RU2310964C1 - Electrical energy transmission method and device - Google Patents

Electrical energy transmission method and device Download PDF

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RU2310964C1
RU2310964C1 RU2006104036/09A RU2006104036A RU2310964C1 RU 2310964 C1 RU2310964 C1 RU 2310964C1 RU 2006104036/09 A RU2006104036/09 A RU 2006104036/09A RU 2006104036 A RU2006104036 A RU 2006104036A RU 2310964 C1 RU2310964 C1 RU 2310964C1
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electrical energy
frequency
wave
voltage
natural
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Дмитрий Семенович Стребков (RU)
Дмитрий Семенович Стребков
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Российская Академия сельскохозяйственных наук Государственное научное учреждение Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт электрификации сельского хозяйства (ГНУ ВИЭСХ РОССЕЛЬХОЗАКАДЕМИИ)
Дмитрий Семенович Стребков
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Abstract

FIELD: electrical engineering; electrical energy transmission.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method used for electrical energy transmission beyond Earth atmosphere in vacuum between space vehicles or planets from Earth to space bodies and vice versa, from space to Earth, as well as from one point on Earth to another through atmosphere and space dispensing with relativistic beam accelerators and lasers includes generation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves and their transmission over conductive channel between electrical energy sources and receivers. High-voltage electromagnetic waves are generated in high-frequency resonance-tuned transformer, amplified in voltage to (0.5-100) x 106 V in quarter-wave resonance-tuned line that has spiral waveguide and natural capacitor at line end by supplying electromagnetic waves from high-voltage resonance-tuned transformer to spiral waveguide input at frequency f0 = 1-1000 kHz synchronized with voltage-wave motion time period Tk from spiral waveguide input to natural capacitor and reflected wave return to spiral waveguide input. Electrical energy is stored in natural capacitor. Conductive channel is organized by emission of streamers and production of electromagnetic radiation flow from end of needle-type conductive channel generator at resonant frequency f0 = 1 - 1000 kHz and voltage V = (0.5-100) x 106 V by connecting natural capacitor thereto.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of, and reduced loss in, electrical energy transmission.
10 cl, 1 dwg

Description

The device relates to the field of electrical engineering, in particular to a method and device for transmitting electrical energy.

A known method and device for transmitting electrical energy, comprising transmitting electrical energy from a source to an electric energy receiver in such a way that a conductive channel is formed between the source and the electric energy receiver by photoionization and impact ionization using a radiation generator. The specified conductive channel is electrically isolated from the radiation generator using an electrically insulating shield transparent to radiation, the conductive channel is connected to an electric energy source through a Tesla high-frequency transformer and to an electric energy receiver through a Tesla high-frequency transformer or a diode-capacitor unit, increase the channel’s electrical conductivity by forming surface charge and increase the electric field strength and carry out under Procedure Coulomb forces moving electrical charges along the conducting channel. The conductive channel is formed both from the side of the energy source and from the side of the energy receiver.

Electric energy is transmitted through the conducting channel in a pulsed or continuous mode by simultaneously supplying simultaneously pulses from the radiation generator and electric pulses from the Tesla high-voltage transformer to the shaper of the conducting channel.

A known device for transmitting electrical energy contains a radiation generator based on an optical or X-ray laser for forming a conductive channel between the source and the receiver of electric energy, a shaper of the conductive channel and an electrically insulating screen transparent to the radiation of the generator located between the shaper of the conductive channel and the generator mounted coaxially with the radiation generator radiation. The source of electrical energy is connected to the shaper of the conductive channel through a Tesla high-voltage high-frequency transformer, and on the opposite side of the conductive channel there is a receiver of the conductive channel isolated from the housing of the electric energy receiver. The specified receiver of electrical energy is connected to the receiver of the channel through a step-down high-frequency transformer Tesla or a diode-capacitor block.

A device for transmitting electrical energy can be made in the form of a branched energy system, consisting of many sources and receivers of electrical energy, interconnected by conductive channels having the same frequency and voltage at the connection points. Each source of electrical energy is equipped with a radiation generator, an electrically insulating screen, a shaper and a receiver of the conductive channel. Each shaper of the conductive channel is connected to an electric energy source using a Tesla high-voltage high-frequency transformer, and each radiation generator is connected either to an electric energy source or to a receiver through a Tesla high-frequency transformer or a diode-capacitor block (RF patent 2143775 of 03.25.99 g. , BI No. 36, 1999).

