JP5840447B2 - Exhaust equipment for construction machinery - Google Patents

Exhaust equipment for construction machinery Download PDF

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JP5840447B2
JP5840447B2 JP2011224193A JP2011224193A JP5840447B2 JP 5840447 B2 JP5840447 B2 JP 5840447B2 JP 2011224193 A JP2011224193 A JP 2011224193A JP 2011224193 A JP2011224193 A JP 2011224193A JP 5840447 B2 JP5840447 B2 JP 5840447B2
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exhaust
engine
muffler
exhaust gas
chamber
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JP2013083214A (en
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和田 靖
靖 和田
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住友建機株式会社
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Description

  The present invention relates to an exhaust device for a construction machine.
  Generally, in a construction machine such as a hydraulic excavator, exhaust discharged from an engine is guided to a muffler (muffler) to mute, and then exhausted.
  Moreover, in a construction machine in which an engine is mounted on the rear side of the machine body and a counterweight is further arranged on the rear side, it is difficult to exhaust air from the rear side of the engine room. For this reason, an exhaust pipe (tail pipe) is provided in the upper part of the engine compartment, and exhaust gas from the muffler is discharged through the exhaust pipe.
  Furthermore, if the exhaust pipe is simply opened upward, rainwater enters the muffler via the exhaust pipe. Therefore, in order to avoid this, the pipe tip of the exhaust pipe is generally bent so that the exhaust gas is exhausted backward (in the horizontal direction of the machine body) (Patent Document 1).
Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 02-040926
  By the way, since a muffler is generally fixed to an engine, it is limited to a structure and size that can withstand high vibrations generated in the engine. Further, the muffler resonates by expanding and compressing the exhaust gas therein, thereby reducing noise. However, when the structure and size are limited as described above, there is a problem that exhaust noise cannot be sufficiently reduced.
  Further, in the conventional configuration in which the pipe tip is bent (that is, the configuration in which the exhaust pipe is opened in the horizontal direction of the machine body), there is a problem that the exhaust gas is directly applied to a person working around the construction machine. It was.
  Furthermore, when the noise reduction is not sufficient as described above, the exhaust sound is also released along the flow of the exhaust gas along the exhaust pipe, so that the person working around the construction machine is also troubled by the noise. There was a problem.
  The present invention has been made in view of the above points, and it is an object of the present invention to provide an exhaust device for a construction machine that can enhance the silencing effect and prevent the surroundings from being affected by noise and exhaust gas.
From the first point of view, the above problem is
A muffler connected to the engine of the construction machine,
An exhaust port for introducing exhaust gas from the muffler, an exhaust port for exhausting the introduced exhaust gas arranged so as not to face the introduction port, and a muffler chamber are provided above the engine. A box to be attached to the exterior body,
An exhaust device for a construction machine , comprising:
The exhaust port for exhausting the exhaust gas to the outside can be solved by an exhaust device for a construction machine, which is provided on the upper surface side of the box and opens upward .
  According to the disclosed exhaust device for a construction machine, since the introduction port for introducing the exhaust gas from the muffler and the exhaust port for exhausting the introduced exhaust gas to the outside do not face each other, the silencing of the box body from the exhaust port Even if rainwater enters the room, it can be prevented from entering the muffler.
  Further, since the noise of the exhaust gas discharged from the muffler is silenced in the silencer chamber of the box, the noise can be reduced.
FIG. 1 is a side view showing a construction machine equipped with an exhaust device according to a first embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the engine room of the construction machine equipped with the exhaust device according to the first embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 3 is an external view of a tail box (silence chamber) constituting the exhaust device according to the first embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of a tail box (silence chamber) constituting the exhaust apparatus according to the first embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the tail box (silence chamber) constituting the exhaust device according to the first embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a tail box (silence chamber) that constitutes the exhaust device according to the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a tail box (silence chamber) constituting an exhaust device according to a third embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of an engine room of a construction machine equipped with an exhaust device according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view of an engine room of a construction machine equipped with an exhaust device according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 10 is an enlarged perspective view showing a tail box (silence chamber) constituting the exhaust device according to the fifth embodiment.
