JP5110748B2 - Display device - Google Patents

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Publication number
JP5110748B2
JP5110748B2 JP2001171802A JP2001171802A JP5110748B2 JP 5110748 B2 JP5110748 B2 JP 5110748B2 JP 2001171802 A JP2001171802 A JP 2001171802A JP 2001171802 A JP2001171802 A JP 2001171802A JP 5110748 B2 JP5110748 B2 JP 5110748B2
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Prior art keywords
substrate
provided
circuit
electrically connected
display device
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JP2002062856A (en
JP2002062856A5 (en
Inventor
舜平 山崎
康行 荒井
肇 木村
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株式会社半導体エネルギー研究所
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/06Adjustment of display parameters
    • G09G2320/0626Adjustment of display parameters for control of overall brightness
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2360/00Aspects of the architecture of display systems
    • G09G2360/14Detecting light within display terminals, e.g. using a single or a plurality of photosensors
    • G09G2360/144Detecting light within display terminals, e.g. using a single or a plurality of photosensors the light being ambient light

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a display device capable of adjusting luminance of a display screen in accordance with ambient brightness and a manufacturing method thereof.
[0002]
[Prior art]
A technology for forming a thin film transistor (hereinafter referred to as TFT) on a substrate has greatly advanced, and its application to an active matrix display device has been advanced. Conventionally, active matrix display devices that have been put into practical use by TFTs using amorphous silicon films have required driver ICs. However, a TFT using a polycrystalline silicon film can operate at a high driving frequency, and the TFT of the pixel portion and the TFT of the driving circuit can be integrally formed on the substrate.
[0003]
An active matrix display device with a driver circuit integrated on a substrate has various advantages such as cost reduction, downsizing of the device, and improvement of production yield by incorporating various circuits such as shift registers and sampling circuits. It is attracting attention as being.
[0004]
By the way, in the active matrix display device, a TFT is disposed in each of tens to millions of pixels, and an individual electrode (pixel electrode) is provided for each of the TFTs. In the case of a liquid crystal display device, liquid crystal is sealed between an element substrate on which a TFT is formed and a counter substrate on which a common electrode is formed. A kind of capacitor using a liquid crystal as a dielectric between the individual electrode and the common electrode is formed. The operation of the liquid crystal display device controls the voltage applied to each pixel by the switching function of the TFT, drives the liquid crystal by accumulating charges in this capacitor, and displays the image by adjusting the amount of light transmitted through the liquid crystal. It is a mechanism. As a light source, there is a reflection type liquid crystal display device using external light, but a liquid crystal display device using a backlight or a front light is generally used.
[0005]
On the other hand, a display device has been developed in which a light emitting element is provided for each pixel, and blinking of the light emitting element is controlled by a TFT to display an image. Since the light-emitting element uses electroluminescence (hereinafter referred to as EL), this type of display device is also called an EL display device. In an active matrix EL display device using TFTs, a switching TFT (hereinafter referred to as a switching TFT) is provided for each pixel, and a TFT for controlling current by the switching TFT (hereinafter referred to as a current control TFT) is provided. The EL layer (referring to an organic compound layer including a light emitting layer) is operated to emit light. For example, there is an EL display device described in JP-A-10-189252.
[0006]
As described above, the active matrix type display device uses the input voltage based on the video signal to control the intensity of the screen brightness with the TFT regardless of whether it uses external light or self-luminous light, and displays an image. It is a mechanism to do.
[0007]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
However, many of the conventional display devices have a fixed input voltage characteristic for performing image display, and attention has not been paid to the fact that the required maximum luminance of the display device varies depending on the surrounding environment. When the surrounding environment is dark at night, it can be recognized without the same brightness as when used outdoors in the daytime, but it feels dazzling for the user because the brightness is not adjusted. The visibility was often lost.
[0008]
Of course, a method for adjusting the brightness of the screen by detecting the ambient brightness with a sensor has been proposed. A photodiode, a phototransistor, or the like is used as a sensor for detecting brightness, that is, illuminance. However, when these sensors are mounted on the display device as individual components, an extra area is required. External light is scattered by objects around the display device and enters the optical sensor from various angles. As a result, there is a problem in that a deviation occurs in the correction of ambient brightness and luminance.
[0009]
Also, depending on the type of sensor, there is a problem that an error occurs in correction unless an optical filter is attached in order to match the human visual sensitivity with the spectral sensitivity characteristic of the sensor. For example, a sensor using single crystal silicon has a spectral sensitivity extending in the infrared light region, and thus it is necessary to provide a visibility correction filter in order to correct the brightness accurately. Therefore, the size of the display device is inevitably increased.
[0010]
In order to solve the above problems, the present invention makes it possible to automatically adjust the brightness adjustment according to the ambient brightness, and to adjust the brightness appropriately for the change in ambient brightness felt by humans. An object of the present invention is to realize a display device capable of performing
[0011]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
According to the configuration of the present invention for solving the above problems, in the active matrix display device, the output line of the γ correction circuit is connected to the video signal processing circuit. The γ correction circuit inputs, to the video signal processing circuit, a signal that changes the apparent luminance of the pixel according to the ambient brightness, based on the output signal from the photosensor. A plurality of optical sensors are provided. By providing multiple photosensors around the pixel area of the active matrix display device, it is possible to detect the intensity of light that is scattered by surrounding objects and enter each photosensor from various angles, and to balance it. Correction can be made. It is also possible to use a correction circuit other than the γ correction circuit.
[0012]
In this case, a γ correction circuit that converts the video signal voltage into a drive voltage for gradation display is formed on the first substrate, and controls the input / output voltage characteristics of the γ correction circuit according to the ambient brightness. It is desirable that the optical sensor is formed on the second substrate, and the second substrate is fixed to the first substrate.
[0013]
According to another aspect of the invention, there are a plurality of photosensors provided on an outer periphery of a substrate on which a pixel portion is formed, a source follower circuit connected to the plurality of photosensors, and a γ correction circuit connected to the source follower circuit. A video signal amplifier circuit connected to the γ correction circuit, a source signal line driver circuit connected to the video signal amplifier circuit, and a pixel portion connected to the source signal line driver circuit. The optical sensor used in the present invention is preferably an optical sensor including amorphous silicon in a photoelectric conversion layer.
[0014]
In this photosensor, an I-type high-resistance amorphous silicon film is sandwiched between a p-type and n-type amorphous semiconductor film or a microcrystalline semiconductor film in a photoelectric conversion layer. Further, a transparent electrode is formed on the light incident side, and a metal electrode is formed on the opposite side. The optical sensor having such a structure has a peak at 500 to 600 nm in spectral sensitivity characteristics, and is close to human visual sensitivity characteristics. Therefore, it is not necessary to use a visibility correction filter.
[0015]
According to another aspect of the invention, there is provided a step of forming a pixel portion with a thin film transistor on a first substrate, a step of forming a photosensor on a second substrate, and the second substrate on the first substrate. And a step of fixing.
[0016]
According to another aspect of the invention, a step of forming a pixel portion, a driver circuit for the pixel portion, and a control circuit for controlling the luminance of the pixel portion on a first substrate with a thin film transistor, and a second substrate The method includes a step of forming an optical sensor thereon, and a step of fixing the second substrate to the first substrate and electrically connecting the control circuit and the optical sensor.
[0017]
The microcrystalline semiconductor film, the amorphous silicon film, and the conductive film for forming the electrodes that form the optical sensor can be formed by a plasma CVD method or a sputtering method. These film formation methods can form a film even if the area of the substrate is increased. For example, a substrate having one side of 300 mm or more, preferably 1000 mm or more can be used. On the other hand, the size of the photosensor mounted on the display device is 1 to 5 mm on a side, and a large number of photosensors can be taken out from a single substrate by using a large substrate.
[0018]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a circuit configuration of a digital drive type active matrix display device. The pixel portion 101 is formed by intersecting a plurality of gate lines 113 extending from the gate signal line driver circuit 102 and a plurality of source lines 114 extending from the source signal line driver circuit 103, and a TFT is provided at each intersection. Is formed. It has a video signal processing circuit 112 that forms a digital data signal input to the pixel portion.
