RU161817U1 - Reinforced anchor fasteners - Google Patents

Reinforced anchor fasteners Download PDF

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Publication number
RU161817U1
RU161817U1 RU2015151609/03U RU2015151609U RU161817U1 RU 161817 U1 RU161817 U1 RU 161817U1 RU 2015151609/03 U RU2015151609/03 U RU 2015151609/03U RU 2015151609 U RU2015151609 U RU 2015151609U RU 161817 U1 RU161817 U1 RU 161817U1
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
rod
diameter
base plate
anchor support
reinforced anchor
Prior art date
Application number
RU2015151609/03U
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Антон Анатольевич Зубков
Анатолий Евгеньевич Зубков
Марина Сергеевна Мухамедъярова
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Антон Анатольевич Зубков
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Priority to RU2015151609/03U priority Critical patent/RU161817U1/en
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Publication of RU161817U1 publication Critical patent/RU161817U1/en

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D21/00Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor in galleries or longwall working, or shaft-lining protection
    • E21D21/0026Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor in galleries or longwall working, or shaft-lining protection characterised by constructional features of the bolts
    • E21D21/004Bolts held in the borehole by friction all along their length, without additional fixing means

Abstract

1. Reinforced anchor support containing a hollow cylindrical rod with a longitudinal slot along the entire length under the hole, a front end made in the form of a truncated cone, a cylindrical end with longitudinal slots and a ring on it, a base plate mounted on the rod from the side of the truncated cone in front of the ring characterized in that between the base plate and the front end there is an armature frame formed by longitudinal and transverse reinforcing rods interconnected by welding. 2. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 1, characterized in that the outer diameter of the rod is made in the range of 1.05 ... 1.11 diameter of the hole. 3. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 2, characterized in that the wall thickness of the hollow cylindrical rod is made within 2.5 ... 3.5 mm. 4. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 2, characterized in that the diameter of the front end of the rod is made in the range of 0.85 ... 0.93 of the diameter of the hole. 5. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 3, characterized in that the difference between the outer and inner diameters of the ring is greater than two core wall thicknesses. 6. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 5, characterized in that the diameter of the hole in the base plate is made in the range of 1.05 ... 1.10 diameter of the anchor rod. 7. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 3, characterized in that an armature frame is installed between the base plate and the front end, formed by longitudinal and transverse interlocking reinforcing bars, interconnected by welding, with a length of 300 ... 1100 mm and a pitch of 100 ... 200 mm. 8. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 7, characterized in that the reinforcing bars are made with a diameter of from 8 to 14 mm. 9. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 7, characterized in that the outer dimension of the base plate is made to exceed the pitch of the armature in the central part.

