TWI617773B - Horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler - Google Patents

Horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler Download PDF

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Publication number
TWI617773B
TWI617773B TW104103344A TW104103344A TWI617773B TW I617773 B TWI617773 B TW I617773B TW 104103344 A TW104103344 A TW 104103344A TW 104103344 A TW104103344 A TW 104103344A TW I617773 B TWI617773 B TW I617773B
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Taiwan
Prior art keywords
combustion chamber
temperature
superheater
fluidized bed
chamber
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TW104103344A
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Chinese (zh)
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TW201533392A (en
Inventor
Jian Bin Kang
Feng Hu
Jun Chen Li
Qian Wang
yan xia Hu
jin ting Xu
Zhe Zhang
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Beijing Nowva Energy Tech Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201410073524.3A priority Critical patent/CN103836612B/en
Application filed by Beijing Nowva Energy Tech Co Ltd filed Critical Beijing Nowva Energy Tech Co Ltd
Publication of TW201533392A publication Critical patent/TW201533392A/en
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Publication of TWI617773B publication Critical patent/TWI617773B/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C10/00Fluidised bed combustion apparatus
    • F23C10/02Fluidised bed combustion apparatus with means specially adapted for achieving or promoting a circulating movement of particles within the bed or for a recirculation of particles entrained from the bed
    • F23C10/04Fluidised bed combustion apparatus with means specially adapted for achieving or promoting a circulating movement of particles within the bed or for a recirculation of particles entrained from the bed the particles being circulated to a section, e.g. a heat-exchange section or a return duct, at least partially shielded from the combustion zone, before being reintroduced into the combustion zone
    • F23C10/08Fluidised bed combustion apparatus with means specially adapted for achieving or promoting a circulating movement of particles within the bed or for a recirculation of particles entrained from the bed the particles being circulated to a section, e.g. a heat-exchange section or a return duct, at least partially shielded from the combustion zone, before being reintroduced into the combustion zone characterised by the arrangement of separation apparatus, e.g. cyclones, for separating particles from the flue gases
    • F23C10/10Fluidised bed combustion apparatus with means specially adapted for achieving or promoting a circulating movement of particles within the bed or for a recirculation of particles entrained from the bed the particles being circulated to a section, e.g. a heat-exchange section or a return duct, at least partially shielded from the combustion zone, before being reintroduced into the combustion zone characterised by the arrangement of separation apparatus, e.g. cyclones, for separating particles from the flue gases the separation apparatus being located outside the combustion chamber
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K5/00Plants characterised by use of means for storing steam in an alkali to increase steam pressure, e.g. of Honigmann or Koenemann type
    • F01K5/02Plants characterised by use of means for storing steam in an alkali to increase steam pressure, e.g. of Honigmann or Koenemann type used in regenerative installation

Abstract

一種臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐,由主燃室、副燃室、燃盡室、分離器和尾部煙道構成,在主燃室和副燃室內分別佈置有高溫級和低溫級過熱器,兩級過熱器之間佈置有噴水減溫器。本發明採用高溫輻射過熱器和低溫對流過熱器相結合的兩級過熱器,傳熱係數高,溫度調節性好。低溫對流過熱器迎煙氣來流方向,管束呈階梯狀傾斜佈置,有利於物料的流通,減少積灰。本鍋爐具有循環流化床所有的優點,燃料適應性廣,可燃用劣質煤、固體廢棄物、城市與工業污泥、生物質等燃料,是一種能夠清潔燃燒、結構緊湊、使用壽命長的高效過熱蒸汽生產設備。 A horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler is composed of a main combustion chamber, a sub-combustion chamber, a burn-out chamber, a separator, and a tail flue. High-temperature and low-temperature superheaters are respectively arranged in the main combustion chamber and the auxiliary combustion chamber. A water spray desuperheater is arranged between the two superheaters. The invention adopts a two-stage superheater combining a high-temperature radiation superheater and a low-temperature convection superheater, which has a high heat transfer coefficient and good temperature regulation. The low-temperature convection superheater welcomes the flow direction of the flue gas, and the tube bundle is arranged in a step-like inclined arrangement, which is conducive to the circulation of materials and reduces ash accumulation. The boiler has all the advantages of a circulating fluidized bed, and has a wide range of fuel adaptability. It can burn fuels such as inferior coal, solid waste, urban and industrial sludge, and biomass. It is a highly efficient, clean burning, compact structure, and long service life. Superheated steam production equipment.

Description

一種臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐 Horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler

本發明係關於一種循環流化床燃燒設備,特別是一種生產過熱蒸汽的臥式循環流化床蒸汽鍋爐,屬於劣質煤、固體廢棄物、城市和工業污泥、生物質等劣質燃料的燃燒和蒸汽發生設備,特別適合於燃劣質燃料的工業加熱和小型發電等蒸汽利用系統。 The invention relates to a circulating fluidized bed combustion equipment, in particular to a horizontal circulating fluidized bed steam boiler for producing superheated steam, which belongs to the combustion and inferior fuels of inferior coal, solid waste, urban and industrial sludge, biomass and the like. Steam generating equipment is particularly suitable for steam utilization systems such as industrial heating and small power generation that burn low-quality fuel.