[0019]
A control circuit 100 that detects ambient brightness and controls the amplitude of an image signal input to the pixel unit includes a detection circuit 108 that detects an output from the optical sensor 107, an A / D conversion circuit 109, an arithmetic processing circuit 110, The gamma correction circuit 111 is included.
[0020]
The optical sensor 107 employs a structure in which a photoelectric conversion layer has a pin junction in which an I-type high-resistance amorphous silicon film is sandwiched between a p-type and n-type amorphous semiconductor film or a microcrystalline semiconductor film. . A transparent electrode is formed on the light incident side, and a metal electrode is formed on the opposite side. Thus, the optical sensor using the amorphous silicon film has a peak in the spectral sensitivity characteristic of 500 to 600 nm, which is close to the human visual sensitivity characteristic. Therefore, it is not necessary to use a visibility correction filter.
[0021]
FIG. 2 is a circuit diagram illustrating the detection circuit 108. When the reset TFT 202 is turned on, a reverse bias voltage is applied to the photosensor 201. FIG. (Hereinafter, an operation in which the potential of the negative terminal of the photosensor 201 is charged to the potential of the power supply voltage is referred to as reset.) Thereafter, the reset TFT 202 is turned off. At that time, due to the electromotive force of the photosensor 201, the potential of the negative terminal of the photosensor 201 that has been charged to the potential of the power supply voltage gradually decreases due to the charge generated by the photoelectric conversion as time passes. Then, after a certain time has elapsed, when the switching TFT 204 is turned on, a signal is output to the output side through the amplification TFT 203.
[0022]
In this case, the amplifying TFT 203 and the switching TFT 204 operate as a so-called source follower circuit. Although FIG. 2 shows an example in which the source follower circuit is formed by an n-channel TFT, it can of course be formed by a p-channel TFT. A power supply voltage Vdd is applied to the amplification side power supply line 205. The bias-side power line 206 is given a reference potential of 0V. The drain side terminal of the amplification TFT 203 is connected to the amplification side power supply line, and the source side terminal is connected to the drain terminal of the switching TFT 204. The source side terminal of the switching TFT 204 is connected to the bias side power line 206. A bias voltage Vb is applied to the gate terminal of the switching TFT 204, and a bias current Ib flows through the TFT. The switching TFT 204 basically operates as a constant current source. The input voltage Vin is applied to the gate terminal of the amplifying TFT 203, and the source terminal becomes the output terminal. The input / output relationship of this source follower circuit is Vout = Vin−Vb.
[0023]
This output voltage Vout is converted into a digital signal by the A / D conversion circuit 109. The digital signal is converted into a correction signal for correcting the luminance of the image based on the comparison data set in advance with respect to the signal input to the arithmetic processing circuit 110. The γ correction circuit 111 generates a correction voltage based on this correction signal, and its output line is connected to the video signal processing circuit 112 to output the correction voltage.
[0024]
The video signal processing circuit 112 is necessary for converting a video signal (a signal including image information) composed of an analog signal or a digital signal into a digital data signal for performing time division gradation and for performing time division gradation display. And the like are generated and input to the source signal line driver circuit.
[0025]
The video signal processing circuit 112 includes a time-division gradation data signal generation circuit, which divides one frame period into a plurality of subframe periods corresponding to n-bit (n is an integer of 2 or more) gradations. Means for selecting an address period and a sustain period in the plurality of subframe periods, and Ts1: Ts2: Ts3:...: Ts (n-1): Ts (n) = 2. 0 : 2 -1 : 2 -2 : ...: 2 -(n-2) : 2 -(n-1) And means for setting so that
[0026]
Next, time division gradation display will be described with reference to FIG. Here, it is 2 by n-bit digital drive system. n A case where full-color display of gradation is performed will be described. First, as shown in FIG. 20, one frame period is divided into n subframe periods (SF1 to SFn). Note that a period in which all the pixels in the pixel portion display one image is referred to as one frame period. In the frame period, the oscillation frequency is 60 Hz or more, that is, 60 or more are provided per second, and 60 or more images are displayed per second. When the number of images displayed per second is less than 60, flickering of images such as flicker starts to be noticeable. A period obtained by dividing one frame period into a plurality of frames is called a subframe period. As the number of gradations increases, the number of divisions in one frame period also increases, and the drive circuit must be driven at a high frequency.
[0027]
One subframe period is divided into an address period (Ta) and a sustain period (Ts). The address period is a time required to input data to all the pixels during one subframe period, and the sustain period indicates a period in which the pixels are in an on state (bright state).
[0028]
The lengths of the address periods (Ta1 to Tan) included in the n subframe periods (SF1 to SFn) are all constant. The sustain periods (Ts) included in SF1 to SFn are Ts1 to Tsn, respectively. The length of the sustain period is Ts1: Ts2: Ts3:...: Ts (n-1): Tsn = 2 0 : 2 -1 : 2 -2 : ...: 2 -(n-2) : 2 -(n-1) Set to be. However, the order in which SF1 to SFn appear is not limited. 2 in combination with this sustain period n Of the gradations, a desired gradation display can be performed.
[0029]
The sustain period is determined based on the correction voltage from the γ correction circuit 111, and the luminance of the video is adjusted according to the ambient brightness.
[0030]
The source signal line driver circuit 103 basically includes a shift register 104, a latch A 105, and a latch B 106. Further, a clock pulse (CLK) and a start pulse (SP) are input to the shift register 104, a digital data signal (Digital Data Signals) is input to the latch A105, and a latch signal (Latch Signals) is input to the latch B106. Is done. Although only one source signal line driver circuit 103 is provided in FIG. 1, a plurality of source signal line driver circuits may be provided.
[0031]
The gate signal line driver circuit 102 includes a shift register, a buffer, and the like (none of which are shown). Note that although two gate signal line driver circuits 302a and 302b are provided in FIG. 3A, one data signal line driver circuit may be provided in this embodiment.
[0032]
FIG. 15 is a block diagram showing the configuration of an analog drive type active matrix display device. Reference numeral 121 denotes a source signal line driver circuit, and reference numeral 102 denotes a gate signal line driver circuit. In this embodiment, one source signal line driving circuit and one gate signal line driving circuit are provided, but the present invention is not limited to this configuration. Two source signal line driver circuits may be provided. Two gate signal line driver circuits may be provided.
[0033]
The source signal line driver circuit 121 includes a shift register 122, a level shift 123, and a sampling circuit 124. The level shift may be used as necessary, and may not be used. In this embodiment, the level shift is provided between the shift register 122 and the sampling circuit 124, but the present invention is not limited to this configuration. The level shift 123 may be incorporated in the shift register 122.
[0034]
A clock signal (CLK) and a start pulse signal (SP) are input to the shift register 122. A sampling signal for sampling an analog signal (analog signal) is output from the shift register 122. The output sampling signal is input to the level shift 123, and the potential amplitude is increased and output. The sampling signal output from the level shift 123 is input to the sampling circuit 124. Then, the analog video display signal input to the sampling circuit 124 is sampled by the sampling signal and input to the source signal line.
[0035]
A control circuit 120 that detects ambient brightness and controls the amplitude of an image signal input to the pixel unit includes a light sensor 126, a detection circuit 127 that detects an output from the light sensor 126, an arithmetic processing circuit 128, and a γ correction circuit. It consists of 129. The circuit configurations of the optical sensor 126 and the detection circuit 127 are the same as those in FIG. 2, and this output voltage Vout is converted into a correction signal for correcting the luminance of the image with respect to the signal input to the arithmetic processing circuit 128. To do. The video signal processing circuit 125 performs brightness adjustment by changing the amplitude of the video signal based on the correction signal.
[0036]
As described above, even in an active matrix display device of an analog drive system, a light sensor is attached, and a luminance is adjusted by changing a correction voltage based on ambient brightness detected by the light sensor and performing voltage gradation. be able to. Note that the configuration of the pixel portion and its driving circuit shown here is an example, and the configuration shown in this embodiment is not limited at all.