Description

Technical field
The utility model relates to the mining industry and can be used when attaching workings with friction-type tube anchors using standard equipment for drilling holes.
State of the art
Known anchor, including a hollow core with a lock, of longitudinally cut walls of the core and the base plate at the protruding end. The rod is equipped with additional locks that are placed along it at intervals from each other, with each subsequent lock oriented in the direction of the protruding end of the rod and made with a cut area smaller than the previous ones (see AS USSR No. 968439, E21D 21/00 )
A disadvantage of the known device is its low reliability. Anchor support is fixed in the well due to the fact that the hollow core is compressed with the subsequent loss of stability of the locks and their deformation in the longitudinal direction. However, when loading the anchor lining with a layer of rock in the area located between the first castle, from the bottom of the well, and the base plate, the hollow core is stretched. As a result, the locks located within this section open, the pressure on the walls of the well decreases, it becomes possible to move the rock layer in the direction of the base plate. The mobility of the breed leads to a decrease in the reliability of the anchor support.
The closest analogue to the claimed object is anchor support containing a hollow cylindrical rod, with locks placed along it from longitudinally cut walls of the rod, a base plate at the cylindrical end of the rod, on which a lock is made behind the base plate, with the possibility of interaction with it, and the locks on the recessed parts of the rod are made with one longitudinal slot and are interconnected (see PM of the Russian Federation No. 95029, E21D 21/00). In this case, the longitudinal slots of the lock, along the length of the rod, are made along its entire length, and a continuous ring is installed between the lock and the base plate.
A disadvantage of the known solution is the difficulty of installing anchor support in the hole, leading to a decrease in the reliability of the installation. At the beginning of the installation process, the anchor support is a combination of three parts not fixed to each other. A support plate and a ring are put on the rod, while the connection occurs with a gap in the nominal size.
The anchor is installed in the hole due to the impact of the hammer on its part, which protrudes beyond the base plate - the lock. At small angles of inclination to the horizon, a shift of the ring is possible. This complicates the translation of the lock in the locking position of the base plate under the influence of the hammer. As a result, the reliability of the standard installation of the anchor is reduced.
In addition, the base plate has a limited contact surface with the surface of the reinforced rock. Pre-installation of the reinforcing mesh on the surface to be reinforced allows you to increase the coverage area of the base plate. However, when mountain impacts occur, the load from the reinforcing mesh is not transferred to the base plate due to the low rigidity of the mesh. In this regard, the anchor is of limited use in strengthening the workings subjected to mountain impacts.
The technical problem, which the utility model is aimed at, is to increase the reliability of the installation of anchor support and expand the functionality.
Utility Model Disclosure
The technical problem is solved in that in the known anchor support containing a hollow cylindrical rod with a longitudinal slot along the entire length, the front end made in the form of a truncated cone, a cylindrical end with longitudinal slots, and a ring on it, a base plate mounted on a rod with the sides of the truncated cone in front of the ring, the ring is made with a cut, round cross section and is connected to the rod by welding. In this case, the parameters of the anchor lining are selected based on compliance with the aspect ratio:
- the outer diameter of the rod is within 1.05 ... 1.11 of the diameter of the hole;
- the wall thickness of the hollow cylindrical rod is within 2.5 ... 3 mm;
- the diameter of the front end of the rod is within 0.85 ... 0.93 of the diameter of the hole;
- the difference between the outer and inner diameters of the ring is greater than two thicknesses of the rod wall;
- the diameter of the holes in the base plate is within 1.05 ... 1.10 of the diameter of the rod;
In addition, between the base plate and the front end there is an armature frame formed by longitudinal and transverse interlocking reinforcing bars, connected at the contact points by welding, with a length of 300 ... 1100 mm and a pitch of 100 ... 200 mm. At the same time, reinforcing bars are made with a diameter of 8 to 14 mm, and the outer dimension of the base plate is made to exceed the arm frame pitch in the central part.
Brief Description of the Drawings
The utility model is illustrated by images.
In FIG. 1 shows reinforced anchor support before installation in a hole. In FIG. 2 is a view A of FIG. 1. In FIG. 3 - reinforced anchor lining installed in the hole. In FIG. 4 - section of the cylindrical end of the rod before it is installed in the hole. In FIG. 5 - section of the cylindrical end of the rod during installation in the hole. In FIG. 6 is a section through the cylindrical end of the rod at the end of the process of installing the rod in the hole.
Utility Model Embodiment
Reinforced anchor lining 1 contains a hollow cylindrical rod 2, a base plate 3, the armature 4 (Fig. 1). Shoring 1 is installed into the hole with a diameter of 5 - d wn, and strengthens the surface generation. Along the entire length of the rod 2 is made one longitudinal slot 6.
The front end 7, the rod 2 is formed as a truncated cone with the diameter of the front end - d con smaller hole diameter d wn. In this case, the ratio d con = (0.85 ... 0.93) d sp . At this ratio the front end 7 is inserted freely into the hole 5. The outer diameter d of the rod is made of item d greater than the diameter of the hole spn range from 1.05 d wn, wn to 1.11 d. Excess rod diameter d v the diameter d of the hole wn provides its deformation during installation into the hole 5, the creation of a distributed pressure over the contact surface and the frictional force sufficient to ensure the bearing capacity of roof bolting 1 (FIG. 3). The deformation of the rod 2 occurs without significant effort due to the longitudinal slot 6.
