JP5313159B2 - Partial wall flow filter and diesel exhaust system and method - Google Patents

Partial wall flow filter and diesel exhaust system and method Download PDF

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JP5313159B2
JP5313159B2 JP2009539272A JP2009539272A JP5313159B2 JP 5313159 B2 JP5313159 B2 JP 5313159B2 JP 2009539272 A JP2009539272 A JP 2009539272A JP 2009539272 A JP2009539272 A JP 2009539272A JP 5313159 B2 JP5313159 B2 JP 5313159B2
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filter
flow
passages
plugged
particulate filter
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JP2010511126A (en
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エム ビール,ダグラス
カー ハイベル,アヒム
タンドン,プシュカー
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コーニング インコーポレイテッド
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Priority to US11/605,895 priority Critical patent/US20080120968A1/en
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Priority to PCT/US2007/024340 priority patent/WO2008066767A1/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/02Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust
    • F01N3/021Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters
    • F01N3/033Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters in combination with other devices
    • F01N3/035Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters in combination with other devices with catalytic reactors, e.g. catalysed diesel particulate filters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N13/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus characterised by constructional features ; Exhaust or silencing apparatus, or parts thereof, having pertinent characteristics not provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F01N1/00 - F01N5/00, F01N9/00, F01N11/00
    • F01N13/009Exhaust or silencing apparatus characterised by constructional features ; Exhaust or silencing apparatus, or parts thereof, having pertinent characteristics not provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F01N1/00 - F01N5/00, F01N9/00, F01N11/00 having two or more separate purifying devices arranged in series
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N13/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus characterised by constructional features ; Exhaust or silencing apparatus, or parts thereof, having pertinent characteristics not provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F01N1/00 - F01N5/00, F01N9/00, F01N11/00
    • F01N13/009Exhaust or silencing apparatus characterised by constructional features ; Exhaust or silencing apparatus, or parts thereof, having pertinent characteristics not provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F01N1/00 - F01N5/00, F01N9/00, F01N11/00 having two or more separate purifying devices arranged in series
    • F01N13/0093Exhaust or silencing apparatus characterised by constructional features ; Exhaust or silencing apparatus, or parts thereof, having pertinent characteristics not provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F01N1/00 - F01N5/00, F01N9/00, F01N11/00 having two or more separate purifying devices arranged in series the purifying devices are of the same type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/02Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust
    • F01N3/021Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/02Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust
    • F01N3/021Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters
    • F01N3/022Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters characterised by specially adapted filtering structure, e.g. honeycomb, mesh or fibrous
    • F01N3/0222Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters characterised by specially adapted filtering structure, e.g. honeycomb, mesh or fibrous the structure being monolithic, e.g. honeycombs
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/02Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust
    • F01N3/021Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters
    • F01N3/023Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters using means for regenerating the filters, e.g. by burning trapped particles
    • F01N3/0231Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters using means for regenerating the filters, e.g. by burning trapped particles using special exhaust apparatus upstream of the filter for producing nitrogen dioxide, e.g. for continuous filter regeneration systems [CRT]
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/02Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust
    • F01N3/021Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters
    • F01N3/031Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for cooling, or for removing solid constituents of, exhaust by means of filters having means for by-passing filters, e.g. when clogged or during cold engine start
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2330/00Structure of catalyst support or particle filter
    • F01N2330/06Ceramic, e.g. monoliths
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2340/00Dimensional characteristics of the exhaust system, e.g. length, diameter or volume of the apparatus; Spatial arrangements of exhaust apparatuses
    • F01N2340/04Dimensional characteristics of the exhaust system, e.g. length, diameter or volume of the apparatus; Spatial arrangements of exhaust apparatuses characterised by the arrangement of an exhaust pipe, manifold or apparatus in relation to vehicle frame or particular vehicle parts

Abstract

A exhaust system and method for venting exhaust from an engine, such as a diesel engine, through an exhaust line coupled to the engine includes a first particulate filter disposed in the exhaust line and "close-coupled" with the engine, and a second particulate filter spaced a distance (d) from the first filter. The first particulate filter is "close-coupled" so that it operates in a passive regeneration mode to a greater extent than the second particulate filter. The first particulate filter may be a partial wall-flow filter including some plugged and some open channels. Some of the plugged channels may be plugged adjacent to an inlet end and others may be plugged adjacent to an outlet end. A partial wall-flow filter is also described having some unplugged flow-through channels and some plugged channels wherein some plugged channels are located adjacent to the inlet end and some are located adjacent to the outlet end.