目前,燃用劣質煤、固體廢棄物、污泥、生物質等低品位燃料生產熱水、蒸汽的鍋爐主要有鏈條爐、水冷振動爐排鍋爐和循環流化床鍋爐等,可根據燃料的不同特性選擇不同的爐型,不同的爐型具有各自的特點。熱水鍋爐主要應用於城市供暖,蒸汽鍋爐主要用於工業加熱、蒸汽發電等。 At present, boilers that use low-grade fuels such as inferior coal, solid waste, sludge, and biomass to produce hot water and steam are mainly chain furnaces, water-cooled vibrating grate boilers, and circulating fluidized bed boilers. Characteristics Select different furnace types, and different furnace types have their own characteristics. Hot water boilers are mainly used for urban heating, and steam boilers are mainly used for industrial heating and steam power generation.

循環流化床鍋爐係為近年來發展起來的高效清潔的鍋爐技術,燃料適應性廣,可燃用優質煤、劣質煤、固體廢棄物、生物質等燃料。由於其燃燒效率高,能同時進行爐內脫硫、脫硝等污染控制操作,具有低氮氧化物(NOx)和硫氧化物(Sox)排放等優點,因而目前在電力市場得到了迅速的發展,正在向大型化方向發展,600百萬電力(MWe)的循環流化床鍋爐已投入商業運行。在電力行業,由於劣質煤、固體廢棄物、生物質等燃料的使用容易導致發電停機事故,因而這些燃料的直接燃燒應用受到了一定限制,實際多適應品質較高的燃料。與之相反,在工業鍋爐和 自備小型電廠等領域,由於鍋爐的蒸發量小、運行靈活、檢修方便、蒸汽系統採用母管制、備用靈活,因而劣質煤、固體廢棄物與生物質等燃料等日益受到青睞。傳統立式、單級循環流化床鍋爐存在爐身高,鍋爐島體積龐大等缺點,對廠房建設要求較高。同時鍋爐島的支撐鋼架以及鍋爐島本體的鋼耗較大,使得項目造價和初投資較高。針對立式循環流化床鍋爐在工業鍋爐領域的缺陷,中國專利CN200510126362.6揭露了一種臥式循環流化床燃燒設備及其循環燃燒方法,採用外置立式旋風分離器,將傳統立式鍋爐的爐膛分為主燃室、副燃室和燃盡室三個部分,從而有效降低了爐膛高度。中國專利CN201010110352.4揭露了一種多流程循環流化床鍋爐,包括主燃室、副燃室和燃盡室,燃盡室的底面與副燃室的底面之間留有落料通道,燃盡室底面設置鬆動風帽,保證物料的順利分離和輸送。但是,這些類型的鍋爐多用於生產熱水或者飽和蒸汽,因而無法適用於對溫度和壓力要求更高層次的工業加熱或者蒸汽發電系統。 Circulating fluidized bed boiler is a high-efficiency and clean boiler technology developed in recent years. It has a wide range of fuels and can burn fuels such as high-quality coal, inferior coal, solid waste, and biomass. Due to its high combustion efficiency, it can simultaneously perform pollution control operations such as desulfurization and denitration in the furnace, and has the advantages of low nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (Sox) emissions, so it has been rapidly developed in the power market. , Is developing in the direction of large-scale, 600 million electric power (MWe) circulating fluidized bed boiler has been put into commercial operation. In the power industry, because the use of inferior coal, solid waste, biomass and other fuels is prone to cause power generation shutdown accidents, the direct combustion applications of these fuels have been limited to a certain extent, and practically more suitable for higher quality fuels. In contrast, in industrial boilers and In the fields of self-provided small power plants, due to the small evaporation of boilers, flexible operation, convenient maintenance, steam system using parent control, and flexible backup, fuels such as inferior coal, solid waste, and biomass are increasingly favored. Traditional vertical, single-stage circulating fluidized bed boilers have disadvantages such as the height of the furnace and the large volume of the boiler island, which have higher requirements for plant construction. At the same time, the steel consumption of the boiler island supporting steel frame and the boiler island body is large, which makes the project cost and initial investment high. In view of the shortcomings of the vertical circulating fluidized bed boiler in the field of industrial boilers, Chinese patent CN200510126362.6 discloses a horizontal circulating fluidized bed combustion equipment and its circulating combustion method. An external vertical cyclone separator is used to convert the traditional vertical The furnace of the boiler is divided into three parts: the main combustion chamber, the auxiliary combustion chamber and the burnout chamber, thereby effectively reducing the furnace height. Chinese patent CN201010110352.4 discloses a multi-process circulating fluidized bed boiler including a main combustion chamber, a secondary combustion chamber, and a burn-out chamber. A blanking channel is left between the bottom surface of the burn-out chamber and the bottom surface of the secondary combustion chamber. A loose hood is set on the bottom of the room to ensure the smooth separation and transportation of materials. However, these types of boilers are mostly used to produce hot water or saturated steam, so they are not suitable for industrial heating or steam power generation systems that require higher levels of temperature and pressure.

