TW201343587A - 用於高速氧燃料噴塗之新材料及由其製得之產品 - Google Patents

用於高速氧燃料噴塗之新材料及由其製得之產品 Download PDF

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TW201343587A
TW201343587A TW101145483A TW101145483A TW201343587A TW 201343587 A TW201343587 A TW 201343587A TW 101145483 A TW101145483 A TW 101145483A TW 101145483 A TW101145483 A TW 101145483A TW 201343587 A TW201343587 A TW 201343587A
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fusion
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Lars-Ake Nilsson
Peter Olserius
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Hoganas Ab Publ
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C4/00Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state, e.g. by flame, plasma or electric discharge
    • C23C4/04Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state, e.g. by flame, plasma or electric discharge characterised by the coating material
    • C23C4/06Metallic material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/115Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces by spraying molten metal, i.e. spray sintering, spray casting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F7/00Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression
    • B22F7/008Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression characterised by the composition
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    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/04Making alloys by powder metallurgy
    • C22C1/0433Nickel- or cobalt-based alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C19/00Alloys based on nickel or cobalt
    • C22C19/03Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel
    • C22C19/05Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium
    • C22C19/051Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W
    • C22C19/057Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W with the maximum Cr content being less 10%
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C19/00Alloys based on nickel or cobalt
    • C22C19/03Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel
    • C22C19/05Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium
    • C22C19/058Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium without Mo and W
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C30/00Alloys containing less than 50% by weight of each constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C4/00Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state, e.g. by flame, plasma or electric discharge
    • C23C4/04Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state, e.g. by flame, plasma or electric discharge characterised by the coating material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C4/00Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state, e.g. by flame, plasma or electric discharge
    • C23C4/04Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state, e.g. by flame, plasma or electric discharge characterised by the coating material
    • C23C4/06Metallic material
    • C23C4/08Metallic material containing only metal elements