Description

  The present invention relates generally to wall flow filters used to filter exhaust gases, and exhaust devices and methods equipped with such filters.

  Examples of the diesel exhaust device include a diesel particulate filter (DPF) for removing particulates such as soot from diesel exhaust gas. When removing particulates using multiple DPFs, these DPFs are generally arranged close to each other and housed in a common housing as taught in US Pat. The most widely used DPF is a wall flow filter. A conventional wall flow type filter comprises a ceramic honeycomb substrate having longitudinal parallel cell passages formed by a plurality of intersecting porous walls. The end of the cell passage is generally plugged with a ceramic plugging cement to form a checkered pattern of plugs on the end face of the honeycomb substrate. The cell passage of this filter generally has several ends plugged at the inlet end face of the honeycomb substrate, referred to herein as the “inlet passage”. Similarly, the cell passage generally also has a remaining end plugged to form a checkered pattern of plugs at the exit end face of the honeycomb substrate, referred to herein as the “exit passage”. In use, an exhaust gas containing entrained soot particles enters the inlet passage, passes through the porous wall (ie, wall flow), enters the outlet passage, and flows out through the outlet passage. The porous wall retains some of the particles contained in the exhaust gas. With conventional wall flow filters, filtration efficiencies higher than 90% have been achieved.

  Conventional wall flow filters are cleaned to prevent clogging of the filter and to maintain an appropriate pressure drop across the filter below a predetermined upper limit. Increasing the pressure drop across the filter will generally increase the back pressure on the engine, which will cause power loss if not controlled. One known method of cleaning the filter is to remove soot trapped in the filter by thermal regeneration (hereinafter “regeneration”). This regeneration may be either “passive” or “active” or a combination thereof. In “passive” regeneration, the inlet temperature of the exhaust gas entering the filter is high enough to start burning the soot trapped in the wall flow filter itself. In “active” regeneration, the temperature of the filter is relatively low, and additional energy input is required to raise the temperature of the exhaust gas (and the filter) to a level that burns the soot trapped in the filter. Generally, this additional energy input is provided by post-injection of fuel into the exhaust gas combined with a diesel oxidation catalyst located upstream of the filter.

  Diesel exhaust systems based on “active” regeneration are industry standards because these devices operate desirably at lower exhaust gas temperatures and ensure proper soot removal under different engine duty cycles is ensured by performing regeneration. It has become.

US Patent Application Publication No. 2004/0161373

  On the other hand, “active” regeneration is accompanied by a fuel economy penalty. Furthermore, the temperature can rise rapidly during “active” regeneration, which may be detrimental to the filter. Therefore, an apparatus with a small number of times of reproduction during operation is desired.

In view of the inefficiencies of prior art exhaust systems, a diesel exhaust aftertreatment system that operates mostly in an active regeneration mode will provide a competitive advantage in terms of fuel economy. In one broad aspect, the present invention is an exhaust system adapted to emit exhaust gas from an engine, such as a diesel engine, through an exhaust line connected to the engine. The exhaust system is located in the exhaust line and is “tightly coupled”, ie, located in series with the first particulate filter located close to the engine, and the first particulate filter, and a distance (d ) With a second particulate filter separated by a). The spacing between the first and second particulate filters is such that the difference between the inlet temperature (T 1 ) of the first filter and the inlet temperature (T 2 ) of the second filter, ie, T 1 −T 2 is It is preferable that it is 20 degreeC or more. Whereas the first filter is “closely coupled” to the engine to operate at a temperature that is preferably sufficient to promote a substantial amount of “passive” regeneration, downstream. The second filter operates in a cooler environment, i.e., relies more on active regeneration for soot removal. The relative degree when passive regeneration is performed with the second filter will be significantly less than in the first (closely coupled) filter. In certain embodiments, the first particulate filter has a first proportion of plugged passages and a second proportion of unplugged flow-through passages. According to additional embodiments, the plug passage may be plugged near both the inlet end and the outlet end. In a preferred embodiment, the second particulate filter is located in series with the first particulate filter and is separated therefrom by a distance (d) of 12 inches (30.5 cm) or more. Optionally, the spacing is such that the first particulate filter has a first inlet temperature (T 1 ), the second particulate filter has a second inlet temperature (T 2 ), and the inlet temperature The ratio (T 1 / T 2 ) may be 1.1 or higher, or even 1.15 or higher. According to yet another embodiment of the present invention, the first and second particulate filters may be mounted in separate housings. The diesel oxidation catalyst may be included in the apparatus between the filters, or the function of the oxidation catalyst may be included in the first filter.