針對現有技術存在的不足和缺陷,本發明提出一種臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐,一方面結構佈置緊湊、流態化燃燒,另一方面可生產高溫、高壓的高品質過熱蒸汽。 In view of the shortcomings and defects of the prior art, the present invention proposes a horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler. On the one hand, it has a compact structure and fluidized combustion, and on the other hand, it can produce high-temperature and high-pressure high-quality superheated steam.

本發明的一種臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐包含:由主燃室密相區和主燃室稀相區組成的主燃室、副燃室、燃盡室、分離器以及尾部煙道,在主燃室下部佈置有布風板,主燃室和副燃室之間有第一水冷壁隔牆,副燃室和燃盡室之間有第二水冷壁隔牆,在副燃室和燃盡室底部有V形灰鬥;分離器下部透過回料通道與回料器相連;回料器與返料口和V形 灰鬥底部相連;鍋筒與下降管、飽和蒸汽引出管相連;蒸發受熱面由主燃室、副燃室以及燃盡室組成,與汽水引出管、鍋筒相連;尾部煙道內佈置有低溫省煤器、高溫省煤器及空氣預熱器,低溫省煤器和高溫省煤器串聯連接。本案之一種臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐佈置有高溫輻射過熱器、低溫對流過熱器以及噴水減溫器;高溫輻射過熱器佈置在主燃室稀相區內,由進口聯箱、出口聯箱和過熱器管組成;低溫對流過熱器佈置在副燃室內,由上聯箱、下聯箱與蛇形管組成;噴水減溫器佈置於高溫輻射過熱器和低溫對流過熱器之間,與噴水減溫調節閥、減溫水管道共同組成過熱器減溫系統。 A horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler of the present invention includes a main combustion chamber, a secondary combustion chamber, a burn-out chamber, a separator, and a tail flue, which are composed of a dense phase zone of the main combustion chamber and a lean phase zone of the main combustion chamber. An air distribution plate is arranged in the lower part of the main combustion chamber. A first water-cooled wall partition wall is provided between the main combustion chamber and the auxiliary combustion chamber. A second water-cooled wall partition wall is provided between the auxiliary combustion chamber and the burn-out chamber. There is a V-shaped ash hopper at the bottom of the burnout chamber; the lower part of the separator is connected to the recirculator through the recirculation channel; the recirculator is connected to the recirculation port and the V-shape The bottom of the ash hopper is connected; the drum is connected to the descending pipe and the saturated steam outlet pipe; the evaporation heating surface is composed of the main combustion chamber, the auxiliary combustion chamber and the burn-out chamber, and is connected to the soda water outlet pipe and the drum; a low temperature is arranged in the tail flue Economizer, high temperature economizer and air preheater, low temperature economizer and high temperature economizer are connected in series. A horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler in this case is provided with a high-temperature radiant superheater, a low-temperature convection superheater, and a water spray desuperheater; the high-temperature radiant superheater is arranged in the lean phase zone of the main combustion chamber, and is connected by the inlet header and the outlet Box and superheater tube; low-temperature convection superheater is arranged in the auxiliary combustion chamber and consists of upper header, lower header and serpentine tube; water spray desuperheater is placed between high-temperature radiation superheater and low-temperature convection superheater, and water spray The temperature reducing regulating valve and the temperature reducing water pipeline together form a superheater temperature reducing system.

本發明的技術特徵還在於:高溫輻射過熱器可佈置多屏, 管屏之間距離S1為0.6~2.0公尺(m);過熱器管管間節距S2與管徑D1之比為1.25~1.50。低溫對流過熱器的上部呈階梯狀佈置,從第一水冷壁隔牆向第二水冷壁隔牆傾斜佈置;蛇形管間橫向節距S3為60~150毫米(mm),縱向節距S4為50~120mm。 The technical feature of the present invention is that the high-temperature radiation superheater can be arranged with multiple screens. The distance S1 between the tube screens is 0.6 to 2.0 meters (m); the ratio of the pitch S2 between the tubes of the superheater to the diameter D1 is 1.25 to 1.50. The upper part of the low-temperature convection superheater is arranged stepwise, and it is arranged obliquely from the first water-cooled wall partition wall to the second water-cooled wall partition wall. The transverse pitch S3 between the serpentine tubes is 60 to 150 millimeters (mm), and the longitudinal pitch S4 is 50 ~ 120mm.

本發明的另一技術特徵還在於:分離器透過連接通道與燃盡室相連;針對鍋爐容量大小差異,可佈置一個或者兩個。 Another technical feature of the present invention is that: the separator is connected to the burn-out chamber through a connecting channel; one or two can be arranged for the difference in the capacity of the boiler.