At the cylindrical end 8, rod 2, there are longitudinal slots 9 dividing it into sectors 10 (Fig. 4). When installing reinforced anchor lining 1 in the hole 5, due to the action of a special punch 11 (Fig. 5) on the sectors 10, locks 12 are formed (Fig. 6).
In addition, a ring 13 is installed and welded on the cylindrical end 8. Welding 14 can be performed by a continuous or intermittent seam from the side of the cylindrical or conical end. This provides technological freedom in the manufacture of reinforced anchor lining. The ring 13 has a cut 15, which ensures its free installation on the cylindrical end 8. The cross section of the ring 13 is circular in shape (Fig. 4). This allows us to simplify the technology of its manufacture. As a rule, rings are made by winding round wire. In this case, the difference between the outer - d k1 and the inner diameters - d k2 of the ring 13 is greater than two thicknesses of the core wall k (Fig. 4). With a smaller diameter difference, the contact stresses arising on the mating surface of the ring 13 - base plate 3 exceed the permissible ones, and plastic deformation of the surface of the ring 13 occurs. Stress concentrators arise, and the reliability of the assembly decreases.
The base plate 3 has a rectangular shape with a convex cavity 16 and an external overall dimension in (Fig. 2). In the middle of the base plate 3 there is a hole with a diameter d PL for skipping the rod 2. Moreover, the diameter d PL is selected from the interval d PL = (1.05 ... 1.1) d Art . This provides a consolidated installation of the base plate 3 on the rod 2, on the one hand, and its calculated force interaction with the ring 13 after installing the anchor support 1 in the hole 5. When d pl is less than 1.05 d article, it is possible to jam the base plate 3 on the rod 2. When d PL more than 1.1 d article decreases the contact area: ring 13 - base plate 3. This can lead to punching ring 13 holes in the plate 3.
Armoframe 4 is made of longitudinal 17 and transverse 18 reinforcement (Fig. 2). The length of the reinforcing bars l article is selected in the range from 300 to 1100 mm. Reinforcing rods 17 and 18 are carried out interlaced and interconnected by welding at points of contact 19. The installation step of the reinforcement t ar in the armature frame is carried out in the range from 100 to 200 mm, depending on the state of the reinforced rock of the mine. The outer dimension in the base plate 3 is made to exceed the pitch of the armoframe 4 in the central part t ap C (Fig. 2). Thus, the overall size of the base plate 3 - is taken more than the installation step of the fittings 17, 18 - t ap C in its central part.
The wall thickness k is taken in the range from 2.5 mm to 3.5 mm. The minimum values are determined from the need to ensure the strength of the weld 14, on the one hand, and to ensure stability when installing the rod 2 in the hole 5. It was experimentally established that when the length of the rod 2 - 1200 mm and values k less than 2.5 mm occurred in In some cases, the loss of stability of the rod 2 and the impossibility of a standard installation. The choice of wall thickness k greater than 3.5 mm is not advisable, because in this case, the strength characteristics of the rod 2 exceed the minimum required, but the increasing mass of the rod complicates its installation.
Installing the anchor in the hole.
Rod 2 is laid on the guides of the installer. Through the front conical part 7, a support plate 3 and an arm frame 4 are put on the rod 2.
The front end 7 is directed to the mouth of the hole 5 and is introduced into it freely, due to the fact that the diameter of the front end 7 - d con less than the diameter of the hole d sp Moreover, the diameter value is less than 0.93 d sp provides the introduction of the front end 7 into the hole 5 without additional resistance, which can cause lateral loads in the guides of the installer. Performing d con exceeding the value of 0.85 d sp ensures that the coaxiality of the borehole 5 and the rod 2 is maintained within the limits excluding the appearance of unbalanced lateral loads, and provides increased reliability of the introduction of the rod 2 into the borehole 5.
When administered to the cylindrical portion of the rod 2 with its deformation takes place of the original diameter d of the hole diameter to Article - d wn aided longitudinal slit 6. When the value of the original diameter of the rod 2 is greater than 1.05 d value wn elastic deformation creates a distributed load and the strength of adhesion to the surface of the hole (friction force) sufficient to ensure the regulatory bearing capacity of the anchor (with a length of 1200 mm or more). When the value of d article less than 1.05 d cp the magnitude of the elastic deformation of the walls of the rod will be insufficient to create a specific pressure sufficient to ensure the bearing capacity of the anchor lining 1, which will not provide reliable fastening.
When the value of d article is more than 1.11 d cp, the value of the bearing capacity of the anchor lining 1 sharply decreased, which is due to the appearance of residual (plastic) deformation of the walls of the rod, and a simultaneous decrease in elastic deformation. Accordingly, the distributed load on the contact surface is reduced: the rod 2 is the hole 5. As a result, the reliability of the support 1 is reduced.
These ratios are obtained as a result of pilot tests of samples of rods 2 with a wall thickness of 2.5 ... 3 mm (measurement accuracy ± 0.1 mm). The length of the rod in the cylindrical part is 1300 mm. The length of the anchor rod is regulated by GOST 31559-2012 - at least 1200 mm.
In the process of installing the rod 2 in the hole 5, the resistance to its movement increases. The punch 11 forms from the sectors 10 locks 12 covering the ring 13. The presence of welding 14 connecting the ring 13 with the rod 2, provides the formation of the lock 12 in the area of its installation, which increases the reliability of its formation.