[0037]
【Example】
[Example 1]
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of an active matrix display device having an automatic brightness adjustment function. A substrate 300 having an insulating surface is provided with a pixel portion 301, gate signal line driver circuits 302a and 302b, source signal line driver circuits 303a and 303b, a control circuit 305, a video signal processing circuit 304, an input terminal 307, and a photosensor 306. It has been. A plurality of optical sensors 306 are provided on the outer periphery of the substrate 300 as shown in FIG. Providing a plurality of light sensors 306 enables fine brightness control by detecting light from various angles.
[0038]
The optical sensor 306 is manufactured using a material having a photoelectric effect such as amorphous silicon. The optical sensor 306 is manufactured over a separate substrate and is attached to the outer peripheral portion of the substrate 300 outside the pixel portion 301 and the driver circuit of the substrate 300. In this case, the light receiving surface of the photosensor and the image display surface of the pixel portion face the same direction.
[0039]
The pixel portion 301 is formed by arranging a plurality of pixels 308 in a matrix. The configuration of the pixel 308 differs depending on the type of display device, but in any case, each pixel is provided with a TFT.
[0040]
The configuration of the video signal processing circuit 304 and the control circuit 305 is the same as that shown in FIG. 1 (digital drive) or FIG. 15 (analog drive), and the video input to the source signal line driving circuit according to the output from the optical sensor 306. The brightness is adjusted by changing the amplitude of the signal. When the surroundings are bright, the amplitude of the video signal is increased to increase the brightness of the image.
The opposite is true when it is dark.
[0041]
The pixel portion 301, the gate signal line driver circuit 302, the source signal line driver circuit 303, the video signal processing circuit 304, and the control circuit 305 can be formed over the substrate 300 using TFTs.
[0042]
According to the present invention, in an active matrix display device, ambient brightness is detected by an optical sensor, and brightness of video display is controlled based on this information. A plurality of optical sensors 306 are provided around the pixel portion 301 to detect light intensity that is scattered by surrounding objects and incident on each optical sensor from various angles, and appropriate correction is performed by balancing the detected light intensities. be able to. 3 is not limited to the configuration of the display device of FIG. 3, and the structure of FIG. 3 is only one preferred form for carrying out the present invention.
[0043]
[Example 2]
The active matrix display device shown in FIG. 3 can realize a liquid crystal display device or an EL display device. In this embodiment, an example in which a TFT is formed over a substrate to manufacture a liquid crystal display device will be described.
[0044]
First, as shown in FIG. 4A, a silicon oxide film and silicon nitride are formed on a glass substrate 401 such as barium borosilicate glass or aluminoborosilicate glass represented by Corning # 7059 glass or # 1737 glass. A blocking layer 402 made of an insulating film such as a film or a silicon oxynitride film is formed. For example, SiH by plasma CVD method Four , NH Three , N 2 A silicon oxynitride film made of O is formed to 10 to 200 nm (preferably 50 to 100 nm) and similarly SiH Four , N 2 A silicon oxynitride silicon film formed from O is stacked to a thickness of 50 to 200 nm (preferably 100 to 150 nm). Although the blocking layer 402 is shown as a two-layer structure in this embodiment, it may be formed as a single layer film of the insulating film or a structure in which two or more layers are stacked.
[0045]
The semiconductor layers 403 to 406 divided into islands are formed by converting a semiconductor film having an amorphous structure into a semiconductor film having a crystal structure by a heat treatment using a laser annealing method or a furnace annealing furnace (hereinafter referred to as a crystalline semiconductor film). Form with. The island-shaped semiconductor layers 403 to 406 are formed to have a thickness of 25 to 80 nm (preferably 30 to 60 nm). There is no limitation on the material of the crystalline semiconductor film, but the crystalline semiconductor film is preferably formed of silicon or a silicon germanium (SiGe) alloy.
[0046]
In order to fabricate a crystalline semiconductor film by a laser annealing method, a pulse oscillation type or a continuous emission type excimer laser, a YAG laser, a YVO Four Use a laser. Laser light output from the laser oscillator is collected in a linear form by an optical system and irradiated onto the semiconductor film. The conditions for annealing are appropriately selected by the practitioner. When an excimer laser is used, the pulse oscillation frequency is 30 Hz and the laser energy density is 100 to 400 mJ / cm. 2 (Typically 200-300mJ / cm 2 ). When a YAG laser is used, the second harmonic is used and the pulse oscillation frequency is 1 to 10 kHz, and the laser energy density is 300 to 600 mJ / cm. 2 (Typically 350-500mJ / cm 2 ) Then, a laser beam condensed in a linear shape with a width of 100 to 1000 μm, for example, 400 μm, is irradiated over the entire surface of the substrate, and the superposition ratio (overlap ratio) of the linear laser light at this time is 80 to 98%.
[0047]
Next, a gate insulating film 407 is formed to cover the island-shaped semiconductor layers 403 to 406. The gate insulating film 407 is formed of an insulating film containing silicon with a thickness of 40 to 150 nm by using a plasma CVD method or a sputtering method. In this embodiment, a silicon oxynitride film is formed with a thickness of 120 nm. Needless to say, the gate insulating film 407 is not limited to such a silicon oxynitride film, and another insulating film containing silicon may be used as a single layer or a stacked structure.
[0048]
Then, a first conductive film 408 a and a second conductive film 408 b for forming a gate electrode are formed over the gate insulating film 407. In this embodiment, the first conductive film 408a is formed with tantalum nitride or titanium to a thickness of 50 to 100 nm, and the second conductive film 408b is formed with tungsten to a thickness of 100 to 300 nm. These materials are stable even in heat treatment at 400 to 600 ° C. in a nitrogen atmosphere, and the resistivity does not increase remarkably.
[0049]
Next, as shown in FIG. 4B, a resist mask 409 is formed, and a first etching process for forming a gate electrode is performed. Although there is no limitation on the etching method, an ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) etching method is preferably used. CF as etching gas Four And Cl 2 Are mixed, and 500 W of RF (13.56 MHz) power is applied to the coil-type electrode at a pressure of 0.5 to 2 Pa, preferably 1 Pa, to generate plasma. 100 W RF (13.56 MHz) power is also applied to the substrate side (sample stage), and a substantially negative self-bias voltage is applied. CF Four And Cl 2 In the case of mixing, even in the case of a tungsten film, a tantalum nitride film, and a titanium film, etching can be performed at the same rate.
[0050]
Under the above etching conditions, the end portion can be tapered by the shape of the resist mask and the effect of the bias voltage applied to the substrate side. The angle of the tapered portion is set to 25 to 45 degrees. In order to etch without leaving a residue on the gate insulating film, it is preferable to increase the etching time at a rate of about 10 to 20%. Since the selection ratio of the silicon oxynitride film to tungsten is 2 to 4 (typically 3), the surface where the silicon oxynitride film is exposed is etched by about 20 to 50 nm by the over-etching process. Thus, the first shape conductive layers 410 to 415 (the first conductive films 410a to 415a and the second conductive films 410b to 415b) formed of the first conductive film and the second conductive film by the first etching treatment. Form. Reference numeral 416 denotes a gate insulating film, and a region not covered with the first shape conductive layer is etched and thinned by about 20 to 50 nm.
[0051]
Then, as shown in FIG. 4C, a first doping process is performed to dope n-type impurities (donors). Doping is performed by ion doping or ion implantation. The condition of the ion doping method is a dose of 1 × 10 13 ~ 5x10 14 /cm 2 Do as. As the impurity element imparting n-type, an element belonging to Group 15, typically phosphorus (P) or arsenic (As) is used. In this case, the acceleration voltage is controlled (for example, 20 to 60 keV), and the first shape conductive layer is used as a mask. Thus, first impurity regions 417 to 420 are formed. For example, the n-type impurity concentration in the first impurity regions 417 to 420 is 1 × 10 5. 20 ~ 1x10 twenty one /cm Three Form in the range of.