本發明與現有技術相比,具有以下優點及突出性效果:①與傳統臥式循環流化床鍋爐相比,可生產高溫高壓蒸汽。由於設置了噴水減溫器,可以精確控制過熱器出口蒸汽溫度。②主燃室內的高溫輻射過熱器和副燃室內的低溫對流過熱器串聯佈置,充分利用輻射式過熱器、對流式過熱器出口汽溫隨負荷變化的相反特性,汽溫調節特性好,便於控溫。③副燃室內臥式、階梯佈置的對流過熱器,充分適應管外的氣固流動,有 利於物料的平衡流通和傳熱均衡。本發明在傳統臥式循環流化床鍋爐的基礎上,佈置了獨特的過熱器系統。本發明在「爐」方面,不但繼承了臥式循環流化床鍋爐的燃料適應性廣且燃燒效率高,爐內脫硫、脫硝的優點,而且在「鍋」方面,可生產高溫高壓蒸汽。本發明特別適用于需要高品質蒸汽利用的場合。 Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages and prominent effects: ① Compared with the traditional horizontal circulating fluidized bed boiler, the invention can produce high temperature and high pressure steam. The water spray desuperheater is installed to accurately control the steam temperature at the superheater outlet. ② The high-temperature radiant superheater in the main combustion chamber and the low-temperature convection superheater in the auxiliary combustion chamber are arranged in series, making full use of the opposite characteristics of the steam temperature at the outlet of the radiant superheater and convection superheater as the load changes. temperature. ③ Horizontal, stepped convection superheaters in the auxiliary combustion chamber can fully adapt to the gas-solid flow outside the tube. Conducive to the balanced flow of materials and heat transfer. The invention is based on a traditional horizontal circulating fluidized bed boiler, and a unique superheater system is arranged. In terms of "furnace", the invention not only inherits the advantages of wide fuel adaptability and high combustion efficiency of the horizontal circulating fluidized bed boiler, desulfurization and denitration in the furnace, but also can produce high temperature and high pressure steam in the "furnace" . The invention is particularly suitable for applications requiring high-quality steam utilization.

1‧‧‧布風板 1‧‧‧ cloth wind board

2‧‧‧主燃室密相區 2‧‧‧ dense phase zone of main combustion chamber

3‧‧‧燃料給進裝置 3‧‧‧ fuel feeding device

4‧‧‧噴水減溫器 4‧‧‧Water spray desuperheater

5‧‧‧過熱器間蒸汽聯絡管 5‧‧‧Steam connection pipe between superheaters

6‧‧‧高溫輻射過熱器 6‧‧‧ high temperature radiation superheater

7‧‧‧主燃室稀相區 7‧‧‧ Lean phase zone of main combustion chamber

8‧‧‧第一水冷壁隔牆 8‧‧‧ the first water-cooled partition wall

9‧‧‧下降管 9‧‧‧ down tube

10‧‧‧汽水引出管 10‧‧‧ Soda Outlet

11‧‧‧過熱蒸汽出口 11‧‧‧ Superheated steam outlet

12‧‧‧飽和蒸汽引出管 12‧‧‧ saturated steam outlet pipe

13‧‧‧鍋筒 13‧‧‧ pot

14‧‧‧副燃室 14‧‧‧ secondary combustion chamber

15‧‧‧燃盡室 15‧‧‧ Burnout Room

16‧‧‧連接通道 16‧‧‧ Connect channel

17‧‧‧分離器 17‧‧‧ Separator

18‧‧‧水準煙道 18‧‧‧level flue

19‧‧‧尾部煙道 19‧‧‧ tail flue

20‧‧‧高溫省煤器 20‧‧‧high temperature economizer

21‧‧‧低溫省煤器 21‧‧‧ Low Temperature Economizer

22‧‧‧空氣預熱器 22‧‧‧Air preheater

23‧‧‧煙氣出口 23‧‧‧ Flue gas outlet

24‧‧‧返料口 24‧‧‧Return port

25‧‧‧回料器 25‧‧‧Returner

26‧‧‧V形灰鬥 26‧‧‧V-shaped ash bucket

27‧‧‧回料通道 27‧‧‧Return channel

28‧‧‧第二水冷壁隔牆 28‧‧‧Second water-cooled wall partition

29‧‧‧後牆水冷壁 29‧‧‧ rear wall water cooled wall

30‧‧‧低溫對流過熱器 30‧‧‧ Low temperature convection superheater

31‧‧‧噴水減溫調節閥 31‧‧‧Water spray temperature control valve

32‧‧‧減溫水管道 32‧‧‧Tempered Water Pipe

33‧‧‧上聯箱 33‧‧‧Uplink Box

34‧‧‧蛇形管 34‧‧‧Spiral tube

35‧‧‧下聯箱 35‧‧‧ Lower header

36‧‧‧進口聯箱 36‧‧‧Import header

37‧‧‧出口聯箱 37‧‧‧Export header

38‧‧‧過熱器管 38‧‧‧ Superheater tube

S1‧‧‧距離 S1‧‧‧Distance

S2‧‧‧節距 S2‧‧‧ pitch

S3‧‧‧橫向節距 S3‧‧‧Horizontal pitch

S4‧‧‧縱向節距 S4‧‧‧Vertical pitch

D1‧‧‧管徑 D1‧‧‧ diameter

第1圖為本發明所提供的一種臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐的結構原理示意圖。 FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler provided by the present invention.

