RU2410873C1 - Floating farm for cultivation of hydrocoles - Google Patents

Floating farm for cultivation of hydrocoles Download PDF

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RU2410873C1
RU2410873C1 RU2009137452/21A RU2009137452A RU2410873C1 RU 2410873 C1 RU2410873 C1 RU 2410873C1 RU 2009137452/21 A RU2009137452/21 A RU 2009137452/21A RU 2009137452 A RU2009137452 A RU 2009137452A RU 2410873 C1 RU2410873 C1 RU 2410873C1
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Russia
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farm
shaft
floating
water
tiers
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RU2009137452/21A
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Russian (ru)
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Сергей Александрович Самарин (RU)
Сергей Александрович Самарин
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Сергей Александрович Самарин
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

FIELD: agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: floating farm is intended for artificial cultivation of hydrocoles on the basis of marine and freshwater farms. Farm comprises floating facility. Body of floating facility (1) is arranged in the form of cup-like polyhedron from six volume reinforced concrete sector blocks with water impermeable walls. External board face of floating facility is inclined towards water surface at the angle α. In the centre of body (1) bottom, a technological opening is screened with a water permeable wall. Shaft wall (7) is installed in opening. Vertical movement along shaft is possible with the help of loading winch (6). Room for service personnel is arranged on upper above-water part of shaft wall (7) in the form of detachable-carriage-type water impermeable cabin (8). Inside lower end of underwater part of shaft wall (7) there is a site (12) installed loaded with ballast. Above the site there is an external sight gallery (13) arranged around shaft wall (7). Areas of hydrocoles cultivation are arranged in the form of tiers (11) located in according depth layers of their habitation.
EFFECT: increased resistance of body (1) to waves and ice, provides for autonomous power supply, possibility to vary technology of hydrocoles cultivation and to develop favourable conditions for growth and ripening of hydrocoles and their collection at any time of the year, joint existence of various types of hydrocoles in optimal proportions, assortment of products is expanded, water medium ecology is preserved.
25 cl, 7 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of aquaculture, in particular to systems for the artificial breeding of aquatic organisms based on marine and freshwater farms under controlled conditions of a limited natural habitat.
A device for containing hydrobionts is known, comprising an upper frame with pontoons of constant buoyancy and a lower frame with pontoons of variable buoyancy interconnected by a guide in the form of vertical and pairwise intersecting oblique cables (patent RU 2054250, publ. 02.20.1996). In the center of the upper frame, a feed hopper, a feed dispenser with a drive, a caisson chamber with control system elements, an emergency buoy with a return and return mechanism are mounted. A mesh chamber is installed between the upper and lower frames for keeping hydrobionts, in particular, juvenile fish. The device is also equipped with removable ballast tanks attached to the pontoons of constant buoyancy of the upper frame, and removable containers, which when surfaced, are filled with air and serve as additional elements of constant buoyancy, and when the device is immersed, they are filled with water and serve as additional ballast tanks. Each ballast tank is equipped with an air duct with a ventilation valve, which is located in the caisson chamber and is equipped with a manual mechanism for opening and closing it. The device is mounted on anchor braces and contains an electric power supply unit, an air storage, and can also be connected via hoses and electric cables to external power sources of electric energy and compressed air. When the device is brought into operation, the hydrobionts are placed in the mesh chamber, the feed hopper is filled with feed, the electric energy and compressed air are supplied through the control system elements and a command is made to immerse the device, after which the ventilation valves of the ballast tanks are opened, a certain amount of them are vented through the coffer chamber air, and instead fill with a certain amount of water, as a result of which a mesh chamber with hydrobionts is immersed to a predetermined depth. If there is a periodic need to replenish the supply of feed, through the elements of the control system they command the ascent, supply air to the ballast tanks, through which water is squeezed out of them, and the mesh chamber with hydrobionts is raised to the surface, after which the feed hopper is again filled with feed. At the moment of opening of the upper part of the mesh chamber afloat, in order to prevent spontaneous opening of the ventilation