  In another broad aspect, the present invention is a first particulate filter "closely coupled" to an engine, the partial warflow type having a first proportion of plug passages and a second proportion of unplugged through passages. A diesel exhaust comprising a first particulate filter that is a filter and a second particulate filter positioned in series with the first particulate filter and a distance (d) greater than 12 inches (30.5 cm) therefrom The present invention relates to an exhaust device such as a device. The second filter may only have a plug passage and the first filter is positioned relative to the engine so as to exhibit passive regeneration to a substantially greater extent than the second filter. Also good. It may also be preferred that the second filter is subjected to “active” regeneration. The first and second filters are preferably housed in separately spaced housings.

In another broad aspect, the invention relates to a method of operating an exhaust system, such as a diesel exhaust system, wherein exhaust gas is applied to a first particulate filter having a first inlet temperature (T 1 ) disposed in an exhaust line. Passing a first particulate filter having a first proportion of plugged passages and a second proportion of unplugged throughflow passages in which exhaust gas is first filtered; and Passing the first filtered exhaust gas through a second particulate filter having a second inlet temperature (T 2 ) positioned in series with and spaced from the particulate filter, The present invention relates to a method comprising a step in which one exhaust gas undergoes a second filtration and an inlet temperature ratio (T 1 / T 2 ) is 1.1 or more, or even 1.15 or more.

  In an additional embodiment, the present invention is a partial wall flow filter adapted for use in a diesel exhaust system, having a plug passage and an unplugged through passage, The filter is plugged near the inlet end and the other is plugged near the outlet end.

  Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and the appended claims.

  The accompanying drawings, described below, illustrate exemplary embodiments of the present invention, and the invention will be recognized as other equivalently effective embodiments, thus limiting the scope of the invention. It should not be considered a thing. The drawings are not necessarily drawn to scale, and certain features of the drawings and specific drawings may be exaggerated on a scale and diagram of clarity and conciseness.

Schematic of a diesel exhaust system according to an embodiment of the present invention Schematic of a diesel exhaust system according to an embodiment of the present invention 1A and 1B are perspective views of a partial wall flow filter used in the exhaust system of FIGS. 1A and 1B are perspective views of a partial wall flow filter used in the exhaust system of FIGS. The end view which shows the example of the plugging pattern used for the partial wall flow type filter by embodiment of this invention The end view which shows the example of the plugging pattern used for the partial wall flow type filter by embodiment of this invention The end view which shows the example of the plugging pattern used for the partial wall flow type filter by embodiment of this invention The end view which shows the example of the plugging pattern used for the partial wall flow type filter by embodiment of this invention 2A and 2B are end views showing partial plugging patterns applied to both end faces of the partial wall flow type filter of FIGS. 2A and 2B. End view showing an alternative partial plugging pattern applied to both end faces of a partial wall flow filter End view showing an alternative partial plugging pattern applied to both end faces of a partial wall flow filter The end view which shows the alternative partial plugging pattern given to the both end surfaces of the partial wall flow type filter by embodiment of this invention The end view which shows the alternative partial plugging pattern given to the both end surfaces of the partial wall flow type filter by embodiment of this invention A graph plotting performance related to an apparatus configuration having a partial wall flow filter according to an embodiment of the present invention. A graph plotting performance related to an apparatus configuration having a partial wall flow filter according to an embodiment of the present invention. A graph plotting performance related to an apparatus configuration having a partial wall flow filter according to an embodiment of the present invention. A graph plotting performance related to an apparatus configuration having a partial wall flow filter according to an embodiment of the present invention.

  The present invention will now be described in detail with reference to a few preferred embodiments as illustrated in the accompanying drawings. In describing the preferred embodiment, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. However, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art that the present invention may be practiced without some or all of these specific details. In other instances, well-known features and / or processes have not been described in detail so as not to unnecessarily obscure the present invention. Furthermore, similar or identical reference numerals have been used to identify common or similar elements.