第2圖為鍋爐汽水系統示意圖。 Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of the boiler soda water system.

第3a圖與第3b圖為階梯佈置的低溫對流過熱器管束示意圖。 Figures 3a and 3b are schematic diagrams of low-temperature convection superheater tube bundles arranged in steps.

第4圖為高溫輻射過熱器管屏示意圖。 Figure 4 is a schematic diagram of the tube screen of a high-temperature radiant superheater.

第5圖為第1圖的俯視圖,表示一種臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐佈置一個分離器的實施例。 Fig. 5 is a top view of Fig. 1 showing an embodiment in which a separator is arranged in a horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler.

第6圖為第1圖的俯視圖,表示一種臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐佈置兩個分離器的實施例。 Fig. 6 is a plan view of Fig. 1 showing an embodiment in which two separators are arranged in a horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler.

下面結合附圖對本發明的具體實施方式及工作過程作進一步的說明。 The specific implementation and working process of the present invention will be further described below with reference to the drawings.

第1圖為本發明所提供的一種臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐的結構原理示意圖,第2圖為鍋爐汽水系統示意圖,包含由主燃室密相區2和主燃室稀相區7組成的主燃室、副燃室14、燃盡室15、分離器17 和尾部煙道19,在主燃室下部佈置有布風板1,主燃室和副燃室14之間有第一水冷壁隔牆8,副燃室14和燃盡室15之間有第二水冷壁隔牆28,在副燃室14和燃盡室15底部有V形灰鬥26;分離器17下部透過回料通道27與回料器25相連;回料器25與返料口24和V形灰鬥26底部相連;鍋筒13與下降管9、飽和蒸汽引出管12相連;蒸發受熱面由主燃室、副燃室14以及燃盡室15組成,與汽水引出管10、鍋筒13相連;尾部煙道19內佈置有低溫省煤器21、高溫省煤器20和空氣預熱器22,低溫省煤器21和高溫省煤器20串聯連接,高溫輻射過熱器6佈置在主燃室稀相區7內;低溫對流過熱器30佈置在副燃室14內;噴水減溫器4佈置於高溫輻射過熱器6和低溫對流過熱器30之間,與噴水減溫調節閥31、減溫水管道32共同組成過熱器減溫系統。 Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of the structure and principle of a horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler provided by the present invention, and Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of a boiler soda system, including a main combustion chamber dense phase zone 2 and a main combustion chamber lean phase zone 7 Composed main combustion chamber, auxiliary combustion chamber 14, burn-out chamber 15, separator 17 And tail flue 19, an air distribution plate 1 is arranged in the lower part of the main combustion chamber, a first water-cooled wall partition wall 8 is provided between the main combustion chamber and the auxiliary combustion chamber 14, and a first Two water-cooled partition walls 28, with a V-shaped ash hopper 26 at the bottom of the auxiliary combustion chamber 14 and the burn-out chamber 15; the lower part of the separator 17 is connected to the material returner 25 through the material return channel 27; the material returner 25 and the material return port 24 It is connected to the bottom of the V-shaped ash hopper 26; the drum 13 is connected to the downcomer 9 and the saturated steam outlet pipe 12; the evaporation heating surface is composed of the main combustion chamber, the auxiliary combustion chamber 14 and the burnout chamber 15, and is connected to the soda outlet pipe 10 The cylinder 13 is connected; a low-temperature economizer 21, a high-temperature economizer 20, and an air preheater 22 are arranged in the tail flue 19; the low-temperature economizer 21 and the high-temperature economizer 20 are connected in series; In the lean phase zone 7 of the main combustion chamber; the low temperature convection superheater 30 is arranged in the auxiliary combustion chamber 14; the water spray desuperheater 4 is arranged between the high temperature radiant superheater 6 and the low temperature convection superheater 30, and the water spray desuperheating regulating valve 31 The desuperheating water pipes 32 together form a superheater desuperheating system.

第3a圖與第3b圖為階梯佈置的低溫對流過熱器管束示意圖,低溫對流過熱器30由上聯箱33、下聯箱35和蛇形管34組成,上部從第一水冷壁隔牆8向第二水冷壁隔牆28呈階梯狀傾斜佈置;蛇形管34間橫向節距S3為60~150mm,縱向節距S4為50~120mm。 Figures 3a and 3b are schematic diagrams of a low-temperature convection superheater tube bundle arranged in a step arrangement. The low-temperature convection superheater 30 is composed of an upper header 33, a lower header 35, and a serpentine tube 34. The two water-cooled wall partition walls 28 are arranged in a stepped inclined manner; the lateral pitch S3 between the serpentine tubes 34 is 60 to 150 mm, and the longitudinal pitch S4 is 50 to 120 mm.