valves of ballast tanks and the sudden immersion of the chamber, each valve is closed using a manual mechanism. In case of a possible failure of the feeding mechanism, when the device is in a submerged position under water, the emergency buoy release mechanism is activated, the appearance of which on the water surface indicates a malfunction of any control system element. To reduce the heel of the upper frame of the device in the above-water or underwater position, additional heeling moment is created with the help of interconnected vertical cables and fastened together at the intersection point of pairwise intersecting inclined cables. The disadvantages of the known device for the maintenance of aquatic organisms are its complex structural layout and dependent power supply system, unreliable operation of the control system elements, unstable position in the surface and underwater state, the danger of spontaneous opening of ventilation valves and unauthorized immersion of the device when opening the top of the network chamber at a time when afloat, the possibility of failure of the feed mechanism when the device is under water d, a large amount of manual work when closing and opening the ventilation valve mechanisms, dependence on the need to renew feed reserves and periodically float to the surface and dive, the discomfort of hydrobionts, which they constantly feel at each ascent of the network camera to replenish feed reserves, which negatively affects their development, the risk of infection with infectious diseases with a large accumulation of aquatic organisms in a closed habitat zone, the lack of conditions for germination of juveniles, low productivity nce device for keeping aquatic organisms, as well as a limited range of products produced.
Also known is a submersible platform of a fishery farm containing a frame along the outer contour of which a sleeve-shaped annular pontoon of constant buoyancy is installed, and a variable buoyancy chamber is located in the central part of the frame (patent GB 2302525, publ. 22.01.1997). On the frame of the frame there are installed horizontal crates and cable systems to which bio-carriers in the form of lamp-shaped nets with shell-shaped animals placed in them in the form of bivalves and shells are attached in a vertical position. The frame additionally contains a closed fish holding tool, made in the form of a net cage, in the upper part connected to the U-shaped pontoon of constant buoyancy located on the surface, and in the lower part attached to the pallet, equipped with a wheeled chassis and able to move along the bottom of the reservoir together with moving the frame of the submersible platform. Access to the platform is through a specially equipped passage fixed to the upper surface of the frame. The buoyancy of the platform is controlled by supplying compressed air through the hose through a valve installed in the upper part of the variable buoyancy chamber, with the help of which air enters the chamber, which displaces water from it, as a result of which the platform floats. When a certain amount of air is released from the chamber, a certain amount of water enters its place through the hole in the lower part of the chamber, as a result of which the platform frame is immersed to a predetermined depth. Compressed air is supplied from a swimming vehicle, such as a vessel, adjacent to the platform, through a hose having a sufficient supply of length to ensure that the platform is positioned at the required underwater level from the surface of the water or to perform various chores. The platform frame is equipped with rotating underwater lobed sails, which rotate the frame under the influence of underwater flow, thereby ensuring the flow of the aquatic environment saturated with food plankton to the armored animals suspended under the platform frame. The platform is fixed in plan in one place with the help of buoys attached to anchor extensions. If necessary, the platform can be provided with a feed hopper with adjustable buoyancy to improve the nutrition of marine animals. The disadvantages of the well-known fishery farm are its complex structural layout and compressed air supply system, the dependence of aquatic organisms on the need to renew feed, a small amount of the aquatic environment saturated with food plankton supplied to shell animals, the risk of infection with infectious diseases with a large accumulation of aquatic organisms in a closed habitat, unstable position of the structure in the underwater state, during immersion and ascent, the presence of elements located on the sea surface buoyancy reduces the reliability of the platform when climbing to the surface in ice conditions, since damage and separation are possible, it is difficult to operate the platform in the upper layers of the sea in stormy conditions due to insufficient rigidity of the frame, which does not allow the device to be used in the open sea, lack of conditions for germination of juveniles aquatic organisms, low productivity of the fishery farm, as well as a limited range of harvested products.