  FIG. 1A shows an exhaust device 100 such as a diesel exhaust device for exhausting exhaust gas from an exhaust manifold 105 of a diesel engine 107. As shown, the exhaust device 100 includes an exhaust line 102 having an inlet end 101 and an outlet end 103. The inlet end 101 is connected to a diesel engine 107 through an exhaust manifold 105. The inlet end 101 may comprise connecting means 104, which may take any suitable form. For example, the connection means 104 can be a flange that can be coupled to a similar flange on the connection portion 109 of the exhaust manifold 105. Although the exhaust line 102 is shown generally straight, it may actually take other shapes and may include straight and bent portions and / or portions of different diameters.

The exhaust system 100 includes a first particulate filter 106 disposed adjacent to the inlet end 101 of the exhaust line 102 so as to be “closely coupled” to the engine 107 and, of course, the exhaust manifold 105. In this “close coupling” position, the first particulate filter 106 has a higher inflow exhaust gas temperature to provide a substantially greater degree of “passive” regeneration of the trapped soot compared to the downstream second filter. Make good use of. As used herein, the term “tightly coupled” refers to the position in the exhaust flow where the filter is measured along the exhaust flow and in close proximity to the engine 107, in particular close to the combustion chamber of the engine. Means that For example, “tightly coupled” would be considered close to the engine 107 as measured along the exhaust line such that the temperature for at least some of the operating cycle exceeds 250 ° C. It is preferred that the inlet temperature (T 1 ) of the first filter is higher than 200 ° C. for at least 50% of operation. In the example shown in FIG. 1A, the turbocharger 111 is located in the exhaust line 102 and the first particulate filter 106 is upstream of the turbocharger 111 so that hot gas directly strikes the first filter 106. Is arranged. In a more preferred embodiment, the first filter 106 is located immediately downstream of the turbocharger 111 (see FIG. 1B). In the closely coupled position, the first filter 106 experiences a temperature condition of 250 ° C. or higher for a substantial period of time greater than 10% or even greater than 20% of the operating cycle. These conditions facilitate “passive” regeneration for a considerable period of time. In order to avoid unwanted damage to the filter, the inlet temperature T 1 preferably does not exceed about 400 ° C.

  The exhaust device 100 of the present invention further includes a second particulate filter 108 disposed in the exhaust line 102 and separated from the first particulate filter 106 by a distance (d). In the example shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B, the second particulate filter 108 is disposed downstream of the turbocharger 111. Additional particulate filters may be placed in the exhaust line 102 downstream of the second particulate filter 108 to meet the desired filtration and back pressure requirements. An upstream diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) 114 may be placed in front of the second particulate filter 108, which is soluble in carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and particulates as is known in the art. Any known active catalyst species for purifying exhaust gases, such as catalyst species for oxidizing the organic fraction, may be included. If a DOC 114 is included, it may be disposed between the first filter 106 and the second filter 108, or more preferably between the first filter 106 and the turbocharger 111. The exhaust system 100 diffuses into the inlet and outlet ends of the particulate filters 106, 108 to help achieve the desired exhaust flow distribution in the particulate filter and / or the size and mass reduction in the exhaust line 102. Further, means such as the expansion cones 110 and 112 may be further provided.

During normal operation of an engine, such as a diesel engine, exhaust gases from engine 107 and exhaust manifold 105 are coupled to first particulate filter 106, turbocharger 111 (if present), oxidation catalyst, as indicated by arrow 116 in FIG. 1A. 114 (if present) and the second particulate filter 108 sequentially. The fine particles in the exhaust gas are trapped inside the first and second particulate filters 106 and 108 when the exhaust gas passes therethrough. Specifically, some of the wrinkles are captured in the first filter, while some of the remaining wrinkles are captured in the second filter. The operating conditions of the engine and the position of the first filter relative to the engine 107 are such that the exhaust gas inlet temperature T 1 at the first filter 106 itself starts burning the soot trapped in the first filter 106. That is, it is set to be sufficient to promote “passive” regeneration. In contrast, the second filter 108 is separated from the first filter 106 by a distance (d) such that the inlet temperature T 2 is low compared to the inlet temperature T 1 of the first filter 106. . Specifically, the distance (d) is generally such that the inlet temperature ratio (T 1 / T 2 ) is 1.1 or higher, or even 1.15 or higher. The filter spacing is preferably such that the temperature difference T 1 -T 2 is 20 ° C. or higher, or even the difference is 25 ° C. or higher.