第4圖為高溫輻射過熱器管屏示意圖,高溫輻射過熱器6由進口聯箱36、出口聯箱37和過熱器管38組成,可佈置多屏,在本實施例中佈置了3屏,管屏之間距離S1為0.6~2.0m;過熱器管38管間節距S2與管徑D1之比為1.25~1.50。 Fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of a high-temperature radiation superheater tube screen. The high-temperature radiation superheater 6 is composed of an inlet header 36, an outlet header 37, and a superheater tube 38. Multiple screens can be arranged. In this embodiment, three screens, tubes The distance S1 between the screens is 0.6 ~ 2.0m; the ratio between the pipe pitch D2 of the superheater tube 38 and the pipe diameter D1 is 1.25 ~ 1.50.

第5圖為第1圖的俯視圖,表示臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐佈置一個分離器的實施例;以及第6圖為第1圖的俯視圖,表示臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐佈置兩個分離器的實施例。當鍋爐蒸發量為3~10 公噸/小時(t/h)時,宜佈置一個分離器;當鍋爐蒸發量為10~20t/h時,宜根據實際情況確定佈置一個或者兩個分離器;當鍋爐蒸發量大於20t/h時,宜佈置兩個分離器。 Fig. 5 is a plan view of Fig. 1 showing an embodiment in which a separator is arranged in a horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler; and Fig. 6 is a plan view of Fig. 1 showing a layout of a horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler Example of two separators. When the boiler evaporation is 3 ~ 10 When the metric ton / hour (t / h), a separator should be arranged; when the boiler evaporation is 10 ~ 20t / h, one or two separators should be determined according to the actual situation; when the boiler evaporation is greater than 20t / h , Two separators should be arranged.

燃料從燃料給進裝置3送入,支援燃燒的空氣經空氣預熱器 22後從布風板1送入,燃料依次在主燃室密相區2、主燃室稀相區7、副燃室14和燃盡室15內燃燒,燃燒產生的攜帶顆粒物料的煙氣透過分離器17被分離,煙氣透過分離器與水準煙道18進入尾部煙道19,依次流過高溫省煤器20、低溫省煤器21和空氣預熱器22,經煙氣出口23離開鍋爐。煙氣中的顆粒物料流經副燃室14和燃盡室15之間的V形灰鬥16時,由於慣性分離作用,一些顆粒物料被分離並沉積在V形灰鬥中,沒有分離下來的顆粒物料隨著煙氣繼續流入分離器17,在分離器17內得到進一步分離。分離器17分離下來的顆粒物料沿著回料通道27流入回料器25,與從V形灰鬥26流入到回料器25內顆粒物料匯合,全部物料最終透過回料器25經返料口24回送到主燃室密相區2,完成一次物料循環。透過顆粒物料循環,一方面可循環燃燒未燃盡的碳顆粒,提高燃燒效率,另一方面還可以提高主燃室、副燃室的顆粒物料濃度,較高物料濃度有利於提高佈置在主燃室和副燃室內過熱器的煙氣傳熱係數。 Fuel is fed from the fuel feeding device 3, and the air supporting combustion passes through the air preheater After 22, it is sent from the air distribution plate 1, and the fuel is burned in the dense phase zone 2, the lean phase zone 7, the auxiliary combustion chamber 14, and the burnout chamber 15 of the main combustion chamber in turn. The gas is separated through the separator 17 and the flue gas passes through the separator and the level flue 18 into the tail flue 19, flows through the high-temperature economizer 20, the low-temperature economizer 21, and the air preheater 22, and exits through the flue gas outlet 23 boiler. When the particulate material in the flue gas flows through the V-shaped ash hopper 16 between the auxiliary combustion chamber 14 and the burn-out chamber 15, due to the inertial separation effect, some particulate materials are separated and deposited in the V-shaped ash hopper. The particulate material continues to flow into the separator 17 with the flue gas, and is further separated in the separator 17. The particulate material separated by the separator 17 flows into the reclaimer 25 along the recirculation passage 27, and merges with the particulate material flowing from the V-shaped ash hopper 26 into the reclaimer 25, and all the materials finally pass through the reclaimer 25 through the recirculation opening 24 back to the dense phase zone 2 of the main combustion chamber to complete a material cycle. Through the circulation of particulate materials, on the one hand, unburned carbon particles can be circulated to improve combustion efficiency, and on the other hand, the concentration of particulate materials in the main combustion chamber and the auxiliary combustion chamber can be increased. Higher material concentrations are conducive to improving the layout of the main combustion chamber. The heat transfer coefficient of the flue gas in the superheater of the chamber and the auxiliary combustion chamber.