As a prototype, a farm for breeding marine animals, including fish, containing a vertically located barrel of a floating means made in the form of a beacon, on the upper surface of which there is a living room for staff, and on the lower underwater part a ballast is installed, around which are equipped enclosed places for breeding marine animals (patent FR 2511846, publ. 04.03.1983). Places for breeding marine animals are made in the form of five torus-shaped gondolas rotating around their axis, their lower central part connected by rigid sleeves to the beacon body at the location of the ballast. Pipelines were laid in the connecting arms, providing the inhabitants of the gondolas with food from the feed tank located in the beacon trunk, and the supply of fresh sea water to the space occupied by them, as well as the removal of water contaminated with marine animal waste. The inlet and outlet pipelines are equipped with shut-off and control valves; in the central part of the internal space of the nacelles, cylindrical obstructing nets that are closed to the exhaust valves are installed that prevent the exit of marine animals from the nacelles. The disadvantages of the known farm for breeding marine animals are its complex structural layout and dependent system for providing energy resources, the unstable position of the structure on the surface of the water and under water, uncomfortable working conditions for staff, the dependence of the process of breeding aquatic organisms on the need for periodic provision of fresh water and feed, the risk of infection with infectious diseases with a large accumulation of aquatic organisms in a closed habitat, lack of conditions for germination I fry of aquatic organisms, low productivity of farms and a limited range of products produced.
The technical problem for which this invention is proposed is to improve the design and layout of the farm, increase the stability of its hull to waves, ice and external mechanical stresses, provide the farm with an autonomous energy supply system based on renewable energy sources, create convenient working conditions for staff, getting the opportunity to change the technology of breeding aquatic organisms and creating favorable conditions for the germination of juveniles of different species, you ripening to a marketable appearance and gathering at any time of the year, eliminating the need for external food supply and creating conditions for the joint existence of different types of aquatic organisms in their independently regulated natural habitat in proportions optimal for their livelihoods, expanding the range of farmed and harvested products, preserving and Improving the ecology of the aquatic environment.
This problem is solved by the proposed farm for the cultivation of hydrobionts, containing a floating facility, on the upper surface of which there is a room for staff, and on the lower underwater part there is a ballast and equipped places for breeding of hydrobionts with the possibility of self-feeding and renewal of the aquatic environment in their environment . New is that the hull of the floating vessel is made in the form of a cup-shaped polyhedron, in terms of divided into separate sectors by radially arranged walls that are closed to the outer side faces, inclined toward the water surface at an angle α, and a technological opening is enclosed in the center of the bottom of the hull, in which the shaft of the shaft is installed with the possibility of moving up and down with the help of a cargo winch, while the room for staff is made in the form of a removable-draw-out water tank an impermeable cabin installed on the upper surface of the mine shaft, and inside the lower end of the underwater part of the shaft there is a platform loaded with ballast, above which there is an external viewing gallery around the shaft of the shaft, designed for service personnel to observe under water the condition of the places for breeding hydrobionts, made in the form of in the corresponding layers of their habitat tiers. Depending on the height of the waves and the thickness of the ice at the location of the farm, the angle α of inclination of the side faces of the body of the floating facility of the farm can be from 45 to 75 °. The truss design will be optimal if the body of the floating vessel is made in the form of a prefabricated bowl-shaped regular hexagon assembled in plan from six volume reinforced concrete sector blocks. The body of the floating means can be made with the possibility of replacing volume sector blocks, which will make the technology for growing hydrobionts more flexible and adapted to existing conditions under water. It will be easier to replace floating blocks floating on the water surface if each volume sector block is equipped with waterproof