The installation of reinforcing cage 4 between the base plate 3 and the front end 7 provides reinforcing reinforced anchor support 1, a significantly larger working surface than the surface of the base plate 3. This allows you to expand the functionality of reinforced anchor support 1, because in this case, the need to install an additional mesh is eliminated. The time-consuming operation performed after installation of the anchor support 1 and consisting in hanging the reinforcing mesh is excluded. Thus, the installation of reinforced anchor lining 1 allows you to combine two technological operations, which expands its functionality.
Through the armature frame 4, the load from the rock being strengthened is transferred to the base plate 3. Then, from the base plate 3, the load is transmitted to the rod 2 through the ring 13, which is kept from displacement due to welding 14 and the formed lock 12. The duplicated fixation of the position of the base plate 3 on the rod 2 provides an increase reliability of its fastening.
The difference in the diameters of the ring 13 d k1 -d k2 is taken to be more than two wall thicknesses of the rod k. With a wall size of 2.5 mm it is 5 mm or more, with a thickness of 3 mm not less than 6 mm. With a smaller value of the difference between the diameters of the ring 13, the size of the leg of the weld 14 cannot be made equal to the thickness of the wall of the rod 2, which will lead to a decrease in the strength of the connection: ring 13 - rod 2.
The choice of the diameter of the hole in the plate is based on the results of experimental studies. When d PL less than 1.05 d article during installation, there is a negative force effect of the edge of the plate opening on the weld 14. Partial deformation of the weld 14 reduces the size of the weld leg and its load capacity, which reduces the reliability of operation.
When the value of d PL more than 1.1 d article violated the alignment of the axis of the base plate 3 and the rod 2. There is a displacement of the base plate 3 and the uneven load of the ring 13 around its perimeter. The contact area is reduced: ring 13 - base plate 3, which leads to a reduction in load capacity.
Thus, the choice of d PL in the range of 1.05 d article to 1.1 d article provides increased reliability of the operation of reinforced anchor lining 1.
The stiffness and load capacity of the reinforcement cage 4 is provided by longitudinal 17 and transverse 18 reinforcing bars intertwined. The interlacing allows you to remove the load transmitted from the reinforced surface to the welds 19, connecting the reinforcing bars 17 and 18 with each other. After weaving, the contact of the longitudinal reinforcing bars 17 with adjacent transverse reinforcing bars 18 is carried out from opposite sides. This increases the reliability of the armature 4. In this case, the welds 19 are necessary only for fixing the relative position of the reinforcing bars 17 and 18 in the initial position and during installation.
The pitch t ar between the parallel reinforcing bars 17 and 18 is selected in the range from 100 to 200 mm (Fig. 2). A distance of less than 100 mm is not advisable, because the size of pieces of dumped rock in ore deposits exceeds 100 mm. The upper limit of 300 mm is determined from the condition of safe operation of the armoframe 4 without additional measures such as spraying concrete reinforcement.
In the central part, the armor casing 4 has a dimension between the reinforcing bars t ap C of not more than the external dimension of the base plate, usually 150 mm, because the base plate is traditionally made within 200 mm. If the step of the amokarkas 4 in the central part is exceeded by a size larger than c, the base plate 3 will not provide a pressing of the armokarkas 4 to the surface to be strengthened, which will lead to unreliable functioning of the reinforced anchor support 1.
The minimum length l st of reinforcing bars 17, 18 of 300 mm ensures that there is no collapse of the surface to be reinforced that exceeds the surface of the base plate 3. Smaller values of the lengths of the bars are not effective, since the reinforcement is provided only by the base plate 3.
The length of the reinforcing bars of 1100 mm was determined experimentally. With greater than 1100 mm lengths of the reinforcing bars 17, 18, a tight fit of the bars along the entire length to the surface to be strengthened is not ensured, which leads to the separation of its fragments.
Thus, the length of the reinforcing rods 17, 18, selected in the range from 300 mm to 1100 mm, ensures the rational use of the material of the rods and the reliability of strengthening the working surface.
Each of the provisions of the utility model formula ensures the achievement of the assigned technical task - the reliability of the installation of anchor support and the expansion of functionality.
Protected ratios of the parameters were obtained experimentally, based on the conditions for ensuring the bearing capacity of the anchor support defined by GOST 31559-2012 and at least 50 kN.
The most effective reinforcing bars 17, 18 with a diameter of d ap from 8 to 14 mm proved to be most effective. Smaller values of 8 ... 10 mm were used for rod lengths up to 600 mm. Large diameters - 12 ... 14 mm with a length of reinforcing bars from 600 to 1100 mm.
Table 1 presents the results of experimental studies, on the basis of which the protected ratios of the parameters are obtained. The numerical values of the parameters are reflected, at which the bearing capacity was mandatory 50 kN, with a length of the cylindrical part equal to 1.3 m. Anchors were tested at the mines of Uchalinsky GOK OJSC. The creation of axial force on the anchors was provided by the PKA-3 rod-extractor.
When compiling the table, the diameter of the borehole was taken as the basic parameter, the external diameter of the rod, and the diameter of the cone were variable parameters. The wall thickness of rod 2 was fixed at 2.5, 3, and 3.5 mm. Dimensional tolerances were ± 0.1 mm. The smallest of the obtained values (presented in Table 1) correspond to a wall thickness of 3 mm, large ones with a wall thickness of 2.5 mm.
Performing wall thicknesses greater than 3.5 mm is not advisable, because strength characteristics, for breaking the anchor rod, even at 2.5 mm, significantly exceed the regulatory bearing capacity of 50 kN.
In turn, the wall thickness of the rod cannot be less than 2.5 mm, based on ensuring the stability of the rod during the estimated period, subject to the influence of aggressive mine water. In addition, at lower values, a loss of stability during installation of the anchor support 1 is possible.
Figure 00000002