鍋爐給水依次經低溫省煤器21、高溫省煤器20後進入鍋筒 13,被加熱後的鍋爐給水由下降管9分配給蒸發受熱面,鍋爐給水在蒸發受熱面內吸熱並產生飽和蒸汽,飽和蒸汽再由飽和蒸汽引出管12引至低溫對流過熱器30內繼續吸熱達到過熱狀態,過熱蒸汽再經過熱器間蒸汽聯絡管5引至高溫輻射過熱器內繼續吸熱並由過熱蒸汽出口11引出鍋爐。低溫 對流過熱器迎煙氣來流方向,階梯傾斜佈置,有利於副燃室14內靠近燃盡室15方向的高濃度物料順利流過(由於顆粒流經主燃燒室和燃盡室之間的倒U型通道的離心作用,靠近燃盡室方向的物料濃度高)。低溫對流過熱器30與高溫輻射過熱器6串聯連接,汽溫的調節性好。噴水減溫器4佈置於高溫輻射過熱器6和低溫對流過熱器30之間,與噴水減溫調節閥31、減溫水管道32共同組成過熱器減溫系統。過熱器減溫系統可進行細緻調溫,可充分滿足工業生產的需要。 The boiler feed water enters the drum after passing through the low temperature economizer 21 and high temperature economizer 20 in order. 13. The heated boiler feed water is distributed by the down pipe 9 to the evaporation heating surface. The boiler feed water absorbs heat in the evaporation heating surface and generates saturated steam. The saturated steam is led from the saturated steam outlet pipe 12 to the low-temperature convection superheater 30 to continue absorbing heat. When the superheated state is reached, the superheated steam passes through the inter-heater steam connection pipe 5 to the high-temperature radiant superheater to continue to absorb heat and is led out of the boiler through the superheated steam outlet 11. Low temperature The convection superheater welcomes the flow direction of the flue gas, and the step is inclined to facilitate the smooth flow of high-concentration materials in the auxiliary combustion chamber 14 near the burnout chamber 15 (because the particles flow through the The centrifugal action of the U-shaped channel has a high material concentration near the burn-out chamber). The low-temperature convection superheater 30 and the high-temperature radiation superheater 6 are connected in series, and the steam temperature is well regulated. The water spray desuperheater 4 is arranged between the high temperature radiant superheater 6 and the low temperature convection superheater 30, and together with the water spray desuperheating regulating valve 31 and the temperature reducing water pipe 32, a superheater desuperheating system is formed. The superheater temperature reduction system can perform fine temperature adjustment, which can fully meet the needs of industrial production.

雖然本發明的實施例揭露如上所述,然並非用以限定本發明,任何熟習相關技藝者,在不脫離本發明的精神和範圍內,舉凡依本發明申請範圍所述的形狀、構造、特徵及數量當可做些許的變更,因此本發明的專利保護範圍須視本說明書所附的申請專利範圍所界定者為準。 Although the embodiments of the present invention are disclosed as described above, they are not intended to limit the present invention. Any person skilled in the relevant art may, without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, use the shapes, structures, and features described in the scope of the present application. The number and quantity should be changed slightly, so the scope of patent protection of the present invention must be determined by the scope of the patent application attached to this specification.

1‧‧‧布風板 1‧‧‧ cloth wind board

2‧‧‧主燃室密相區 2‧‧‧ dense phase zone of main combustion chamber

3‧‧‧燃料給進裝置 3‧‧‧ fuel feeding device

4‧‧‧噴水減溫器 4‧‧‧Water spray desuperheater

5‧‧‧過熱器間蒸汽聯絡管 5‧‧‧Steam connection pipe between superheaters

6‧‧‧高溫輻射過熱器 6‧‧‧ high temperature radiation superheater

7‧‧‧主燃室稀相區 7‧‧‧ Lean phase zone of main combustion chamber

8‧‧‧第一水冷壁隔牆 8‧‧‧ the first water-cooled partition wall

10‧‧‧汽水引出管 10‧‧‧ Soda Outlet

11‧‧‧過熱蒸汽出口 11‧‧‧ Superheated steam outlet

12‧‧‧飽和蒸汽引出管 12‧‧‧ saturated steam outlet pipe

13‧‧‧鍋筒 13‧‧‧ pot

14‧‧‧副燃室 14‧‧‧ secondary combustion chamber

15‧‧‧燃盡室 15‧‧‧ Burnout Room

16‧‧‧連接通道 16‧‧‧ Connect channel

17‧‧‧分離器 17‧‧‧ Separator

18‧‧‧水準煙道 18‧‧‧level flue

19‧‧‧尾部煙道 19‧‧‧ tail flue

20‧‧‧高溫省煤器 20‧‧‧high temperature economizer

21‧‧‧低溫省煤器 21‧‧‧ Low Temperature Economizer

22‧‧‧空氣預熱器 22‧‧‧Air preheater

23‧‧‧煙氣出口 23‧‧‧ Flue gas outlet

24‧‧‧返料口 24‧‧‧Return port

25‧‧‧回料器 25‧‧‧Returner

26‧‧‧V形灰鬥 26‧‧‧V-shaped ash bucket

27‧‧‧回料通道 27‧‧‧Return channel

28‧‧‧第二水冷壁隔牆 28‧‧‧Second water-cooled wall partition

29‧‧‧後牆水冷壁 29‧‧‧ rear wall water cooled wall

30‧‧‧低溫對流過熱器 30‧‧‧ Low temperature convection superheater

Claims (3)