walls that are locked to its corresponding outer side face of the floating means and will have its own positive buoyancy. Each volume sector block can be divided in plan by radially arranged partitions into at least two sections in which various types of germinated juveniles of hydrobionts can be placed. The buoyancy of the farm will be ensured if the sections are made with the possibility of partial filling with sea water and placement of hydrobionts in them. Sections can be equipped with service areas and stairs, which will create convenient working conditions for staff. The installation of the shaft of the shaft in the technological opening of the body of the vessel will be easier if the shaft of the shaft is made assembled, assembled in height from several interconnected reinforced concrete modules. The shaft of the mine can be made with the possibility of mounting its upper module in the technological opening, which will increase the stability of the farm housing on the water. It will be advisable if the height and number of modules in the shaft of the shaft will depend on the depth of its immersion. If necessary, the shaft of the shaft can be configured to replace damaged modules. It will be more convenient for attendants to move underwater inside the shaft of the mine if it is equipped with a vertical ladder in height. Inside the shaft of the mine, a wave pump can be installed on the surface of the water, which will allow filling sections of the farm with fresh water to germinate juvenile hydrobionts, as well as delivering deep water rich in nutrients to the surrounding aquatic environment. It will be more convenient for maintenance personnel to get to the tiers located under water if passage openings are made in the walls of the shaft shaft modules, at the tier level. The farm can be equipped with at least three tiers, with the upper tier being located in the aquatic environment at a depth favorable for the cultivation of algae and hedgehogs, the middle tier can be located at a depth favorable for the cultivation of scallop, abalone, mussel, mussel, and other species of mollusks, and the lower tier can be located at a depth favorable for breeding detritophages in the form of trepang and / or cucumaria. The design of the tiers will be compact and stable if their load-bearing frames are made in the form of ropes radially located in the plan, located in a position close to horizontal, in the central part of the tiers attached to the bottom of the floating means and the shaft of the shaft along its height and along the outer contour of the tiers attached to sleeve-shaped ring elements with spatial rigidity and zero buoyancy. The viewing gallery can be sealed, with the possibility of filling with an air environment adapted for human breathing. It is more convenient for maintenance personnel to enter the viewing gallery under water if passage openings are made in its lower part. The hull of the floating vessel can be equipped with a canopy, which protects the sections filled with water of the desired composition from rainwater. For autonomous power supply of the farm, it would be better if the canopy of the hull of the vessel is equipped with solar panels. In a removable waterproof cabin can be placed the converter and electric energy accumulators, communication equipment and laboratory equipment, inflatable water rescue equipment and diving equipment, clothes and bedding, food and water supplies, all that is necessary for waiting staff to wait out emergency situation. To protect the sections from wave splashes, it will be more reliable if the perimeter of the hull of the floating vessel is equipped with a splash guard. The viewing gallery, canopy and splash guard can be made of durable transparent material, which will allow you to get enough sunlight in the daytime. To fix the farm in the desired area of the water area it will be more reliable if the floating craft, as well as a removable waterproof cabin, will be equipped with their own anchor devices.
The proposed technical solution is illustrated by graphic materials. Figure 1 shows a section of a floating farm for breeding hydrobionts, figure 2 shows a farm plan at the level of service sites, combined with a canopy plan, figure 3 shows a farm plan at the level of a precast building, consisting of volume reinforced concrete sector blocks, Fig. .4 shows a plan of a volume sector block, Fig. 5 shows a longitudinal section thereof, Fig. 6 shows a longitudinal section of a prefabricated shaft of a shaft, consisting of reinforced concrete modules, Fig. 7 shows a transverse section of a shaft at the location of the ballast site.
The invention is illustrated by an example of a specific implementation of a habitable floating farm adapted for year-round breeding of aquatic organisms.