  Next, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
  FIG. 1 shows a construction machine provided with an exhaust device according to an embodiment of the present invention. In the present embodiment, a small hydraulic excavator 1 will be described as an example of a construction machine. The small hydraulic excavator 1 is roughly constituted by a crawler-type lower traveling body 2 that can be self-propelled and an upper revolving body 3 that is turnably mounted on the lower traveling body 2.
  A work attachment 4 is provided on the front side of the upper swing body 3. The work attachment 4 includes a boom 6, an arm 9, a bucket 10, and the like.
  The boom 6 is attached to a turning frame 5 described later so as to be able to move up and down. The arm 9 is rotatably attached to the tip end side of the boom 6. Moreover, the bucket 10 is attached to the front end side of the arm 9 so that rotation is possible.
  The boom cylinder 12 is disposed between the turning frame 5 and the boom 6. The boom 6 moves up and down with respect to the revolving frame 5 by the boom cylinder 12. The arm cylinder 13 is disposed between the boom 6 and the arm 9. The arm 9 rotates with respect to the boom 6 by the arm cylinder 13. Further, the bucket cylinder 14 is disposed between the bucket 10 and the arm 9. The bucket 10 is rotated with respect to the arm 9 by the bucket cylinder 14.
  The upper revolving unit 3 is installed on the lower traveling unit 2 through a revolving mechanism 16 so as to be able to revolve. As shown in FIG. 2 in addition to FIG. 1, the upper swing body 3 includes a swing frame 5, a cab 8, a counterweight 15, an exterior cover 18 (exterior body), an engine hood 19 (exterior body), an engine 20, a muffler 30 etc. are arranged.
  The cab 8 is provided on the revolving frame 5, and a driver's seat (not shown) is provided therein. The operator sits on the driver's seat in the cab 8 and operates the small hydraulic excavator 1.
  The counterweight 15 has a function of balancing the weight with the work attachment 4. The engine hood 19 covers the upper parts of the engine 20, the heat exchanger 24, the pump 27, and the like.
  Next, the configuration inside the engine chamber 17 will be described.
  FIG. 2 is a schematic configuration diagram showing the internal configuration of the engine chamber 17. As shown in the figure, an engine 20, a cooling fan 23, a heat exchanger 24, an exhaust device, a pump 27, and the like are arranged in an engine chamber 17 surrounded by a counterweight 15, an outer cover 18, and an engine hood 19. It is installed.
  The engine 20 is supported on an upper part of an engine mounting seat 21 disposed on the revolving frame 5 via a mount 22. The mount 22 is an anti-vibration mount and prevents vibration generated by the engine 20 from being transmitted to the turning frame 5.
  A cooling fan 23 is disposed on the Y1 direction side (left side in the figure) of the engine 10. A heat exchanger (radiator) 24 is disposed on the Y1 direction side of the cooling fan 23.
  The cooling fan 23 is rotationally driven by the engine 20. As the cooling fan 23 is driven to rotate, outside air is taken into the engine compartment 17 as cooling air. The cooling air taken into the engine chamber 17 cools the cooling water in the heat exchanger 24 by passing through the heat exchanger 24.
  The pump 27 is a hydraulic source such as a boom cylinder 12, an arm cylinder 13, and a bucket cylinder 14 that drive the work attachment 4. This pump 27 is also driven by the engine 20.
  Exhaust gas discharged from the engine 20 is introduced into the muffler 30. The muffler 30 has a function of reducing exhaust noise of the exhaust gas. The exhaust noise reduction by the muffler 30 will be described later for convenience of explanation.
  The engine 20, the heat exchanger 24, the muffler 30, the pump 27, and the like are accommodated in the exterior cover 18. An engine hood 19 projecting upward is provided on the upper surface of the exterior cover 18.