Claims (9)

1. Reinforced anchor support containing a hollow cylindrical rod with a longitudinal slot along the entire length under the hole, a front end made in the form of a truncated cone, a cylindrical end with longitudinal slots and a ring on it, a base plate mounted on the rod from the side of the truncated cone in front of the ring characterized in that between the base plate and the front end there is an armature frame formed by longitudinal and transverse reinforcing bars interconnected by welding.
2. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 1, characterized in that the outer diameter of the rod is made in the range of 1.05 ... 1.11 diameter of the hole.
3. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 2, characterized in that the wall thickness of the hollow cylindrical rod is made within 2.5 ... 3.5 mm.
4. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 2, characterized in that the diameter of the front end of the rod is made in the range of 0.85 ... 0.93 of the diameter of the hole.
5. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 3, characterized in that the difference between the outer and inner diameters of the ring is more than two wall thicknesses of the rod.
6. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 5, characterized in that the diameter of the hole in the base plate is made in the range of 1.05 ... 1.10 diameter of the anchor rod.
7. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 3, characterized in that an armature frame is installed between the base plate and the front end, formed by longitudinal and transverse intertwined reinforcing bars, interconnected by welding, with a length of 300 ... 1100 mm and a pitch of 100 ... 200 mm.
8. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 7, characterized in that the reinforcing bars are made with a diameter of from 8 to 14 mm.
9. Reinforced anchor support according to claim 7, characterized in that the outer dimension of the base plate is made to exceed the arm frame pitch in the central part.
Figure 00000001
RU2015151609/03U 2015-12-01 2015-12-01 Reinforced anchor fasteners RU161817U1 (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2698836C1 (en) * 2018-07-02 2019-08-30 Акционерная компания "АЛРОСА" (публичное акционерное общество) Anchor support section
RU192057U1 (en) * 2019-01-25 2019-09-02 Антон Анатольевич Зубков Anchor Section
RU197298U1 (en) * 2020-02-20 2020-04-20 Александр Сергеевич Сойкин Anchor fasteners
RU197433U1 (en) * 2020-02-12 2020-04-27 Акционерная Компания "АЛРОСА" (публичное акционерное общество) (АК "АЛРОСА" (ПАО)) Reinforced mesh combined
RU199660U1 (en) * 2019-12-25 2020-09-14 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "КАНЕКС ШАХТОСТРОЙ" TUBULAR ANCHOR FASTENER
RU200697U1 (en) * 2020-04-07 2020-11-05 Акционерная Компания "АЛРОСА" (публичное акционерное общество) (АК "АЛРОСА" (ПАО)) ANCHOR FASTENER SECTION

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2698836C1 (en) * 2018-07-02 2019-08-30 Акционерная компания "АЛРОСА" (публичное акционерное общество) Anchor support section
RU192057U1 (en) * 2019-01-25 2019-09-02 Антон Анатольевич Зубков Anchor Section
RU199660U1 (en) * 2019-12-25 2020-09-14 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "КАНЕКС ШАХТОСТРОЙ" TUBULAR ANCHOR FASTENER
RU197433U1 (en) * 2020-02-12 2020-04-27 Акционерная Компания "АЛРОСА" (публичное акционерное общество) (АК "АЛРОСА" (ПАО)) Reinforced mesh combined
RU197298U1 (en) * 2020-02-20 2020-04-20 Александр Сергеевич Сойкин Anchor fasteners
RU200697U1 (en) * 2020-04-07 2020-11-05 Акционерная Компания "АЛРОСА" (публичное акционерное общество) (АК "АЛРОСА" (ПАО)) ANCHOR FASTENER SECTION

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