A disadvantage of the known method and device is the necessity of using a gas-discharge conducting channel and maintaining the concentration of ionized air in the channel within certain limits, since at a low concentration of ions the laser air channel has a low conductivity, insufficient for the transfer of electrical energy, and at a high concentration of ions the air channel becomes opaque for laser radiation.

Another disadvantage of the known method and device is that it cannot be used in vacuum outside the earth's atmosphere.

A known method of transmitting electrical energy using relativistic beams of high-energy electrons (B.E. Meyerovich. Channel of high current. M: Fima, 1999, pp. 355-357). A disadvantage of the known method of transferring electrical energy is the large energy loss due to dissipation in the collision of electrons with molecules in a gas medium, which limits the propagation length and power of the electron flow in the atmosphere.

Another disadvantage is the need to convert the electronic flow from the consumer into electrical energy with specified parameters, since the electron flow is a current source. The selection of energy from the electron beam is carried out by braking electrons in the electric field of the capacitor and increasing the charge of the capacitor. In a magnetic field, the energy of an electron beam is converted to synchrotron radiation. When a solid target is irradiated, the energy of the electron beam will turn into heat, which can be converted into electrical energy using the well-known thermodynamic cycles of energy conversion.

A known method of transmitting electrical energy, including the generation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves and transmitting them through a conductive channel between a source and a receiver of electrical energy, in which the conductive channel is formed using an accelerator in the form of a relativistic electron beam, which is supplied with a high voltage with a frequency of 0.3-300 , 0 kHz - from a spiral antenna of a traveling wave. To increase radiation safety, the conducting channel is formed in the form of two intersecting beams, one of which is formed in the atmosphere using a laser, and the second is formed in a rarefied medium and outside the atmosphere in the form of a relativistic electron beam.

The beams in the conducting channel can be directed coaxially opposite each other, the beam of relativistic electrons is directed mainly from an optically less dense medium towards an optically denser medium, and laser radiation is predominantly from an optical denser medium towards an optical less dense medium. The formation of the conducting channel is also carried out by transmitting a coaxial relativistic electron beam and a laser beam along the channel axis and supplying a high voltage from the Tesla high-frequency transformer to the conducting channel or by transmitting two parallel beams of laser radiation and relativistic electrons along the channel axis, the distance between which does not exceed the transverse dimension smaller in diameter of the beam.

To transfer electrical energy through a line other than a straight line, the conductive channel contains a conductive body that is irradiated from one or more sides using relativistic electron beams and laser beams connected to Tesla high voltage transformers. To create the Earth’s global energy supply system, conducting layers in the Earth’s ionosphere are used as a conducting body, which are connected by conducting channels based on relativistic electron beams to sources and receivers of electrical energy.

A device for transmitting electric energy containing high-voltage high-frequency Tesla transformers installed at the receiver and at the energy source contains an accelerator of relativistic electron beams, the outlet of the accelerator is connected to the high-voltage winding of the Tesla transformer, and the axis of the accelerator is oriented to a conductive insulated screen that is connected to the high-voltage winding another Tesla transformer, and the high-voltage winding of Tesla transformers is made in the form of a multilayer spiral ant the axis of which coincides with the axis of the electron beam of the relativistic electron accelerator.

A disadvantage of the known method and devices is the need to use additional devices of the accelerator of relativistic electron beams or a laser to create a conductive channel. All these methods of converting the electric energy of an electron beam are characterized by low efficiency.

The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency and reduce losses in the transmission of electric energy, as well as providing the possibility of transmitting electric energy in vacuum outside the earth's atmosphere between spacecraft or planets, as well as from Earth to space bodies and back from outer space to Earth, and from one point of the Earth to another point of the Earth through the atmosphere and outer space without the use of such additional devices as accelerators of relativistic beams electrons and lasers.

The above result is achieved in that in a method for transmitting electrical energy, including generating high-frequency electromagnetic waves and transmitting them through a conductive channel between a source and a receiver of electric energy, high-frequency electromagnetic waves generated in a high-frequency resonant transformer, amplify the voltage up to 0.5-100 million volts in a quarter-wave resonance line, consisting of a spiral waveguide and a natural capacitance at the end of the line, by supplying an input of the waveguide of electromagnetic waves from a high-frequency resonant transformer with a frequency f 0 = 1-1000 kHz, synchronized with a period of time T to the movement of the voltage wave from the input of the spiral resonator to the natural capacitance, and the return of the reflected wave at the entrance to the spiral resonator

Figure 00000002
where H is the length of the quarter-wave line, u is the speed of the electromagnetic wave along the axis of the resonator, electric energy is accumulated in the natural capacitance, and the conductive channel is formed by emission of streamers and the creation of a stream of electromagnetic radiation from the end of the needle shaper of the conductive channel at the resonant frequency f 0 = 1 -1000 kHz at a voltage of V = 0.5-100 million volts by connecting the natural capacitance of a quarter-wave line with a needle-shaped conductor channel former.