  The engine hood 19 is configured to be openable and closable with respect to the exterior cover 18. Therefore, when the engine 20 is maintained, the engine hood 19 can be opened for maintenance.
  Exhaust gas discharged from the engine 20 is introduced into the muffler 30 via the exhaust manifold 28 and the exhaust pipe 29.
  The muffler 30 is connected to the exhaust pipe 29, so that the exhaust gas from the engine 20 is first introduced into the muffler 30. The muffler 30 has a cylindrical shape as shown in FIG. 4 in addition to FIG. The muffler 30 is fixed to the upper position of the engine 20 on the Y2 direction side. Specifically, a fixing bracket 33 is disposed on the Y2 direction side of the engine 20, and the muffler 30 is fixed to the fixing bracket 33 using a fixing tool 34.
  The inside of the muffler 30 is defined in a plurality of rooms, and the exhaust gas introduced from the engine 20 is exhausted from the exhaust pipe 31 through the plurality of rooms. At this time, the exhaust noise of the exhaust gas is muffled by repeatedly expanding and compressing in a plurality of rooms of the muffler 30.
  In the present embodiment, the discharge pipe 31 provided in the muffler 30 opens upward (Z1 direction). Further, the discharge pipe 31 is configured to protrude upward from an opening provided in the engine hood 19.
  A tail box 36 is attached above the opening of the engine hood 19 in place of the conventional exhaust pipe (tail pipe).
  As shown in FIGS. 2 to 5, the tail box 36 includes a rectangular main body 36 a that opens on one surface facing the upper surface of the engine hood 19, and a bottom body 36 b that is attached to the opened surface. Thus, in this attached state, the main body portion 36a and the bottom body portion 36b jointly form a box, and a space is formed therein. A space formed between the main body portion 36a and the bottom body portion 36b is a silencing chamber 35A.
  An opening into which the discharge pipe 31 provided in the muffler 30 is inserted is formed in the bottom body portion 36 b of the tail box 36. Exhaust gas discharged from the discharge pipe 31 is introduced into the silencer chamber 35A from this opening (hereinafter, this opening is referred to as an inlet 32).
  Further, the diameter of the inlet 32 is set larger than the diameter of the discharge pipe 31. Therefore, a gap is formed between the inlet 32 and the exhaust pipe 31, and the exhaust pipe 31 does not contact the engine hood 19 even if the exhaust pipe 31 vibrates with the vibration of the engine 20. . Thereby, even if the discharge pipe 31 is inserted into the sound deadening chamber 35A through the introduction port 32, noise such as a collision sound is not generated.
  Further, a flange portion 39 is formed on the outer periphery of the tail box 36 (see FIG. 3). The tail box 36 is fixed to the engine hood 19 by bolting the flange portion 39 to the engine hood 19.
  A final exhaust port 37 is formed on the upper surface side of the tail box 36 (main body portion 36a). The final exhaust port 37 opens upward (in the direction of arrow Z1).
  Now, referring to FIG. 4, attention is paid to the formation position of the introduction port 32 formed in the bottom body portion 36 b of the tail box 36 and the formation position of the final exhaust port 37 formed in the tail box 36.
  FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the sound deadening chamber 35A. As shown in the figure, the introduction port 32 and the final exhaust port 37 are arranged so as not to face each other. That is, the arrangement position of the introduction port 32 and the arrangement position of the final exhaust port 37 are the distance indicated by the arrow W in the drawing in the horizontal direction (the longitudinal direction of the muffler 30 and the direction indicated by the arrows X1 and X2 in the drawing). The configuration is shifted.
  Accordingly, the discharge pipe 31 inserted from the introduction port 32 into the sound deadening chamber 35 </ b> A faces the main body 36 a (the inner surface) of the tail box 36. The final exhaust port 37 disposed in the main body portion 36 a of the tail box 36 faces the bottom body portion 36 b of the tail box 36.