  According to an embodiment of the present invention, the first particulate filter 106 has a relatively low pressure drop compared to the second particulate filter 108. In certain instances, the first particulate filter 106 is small enough to be incorporated into the available space between the exhaust manifold 105 and the turbocharger 111, or just downstream of the turbocharger, near the exhaust manifold 105. According to an additional aspect of the present invention, the physical space (volume) required to accommodate the first particulate filter 106 is relatively smaller than the space (volume) to accommodate the second filter 108. . This is because the second particulate filter 108 has the additional volume necessary to meet the filtration requirements. In a preferred embodiment, the second particulate filter 108 may be a conventional wall flow filter, for example. However, conventional wall flow filters would generally not be suitable for use as the first particulate filter 106 due to the size drop requirements for filters in the “tightly coupled” position. . In particular, it is desirable for the first filter to exhibit a low pressure drop. Because of the low pressure drop requirement, the first particulate filter 106 will have a lower filtration efficiency than the second particulate filter 108. As an example, the first particulate filter 106 has an initial filtration efficiency of less than about 80%. However, in the specific configurations described herein, it is possible to achieve high filtration efficiencies, such as 40% or more, or even 50% or more, or even 60% or 70% or more in the first filter. On the other hand, the second particulate filter 108 preferably has a filtration efficiency of greater than about 80%, or even 90% or more. In some embodiments, the first filter exhibits an initial filtration efficiency greater than 40% but less than 80%, and the second filter exhibits an initial filtration efficiency greater than 90%. The first particulate filter 106 may be any suitable filter that exhibits one or more of the features described above. For example, the first particulate filter 106 may be a ceramic foam type filter. Alternatively, the first particulate filter 106 may be a partial wall flow filter. Partial wall flow filters are so named because they have a combination of plugged passages and unplugged throughflow passages. In an unplugged through-flow passage, the flow goes straight through the passage, i.e. not through the wall. Therefore, “part” indicates that only part of the flow passes through the wall. A partial wall flow filter according to the present invention that has a high porosity greater than 45% and has a combination of plugged and unplugged passages has been found to be most effective. Partial wall flow filters with a total porosity of 50% or more show excellent filtration efficiency and low pressure drop.

  FIGS. 2A and 2B show an exemplary partial wall flow filter 200 for use as a first particulate filter (106 in FIG. 1) located in a tightly coupled relationship to the engine 107. FIG. The partial wall flow type filter 200 of the present invention includes, for example, a porous honeycomb substrate 202 having a substantially cylindrical shape. The cross section of the honeycomb substrate 202 may be circular, elliptical, square, or have other shapes as required. Honeycomb substrate 202 has internal porous walls 208 extending between opposite ends 204, 206 and ends 204, 206. The inner porous wall 208 defines a substantially parallel flow passage 210, which also extends between the ends 204, 206. The passage 210 may have a square cross section or other type of cross section, for example, a triangle, a circle, an octagon, a rectangle, a hexagon, or combinations thereof. The honeycomb substrate 202 is preferably manufactured from a porous ceramic material such as cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide. The internal porous wall 208 of the honeycomb substrate 202 may include active catalyst species useful thereon for passive regeneration of accumulated particulates within the porous wall.

For diesel exhaust systems, the porous wall 208 may include pores having an average diameter in the range of 1 to 60 μm, more typically in the range of 10 to 50 μm, and the honeycomb substrate 202 is about 10 and 400 cells / cell. Having a cell density between square inches (1.5 and 62 cells / cm 2 ), more typically between about 100 and 320 cells / square inch (15.5 and 40.6 cells / cm 2 ). It's okay. The thickness of the porous wall 208 is about 0.002 inches to 0.060 inches (0.05 mm to 1.5 mm), more typically about 0.010 inches and 0.030 inches (0.25 mm and 0 mm). The total porosity of this wall may be greater than 45%, or even greater than 50%, or even greater than 55%, or even greater than 60%.