Abstract

本發明者已開發一種適用於基材(諸如用於玻璃製造之柱塞)之HVOF噴塗之新合金。當塗覆該合金時,此等部件展現高耐磨性及因此較長之壽命。

Description

用於高速氧燃料噴塗之新材料及由其製得之產品
利用自熔性鎳基合金進行熱堆焊於玻璃容器工業中工具之磨損防護上扮演重要角色。製瓶機器工具於極苛刻條件下工作,不但遭受磨損、腐蝕而且遭受快速熱循環。
自熔性鎳基合金之主要特性為高溫下之良好耐磨性及良好耐腐蝕性。此點導致於玻璃瓶製造工業中鎳合金廣泛用於堆焊鑄鐵部件。運用粉末焊接、火焰噴塗、高速氧燃料(HVOF)噴塗及PTA焊接之表面硬化法在新模具、柱塞、擋板、頸環、板等製造以及修補及維護中使用自熔性粉末。
自熔性合金中之基本元素為矽(Si)與硼(B)。此兩元素對液相線溫度具有極強的影響力。純鎳(Ni)之熔融溫度為1455℃。可藉由增加Si與B之濃度使得合金液相線降至1000℃以下。熔融溫度範圍係由固相線及液相線界定。自熔性合金之低熔點極為有利,因為可在不融合下將其等塗覆至基材金屬。合金通常包含鉻(Cr)、鐵(Fe)及碳(C),及時常亦添加鉬(Mo)、鎢(W)及銅(Cu)。溶解Si及B之其他金屬氧化物(諸如Fe及Ni氧化物)可形成矽酸鹽。此於鎳基合金施用期間可能極具重要性,因為Si-B熔渣係充作焊劑。此防止新生金屬表面發生氧化及確保熔融金屬之較佳可溼性。
Ni-Cr-Si-B-合金之微結構為含有各種量的硬質顆粒之具有相對韌性之富Ni基質。合金元素量增加使得硬質顆粒數量增加及因此增加了合金的硬度。增加之硬度亦使材料更 難進行機械加工。於具有低濃度Si、B及Cr之軟合金中,主要硬質相為Ni3B。
希望製得具有延長之使用壽命之模具、柱塞、擋板、頸環及板,及因此需要發展出可達成此之新合金。
於玻璃模製工業中,HVOF(高速氧燃料)噴塗通常用於塗覆狹頸柱塞及有限程度的擠壓吹塑柱塞。
本發明者已開發一種用於HVOF(高速氧燃料噴塗)處理玻璃製造用之基材(諸如柱塞)之新合金。經該合金處理後,該等部件顯示高耐磨性及因此之較長壽命。
合金中包含之組份可呈粉末形式。
該粉末係利用HVOF噴塗法沉積於基材上。
本發明之一標的係提供一種可用於HVOF噴塗法之鎳基粉末,該粉末包含(所有百分比以重量%表示)碳2.2-2.85;矽2.1-2.7;硼1.2-1.7;鐵1.3-2.6;鉻5.7-8.5;鎢32.4-33.6;鈷4.4-5.2;其餘為鎳。
於另一實施例中,該粉末包含(所有百分比以重量%表示)碳2.3-2.7;矽2.15-2.6;硼1.4-1.6;鐵1.5-2.05;鉻7.3-7.5;鎢32.4-33.6;鈷4.4-5.2;其餘為鎳。
於一實施例中,該粉末包含2種粉末;合金1為軟合金,及合金2為硬質合金。於本文中,術語「軟合金」及「硬質合金」意欲定義一者比另一者更軟之兩種合金。此兩不同合金具有以下組成:
於一實施例中,該粉末具有12-58 μm或15-53 μm或20-53 μm之粒度,採用篩選分析法測得。
本發明之另一標的係提供一種藉由鎳基粉末製得之合金。
本發明之另一標的係提供經該合金塗覆、較佳藉由HVOF(高速氧燃料噴塗)塗覆之組件。
用於塗覆玻璃柱塞之HVOF法由兩步組成:利用噴槍噴塗及利用熔合炬熔合沉積物。藉由注射將該粉末饋送至氧-乙炔或氧-氫槍中及高速噴向基底材料。該等熱顆粒於衝擊下扁平及與基底材料及彼此聯鎖,形成機械黏結。
需熔合處理以得到噴塗層之緻密及完全結合塗覆。將塗料加熱至介於其固相線與液相線之間之溫度-通常約1000℃。於最適溫度下,該材料為熔化及固體顆粒之混合物。當熔體充填顆粒間之間隙時,熔化期間出現15-20%之收縮。
根據氣體類型及噴槍品牌,可使用細粉及粗粉。市場上最常見之HVOF噴塗設備類型為Metco Diamond Jet、Tafa JP5000或Tafa JP8000。其等均適於可選用多種材料並具有最高生產率(kg噴塗粉末/小時)之此種操作。
應恰當地調整粉末流速。若流速太低,則會導致過熱,若流速太高,則顆粒將無法得到充分加熱-兩種情況中, 此均導致具有孔隙或氧化物之低質層品質。將柱塞之最粗糙段預加熱至200-300℃。然後噴塗若干粉末層。該槍常用於自動化設置中,及該槍應平滑運動而決不能保持靜止狀態,因為這樣會導致塗料過熱。應注意在隨後之熔合期間層收縮約20%。熔合後之一般厚度為0.6-0.8 mm。