[0052]
In the second etching process shown in FIG. 5A, an ICP etching apparatus is similarly used, and an etching gas is CF. Four And Cl 2 And O 2 And 500 W of RF power (13.56 MHz) is supplied to the coil-type electrode at a pressure of 1 Pa to generate plasma. 50 W RF (13.56 MHz) power is applied to the substrate side (sample stage), and a lower self-bias voltage is applied than in the first etching process. Under such conditions, the tungsten film is anisotropically etched to leave the tantalum nitride film or titanium film as the first conductive layer. Thus, second shape conductive layers 421 to 426 (first conductive films 421a to 426a and second conductive films 421b to 426b) are formed. The region of the gate insulating film not covered with the second shape conductive layers 421 to 426 is further etched by about 20 to 50 nm to reduce the film thickness.
[0053]
Next, a second doping process is performed. The n-type impurity (donor) is doped under a condition of a high acceleration voltage with a lower dose than in the first doping process. For example, the acceleration voltage is 70 to 120 keV and 1 × 10 13 /cm 2 The second impurity regions 427 to 430 are formed inside the first impurity region formed in the island-shaped semiconductor layer in FIG. 4C. In this doping, the second shape conductive layers 423b to 426b are used as masks against the impurity element, and doping is performed so that the impurity element is added to the lower region of the second shape conductive layers 423a to 426a. In this impurity region, since the second shape conductive layers 423a to 426a remain with substantially the same film thickness, the difference in concentration distribution in the direction along the second shape conductive layer is small. 17 ~ 1x10 19 /cm Three The n-type impurity (donor) is included so as to be contained at a concentration of 1%.
[0054]
Then, as shown in FIG. 5B, a third etching process is performed, and an etching process for the gate insulating film is performed. As a result, the second shape conductive layers 421a to 426a are also etched, and the end portions recede and become smaller, so that the third shape conductive layers 431 to 436 (the first conductive films 431a to 436a and the second conductive layers are reduced). Films 431b-436b) are formed. Reference numeral 437 denotes a remaining gate insulating film, which may be further etched to expose the surface of the semiconductor layer.
[0055]
For the p-channel TFT, as shown in FIG. 5C, resist masks 438 and 439 are formed, and an island-shaped semiconductor layer for forming the p-channel TFT is doped with a p-type impurity (acceptor). To do. The p-type impurity (acceptor) is selected from elements belonging to Group 13, and typically boron (B) is used. The impurity concentration of the third impurity regions 440a to 440c is 2 × 10 20 ~ 2x10 twenty one /cm Three To be. Although phosphorus is added to the third impurity region, boron is added at a concentration higher than that to reverse the conductivity type.
[0056]
Through the above steps, impurity regions are formed in the semiconductor layer. In FIG. 5, the third shape conductive layers 433 to 435 serve as gate electrodes, and the third shape conductive layer 436 serves as a capacitor wiring. The third shape conductive layers 431 and 432 form wirings such as source lines.
[0057]
Next, in FIG. 6A, first, a silicon nitride film (SiN: H) or a silicon oxynitride film (SiN x O y : H) is formed by a plasma CVD method. Then, a step of activating the impurity element added to each island-like semiconductor layer is performed for the purpose of controlling the conductivity type. Activation is preferably performed by a thermal annealing method using a furnace annealing furnace. In addition, a laser annealing method or a rapid thermal annealing method (RTA method) can also be applied. In the thermal annealing method, the oxygen concentration is 1 ppm or less, preferably 0.1 ppm or less in a nitrogen atmosphere at 400 to 700 ° C., typically 500 to 600 ° C. In this embodiment, the temperature is 550 ° C. for 4 hours. Heat treatment is performed.
[0058]
Thereafter, a silicon nitride film (SiN: H) or a silicon oxynitride film (SiN) is formed over the first insulating film 441. x O y : H), a second insulating film 442 is formed. And heat processing is performed at 350-500 degreeC. The semiconductor film is hydrogenated with hydrogen released from the second insulating film 442.
[0059]
Further, as shown in FIG. 6B, a third insulating film 443 made of an organic resin is formed to a thickness of about 1000 nm. As the organic resin film, polyimide, acrylic, polyimide amide, or the like can be used. Advantages of using the organic resin film are that the film forming method is simple, the relative dielectric constant is low, the parasitic capacitance can be reduced, and the flatness is excellent. Organic resin films other than those described above can also be used. Here, after applying to the substrate, a thermal polymerization type polyimide is used and baked at 300 ° C.
[0060]
Next, as shown in FIG. 2, contact holes are formed in the third insulating film 443, the second insulating film 442, and the first insulating film 441, and aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), and tantalum (Ta) are formed. The connection electrode 451 and the source or drain wirings 444 to 447 are formed using the above. In the pixel portion, a pixel electrode 450, a gate wiring 449, and a connection electrode 448 are formed.
[0061]
In this manner, a peripheral circuit 451 formed of a p-channel TFT 453 and an n-channel TFT 454 and a pixel portion 452 having a pixel TFT 455 and a storage capacitor 456 are formed over the same substrate. FIG. 6B shows only a cross-sectional view of the p-channel TFT 453 and the n-channel TFT 454 of the peripheral circuit 451. The gate signal line driver circuit and the source signal line driver shown in Embodiment 1 are shown using these TFTs. A circuit, a video signal processing circuit, and a control circuit can be formed. The circuit configuration may be determined appropriately by the practitioner.
[0062]
The p-channel TFT 453 of the driver circuit 451 includes a channel formation region 501 and third impurity regions 502 to 504 functioning as a source region or a drain region.
[0063]
In the n-channel TFT 454, a channel formation region 505, a second impurity region 506 (Gate Overlapped Drain: GOLD region) overlapping with the gate electrode formed of the third shape conductive layer 434, and a first impurity region formed outside the gate electrode are formed. 2 impurity regions 507 (Lightly Doped Drain: LDD regions) and a first impurity region 508 functioning as a source region or a drain region. By using these TFTs, the gate signal line driver circuit and the source signal line driver circuit shown in Embodiment 1 can be formed.
[0064]
The pixel TFT 455 includes a channel formation region 509, a second impurity region 510 (GOLD region) that overlaps with the third shape conductive layer 435 for forming the gate electrode, and a second impurity region 511 (outside of the gate electrode). LDD region) and first impurity regions 512, 513, and 514 functioning as a source region or a drain region. In addition, the semiconductor film functioning as one electrode of the storage capacitor 456 includes impurity regions 516 and 517 and a region 515 to which no impurity is added.
[0065]
In the pixel portion 452, the source wiring 432 is electrically connected to the source or drain region 512 of the pixel TFT 455 by the connection electrode 448. In addition, the gate wiring 449 is electrically connected to the gate electrode 435. Further, the pixel electrode 450 is connected to the source or drain region 514 of the pixel TFT 455 and the impurity region 517 of the semiconductor film which is one electrode of the storage capacitor 456.
[0066]
A cross-sectional view of the pixel portion 452 in FIG. 6B corresponds to the AA ′ line shown in FIG. The gate electrode 435 also serves as one electrode of a storage capacitor of an adjacent pixel, and forms a capacitor in a portion overlapping with the semiconductor layer 453 connected to the pixel electrode 452. In addition, the arrangement relationship between the source wiring 432, the pixel electrode 450, and the adjacent pixel electrode 451 is such that end portions of the pixel electrodes 450 and 451 are provided on the source wiring 432, and an overlapping portion is formed, thereby blocking stray light and blocking light. Is increasing. FIG. 8 shows an equivalent circuit of such a pixel.
[0067]
As described above, the driver circuit and the pixel portion of the active matrix display device in FIG. 3 described in Embodiment 1 can be formed.
[0068]
[Example 3]
FIG. 16 shows an example in which an active matrix display device is manufactured using inverted staggered TFTs. As in Embodiment 2, a peripheral circuit 1705 formed by a p-channel TFT 1701 and an n-channel TFT 1702, and a pixel portion 1706 having a pixel TFT 1703 and a storage capacitor 1704 are formed on a substrate 1601. Only the cross-sectional views of the p-channel TFT 1701 and the n-channel TFT 1702 of the peripheral circuit 1705 are shown. Using these TFTs, the gate signal line driver circuit, the source signal line driver circuit, and the video signal processing circuit shown in the first embodiment are shown. A control circuit can be formed.