  The plug 212 may be inserted at some end faces of the passage 210, for example, while the remaining passage 210 may remain open (unplugged). This is different from the conventional wall flow type filter in which all the cell passages are plugged at the ends. The unplugged through-flow passage 210a that is open at both ends 204, 206 and is not plugged over its entire length is preferably uniformly distributed in the plugging passage 210b, or vice versa. A plug may be included at only one of the ends 204, 206 or at both ends 204, 206. If desired, the plugs may be included spaced from the ends. In a partial wall flow filter with a plug on only one side, the exhaust gas passes through some of the walls, resulting in partial filtration, while some flow passes straight through the filter. When the plug is located adjacent to the outlet end of the filter, the exhaust gas moves from the plug passage to the non-plug flow-through passage due to the pressure difference between the plug passage and the non-plug flow-through passage, and soot is plugged. It will accumulate in the passage. When the plug is positioned adjacent to the inlet end of the filter, the exhaust gas enters the unplugged flow-through passage, and some exhaust gas enters the wall due to the pressure difference between the unplugged flow-through passage and the adjacent plug passage. It is pushed through and discharged from the outlet side of the plugging passage. In this case, soot accumulates on the walls of the unplugged flow-through passage. In certain instances, the plug is only positioned adjacent to the outlet end face of the filter. A filter having a porosity greater than 45%, greater than 50%, greater than 60%, and a combination of an outlet-only plug and an unplugged through-flow passage is particularly effective as the first filter. It has been found to promote high soot trapping in the filter and exhibit a low pressure drop. If desired, the plug may be included only adjacent to the entry surface.

  In another example, the plug is positioned adjacent to both ends of the first filter. Therefore, in this embodiment, it has a plug passage and an unplugged flow-through passage, the plug passage being plugged adjacent to several passages plugged adjacent to the inlet end and the outlet end. A partial wall flow filter is provided that includes other passages. Preferred embodiments have relatively more plugs formed adjacent to the outlet end than to the inlet end. Embodiments having this structure and high porosity greater than 45% have a relatively minimal pressure drop as a function of soot deposition. For example, FIG. 8 shows that a configuration in which the plug is located adjacent to the inlet end at a rate of 25%, the plug is located adjacent to the outlet end at a rate of 25%, and has a porosity greater than 60%. Represents a pressure drop of less than 0.5 kPa at a soot deposit of 2 g / l. Partial wall flow filters with a high porosity greater than 60% with about 50% back plug also show a low pressure drop change as a function of soot deposit. In certain instances, it may be desirable for the proportion of the plug adjacent to the inlet end to be greater than the outlet end.

  This partial flow type embodiment is shown, for example, in FIGS. 2A and 2B, where an unplugged flow-through passage is shown at 210a and a plug passage with a plug located at end 204 is 210c. A plug passage having a plug at the end 206 is shown at 210b.

  In the partial wall flow filter 200, soot accumulates on the porous wall 208 when exhaust gas passes through the filter. This accumulation of soot reduces the permeability of the wall 208 and reduces the exhaust gas flow to the passage adjacent to the unplugged through-flow passage 210a. Therefore, as the soot accumulates in the filter, the ability of the partial wall flow DPF 200 to capture soot decreases. One advantage of a filter with reduced filtration efficiency is that a maximum soot deposit can be defined for the filter, and soot overload in the filter is unlikely to occur in partial wall flow filters. In conventional wall flow filters, as the amount of soot on the porous wall increases, the filtration efficiency generally increases, making the filter more susceptible to excessive soot deposition. Soot over-deposition is undesirable because the maximum temperature encountered by the filter during regeneration is directly proportional to the amount of soot deposition. The partial wall flow filter 200 has a protection function against high-temperature runaway caused by excessive adhesion of soot.

  Various examples of partial plugging patterns will now be described. However, these examples should not be construed as limiting the invention unless otherwise stated herein.

  FIG. 3A shows a partial plugging pattern 300 in which the number of plugging passages 302 is greater than the number of unplugged through-flow passages 304. The unplugged through-flow passages 304 are uniformly distributed in the plugging passages 302. By way of example, the ratio of the number of plug passages 302 to the total number of passages, expressed as a percentage, may constitute more than 50%, or even more than 60%, even more than 75%. The plug passage having this arrangement is preferably arranged at the outlet end. Increasing the plug ratio at the outlet end in combination with a high porosity greater than 45% or even greater than 50% is greater than 40%, or even greater than 50%, or greater than 60%. It appears to provide initial filtration efficiency (see FIG. 7).

  FIG. 3B shows an alternative plugging pattern 306 in which the number of unplugged flow-through channels 308 is greater than the number of plugged channels 310. Again, the plug passages 310 are evenly distributed in the unplugged through-flow passages 308. By way of example, the number of unplugged flow-through passages 308 may constitute more than 50% of the total number of passages, or even more than 60%, or even more than 75% of the total number of passages.