  By configuring the silencing chamber 35A as described above, the exhaust gas discharged from the engine 20 is introduced into the muffler 30 via the exhaust pipe 29 and silenced, then introduced into the silencing chamber 35A, and finally the final exhaust port 37. From the aircraft.
  In the present embodiment, when the exhaust gas pressure in the muffler 30 is P1, the exhaust gas pressure in the muffler chamber 35A is P2, and the atmospheric pressure is P3, the exhaust gas pressure P2 in the muffler chamber 35A is The exhaust gas pressure is lower than the exhaust gas pressure P1 and higher than the atmospheric pressure P3 (P1> P2> P3).
  Explosive sound, which is exhaust sound generated from the engine 20, is generated when the pressure of exhaust gas in a high pressure state suddenly drops, and can be mitigated by gradually reducing it. Conventionally, since the silencing chamber 35A is not provided, the exhaust gas at the exhaust gas pressure P1 of the muffler 30 is directly discharged to the atmospheric pressure P3 (P1 >> P3). Since the muffler 30 is limited to a shape and size that can withstand the vibration of the engine 20, the muffler 30 is released to the atmosphere without sufficiently exerting a silencing effect, and thus a large noise is generated.
  On the other hand, in the exhaust device according to the present embodiment, the exhaust gas whose pressure is P1 after being subjected to the first-stage muffling process in the muffler 30 is introduced into the muffler chamber 35A, so that the second-stage muffling process is performed. As a result, the pressure becomes P2. Further, the exhaust gas subjected to the second-stage muffling process is discharged from the final exhaust port 37 to the outside of the machine body, and the pressure thereof becomes the atmospheric pressure P3. Thus, in the exhaust device according to the present embodiment, the exhaust gas is pressure-reduced in three stages, so that a high silencing effect can be obtained.
  Further, the final exhaust port 37 is opened upward (toward the Z1 direction) in the main body portion 36a of the tail box 36, and the tail box 36 is disposed above the engine hood 19 as shown in FIG. Has been. Therefore, there is a risk that rainwater may enter the silencer chamber 35A of the tail box 36 from the final exhaust port 37.
  However, as described above, the position where the final exhaust port 37 is disposed is shifted from the position where the introduction port 32 is formed (that is, the position where the exhaust pipe 31 is disposed). As described above, in the present embodiment, since the final exhaust port 37 and the exhaust pipe 31 are not opposed to each other, even if rainwater enters from the final exhaust port 37, it can be prevented from entering the exhaust pipe 31. Therefore, rainwater can be prevented from entering the muffler 30 and the performance of the muffler 30 can be prevented from deteriorating.
  Note that rainwater that has entered the silencer chamber 35A from the final exhaust port 37 is configured to be discharged to the outside of the machine body via a drain pipe 38 shown in FIG. Therefore, no rainwater remains in the silencer chamber 35A.
  Further, as described above, the final exhaust port 37 is opened upward in the main body 36 a of the tail box 36. For this reason, the exhaust gas discharged from the engine 20 is discharged upward (toward the Z1 direction) from the final exhaust port 37 through the sound deadening chamber 35A. Therefore, it is possible to prevent the exhaust gas from being directly applied to a person working around the small excavator 1.
  Thereby, compared with the conventional hydraulic excavator which used the tail pipe with which the pipe front-end | tip was bent, the improvement of the working environment with respect to the worker who works around the small hydraulic excavator 1 can be aimed at.
  Next, an exhaust device according to another embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. 6 to 10, the same reference numerals are given to the components corresponding to those shown in FIGS. 1 to 5, and the description thereof will be omitted.
FIG. 6 shows an enlarged exhaust device according to the second embodiment. The exhaust device according to the present embodiment is characterized in that the tail box 36 constituting the sound deadening chamber 35B has a double structure of an inner wall portion 40a and an outer wall portion 40b.