噴塗後,需對沉積物進行熔合。使用適宜尺寸之熔合燃燒器(即,小柱塞為1,000 l/min燃燒器容量及大柱塞高達4,000 l/min)。若燃燒器太小,則此可導致熔合時間過長,從而產生氧化層。利用過大的燃燒器進行熔合將導致層過熱及產生孔隙或不均勻。應將柱塞加熱至約900℃。然後應將火焰調至乙炔氣體過剩-稱為「軟火焰」。距頂部約30 mm開始熔合。當塗層開始似鏡子般發亮時,將該火焰移向柱塞處及先熔合該段。返回至該起始點及完成柱塞之熔合。建議使深色焊接玻璃破損以準確地觀察發亮。若熔合溫度太低,則不足量材料熔化。噴塗後,需對沉積物進行熔合。使用適宜尺寸之熔合燃燒器(即,小柱塞為1,000 l/min燃燒器容量及大柱塞高達4,000 l/min)。若燃燒器太小,則此可導致熔合時間過長,從而產生氧化層。利用過大燃燒器進行熔合將導致層過熱及產生孔隙或不均勻。此導致差黏合性及高孔隙度。過多熱量導致失效,諸如沉積鬆弛、基底材料之稀釋、變形及過度熔合,產生過量的熔渣且使沉積物過軟。噴塗直徑小於25 mm之柱塞時,在槍上使用一額外氣帽更經濟。此可使粉末流集中於柱塞的小表面積。因此,縮短噴塗時間及提高沉積效率。
熔合後,在旋轉下使該柱塞冷卻至約600℃。此後,可在空氣中緩慢冷卻。若使用硬質合金(50-60 HRC),則建議將工件置於諸如蛭石之熱絕緣材料內。此將減緩冷卻以防止斷裂。
狹頸柱塞具有小於25 mm之直徑及需硬質及緻密塗層。因此利用HVOF法更經濟。相較於火焰噴射,此火焰更集中,及因高速度粉末顆粒而獲得極緻密塗層。HVOF需比火焰噴射更精細的粉末。最常見的解決辦法係具有粒度20-53微米之粉末。一些HVOF系統需要諸如15-45微米之甚至更精細粉末。可使用大多數HVOF塗層而無需熔合。就狹頸柱塞而言,通常需要熔合塗層。
實例 實例1
製得三種粉末混合物,其等具有以下組成(其餘為鎳):
實例2
可將粉末用於塗覆盤,然後將該盤用於磨損試驗(所謂的針盤測試(pin on disk test),如實例3中所示)。利用 HVOF噴塗來塗覆該盤。
常採用一步來進行HVOF噴塗法。然而,關於柱塞,實施兩步;利用HVOF噴槍噴塗及利用熔合炬熔合沉積物。使用氬氣作為載體,將粉末自粉末進料斗饋送至槍中。
可將市場上常見的HVOF噴塗設備類型(諸如Metco Diamond Jet、Tafa JP5000、Tafa JP8000等)用於本實例中。
將若干粉末層噴塗至盤(或,適宜時為柱塞)上。該槍應平滑運動而不應保持靜止狀態,因為這樣會導致塗料過熱。
此後採用熔合炬將塗層加熱至介於其固相線與液相線之間之一溫度(約1000℃)。使用適宜尺寸之熔合燃燒器(即,小柱塞為1,000 l/min燃燒器容量及大柱塞高達4,000 l/min)。若燃燒器太小,則此可導致熔合時間過長,從而產生氧化層。利用過大燃燒器進行熔合將導致層過熱及產生孔隙或不均勻。可將盤加熱至約900℃。然後可將火焰調至乙炔氣體過剩-稱為「軟火焰」。距頂部約30 mm開始熔合。當塗層開始似鏡子般發亮時,開始熔合。返回至該起始點及完成盤之熔合。建議使深色焊接玻璃破損以準確地觀察發亮。若熔合溫度太低,則不足量材料熔化。噴塗後,沉積物經熔合。使用適宜尺寸之熔合燃燒器(即,小柱塞為1,000 l/min燃燒器容量及大柱塞高達4,000 l/min)。若燃燒器太小,此可導致熔合時間過長,從而產生氧化層。
熔合後,在旋轉下使該柱塞冷卻至約600℃。此後,可在空氣中緩慢冷卻。若使用硬質合金(50-60 HRC),則建議將工件置於諸如蛭石之熱絕緣材料內。此將減緩冷卻以防止斷裂。
實例3
使經HVOF塗覆之盤進行「針盤」磨損試驗。該試驗係依據標準ASTM G65,於500℃與550℃之間之溫度下進行,對球持續施壓2小時。由根據本發明之樣本製成之塗層具有低於參考材料約3倍之磨損係數。此點顯示高於參考材料的耐磨性。

Claims (5)

  1. 一種適用於HVOF噴塗製程之金屬粉末,該粉末係由以下組分組成(所有百分比係以重量%計):碳2.2-2.85;矽2.1-2.7;硼1.2-1.7;鐵1.3-2.6;鉻5.7-8.5;鎢32.4-33.6;鈷4.4-5.2;其餘為鎳。
  2. 如請求項1之金屬粉末,該粉末係由以下組分組成:碳2.3-2.7;矽2.15-2.6;硼1.4-1.6;鐵1.5-2.05;鉻7.3-7.5;鎢32.4-33.6;鈷4.4-5.2;其餘為鎳。
  3. 如請求項1或2之金屬粉末,該粉末依據篩選分析法測定,具有20-53 μm之粒度。
  4. 一種藉由高速氧燃料噴塗塗覆表面之方法,其中使用如請求項1至3中任一項之粉末。
  5. 一種藉由如請求項4之方法製得之組件。
TW101145483A 2011-12-05 2012-12-04 用於高速氧燃料噴塗之新材料及由其製得之產品 TWI549918B (zh)

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JP2015507687A (ja) 2015-03-12
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