In one embodiment of the method, the natural capacitance is made in the form of a sphere of conductive material.

In another embodiment of the method, the natural capacitance is made in the form of a toroid from a conductive material.

In another embodiment of the method, the natural capacity is made in the form of a spherical dome, and the needle-shaped conductive channel is made in the form of a spire with a pointed end, which is connected to the dome.

A device for transmitting electrical energy, containing a source of electrical energy, a frequency converter and a transmitter and receiver resonant high-frequency transformers with a resonant frequency f 0 installed at the source and receiver of energy, and a conductive channel between them, a transmitting transformer with a frequency f 0 = 1-1000 kHz connected to an additional quarter-wave line made of a spiral waveguide with a length

Figure 00000003
where u is the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic wave along the axis of the resonator, and the natural capacitance at the end of the line with a voltage of 0.5-500 MB, the capacitance is connected to a needle-shaped conductive shaper of the conductive channel, which is oriented to the load receiver of the consumer.

In one embodiment of the device for transmitting electrical energy, the natural capacity is made in the form of a sphere with a diameter of 0.5-50 m.

In another embodiment of the device, the natural capacity is made in the form of a toroid with a diameter of 0.5-50 m.

In another embodiment of the device, the natural capacity is combined in one housing with a needle channel former and is made in the form of a dome with a pointed spire.

In an embodiment of the device, an additional quarter-wave line with a spiral resonator and a natural capacitance is enclosed in an insulated sealed enclosure and filled with an insulating gas, such as SF6 gas.

In an embodiment of the device, an additional quarter-wave line with a spiral resonator and a natural capacitance is enclosed in an insulating casing and filled with an insulating liquid, for example, silicone oil.

The essence of the proposed method and device for transmitting electrical energy is illustrated in figure 1, which shows a General diagram of a method and device for transmitting electrical energy using a quarter-wave resonance line to enhance the potential in the line and the formation of the conductive channel.

In Fig. 1, electric energy from a three-phase source 1 with a frequency of 50-400 Hz is supplied to a frequency converter 2 and then with a frequency of 1-500 kHz it is supplied through capacitors 3 to a high-frequency resonant transformer 4 with windings L 1 and L 2 . One terminal of the high-voltage winding L 2 is grounded or connected to a natural capacitance, and the second terminal of the winding L 2 is connected to a quarter-wave resonance line consisting of a spiral waveguide 5 L 3 and a spherical capacitor 6, which is connected to a needle shaper 7 of the conducting channel 8. At the consumer at the end of the conducting channel 8, a receiver 9 is installed, which is connected to the high-voltage winding 10 of the high-frequency resonant transformer 12. The low-voltage winding 13 of the transformer 12 is connected through a capacitor 14 to the converter astot 15 and load 16.

The method of transmitting electrical energy is implemented as follows. Three-phase source of electrical energy 1 (figure 1) creates at the output of the frequency converter 2 high-frequency oscillations with a resonant frequency

Figure 00000004
where L 1 is the inductance of the primary winding of transformer 4, and C 1 is the total total capacitance of two capacitors 5 in the circuit L 1 C 1 .

The resonant frequency f 2 in the winding L 2 is equal to the resonant frequency f 3 in the waveguide L 3 , f 2 = f 3 = f 1 .

If you configure each individual circuit L 1 and L 2 to the same frequency f 0 , then when working together, the resonant frequency f 0 due to the mutual induction of the windings L 1 and L 2 will differ from f 0 , f 0 <f 1 , f 0 <f 2 .

The difference in frequencies Δf = f 1 -f 0 = f 2 -f 0 will lead to the appearance of beats and will be the greater, the greater the coefficient of magnetic coupling of the windings and the coefficient of mutual induction.

In the presence of oscillations in the circuit L 1 C 1, electromagnetic energy is transmitted to the secondary winding L 2 . From the circuit L 1 C 1, electromagnetic energy is transmitted to the spiral resonator 5 at a frequency f 0 at a voltage of V 2 = nV 1 , where n is the transformation coefficient of the transformer 4, and the current

Figure 00000005
.

