aqueous solution to form the hydrate particles.
2. The method of
claim 1
, wherein the nuclear particles are the hydrate particles.
3. The method of
claim 1
, wherein the nuclear particles are fine particles.
4. The method of
claim 3
, further comprising the steps of
precipitating the fine particles having a higher gravity than the aqueous solution; and
supplying the precipitated fine particles to the circulated aqueous solution to float the fine particles in the aqueous solution.
5. The method of
claim 4
, further comprising the step of
supplying the fine particles being precipitated on the bottom of the channel for the aqueous solution.
6. The method of
claim 4
, further comprising the step of
adhering the fine particles to the surface of the member in contact with the circulated aqueous solution.
7. The method of
claim 1
, wherein the fine particles have a specific gravity equal to the specific gravity of the aqueous solution and float in the aqueous solution.
8. The method of
claim 1
, wherein the guest compound is at least one compound selected from the group consisting of tetra-n-butylamnonium salts, tetra-iso-amylanonium salts, tetra-iso-butylphosphonium salts, and tri-iso-amylsulfonium salts.
9. An apparatus for making a hydrant slurry comprising:
an apparatus for making the hydrate slurry by cooling an aqueous solution containing a guest compound to form a hydrate particles;
a heat exchanger having a heat transfer face for cooling the aqueous solution, simultaneously with the aqueous solution being circulated and cooled by contact with the heat transfer face; and,
a nuclear particle-supply mechanism for supplying a nuclear particles to the aqueous solution circulating in the heat exchanger.
10. The apparatus of
claim 9
, wherein the nuclear particle-supply mechanism supplies the hydrate particles to the aqueous solution.
11. The apparatus of
claim 10
, wherein the nuclear particle-supply mechanism is a hydrate particle-forming mechanism capable of being operated, independent of the heat mexchanger.
12. The apparatus of
claim 10
, wherein the nuclear particle-supply m echanism has a storage vessel for storing a part of the hydrate slurry formed in the heat exchanger.
13. The apparatus of
claim 9
, wherein the nuclear particle-supply mechanism has a fine article recovery tube which recovers the fine particles precipitated on a bottom of a channel for the aqueous solution and, which supplies the fine particle to the heat exchanger.
14. An apparatus for making a hydrate slurry comprising:
an apparatus for making the hydrate slurry by cooling an aqueous solution containing a guest compound to form a hydrate particles;
a heat exchanger having a heat transfer face for cooling the aqueous solution, simultaneously with the aqueous solution being circulated and cooled by contact with the heat transfer face; and
a fine particle layer adhered to at least a part of the surface of a member in the heat exchanger in contact with the aqueous solution and acting as a nuclear of the hydrate particles.
15. The apparatus of
claim 14
, wherein
the heat exchanger has a cylindrical heat transfer face;
a rotating blade member sliding on the heat transfer face for detaching the hydrate formed on the heat transfer face; and
the fine particle layer adheres to the surface of the rotating blade member.
16. An apparatus for making a hydrate slurry comprising;
a means for cooling an aqueous solution containing a material for forming a clathrate hydrate as a guest compound so as to form a hydrate particles;
a means for exchanging heat between a refrigerating machine and a aqueous solution to cool the aqueous solution; and
a means for circulating the aqueous solution through the heat exchange means.
17. A thermal storage method using a clathrate hydrate comprising the steps of:
(a) preparing an aqueous solution containing a material for forming the clathrate hydrate so that the aqueous solution has a concentration of the material which is a congruent melting point or lower; and
(b) cooling the aqueous solution to form the clathrate hydrate.
(c) achieving the thermal storage, by making use of the clathrate hydrate.
18. The thermal storage method of
claim 17
, wherein the aqueous solution further contains a melting-point-lowering agent.
19. The thermal storage method of
claim 17
, wherein the material for forming a clathrate hydrate is at least one compound selected from the group consisting of tetra-n-butylammonium salts, tetra-iso-amylammonium salts, tetra-n-butylphosphonium salts, and tri-iso-amylsulfonium salts.
20. The thermal storage method of
claim 17
, wherein the material for forming the clathrate hydrate is tetra-n-butylammonium bromide, and the concentration of the material in the aqueous solution is 4 to 40%.
21. A thermal storage apparatus using a clathrate hydrate comprising;
a means for storing an aqueous solution of a material for forming the clathrate hydrate, the aqueous solution having a concentration of the material which is not higher than the concentration causing the congruent melting point; and
a means for cooling the aqueous solution stored in the storing means to form a slurry of the clathrate hydrate.
22. A thermal storage medium comprising an aqueous solution containing a material for forming a clathrate hydrate.
23. The thermal storage medium of
claim 22
, wherein the aqueous solution has a concentration of the material which is a congruent melting point or lower.
24. The thermal storage medium of
claim 22
, further comprising a melting-point-lowering agent.
25. The thermal storage medium of
claim 22
, wherein the material for forming a clathrate hydrate is tetra-n-butylammonium bromide, and the concentration of the material in the aqueous solution is 4 to 40%.
26. An air conditioner comprising:
a refrigerating machine;
a thermal storage apparatus, connected to the refrigerating machine by piping, for storing a guest compound solution forming a hydrate at a temperature higher than 0° C.;
the thermal storage apparatus comprising a heat exchanger for cooling the aqueous solution by a thermal storage medium from the refrigerating machine to form a hydrate slurry particles; and,
the thermal storage apparatus comprising a circulator for supplying the slurry to a load-side device of the air conditioner.
27. The air conditioner of
claim 26
, wherein the guest compound is at least one compound selected from the group consisting of tetra-n-butylammonium salts, tetra-iso-amylammonium salts, tetra-iso-butylphosphonium salts, and tri-iso-amylsulfonium salts.
28. The air conditioner of
claim 26
, wherein the refrigerating machine is an absorption refrigerating machine which forms a cooling potential by evaporation of water as a refrigerant, allows an absorbent solution to absorb the evaporated water, and concentrates the diluted absorbent solution by a heat source.
29. The air conditioner of
claim 26
, wherein the refrigerating machine is a compression refrigerating machine which condenses a refrigerant by compression and forms a cooling potential by evaporation of the condensed refrigerant.
US09/396,291 1999-02-15 1999-09-15 Air conditioning and thermal storage systems using clathrate hydrate slurry Abandoned US20010047662A1 (en)

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