The farm for breeding hydrobionts contains a floating device, the body 1 of which is made in the form of a prefabricated bowl-shaped regular hexagon, the main diagonal of which is about 12 m. The hexagonal body 1 is assembled in plan from six interconnected volumetric reinforced concrete sector blocks 2 (see Fig. 1 and 3). Each volume sector block 2 has its own positive buoyancy and has a waterproof bottom and walls that close to the corresponding side block 2 of the outer side face of the hull 1 of the vessel. In this case, the angle α of inclination of the outer side faces located around the perimeter of the hull 1 of the floating means is 60 ° (see FIGS. 4 and 5). The housing 1 is made with the possibility of replacing the volumetric blocks 2, while each block 2 is divided in plan by the radially located partitions 3 into two sections in which various types of germinated juveniles of hydrobionts can be placed. The sections are made with the possibility of partial filling with sea water to accommodate juveniles and are equipped with service areas 4 and stairs 5. In the center of the bottom of building 1, a technological opening is enclosed with rear waterproof walls of volume sector blocks 2, in which it is installed with the possibility of moving up and down using a cargo winches 6 shaft of the mine 7. The shaft of the shaft 7 is made prefabricated, assembled in height from several interconnected reinforced concrete modules, which are made with the possibility of temporary cr heating in the technological opening of the housing 1 when they are installed (see figures 1 and 6). The height of the shaft of the shaft 7 and the number of modules in it depend on the depth of its immersion in the aquatic environment, while it is possible to dismantle or replace the modules in case of damage. The room for staff is made in the form of a removable and removable waterproof cab 8 on a low wheeled chassis mounted on the upper module of the surface part of the shaft of the shaft 7 at the level of the service areas 4. Cab 8 is made of all-welded sheet steel and has an internal heat-insulated layer (see Fig. 1 and 2). Cabin 8 is equipped with its own anchor device, and it contains a converter and electric energy accumulators, communication equipment and laboratory equipment, inflatable water rescue equipment and diving equipment, clothes and bedding, a supply of food and water (not shown), as well as all necessary so that the maintenance staff, if necessary, had the opportunity to wait out the emergency. The shaft of the shaft 7 is equipped in height with a vertical ladder 9 made of rolled steel material (see figure 1). Inside the shaft of mine 7, a wave pump 10 is installed on the surface of the water. It operates from the vibrational energy of the waves and is designed to supply clean sea water to the section for growing juvenile hydrobionts, and vice versa, to pump out water contaminated with their waste products. Also, the wave pump 10 is designed to raise fresh water saturated with nutrients from the depths and supply it to the aquatic environment surrounding the tiers 11 of the farm with substrates attached to them for the cultivation of hydrobionts. In the walls of the modules of the shaft of mine 7, at the level of tiers 11, openings were made for passage of maintenance personnel through them to tiers 11. Inside the lower end of the underwater part of the shaft of mine 7, a platform 12 loaded with ballast was installed, the frame of which is made of rolled steel, and the flooring is made of perforated sheet steel . In the central part of the site 12, a technological opening was made for the passage of maintenance personnel and the passage of goods. Above the site 12 around the shaft of the shaft 7 is located an external viewing gallery 13 of a toroidal shape, designed to monitor under water the state of the breeding sites of hydrobionts. The breeding sites for aquatic animals are made in the form of tiers 11 located in the corresponding deep layers of their habitat. The farm is equipped with three tiers 11, with the upper tier 11 located at a depth of 2 m in an environment favorable for the cultivation of algae and hedgehogs, the middle tier 11 is located at a depth of 4 m in environment favorable for breeding the filtrates of scallop, abalone, mussel, ascidia and other species of mollusks, and the lower tier 11 is located at a depth of 6 m in an environment favorable for breeding detritophages in the form of trepang and / or cucumaria. The supporting frames of the tiers 11 are made in the form of kapron ropes radially located in the plan, located in a position close to horizontal, and attached in the central part of the tiers 11 to the bottom of the body 1 of the floating means and to the shaft of the shaft 7 along its height, and along the outer contour attached to polypropylene sleeve-like closed annular elements 14 having sufficient spatial rigidity and zero buoyancy. On tiers 11, substrates and collectors are attached to the radial ropes for placement under water of juveniles of cultivated aquatic organisms (not shown). For mussels, the substrate is streamers of nylon ropes, pieces of delhi or plastic grids, for scallops - bag collectors, for oysters - pieces of slate or a garland of empty shells. To grow kelp to the ropes, an uninterrupted lead-rope or a rare nylon del mesh with a cell of 280-600 mm is attached to the ropes. The viewing gallery 13 is sealed from a transparent plastic material, with the possibility of filling the air with the personnel and being inside it without underwater equipment, for which passage openings are made in its lower part for entering and exiting the gallery 13. A canopy 15 made of a transparent plastic sheet material, on which solar panels 16 are mounted, providing electric energy to the farm's electrical equipment for breeding hydrobionts, is installed over the hull 1 of the floating vessel. The perimeter of the hull 1 of the floating means is equipped with a splash guard 17, also made of the same durable transparent plastic sheet material. The housing 1 of the floating means, as well as a removable-removable waterproof cabin 8 are equipped with lifting and lowering anchor devices 18.