A feature of the quarter-wave line is its ability to operate in the pumping mode of electromagnetic energy with the subsequent release of the stored energy in a short period of time. Essentially, the resonant waveguide 5 is an analog of a laser operating in the low frequency range of 1-1000 kHz at the maximum possible stored power and power of a pulse discharge of more than 10 10 W and a pulse voltage of more than 50 MB.

The pumping of electromagnetic energy in the waveguide 5 is made from the resonant transformer 4 as follows. When applying voltage from the transformer 2, the incident wave enters the input of the quarter-wave line and is reflected back from its open end without changing the phase of the wave. The reflected wave reaches the beginning of the waveguide 5, which is closed on L 2 , and is repeatedly reflected with a change in the phase of the wave by 180 °. The voltage wave passes twice through the quarter-wave line 5 (there and back), its phase changes during movement also by 180 ° and therefore its phase coincides with the phase of the wave coming from the energy source L 2 . As a result, the amplitude of the voltage wave doubles every two reflections from the end and beginning of the quarter-wave line. There is a standing wave in the form of one quarter of a sinusoidal wave with the beginning of a sinusoid at the beginning of a quarter-wave line with a voltage of V min. and maximum voltage V max. at the end of the line.

The increase in voltage at the output of line 5 is determined not by the Q factor of the circuit, as in a conventional open line, but by the value æ inverse to the product of the attenuation coefficient of the wave by the length of waveguide 5, i.e. æ is inversely proportional to the energy loss in the waveguide æ =

Figure 00000006

Coherence is ensured by synchronizing the frequency f 0 with the speed and propagation of the voltage wave in the waveguide and its length N.

Figure 00000007

Pumping occurs by analogy with a Q-switched laser, when the added energy arrives coherently after a time interval T k equal to the wave propagation from the beginning to the end of the quarter-wave line and back.

Figure 00000008

An example of the method and device for transmitting electrical energy.

The electric generator 1 in FIG. 1 has an electric power of 60 kVA, an output voltage of V = 6 kV, a frequency of 50 Hz. The frequency converter 2 has an output voltage of V 1 = 6 kV, a frequency of 100 kHz.

Resonant transformer 4 has a diameter D 1 = 1.2 m, height H 1 = 2 m. The primary winding consists of 6 sections, each of the sections is made of a copper conductor with a cross section of 35 mm 2 , the sections are connected in parallel. The number of turns N 1 = 25. Primary Inductance L 1 = 50 μH. The total capacitance in the primary winding is C 1 = 0.1 μF.

The secondary winding consists of N 2 = 600 turns, wound tightly to each other from two parallel-connected wires with a diameter of d = 1.2 · 10 -3 m, section S = 50 mm 2 . Inductance of the secondary winding L 2 = 12 mH.

Transformation ratio

Figure 00000009

The energy of the charged capacitor Q = 1/2 CV 2. Substituting C 1 = 0.1 μF, V = 6 kV, we obtain Q = 1.8 J.

The discharge current of the capacitor is I 1 = 800 A.

Resonance frequency in the primary circuit

Figure 00000010

Substituting C 1 = 0.1 μF, L 1 = 25 μH, f 1 = 100 kHz.

Wavelength

Figure 00000011

Inductance voltage L 1 (primary winding of a resonant transformer):

Figure 00000012

Substituting I = 800 A, f 0 = 100 kHz, L = 85 μH, we obtain V L1 = 12560 V.

Voltage at L 2 (secondary winding of a resonant transformer):

Figure 00000013

The parameters of the quarter-wave resonance line: the diameter of the spiral waveguide D = 1 m, the length of the spiral waveguide 1.5 m, the wire diameter 1.25 mm, the number of turns - 80, the resonant frequency of 100 kHz, the wave propagation time to the end of the quarter-wave line and back

Figure 00000014
the capacitance of the spherical capacitor is 100 pF, the voltage gain in the quarter-wave line is æ = 31.9. The voltage across the capacitor is 6 12 · 10 6 V. The time required to strengthen the potential at the capacitance 6 from 3.76 · 10 5 V to 12 · 10 6 V, in the absence of losses in the line, will be τ = Т к · æ = 5 · 10 -6 s31.9 = 159 μs.

The voltage V max on the capacitance 6 is determined by the losses in the quarter-wave resonance line and the electric strength of the insulation and exceeds the voltage at the output of the resonant transformer L 2 by 10-300 times and can reach 100 million volts.