  FIG. 3C shows a partial plugging pattern 312 for a first filter that includes an unplugged flow passage 314 and a plugging passage 316 where the hydraulic diameters of the plugging passage 316 and the unplugged flow passage 314 are different. Specifically, the hydraulic diameter of the plug passage 316 is larger than the hydraulic diameter of the non-plug through-flow passage 314. Again, the plug passage is preferably arranged adjacent to the outlet end. In particular, the area ratio of the plugging area to the open area of the filter is preferably larger than 1.2.

  FIG. 3D shows a partial plugging pattern 318 that includes an unplugged through-flow passage 320 and a plugging passage 322 where the hydraulic diameter of the unplugged through-flow passage 320 is greater than the hydraulic diameter of the plugging passage 322. In FIGS. 3C and 3D, unplugged flow-through passages are evenly distributed in the plugging passages, and vice versa.

  The partial plugging pattern described above and the modified examples thereof can be applied to one or both end faces of the honeycomb substrate (202 in FIGS. 2A and 2B). For example, FIG. 4A shows a partial plan view of the honeycomb substrate 202 when the partial plugging pattern of FIG. 3B is applied to both end faces of the honeycomb substrate 202. An unplugged through-flow passage is shown at 210a. A plugging passage on one of the end faces of the honeycomb substrate 202 is indicated by 210b. The other plugging passage (indicated by overlapping oblique lines) on the end face of the honeycomb substrate 202 is indicated by 210c. In this example, the plugging passages 210 b and 210 c occupy about 50% of the total passages in the honeycomb substrate 202, and the unplugged through-flow passages 210 a are uniformly distributed in the honeycomb substrate 202. 4B and 4C illustrate another partial plugging arrangement, with the outlet end shown in FIG. 4B and the inlet end shown in FIG. 4C. This embodiment shows an arrangement in which more outlet passages are plugged than inlet passages. Specifically, the passages plugged at the inlet end occupy about 25% of the total number of cell passages, whereas at the outlet end, the plugging passages occupy about 50% of the total number of passages. The passages plugged adjacent to the illustrated end are shown with overlapping diagonal lines, whereas the passages plugged adjacent to the other end are shown with single diagonal lines. The through-flow passage is not shaded.

  FIGS. 5 and 6 show additional embodiments of plug patterns that may be used in partial wall flow filters. In these embodiments, the cells plugged at the inlet end are shown with single diagonal lines, the cells plugged at the outlet end are shown with overlapping diagonal lines, and the through-flow cells are not hatched. In these examples, approximately 50% of the cell passages are plugged, with some of the plug passages positioned adjacent to the inlet end and others positioned adjacent to the outlet end. Other combinations of plugged cells and unplugged cells may be used for the partial wall flow filter. For example, more than 50%, or more than 60%, or 75% or more of the passages may be plugged as compared to the total number of passages. The total porosity of the wall of the first filter may be greater than 45%, or even greater than 50%, greater than 55%, or even greater than 60%. Preferred combinations of excellent initial filtration efficiency and low pressure drop include passages plugged with more than 50% (compared to the total number of passages), and total porosity greater than 45%. In embodiments with relatively high porosity greater than 60% and with passages plugged with more than 50% (or even 60%), the pressure drop in both clean and wrinkled conditions The ratio of filtration efficiency to is relatively high (see FIG. 10). The first filter has a total porosity greater than 60% and a passage that is plugged more than 50%, some plugged passages plugged adjacent to the inlet end, some adjacent the outlet end. In embodiments where partial flow filters are plugged and have a high proportion of passages plugged at the outlet end, the best combination of initial filtration efficiency and low pressure drop is achieved (25% inlet, 50% outlet, (See 200/12/63% embodiment).

7 to 10 are graphs showing experimental examples in which the device of the present invention and the partial flow filter were investigated. As can be seen from FIGS. 7-10, if the partial flow filter exhibits high porosity and rear plugging, the first filter has a relatively high initial filtration efficiency (greater than 50%) and before and after the first filter. A combination of low pressure drop can be achieved. A filter having a porosity greater than 45%, or even greater than 50%, or even greater than 55%, or even greater than 60% is desirable. Specifically, a summary of the tested examples is summarized in Table 1 below. It can be seen that the filter has 50% and 75% plugged passages (compared to the total number of passages) and high (50%) and very high (63%) porosity. Several cell densities and wall thicknesses were tested, with the inlet plugged, the outlet plugged, and the inlet and outlet plugged in combination. In each case, the remaining passages that were not considered plugged were not plugged. In each case, the partial flow filter was matched to a filter with a 200/12 cell arrangement, 50% porosity, 16 μm average pore diameter, with 50% of the passages normally plugged in a checkered pattern at each end. An example of a partial wall flow filter having a porosity greater than 50%, greater than 10% plug passage located adjacent to the inlet end, and greater than 40% plug passage located adjacent to the outlet end, Excellent filtration efficiency and low pressure drop.