By adopting this configuration, the exhaust noise transmitted to the surroundings by the vibration of the wall surface of the tail box 36 is attenuated by passing through the double structure of the inner wall part 40a and the outer wall part 40b, and the surrounding noise can be reduced. it can.
  FIG. 7 shows an enlarged exhaust device according to the third embodiment. The exhaust device according to the present embodiment is characterized in that a perforated plate 42 and a sound absorbing material 43 are disposed inside a tail box 36.
  The porous plate 42 is a plate material in which a large number of holes 42 a are formed, and is disposed so as to face the side surface of the tail box 36. The sound absorbing material 43 is, for example, glass wool, and is disposed between the side surface of the sound deadening chamber cover 36 and the porous plate 42.
  With this configuration, the exhaust noise is absorbed by energy absorption when passing through the hole 42 a of the perforated plate 42, and the sound absorbing material 43 also absorbs sound. Therefore, the surrounding noise can also be reduced by adopting the configuration of the present embodiment.
  FIG. 8 shows an exhaust device according to the fourth embodiment.
  The exhaust device according to the first embodiment described above has a configuration in which a tail box 36 including a rectangular main body portion 36a having one open surface and a bottom body portion 36b attached to the open surface is fixed on the engine hood 19. (See FIG. 3). Therefore, in the exhaust device according to the first embodiment, the tail box 36 is configured to protrude on the engine hood 19.
  On the other hand, the exhaust device according to the present embodiment is characterized in that the tail box 36 includes the main body 44A and the lid 45A, and the main body 44A is housed in the engine hood 19.
  The main body 44A has a rectangular shape with one surface open, and the lid 45A is attached to the open surface of the main body 44A. In this attached state, the main body portion 44A and the lid portion 45A jointly form a box, and a space is formed therein. A space formed between the main body portion 44A and the lid body portion 45A is a sound deadening chamber 35D.
  In the present embodiment, the main body 44 </ b> A is housed inside the engine hood 19. Therefore, only the lid body portion 45 </ b> A is disposed on the upper portion of the engine hood 19. Thereby, the upper surface of the engine hood 19 can be made substantially flush.
  9 and 10 are views for explaining an exhaust device according to the fifth embodiment.
  In the exhaust device according to the present embodiment, the tail box 36 includes a main body portion 44B and a lid body portion 45A, as in the exhaust device according to the fourth embodiment, and the main body portion 44B and the lid body portion 45A. A space formed between the two chambers serves as a silencing chamber 35E.
  In the fourth embodiment described above, the discharge pipe 31 is inserted upward from the introduction port 32 formed on the bottom surface of the main body 44A. On the other hand, as shown in FIG. 10, the exhaust device according to the present embodiment forms the introduction port 32 on the side surface of the main body portion 44B, and the discharge pipe 31 is inserted into the silencer chamber 35E from the side surface of the main body portion 44B. It is configured such that it is attached to the exterior cover 18 instead of the engine hood 19.
  As described above, by adopting a configuration in which the exhaust gas is introduced from the side portion of the silencing chamber 35 </ b> E, the disposition position of the silencing chamber 35 </ b> E can be set low with respect to the engine 20. Accordingly, as shown in FIG. 8, in the fourth embodiment, it is necessary to project the engine hood 19 that covers the upper portions of the engine 20, the heat exchanger 24, the pump 27, etc., but in this embodiment, as shown in FIG. Further, the protruding amount of the engine hood 19 can be suppressed. Therefore, the engine chamber 17 can be reduced in height, and the small hydraulic excavator 1 can be further reduced in size.
  8 and 9, for convenience of illustration, the final exhaust port 37 and the introduction port 32 (exhaust pipe 31) are illustrated as opposed to each other. However, as in the first to third embodiments, the introduction port is illustrated. 32 and the fixed bracket 33 are not opposed to each other and are shifted in the horizontal direction.