At a resonant frequency and high voltage at the capacitor 6 at the output of the needle shaper 7 in the atmosphere, the emission of streamers begins, which forms a conductive channel 8 from the capacitor 6 to the radiation receiver 9. Outside the atmosphere, the conductive channel is formed by electron emission from the pointed end of the needle shaper of the conductive channel, and electrical energy is transmitted in the form of a beam of electromagnetic radiation with a frequency f 0 . The electric energy from the energy source 1, which is stored in the capacitor 6, is supplied through the conducting channel 8 to the receiver 9 and then to the input of the high-voltage winding of the step-down high-frequency transformer 12. The low-voltage winding 13 of the transformer 12 is tuned to the resonant frequency of the wave, which is formed in resonator 5. In the conductive channel 8 there are standing waves of current and voltage. The current of the series resonant circuit with a capacity of 14 is supplied to the frequency converter 15 and then to the load 16. The parameters of the step-down resonant transformer 12 are selected similarly to the parameters of the transformer 11.

The length of the conducting channel 8 for energy transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere is 150-500 km, outside the Earth’s atmosphere - 500-500000 km.

Claims (10)

1. A method of transmitting electrical energy, including the generation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves and transmitting them through a conductive channel between the source and the receiver of electric energy, characterized in that the high-frequency electromagnetic waves generated in the high-frequency resonant transformer, amplify the voltage up to 0.5-100 million volts in a quarter-wave resonance line consisting of a spiral waveguide and a natural capacitance at the end of the line by supplying an input of a quarter-wave line to the omagnitnyh fluctuations from the high frequency transformer resonant frequency f 0 = 1-1000 kHz synchronized with the time period T 0 of the stress wave motion from the input waveguide to the natural spiral capacitance and return the reflected wave at the entrance of the spiral waveguide
Figure 00000015
where H is the length of the quarter-wave line, u is the speed of the electromagnetic wave along the axis of the waveguide, accumulate electrical energy in a natural capacitance, and the conductive channel is formed by emission of streamers and the creation of a stream of electromagnetic radiation from the end of the needle shaper of the conductive channel at the resonant frequency f 0 = 1 -1000 kHz at a voltage of 0.5-100 million volts by connecting the natural capacity of the quarter-wave line with a needle-shaped conductive channel former.
2. The method of transmitting electrical energy according to claim 1, characterized in that the natural capacity is made in the form of a sphere of conductive material.
3. The method of transmitting electrical energy according to claim 1, characterized in that the natural capacitance is made in the form of a toroid from a conductive material.
4. The method of transmitting electrical energy according to claim 1, characterized in that the natural capacitance is made in the form of a spherical dome, and the needle-shaped conductive channel is made in the form of a spire with a pointed end, which is connected to the dome.
5. A device for transmitting electrical energy, containing a source of electrical energy, a frequency converter and a transmitter and receiver resonant high-frequency transformers with a resonant frequency f 0 installed at the source and receiver of energy, and a conductive channel between them, characterized in that the transmitting transformer with a frequency f 0 = 1-1000 kHz is connected to a quarter-wave resonance line made of a spiral waveguide with a length
Figure 00000016
where u is the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic wave along the axis of the waveguide, and the natural capacitance at the end of the line with a voltage of 0.5-100 MB, the capacitance is connected to a consumer conductive needle shaper of the conductive channel, which is oriented to the load receiver.
6. A device for transmitting electrical energy according to claim 5, characterized in that the natural capacity is made in the form of a sphere with a diameter of 0.5-50 m
7. A device for transmitting electrical energy according to claim 5, characterized in that the natural capacity is made in the form of a toroid with a diameter of 0.5-50 m
8. The device for transmitting electrical energy according to claim 5, characterized in that the natural capacity is combined in one housing with a needle channel former and made in the form of a dome with a pointed spire.
9. A device for transmitting electrical energy according to any one of paragraphs.5, 6, 7 and 8, characterized in that the additional quarter-wave line with a spiral waveguide and a natural capacitance is enclosed in an insulated sealed enclosure and filled with an insulating gas, such as SF6 gas.
10. Device for transmitting electrical energy according to any one of paragraphs.5, 6, 7 and 8, characterized in that the additional quarter-wave line with a spiral waveguide and a natural capacitance is enclosed in an insulating casing and filled with an insulating liquid, such as silicone oil.
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