[0069]
A gate electrode 1602 to 1604, source or drain lines 1606 and 1607, and a capacitor wiring 1605 are formed over the substrate 1601 with a material selected from molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), tantalum (Ta), aluminum (Al), and the like. A first insulating film 1608 used as a gate insulating film is formed on the insulating film containing silicon. The semiconductor films 1610 to 1613 are formed of a crystalline semiconductor material containing silicon, and a region containing a p-type or n-type impurity is formed. Channel protective films 1615 to 1617 may be formed on the channel forming region of the TFT, and a second insulating film 232 made of a silicon nitride or silicon nitride oxide film is formed on the upper layer, and a third insulating film made of an organic resin material is formed thereon. A film 1633 is formed. Source or drain wirings 1634 to 1637, a pixel electrode 1640, a gate wiring 1639, and a connection electrode 1638 are formed using aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), or the like.
[0070]
In the p-channel TFT 1701 of the peripheral circuit 1705, a channel formation region 1707 and a source or drain region 1708 made of a p-type impurity region are formed. In the n-channel TFT 1702, a channel formation region 1709, an LDD region 1710 made of an n-type impurity region, and a source or drain region 1711 made of an n-type impurity region are formed. A pixel TFT 1703 in the pixel portion 1706 has a multi-gate structure, and a channel formation region 1712, an LDD region 1713, and source or drain regions 1714 to 1716 are formed. The n-type impurity region located between the LDD regions is useful for reducing off current. The storage capacitor 1704 is formed of a capacitor wiring 1605, a semiconductor layer 1613, and a first insulating layer formed therebetween.
[0071]
In the pixel portion 1706, the source wiring 1607 is electrically connected to the source or drain region 1714 of the pixel TFT 1703 by the connection electrode 1638. In addition, the gate wiring 1639 is electrically connected to the first electrode. The pixel electrode 1640 is connected to the source or drain region 1716 of the pixel TFT 1703 and the semiconductor layer 1613 of the storage capacitor 1704.
[0072]
Even when such an inverted staggered TFT is used, a pixel having a structure similar to that shown in FIG. 7 can be formed although the layer on which the gate electrode and the semiconductor film are formed is changed. In this manner, the driver circuit and the pixel portion of the active matrix display device in FIG. 3 described in Embodiment 1 can be formed.
[0073]
[Example 4]
An example of manufacturing an EL display device using the active matrix display device having the structure shown in FIG. 3 will be described. Since the control circuit, the video signal processing circuit, the gate signal line drive circuit, and the source signal line drive circuit that detect the ambient light intensity and correct the video signal have the same configuration, in this embodiment, the cross-sectional structure of the pixel portion The outline will be described with reference to FIG.
[0074]
In FIG. 9A, 11 is a substrate and 12 is a blocking layer. As the substrate 11, a light-transmitting substrate, typically a glass substrate, a quartz substrate, a glass ceramic substrate, or a crystallized glass substrate can be used. However, it must be able to withstand the maximum processing temperature during the manufacturing process.
[0075]
Reference numeral 701 denotes a switching TFT, which is an n-channel TFT, but the switching TFT may be a p-channel TFT. Reference numeral 702 denotes a current control TFT, and FIG. 9A illustrates a case where the current control TFT 702 is formed of a p-channel TFT. In this case, the drain of the current control TFT is connected to the anode of the EL element. However, it is not necessary to limit the switching TFT to an n-channel TFT and the current control TFT to a p-channel TFT, and vice versa, it is also possible to use a p-channel TFT or an n-channel TFT for both. .
[0076]
The switching TFT 701 includes an active layer including a source region 13, a drain region 14, LDD regions 15a to 15d, a high concentration impurity region 16, and channel forming regions 17a and 17b, a gate insulating film 18, gate electrodes 19a and 19b, and a first interlayer. An insulating film 20, a source line 21, and a drain line 22 are formed. Note that the gate insulating film 18 or the first interlayer insulating film 20 may be common to all TFTs on the substrate, or may be different depending on a circuit or an element.
[0077]
A switching TFT 701 shown in FIG. 9A has a so-called double gate structure in which gate electrodes 19a and 19b are electrically connected. Needless to say, not only a double gate structure but also a so-called multi-gate structure (a structure including an active layer having two or more channel formation regions connected in series) such as a triple gate structure may be used.
[0078]
The multi-gate structure is extremely effective in reducing the off-current. If the off-current of the switching TFT 701 is sufficiently reduced, the capacitance required for the capacitor can be reduced accordingly. That is, since the area occupied by the capacitor can be reduced, the multi-gate structure is also effective in increasing the effective light emitting area of the EL element 703.
[0079]
Further, in the switching TFT 701, the LDD regions 15a to 15d are provided so as not to overlap the gate electrodes 19a and 19b with the gate insulating film 18 interposed therebetween. Such a structure is very effective in reducing off current. The length (width) of the LDD regions 15a to 15d may be 0.5 to 3.5 μm, typically 2.0 to 2.5 μm.
[0080]
Note that it is more preferable to provide an offset region (a region including a semiconductor layer having the same composition as the channel formation region and to which no gate voltage is applied) between the channel formation region and the LDD region in order to reduce off-state current. In the case of a multi-gate structure having two or more gate electrodes, an isolation region 16 (a region to which the same impurity element is added at the same concentration as the source region or the drain region) provided between the channel formation regions is provided. It is effective for reducing the off current.
[0081]
Next, the current control TFT 702 includes the source region 26, the drain region 27, the channel formation region 29, the gate insulating film 18, the gate electrode 30, the first interlayer insulating film 20, the source line 31, and the drain line 32. Is done. The gate electrode 30 has a single gate structure, but may have a multi-gate structure.
[0082]
FIG. 9B is an equivalent circuit of a pixel of this EL display device, and the drain of the switching TFT 701 is connected to the gate of the current control TFT 702. Reference numeral 19 denotes a gate wiring constituting the gate electrodes 19a and 19b, and reference numeral 704 denotes a storage capacitor. Specifically, the gate electrode 30 of the current control TFT 702 in FIG. 9A is electrically connected to the drain region 14 of the switching TFT 701 through the drain wiring (also referred to as connection wiring) 22. The source wiring 31 is connected to the power supply line 705 in FIG. 9B.
[0083]
Further, from the viewpoint of increasing the amount of current flowing through the EL layer, the thickness of the active layer (especially the channel formation region) of the current control TFT 702 is increased (preferably 50 to 100 nm, more preferably 60 to 80 nm). It is also effective. Conversely, in the case of the switching TFT 701, from the viewpoint of reducing the off-state current, the thickness of the active layer (especially the channel formation region) may be reduced (preferably 20 to 50 nm, more preferably 25 to 40 nm). It is valid.
[0084]
Reference numeral 47 denotes a first passivation film, and the film thickness may be 20 nm to 200 nm. As a material, an insulating film containing silicon (in particular, a silicon nitride oxide film or a silicon nitride film is preferable) can be used. The passivation film 47 has a role of protecting the formed TFT from alkali metal and moisture. The EL layer finally provided above the TFT contains an alkali metal such as sodium. That is, the first passivation film 47 also functions as a protective layer that prevents these alkali metals (movable ions) from entering the TFT side.
[0085]
Reference numeral 48 denotes a second interlayer insulating film having a function as a flattening film for flattening a step formed by the TFT. The second interlayer insulating film 48 is preferably an organic resin film, and polyimide, polyamide, acrylic, BCB (benzocyclobutene) or the like may be used. These organic resin films have an advantage that they can easily form a good flat surface and have a low relative dielectric constant. Since the EL layer is very sensitive to unevenness, it is desirable that the step due to the TFT is almost absorbed by the second interlayer insulating film. Further, in order to reduce the parasitic capacitance formed between the gate wiring or the data wiring and the cathode of the EL element, it is desirable to provide a thick material having a low relative dielectric constant. Therefore, the film thickness is preferably 0.5 to 5 μm (preferably 1.5 to 2.5 μm).