  The preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described in detail above. However, the present invention is not limited to the specific embodiments described above, and various modifications can be made within the scope of the present invention described in the claims. It can be modified and changed.
  Specifically, in each of the above-described embodiments, an example in which the present invention is applied to the small hydraulic excavator 1 has been described. However, the present invention can also be applied to various construction machines that desire to reduce exhaust noise.
  Further, in the present embodiment, an example in which the muffler 30 is used as the silencer is shown, but an exhaust gas aftertreatment device such as a DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) may be used instead of the muffler 30. Exhaust gas aftertreatment devices such as DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) have multiple layers of catalysts and filters inside, and as a result, it is necessary to prioritize the function of exhaust gas purification. As a result, noise reduction compared to the muffler 30 of the same size It is difficult to expect an effect. On the other hand, in the present invention, since a sound deadening chamber can be provided at the rear stage of the exhaust gas aftertreatment device such as DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter), both exhaust gas purification and noise reduction can be achieved. It is also possible to reliably prevent water (rain water) from entering the discharge pipe of the exhaust gas aftertreatment device.
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Small hydraulic excavator 2 Lower traveling body 3 Upper revolving structure 5 Revolving frame 17 Engine chamber 18 Exterior cover (exterior body)
19 Engine hood (exterior body)
20 Engine 23 Cooling fan 24 Heat exchanger 27 Pump 29 Exhaust pipe 30 Muffler (silencer)
31 Exhaust pipe 32 Introduction port 33 Fixing bracket 34 Fixing tools 35A to 35E Noise reduction chamber 36 Tail box (box)
36a body part 36b bottom body part 37 final exhaust port 38 drain pipe 40a inner wall part 40b outer wall part 42 porous plate 43 sound absorbing material 44A, 44B body part 45A, 45B lid part

Claims (4)

  1. A muffler connected to the engine of the construction machine,
    An exhaust port for introducing exhaust gas from the muffler, an exhaust port for exhausting the introduced exhaust gas arranged so as not to face the introduction port, and a muffler chamber are provided above the engine. A box to be attached to the exterior body,
    An exhaust device for a construction machine , comprising:
    An exhaust device for a construction machine, wherein an exhaust port for exhausting the exhaust gas to the outside is provided on an upper surface side of the box and opens upward.
  2.   2. The exhaust device for a construction machine according to claim 1, wherein the wall of the silencer chamber has a double structure having an inner wall portion and an outer wall portion.
  3.   The exhaust device for a construction machine according to claim 1 or 2, wherein a sound absorbing material is disposed in the silencer chamber.
  4.   The exhaust device for a construction machine according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the box is housed inside an exterior body in which the engine is disposed.
JP2011224193A 2011-10-11 2011-10-11 Exhaust equipment for construction machinery Active JP5840447B2 (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP6765994B2 (en) * 2017-03-08 2020-10-07 住友建機株式会社 Excavator
JP6910943B2 (en) * 2017-12-27 2021-07-28 株式会社クボタ Work machine

Family Cites Families (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS521929U (en) * 1975-06-24 1977-01-08
JPS56131222U (en) * 1980-03-06 1981-10-05
JPS6327064Y2 (en) * 1983-02-18 1988-07-22
JPS6029332A (en) * 1983-07-29 1985-02-14 Iseki & Co Ltd Engine exhaust device in tractor
JPH0278727A (en) * 1988-09-13 1990-03-19 Iseki & Co Ltd Standing type muffler
JP2518011Y2 (en) * 1990-06-07 1996-11-20 株式会社小松製作所 Construction vehicle engine exhaust structure
JPH0512617U (en) * 1991-07-25 1993-02-19 三菱重工業株式会社 Muffler structure for engine
JP4394518B2 (en) * 2004-05-25 2010-01-06 日立建機株式会社 Construction machinery
JP2007120391A (en) * 2005-10-27 2007-05-17 Hitachi Constr Mach Co Ltd Exhaust muffler and construction machine

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