Assembling a farm for breeding aquatic organisms is carried out in the following sequence. With the opening of navigation for the small fleet, volume reinforced concrete sector blocks 2, manufactured at the precast concrete plant using traditional technology, are transported on panel carriers to the shore of the reservoir, where they are floated using a crane, assembled using a tugboat in the shape of a hexagon and pre-pulled together by a cable passed through its mounting loops. In the upper part, the volumetric blocks 2 are fixed to each other by means of welded embedded parts, and in the lower part, above the water surface, they are pulled together with a solid steel belt, which is also welded to the embedded parts. Reinforced concrete modules of the shaft of the shaft 7 are transported to the shore of the reservoir, where, using a crane, the first module with a ballast pad 12 welded inside it and a section of the vertical ladder 9 is inserted into the technological aperture in the center of the housing 1 and temporarily fixed by inserting a steel pin through the through mounting holes in the walls of the aperture and the module, after which they fill the ballast pad with stones 12. A second module is installed on top of the first module of the shaft shaft 7, welded to the embedded parts of the first module, last why release the first module and lower them together down so that the top of the second module remains on the surface, after which it is again temporarily fixed. A third module is installed on top of the second module of the shaft shaft 7, welded with embedded parts, then the second module is released and lowered together together, etc. The number of installed modules depends on the immersion depth of the housing 1 and the height of the shaft of the shaft 7, located in the aquatic environment of the water area. On the last top module of the shaft of the mine 7, a crane is mounted on the guides of a removable-removable all-welded waterproof cabin 8, fixed with a detachable latch against displacement, and then a cargo winch 6, electrical equipment (not shown), service platforms 4 and stairs 5 are mounted. they mount the frames of the canopy 15 and the splash guard 17 of rolled steel, to which translucent sheets are attached. Solar panels 16 are installed on the surface of the canopy 15, which are electrically connected via an converter to electric energy accumulators located in a waterproof cabin 8. A factory-made viewing gallery 13 is delivered to the shore of the reservoir, pre-filled with water to lose positive buoyancy and lowered by a crane under water to the installation site on the shaft of the shaft 7, after which the gallery is put from below on the shaft of the shaft 7, raised to the desired mark and fixed in place to the embedded parts Using bolted connections and filled with air. After sea trials, completion work and commissioning by a special commission, a floating farm for the cultivation of hydrobionts is allowed for its intended use.
Farm for breeding aquatic organisms is used as follows. In the warm season, during coastal breeding of the main species of aquatic organisms, such as mussel, scallop, oyster and kelp, the spawning period of which begins around the end of May and reaches a maximum by the end of June, and the breeding of kelp ends in late autumn, by this time the body is 1 floating farm facilities are already mounted on water and towed to the area of the water area of the proposed cultivation of hydrobionts. To obtain a good harvest of various species of aquatic organisms, it is necessary to have a sufficient number of larvae and spores in the aquatic environment for growing juveniles, since when they are small, when the density of larvae and spores in the water column is low, only a few specimens settle on the substrate underwater. In this case, for the reproduction of juvenile hydrobionts, the internal sections of the hull 1 of the farm floating device are used, which are filled with clean seawater using a wave pump 10. Several sexually mature individuals of the selected species are placed in the section, where during regulation and control of illumination, temperature, and planting density, their sex glands ripen, resulting in a stable larval and spore source product. In the section lay substrate leads-ropes, which are filled with water with the larvae and spores in it, prepared for subsidence and attachment to the substrate. Having convinced with a microscope that the larvae and spores have settled sufficiently, the substrate leads-ropes are attached to the radial ropes of tiers 11 for growing the obtained juveniles to a commercial size, and the vacated sections are again filled with substrate leads-ropes. In stormy weather, the sections are protected by splash guards 17 made of their transparent plastic, as a result of which the waves falling on them do not penetrate into the sections and do not violate the water structure and the settling density of larvae and spores, but slide overboard. The swinging of