[0086]
Reference numeral 49 denotes a pixel electrode (EL element anode) made of a transparent conductive film, which is formed after a contact hole (opening) is formed in the second interlayer insulating film 48 and the first passivation film 47. Are formed so as to be connected to the drain wiring 32 of the current control TFT 702. If the pixel electrode 49 and the drain region 27 are not directly connected as shown in FIG. 9A, the cathode alkali metal can be prevented from entering the active layer via the pixel electrode. .
[0087]
A bump 59 is formed of an insulating material on the second interlayer insulating film 48, and an EL layer 51 is provided therebetween. The EL layer 51 is used in a single layer or a laminated structure, but the light emission efficiency is better when it is used in a laminated structure. In general, the hole injection layer / hole transport layer / light emitting layer / electron transport layer are formed on the pixel electrode in this order, but the hole transport layer / light emitting layer / electron transport layer, or hole injection layer / positive layer are formed. A structure such as a hole transport layer / a light emitting layer / an electron transport layer / an electron injection layer may be used. In the present invention, any known structure may be used, and the EL layer may be doped with a fluorescent dye or the like.
[0088]
As the organic EL material, for example, materials disclosed in the following US patents or publications can be used. U.S. Pat.No. 4,356,429, U.S. Pat.No. 4,539,507, U.S. Pat.No. 4,720,732, U.S. Pat. No. 5,073,446, U.S. Pat.No. 5,059,862, U.S. Pat.No. 5,061,617, U.S. Pat. JP-A-8-78159.
[0089]
The EL display device can be roughly divided into four color display methods, a method of forming three types of EL elements corresponding to R (red), G (green), and B (blue), a white light emitting EL element, and A system that combines color filters, a system that combines blue or blue-green light emitting EL elements and phosphors (fluorescent color conversion layer: CCM), and uses a transparent electrode for the cathode (counter electrode), and supports RGB. There is a method of stacking EL elements. Note that EL includes light emission due to singlet excitation (fluorescence) and light emission due to triplet excitation (phosphorescence), and EL in this specification includes light emission including either one or both of them. Point to it.
[0090]
The structure in FIG. 9A is an example in the case of using a method of forming three types of EL elements corresponding to RGB. Note that although only one pixel is shown in FIG. 9A, pixels having the same structure are formed corresponding to the respective colors of red, green, and blue, so that color display can be performed.
[0091]
On the EL layer 51, a cathode 52 of an EL element is provided. As the cathode 52, a material containing magnesium (Mg), lithium (Li), or calcium (Ca) having a small work function is used. An electrode made of MgAg (a material in which Mg and Ag are mixed at Mg: Ag = 10: 1) is preferably used. Other examples include MgAgAl electrodes, LiAl electrodes, LiFAl, and AlLi electrodes.
[0092]
The cathode 52 is desirably formed continuously after the EL layer 51 is formed without being released to the atmosphere. This is because the interface state between the cathode 52 and the EL layer 51 greatly affects the luminous efficiency of the EL element. Note that in this specification, a light-emitting element formed using a pixel electrode (anode), an EL layer, and a cathode is referred to as an EL element.
[0093]
A laminate including the EL layer 51 and the cathode 52 needs to be formed individually for each pixel. However, since the EL layer 51 is extremely sensitive to moisture, a normal photolithography technique cannot be used. Accordingly, it is preferable to use a physical mask material such as a metal mask and selectively form the film by a vapor phase method such as a vacuum deposition method, a sputtering method, or a plasma CVD method.
[0094]
Note that after the EL layer 51 is selectively formed using an inkjet method, a screen printing method, a spin coating method, or the like, a cathode can be formed by a vapor phase method such as an evaporation method, a sputtering method, or a plasma CVD method. is there.
[0095]
Reference numeral 53 denotes a protective electrode, which protects the cathode 52 from external moisture and the like, and at the same time connects the cathode 52 of each pixel. As the protective electrode 53, it is preferable to use a low-resistance material containing aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), or silver (Ag). The protective electrode 53 can also be expected to have a heat dissipation effect that reduces the heat generation of the EL layer 51. It is also effective to form the protective layer 53 continuously after the EL layer 51 and the cathode 52 are formed without being released to the atmosphere.
[0096]
Reference numeral 54 denotes a second passivation film, and the film thickness may be 10 nm to 1 μm (preferably 200 to 500 nm). The purpose of providing the second passivation film 54 is mainly to protect the EL layer 51 from moisture, but it is also effective to have a heat dissipation effect. However, since the EL layer is vulnerable to heat as described above, it is desirable to form the film at as low a temperature as possible (preferably in a temperature range from room temperature to 120 ° C.). Therefore, the plasma CVD method, the sputtering method, the vacuum deposition method, the ion plating method, or the solution coating method (spin coating method) can be said to be a preferable film forming method. In the structure illustrated in FIG. 9A, the light emission direction viewed from the EL element is the substrate 11 side, and the EL display device having such a pixel structure displays an image through the substrate 11.
[0097]
On the other hand, FIG. 10A shows a cross-sectional view of a pixel structure of an EL display device as in FIG. 9A. The light emission direction viewed from the EL element 703 is opposite to the substrate 11, and thus An EL display device having a pixel structure displays an image on the surface on which the EL element 703 is formed. In this case, the switching TFT 701 is the same as that in FIG. 9A, but the current control TFT 706 is an n-channel TFT. The current control TFT 706 includes a source region 66, a drain region 67, a channel formation region 69, a gate insulating film 18, a gate electrode 60, a first interlayer insulating film 20, a source line 61, and a drain line 62. The gate electrode 60 has a single gate structure, but may have a multi-gate structure. An equivalent circuit of such a pixel is shown in FIG.
[0098]
Reference numeral 53 denotes a pixel electrode (EL element cathode side) formed of Al, Cu, Ag, or the like, on which an EL element cathode 52 is provided. Note that the interface state between the cathode 52 and the EL layer 51 greatly affects the luminous efficiency of the EL element. Similarly, the EL layer 51 is formed with a single layer or a laminated structure. A transparent electrode (anode side) 49 is provided thereon, and a second passivation film 54 is further provided.
[0099]
The gist of the present invention is that in an active matrix EL display device, a change in the environment is detected by a sensor, the amount of current flowing through the EL element is controlled based on this information, and the light emission luminance of the EL element is controlled. Therefore, the structure of the EL display device in FIG. 9A is not limited, and the structure in FIG. 9A is a preferred embodiment of the active matrix display device having the structure shown in FIG. There is only one. In this manner, the pixel portion of the active matrix display device described in Embodiment 1 can be manufactured using EL elements.
[0100]
[Example 5]
FIG. 12 is a conceptual diagram in which the photosensor shown in Embodiment 1 is mounted on an active matrix display device. Although this embodiment shows a liquid crystal display device as an example, the concept of mounting an optical sensor manufactured on a separate substrate on an active matrix substrate can be applied to an EL display device as it is.
[0101]
A driver circuit (A) 801, a driver circuit (B) 802, a pixel portion 803, an external input / output terminal 804, and a connection wiring 805 are formed over the first substrate 800 over which the pixel portion is formed. The pixel portion 803 is formed by arranging pixel TFTs in a matrix as shown in the second embodiment. The driver circuit (A) 801 and the driver circuit (B) 802 are similarly manufactured. A counter electrode 809 is formed over the second substrate 808 and bonded to the first substrate 800 with a sealant 810. Liquid crystal is sealed inside the sealant 810 to form a liquid crystal layer 811. The first substrate and the second substrate are bonded to each other with a predetermined interval. The nematic liquid crystal has a thickness of 3 to 8 μm, and the smectic liquid crystal has a thickness of 1 to 4 μm.
[0102]
An FPC (Flexible Printed Circuit) 812 for inputting power and control signals from the outside is attached to the external input / output terminal 804. In order to increase the adhesive strength of the FPC 812, a reinforcing plate 813 may be provided.