  FIG. 7 shows a clean state, that is, a state in which no soot is attached (corresponding to the example number in Table 1 and located inside the lower dotted outline “L”, the% plugging inlet / outlet, pores (See the points labeled for rate, cell density, and wall thickness), and the state of soot at 2 g / l soot addition of the artificial soot (corresponding to the example number in Table 1, above The various test examples are compared within the dotted outline “U”, but labeled according to% plugging inlet / outlet, porosity, cell density, and wall thickness. It has been found that a relatively high porosity embodiment combining more than 50% plug passages and more plugs adjacent to the outlet achieves excellent filtration efficiency with low pressure drop. This makes it possible to capture a relatively larger amount of soot in the first partial flow filter, where passive regeneration can be applied to such soot at a high relative rate.

  FIG. 8 shows an additional example of a partial wall flow filter, showing the pressure drop for various embodiments as a function of soot deposits in grams per liter. It should be appreciated that certain embodiments show little increase in pressure drop as a function of soot loading. For example, an embodiment with 50% plugging at the back, including a porosity greater than 60%, shows a low pressure drop even at high soot deposition rates (greater than 2 g / l).

  The points / curves in FIGS. 8-10 are labeled according to% plug inlet / outlet, porosity, cell density, and wall thickness corresponding to the example numbers in Table 1.

  FIGS. 9 and 10 show that an exemplary embodiment exhibits both high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop in the first filter. Specifically, FIG. 10 plots the ratio of filtration efficiency divided by pressure drop (expressed as% / kPa) for various exemplary embodiments. In particular, some embodiments allow a relatively large amount of soot to be captured in the first filter without significantly increasing the pressure drop. For example, an embodiment showing a passage with a porosity of 60% or more and 50% or more plugged, and more specifically, an embodiment with more passages with plugged outlets than passages plugged with inlets has a lower pressure drop. Excellent filtration efficiency combined with. Most of the soot is passively regenerated in the first filter, thus reducing the number of active regeneration periods in the second filter.

  Although the present invention has been described with respect to a limited number of embodiments, those skilled in the art having the benefit of this disclosure will devise other embodiments that do not depart from the scope of the invention disclosed herein. Will be obvious. Accordingly, the scope of the invention should be limited only by the attached claims.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 100 Exhaust device 102 Exhaust line 105 Exhaust manifold 106 1st particulate filter 107 Diesel engine 108 2nd particulate filter 111 Turbocharger 114 Upstream diesel oxidation catalyst 200 Wall flow type filter 202 Honeycomb base body 208 Porous wall 210 Passage

Claims (1)

  1. A diesel exhaust system for discharging exhaust gas from an engine through an exhaust line connected to the engine,
    A first particulate filter disposed in the exhaust line and intimately coupled to the engine, wherein the first particulate filter operates in a passive regeneration mode to a first relative degree; and A second particulate filter positioned in series with and spaced from the particulate filter and operating in a passive regeneration mode with a second relative degree substantially less than the first relative degree; With
    The first particulate filter exhibits an initial filtration efficiency of greater than 45%;
    The first particulate filter has a porous honeycomb substrate with substantially parallel flow passages and includes some unplugged passages and some plugged passages;
    At least some of the plugged passageways are are facilities stoppers at both the inlet and outlet ends,
    Diesel exhaust, wherein the first particulate filter exhibits a total porosity greater than 60%, more than 60% of the plugged passages compared to the total number of passages, and at least some of the unplugged passages apparatus.
JP2009539272A 2006-11-29 2007-11-21 Partial wall flow filter and diesel exhaust system and method Active JP5313159B2 (en)

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PCT/US2007/024340 WO2008066767A1 (en) 2006-11-29 2007-11-21 Partial wall-flow filter and diesel exhaust system and method

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CN101548071A (en) 2009-09-30
WO2008066767A1 (en) 2008-06-05
CN101548071B (en) 2013-01-09
EP2087215A1 (en) 2009-08-12
JP2010511126A (en) 2010-04-08
US20080120968A1 (en) 2008-05-29

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