the hull 1 of the floating farm equipment does not occur, since its dimensions correspond to the wavelength, and tiers 11 with radial ropes and substrates suspended from them with growing young hydrobionts serve as stabilizers for pitching. With a close approach to the coast, the farm can become on anchor devices 18 and wait until the direction of the current changes. The all-welded waterproof cabin 8 serves as a laboratory, a living room for staff and a locker room for divers. In winter, during the formation of ice, the inclined sides of the hull 1 of the floating vessel of the farm can withstand floating ice, and after ice formation they can withstand their onslaught. In winter, the shaft of the shaft 7 is closed from the inside at the level of the water located in it with a heat-insulating foam shield (not shown), which allows service personnel to access the tiers 11 located under water throughout the winter period. Cargo winch 6 helps to mechanize and facilitate the work of sampling, repair and harvesting. When breeding aquatic organisms in the open sea, sexually mature specimens of cultivated aquatic organisms of the above type are loaded into sections of the vessel’s floating vessel body 1 in the above method and send the farm to drift along the sea flow to areas where there is no intensive shipping and anthropogenic pollution, in clean, but poor in nutrient water perform spawning and hanging of juveniles attached to substrates on tiers. From great depths, with the help of the wave pump 10, water rich in biogenes is raised and freely released closer to the surface layers, in which cultivated hydrobionts successfully develop. In addition, the shadow from the hull 1 of the farm’s floating facility makes it possible to concentrate organisms around it that are not specially grown on the farm, but which serve as food and shelter for the kelp algae grown on the farm and their accompanying organisms. Slow water currents and the absence of turbulence under water create favorable conditions for the existence of schooling floating organisms, including fish. In the case of a hurricane or a dangerous wave approach, two-person service personnel can take refuge in an all-welded waterproof cabin 8, which houses communications, food, clothing, a supply of water, batteries, a generator and an inflatable boat (not shown). In case of emergency, the waterproof removable-withdrawable cab 8 can be removed from the latch, separated from the upper module of the shaft of the shaft 7 and sent to an autonomous drift or become anchored 18.

Claims (25)

1. A floating farm for breeding hydrobionts, containing a floating means, on the upper surface part of which there is a room for staff, and on the lower underwater part, ballast is installed and places for breeding hydrobionts are equipped with the possibility of providing them with food and updating the aquatic environment in the environment surrounding them, characterized in that the body of the floating means is made in the form of a cup-shaped polyhedron, in terms of divided into separate sectors by radially arranged walls that are closed on the outer side faces, inclined towards the water surface at an angle α, in the center of the bottom of the hull a technological opening is enclosed with a waterproof wall, in which the shaft of the shaft is installed with the possibility of moving up and down with the help of a cargo winch, while the room for maintenance personnel is designed as a removable - a roll-out waterproof cabin installed on the upper surface of the shaft of the shaft, and inside the lower end of the underwater part of the shaft there is a platform loaded with ballast, above which around ox shaft located outside an observation gallery designed to monitor the condition of underwater aquatic breeding places formed as arranged in the deep layers of the respective tiers their habitat.
2. The farm according to claim 1, characterized in that the angle α of inclination of the side faces of the hull of the vessel is from 45 to 75 °.
3. The farm according to claim 1, characterized in that the body of the floating means is made in the form of a prefabricated bowl-shaped regular hexagon, assembled in plan of six volume reinforced concrete sector blocks.
4. The farm according to claim 3, characterized in that the body of the floating means is made with the possibility of replacing volume sector blocks.
5. The farm according to claim 3, characterized in that each volumetric sector block is equipped with waterproof walls, which are closed to the corresponding outer side face of the floating means, and has its own positive buoyancy.
6. The farm according to claim 3, characterized in that each volume sector block is divided in plan by radially arranged partitions into at least two sections.
7. The farm according to claim 6, characterized in that the sections are made with the possibility of partial filling with overboard water and placement of hydrobionts in them without loss of positive buoyancy by a floating means.