[0103]
A thin film element in which a photoelectric conversion layer is made of amorphous silicon, CdS, or the like is used. A plurality of the optical sensors 806 are formed on the third substrate 807 and mounted on the first substrate 800. The mounting method is slightly different depending on the light incident direction of the optical sensor and the display direction of the pixel portion, but is basically mounted by a face-down method using a conductive resin.
[0104]
FIG. 11 shows an example of an optical sensor using amorphous silicon for the photoelectric conversion layer. FIG. 11A illustrates an optical sensor in which a transparent electrode 602, a photoelectric conversion layer 603, and light reflective electrodes 604 a and 604 b are formed over a light-transmitting substrate 601. The photoelectric conversion layer 603 is formed with a pin junction, and the I-type layer is formed of amorphous silicon. The bonding direction is arbitrary. For example, the p-type layer is formed in contact with the transparent electrode 602 and the n-type layer is formed in contact with the light reflective electrodes 604a and 604b. The transparent electrode 602 is separated from the end of the substrate 601 by the openings 605 and 606 to prevent a short circuit. The external connection terminal also serves as a light reflective electrode, and the light reflective electrode 604a is electrically connected to the transparent electrode through an opening 607 formed in the photoelectric conversion layer 603, and becomes a positive terminal. The light reflective electrode 604b forms a negative terminal. In the case of FIG. 11A, the light receiving surface is on the light transmitting substrate 610 side, and light transmitted through the substrate 601 is incident on the photoelectric conversion layer.
[0105]
FIG. 11B illustrates an optical sensor in which a light reflective electrode 611, a photoelectric conversion layer 612, and a transparent electrode 613 are formed over a substrate 610. The photoelectric conversion layer 612 is formed with a pin junction, and the I-type layer is formed of amorphous silicon. The bonding direction is arbitrary, but a structure in which the p-type layer is in contact with the transparent electrode 613 and the n-type layer is in contact with the light reflective electrode 611 is preferable. The light reflective electrode 611 and the photoelectric conversion layer 612 are separated from the end of the substrate 610 by the openings 614 and 615 to prevent a short circuit. The external connection terminals 617 and 618 are made of a conductive paste such as silver and are selectively formed on the transparent electrode. The external connection terminal 617 is electrically connected to the light-reflecting electrode through the opening 614 and becomes a negative terminal (contact on the n layer side). The connection terminal 618 forms a + terminal (contact on the p layer side). In the case of FIG. 11B, the light receiving surface is the side on which the transparent electrode 613 is formed.
[0106]
As described above, the optical sensor can be classified into two types as viewed from the surface on which light enters the photoelectric conversion layer. The photosensor is mounted on a substrate on which a pixel portion, a drive circuit, and a control circuit are formed. In that case, the optical sensor is mounted so as to form a contact with a wiring formed on the same surface of the substrate. FIG. 13 shows details of the portion.
[0107]
FIG. 13A shows an example in which the optical sensor of FIG. 11A is mounted. In this case, light enters the optical sensor from the substrate 601 side on which the optical sensor is formed. The optical sensor is attached in accordance with the wiring 850 formed on the substrate 800 and bonded with a light or thermosetting resin 852. A contact with the wiring 850 is formed by conductive particles 851 contained in the resin 852.
[0108]
FIG. 13B shows an example in which the optical sensor of FIG. 11B is mounted. In this case, the light transmitted through the substrate 800 enters the optical sensor. The optical sensor is mounted in accordance with the wiring 850 formed on the substrate 800 and bonded with a conductive material 853 such as cream solder or silver paste.
[0109]
As shown in FIG. 12, a process for completing a display device by forming a plurality of photosensors on a third substrate 807 and mounting them on a first substrate 800 on which a pixel portion and its driving circuit are formed. Can be simplified. The design rules of the optical sensor used in the present invention and the substrate forming the active matrix display device are different. The latter requires a design rule of several μm to submicron, whereas the former has several tens to several hundreds of microns. Created with design rules. The optical sensor can form a pattern by laser processing or screen printing.
[0110]
[Example 6]
FIG. 14 shows an example of a method for incorporating an active matrix display device mounted with a photosensor as shown in Embodiment 1 into various electronic devices. FIG. 14A shows an example thereof, which includes a substrate 901 on which an element such as a TFT is formed and a counter substrate 902, and an element formation region 903 therebetween. Although a detailed structure of the element formation region 903 is omitted, in the case of a liquid crystal display device, a liquid crystal layer or the like is formed over the pixel electrode in addition to the pixel TFT shown in FIG. 6B or FIG. In the case of an EL display device, a switching TFT, a current control TFT, an EL element, and the like shown in FIG. 9A or 10A are formed. In addition, as shown in FIG. 3, various circuits provided around the pixel portion may be included. The element formation region 903 is sealed between the two substrates with a sealant 904 so as not to be exposed to the outside air, thereby improving the reliability of the display device.
[0111]
The optical sensor 907 is fixed to the substrate 901 on which the pixel portion is formed, and forms an electrical connection with the circuit in the element formation region 903. The connection method in this case is the method shown in FIG. It is mounted outside the counter substrate 902. One end of the input / output terminal 908 is connected to a flexible printed circuit (FPC) 909 and is connected to a printed circuit board 910 provided with a signal processing circuit, an amplifier circuit, a power circuit, etc., and is necessary for image display. It is designed to transmit simple signals. Further, although the polarizing plate is omitted, it may be provided as needed at the appropriate time.
[0112]
Video display (display light) is performed by light emitted to the counter substrate 902 side, and this surface becomes the surface. Light enters the optical sensor through an opening 916 provided in the housing 915. in this case. An optical sensor having a structure shown in FIG. The output from the optical sensor is connected to the control circuit by wiring 906.
[0113]
The structure in FIG. 14A can be applied to a reflective liquid crystal display device. Although not illustrated, if a backlight is provided below the substrate 901 over which the pixel portion is formed, it can be used for a transmissive liquid crystal display device. In addition, the present invention can be applied to an EL display device having a structure as shown in FIG.
[0114]
FIG. 14B illustrates another example, in which a substrate 920 on which an element such as a TFT is formed and a counter substrate 921 are fixed with a sealant 923, and an element formation region 922 is provided therebetween. The optical sensor 925 is fixed to a substrate 920 on which an element such as a TFT is formed, and is electrically connected to a circuit in an element formation region. The connection method shown in FIG. 13B is adopted. One end of the input / output terminal 926 is connected to a flexible printed circuit (FPC) 927 and is connected to a printed circuit board 928 provided with a signal processing circuit, an amplifier circuit, a power circuit, and the like, and is necessary for image display. It is designed to transmit simple signals. Image display (display light) is emitted to the substrate 920 side, and this surface becomes the surface. External light is introduced from an opening 930 provided in the housing 929, and light transmitted through the substrate 920 on which an element such as a TFT is formed enters the optical sensor 925. An output from the optical sensor is connected to a control circuit by a wiring 924.
[0115]
The structure in FIG. 14B can be applied to an EL display device having a structure in which light from an EL layer is emitted to the substrate side as illustrated in FIG.
[0116]
The mounting method of the display device shown here is an example, and is appropriately assembled according to the form of the display device.
[0117]
[Example 7]
FIG. 17 shows an example in which the optical sensor is formed integrally with a substrate on which elements such as TFTs are formed. The p-channel TFT 852 and the n-channel TFT 853 of the peripheral circuit 851 are manufactured in the same manner as in the second embodiment. A blocking layer 857 is formed over the substrate 856, and semiconductor films 858 and 859, gate insulating films 860 and 861, and gate electrodes 862 and 863 are formed. The gate insulating films 860 and 861 are etched so that the surfaces of the semiconductor films 858 and 859 are exposed outside the gate electrodes 862 and 863. A passivation film 864 and an interlayer insulating film 865 made of an organic resin material are formed on the gate electrodes 862 and 863, and source or drain electrodes 866 to 869 are formed.