一種臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐,包含由主燃室密相區(2)和主燃室稀相區(7)組成的主燃室、副燃室(14)、燃盡室(15)、分離器(17)以及尾部煙道(19),在該主燃室下部佈置有布風板(1),該主燃室和該副燃室(14)之間有第一水冷壁隔牆(8),該副燃室(14)和該燃盡室(15)之間有第二水冷壁隔牆(28),在副燃室(14)和該燃盡室(15)底部有V形灰鬥(26);該分離器(17)下部透過回料通道(27)與回料器(25)相連;該回料器(25)與返料口(24)和該V形灰鬥(26)底部相連;鍋筒(13)與下降管(9)、飽和蒸汽引出管(12)相連;蒸發受熱面由該主燃室、該副燃室(14)以及該燃盡室(15)組成,與汽水引出管(10)、該鍋筒(13)相連;尾部煙道(19)內佈置有低溫省煤器(21)、高溫省煤器(20)和空氣預熱器(22),該低溫省煤器(21)與該高溫省煤器(22)串聯連接,其特徵在於該臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐包含:高溫輻射過熱器(6),該高溫輻射過熱器(6)佈置在該主燃室稀相區(7)內,由進口聯箱(36)、出口聯箱(37)和過熱器管(38)組成;低溫對流過熱器(30),該低溫對流過熱器(30)佈置在該副燃室(14)內,由上聯箱(33)、下聯箱(35) 和蛇形管(34)組成;以及噴水減溫器(4),該噴水減溫器(4)佈置於該高溫輻射過熱器(6)和該低溫對流過熱器(30)之間,與噴水減溫調節閥(31)、減溫水管道(32)共同組成過熱器減溫系統,其中該低溫對流過熱器(30)的上部呈階梯狀佈置,從該第一水冷壁隔牆(8)向該第二水冷壁隔牆(28)傾斜佈置,蛇形管(34)間橫向節距(S3)為60~150mm,縱向節距(S4)為50~120mm。 A horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler, comprising a main combustion chamber dense phase zone (2) and a main combustion chamber lean phase zone (7), comprising a main combustion chamber, an auxiliary combustion chamber (14), and a burnout chamber (15). ), A separator (17) and a tail flue (19), an air distribution plate (1) is arranged below the main combustion chamber, and a first water-cooled wall partition is provided between the main combustion chamber and the auxiliary combustion chamber (14) There is a second water-cooled partition wall (28) between the auxiliary combustion chamber (14) and the burnout chamber (15), and between the auxiliary combustion chamber (14) and the burnout chamber (15). V-shaped ash hopper (26); the lower part of the separator (17) is connected to the returning device (25) through the returning channel (27); the returning device (25) is connected to the returning port (24) and the V-shaped ash The bottom of the bucket (26) is connected; the drum (13) is connected to the downcomer (9) and the saturated steam outlet pipe (12); the evaporation heating surface is composed of the main combustion chamber, the auxiliary combustion chamber (14) and the burnout chamber ( 15) composition, connected to the soda water outlet pipe (10) and the drum (13); the tail flue (19) is arranged with a low temperature economizer (21), a high temperature economizer (20) and an air preheater ( 22), the low temperature economizer (21) and the high temperature economizer (22) are connected in series, characterized in that the horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler includes: Heater (6), the high temperature radiation superheater (6) is arranged in the lean phase zone (7) of the main combustion chamber, and consists of an inlet header (36), an outlet header (37) and a superheater tube (38) ; Low-temperature convection superheater (30), the low-temperature convection superheater (30) is arranged in the auxiliary combustion chamber (14), and is composed of an upper header (33) and a lower header (35) And a serpentine pipe (34); and a water spray desuperheater (4), the water spray desuperheater (4) is arranged between the high temperature radiation superheater (6) and the low temperature convection superheater (30), and water spray The desuperheating regulating valve (31) and the desuperheating water pipe (32) together form a superheater desuperheating system, wherein the upper part of the low-temperature convection superheater (30) is arranged in a step shape, and the first water-cooled partition wall (8) It is arranged obliquely to the second water-cooled wall partition wall (28), and the transverse pitch (S3) between the serpentine tubes (34) is 60 to 150 mm, and the longitudinal pitch (S4) is 50 to 120 mm. 如請求項1所述之臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐,其中該高溫輻射過熱器(6)可佈置多屏,管屏之間距離(S1)為0.6~2.0m,過熱器管(38)管間節距(S2)與管徑(D1)之比為1.25~1.50。 The horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler as described in claim 1, wherein the high-temperature radiant superheater (6) can be arranged with multiple screens, the distance between the tube screens (S1) is 0.6 ~ 2.0m, and the superheater tubes (38 ) The ratio between the pipe pitch (S2) and the pipe diameter (D1) is 1.25 ~ 1.50. 如請求項1所述之臥式循環流化床過熱蒸汽鍋爐,其中該分離器(17)透過連接通道(16)與燃盡室(15)相連,該分離器(17)可根據鍋爐大小佈置一個或者兩個。 The horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler as described in claim 1, wherein the separator (17) is connected to the burn-out chamber (15) through a connecting channel (16), and the separator (17) can be arranged according to the size of the boiler One or two.
TW104103344A 2014-02-28 2015-01-30 Horizontal circulating fluidized bed superheated steam boiler TWI617773B (en)

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