8. The farm according to claim 6, characterized in that the sections are equipped with service areas and stairs.
9. The farm according to claim 1, characterized in that the shaft of the mine is made prefabricated, assembled in height from several interconnected reinforced concrete modules.
10. The farm according to claim 1 or 9, characterized in that the shaft of the shaft is made with the possibility of fastening its upper module in the technological opening.
11. The farm according to claim 9, characterized in that the height and number of modules in the shaft of the shaft depends on the depth of its immersion.
12. The farm according to claim 9, characterized in that the shaft of the shaft is configured to replace modules.
13. The farm according to claim 9, characterized in that the shaft of the mine is equipped with a vertical ladder in height.
14. The farm according to claim 9, characterized in that a wave pump is installed inside the shaft of the mine on the surface of the water.
15. The farm according to claim 9, characterized in that in the modules along the height of the shaft of the shaft at the locations of the tiers, passage openings are made.
16. The farm according to claim 1 or 15, characterized in that it is equipped with at least three tiers, and the upper tier is located in the aquatic environment at a depth favorable for the cultivation of algae and hedgehogs, the middle tier is located at a depth favorable for the cultivation of scallop filtrates, abalone, mussels, ascidia and other species of mollusks, and the lower tier is located at a depth favorable for breeding detritophages in the form of trepang and / or cucumaria.
17. The farm according to clause 16, characterized in that the supporting frameworks of the tiers are made in the form of ropes radially located in the plan, located in a position close to horizontal, and attached in the central part of the tiers to the bottom of the floating means and to the shaft of the shaft along its height, and along the outer contour of the tiers attached to the annular contour elements with spatial rigidity and zero buoyancy.
18. The farm according to claim 1, characterized in that the viewing gallery is sealed, with the possibility of filling with air.
19. The farm according to claim 18, characterized in that at least one passageway is made in the lower part of the viewing gallery.
20. The farm according to claim 1, characterized in that the hull of the floating vessel is equipped with a canopy.
21. The farm according to claim 20, characterized in that the canopy of the hull of the vessel is equipped with solar panels.
22. The farm according to claim 1, characterized in that in a removable waterproof cabin there is a converter and electric energy accumulators, communication equipment and laboratory equipment, water rescue equipment and diving equipment, clothes and bedding, a supply of food and water.
23. The farm according to claim 1, characterized in that the perimeter of the hull of the floating means is equipped with a splash guard.
24. The farm according to p. 18, or 20, or 23, characterized in that the viewing gallery, canopy and splash guard are made of durable transparent material.
25. The farm according to claim 1, characterized in that the hull of the floating vessel and a removable waterproof cabin are equipped with anchor devices.
RU2009137452/21A 2009-10-09 2009-10-09 Floating farm for cultivation of hydrocoles RU2410873C1 (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU2009137452/21A RU2410873C1 (en) 2009-10-09 2009-10-09 Floating farm for cultivation of hydrocoles

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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RU2410873C1 true RU2410873C1 (en) 2011-02-10

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU171567U1 (en) * 2016-09-06 2017-06-06 Надия Шамильевна Бутина Floating aquaculture platform
RU190899U1 (en) * 2019-03-21 2019-07-16 Александр Владимирович Поляков FLOATING PLATFORM FOR AQUACULTURE
RU204997U1 (en) * 2021-01-21 2021-06-22 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Российский государственный аграрный университет-МСХА имени К.А. Тимирязева" (ФГБОУ ВО РГАУ-МСХА имени К.А. Тимирязева) Device for growing mussels

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU171567U1 (en) * 2016-09-06 2017-06-06 Надия Шамильевна Бутина Floating aquaculture platform
RU190899U1 (en) * 2019-03-21 2019-07-16 Александр Владимирович Поляков FLOATING PLATFORM FOR AQUACULTURE
RU204997U1 (en) * 2021-01-21 2021-06-22 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Российский государственный аграрный университет-МСХА имени К.А. Тимирязева" (ФГБОУ ВО РГАУ-МСХА имени К.А. Тимирязева) Device for growing mussels

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