[0118]
Details of the channel formation region and the p-type impurity region formed in the semiconductor film 858 of the p-channel TFT 852 and the channel formation region and the n-type impurity region formed in the semiconductor film 859 of the n-channel TFT 853 are described in Example. This is the same as the p-channel TFT 453 and the n-channel TFT 454 shown in FIG.
[0119]
On the other hand, the optical sensor 854 is manufactured in the same process as these TFTs. The p-type semiconductor region 870 and the n-type semiconductor region 871 are formed using the same crystalline semiconductor as the semiconductor films 858 and 859. The p-type or n-type impurity element is formed at the same time as the impurity region of the TFT is manufactured. An amorphous silicon film 872 is formed to a thickness of 500 to 1000 nm so as to overlap with the impurity semiconductor. The amorphous silicon film 872 is desirably an intrinsic semiconductor, and thereby a pin junction is formed. Reference numeral 873 denotes an electrode in contact with the p-type semiconductor region 870, and reference numeral 874 denotes an electrode in contact with the n-type semiconductor region.
[0120]
Light can be incident on the optical sensor 854 from the substrate 856 side or from the surface side where the amorphous silicon film 872 is formed. Therefore, any of the methods shown in FIGS. 14A and 14B can be adopted as the method of incorporation into the housing shown in the sixth embodiment.
[0121]
In this embodiment, the TFT is shown as a top gate type structure described in Embodiment 2, but
The photosensor of this embodiment can be combined with the inverted staggered TFT shown in Embodiment 3. A display device in which such a photosensor is formed can be applied to both a liquid crystal display device and an EL display device.
[0122]
[Example 8]
The active matrix display device of the present invention can be used for various electronic devices. Such electronic devices include video cameras, digital cameras, projectors (rear or front type), head mounted displays (goggles type displays), car navigation systems, car stereos, personal computers, and personal digital assistants (mobile computers, mobile phones). Phone or electronic book). Examples of these are shown in FIGS.
[0123]
FIG. 18A illustrates a personal computer, which includes a main body 9001, an image input portion 9002, a display device 9003, a keyboard 9004, and the like. The present invention can be used for the display device 9003, and the luminance of the display device 9003 can be controlled in accordance with ambient brightness by an optical sensor provided in the light receiving portion 9005.
[0124]
FIG. 18B illustrates a video camera, which includes a main body 9101, a display device 9102, an audio input portion 9104, operation switches 9103, a battery 9106, an image receiving portion 9105, and the like. The present invention can be used for the display device 9102, and the luminance of the display device 9102 can be controlled in accordance with ambient brightness by an optical sensor provided in the light receiving portion 9107.
[0125]
FIG. 18C illustrates a mobile computer or PDA (Personal Digital Assistant: personal information terminal), which includes a main body 9201, a camera portion 9202, an image receiving portion 9203, an operation switch 9204, a display device 9205, and the like. The present invention can be used for the display device 9205, and the luminance of the display device 9205 can be controlled according to the brightness of the surroundings by an optical sensor provided in the light receiving portion 9206.
[0126]
FIG. 18D illustrates a goggle type display which includes a main body 9301, a display device 9302, an arm portion 9303, and the like. The present invention can be used for the display device 9302, and the luminance of the display device 9302 can be controlled according to the ambient brightness by an optical sensor provided in the light receiving portion 9304.
[0127]
FIG. 18E shows a player using a recording medium (hereinafter referred to as a recording medium) on which a program is recorded, and includes a main body 9401, a display device 9402, a speaker portion 9403, a recording medium 9404, an operation switch 1223, and the like. This player uses a DVD (Digital Versatile Disc), CD, or the like as a recording medium, and can enjoy music, movies, games, and the Internet. The present invention can be used for the display device 9402, and the luminance of the display device 9402 can be controlled in accordance with ambient brightness by an optical sensor provided in the light receiving portion 9406.
[0128]
FIG. 18F illustrates a digital camera, which includes a main body 9501, a display device 9502, an eyepiece portion 9503, operation switches 9504, an image receiving portion (not shown), and the like. The present invention can be used for the display device 9502, and the luminance of the display device 9502 can be controlled in accordance with the ambient brightness by an optical sensor provided in the light receiving portion 99505.
[0129]
FIG. 19A illustrates a mobile phone, which includes a display panel 1401, an operation panel 1402, a connection portion 1403, a display device 1404, an audio output portion 1405, operation keys 1406, a power switch 1407, an audio input portion 1408, an antenna 1409, and the like. Including. The present invention can be used for the display device 1404, and the luminance of the display device 1404 can be controlled in accordance with ambient brightness by an optical sensor provided in the light receiving portion 1410.
[0130]
FIG. 19B illustrates a portable book (electronic book), which includes a main body 1411, a display device 1412, a storage medium 1413, operation switches 1414, an antenna 1415, and the like. The present invention can be used for the display device 1412, and the luminance of the display device 1412 can be controlled in accordance with ambient brightness by an optical sensor provided in the light receiving portion 1416.
[0131]
FIG. 19C illustrates a television receiver which includes a main body 1416, a support base 1417, a display device 1418, and the like. The present invention can be used for the display device 1418, and the luminance of the display device 1418 can be controlled in accordance with ambient brightness by an optical sensor provided in the light receiving portion 1420. The television receiver of the present invention is particularly advantageous when the screen is enlarged, and is advantageous for displays with a diagonal of 10 inches or more (particularly 30 inches or more).
[0132]
As described above, the application range of the present invention is extremely wide and can be applied to electronic devices in various fields.
[0133]
【Effect of the invention】
The display device of the present invention can adjust the light emission luminance of the display device by detecting ambient brightness using an optical sensor. By adjusting the brightness of the image displayed on the pixel portion of the display device, the brightness is increased when the surroundings are bright, and the brightness is decreased when the surroundings are dark, thereby providing a user-friendly video display and display. It is also possible to reduce the power consumption of an electronic device equipped with the device.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 illustrates a structure of a digitally driven display device of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a source follower circuit diagram for reading the output of an optical sensor.
FIG. 3 illustrates a layout of a photosensor, a pixel portion, a driver circuit, and a control circuit.
4 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a manufacturing process of a TFT in a pixel portion and a peripheral circuit. FIG.
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a manufacturing process of a pixel portion and a peripheral circuit TFT.
6 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a manufacturing process of a TFT in a pixel portion and a peripheral circuit. FIG.
FIG. 7 is a top view illustrating a pixel structure of a pixel portion.
FIG. 8 is a circuit diagram of a pixel in a liquid crystal display device.
9A and 9B are a cross-sectional view and an equivalent circuit of a pixel of an EL display device.
10A and 10B are a cross-sectional view and an equivalent circuit of a pixel of an EL display device.
FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view of an optical sensor.
FIG. 12 is an assembly diagram of a display device on which an optical sensor is mounted.
FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a connection method of an optical sensor and an incident direction of light.
FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view showing a state in which the display device of the invention is incorporated in a housing.
FIG. 15 illustrates a structure of an analog-driven display device of the present invention.
FIG. 16 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a TFT of a pixel portion and a peripheral circuit.
FIG. 17 is a cross-sectional view of an optical sensor integrally formed on a substrate.
FIG. 18 is a diagram showing an example of an electronic device in which a display device of the present invention is incorporated.
FIG. 19 illustrates an example of an electronic device in which the display device of the present invention is incorporated.
FIG. 20 is a diagram showing an operation of a time division gradation method.

Claims (8)

  1. A light sensor,
    a control circuit including a γ correction circuit and electrically connected to the optical sensor;
    A source signal line driver circuit electrically connected to the control circuit;
    A pixel portion electrically connected to the source signal line driver circuit,
    The pixel portion is provided on a first substrate;
    The photosensor is provided on a second substrate having translucency,
    The second substrate is provided on the first substrate;
    The light sensor is
    A transparent electrode provided on the second substrate;
    A photoelectric conversion layer provided on the transparent electrode;
    First and second light reflective electrodes provided on the photoelectric conversion layer,
    The first light reflective electrode is electrically connected to the transparent electrode through a first hole provided in the photoelectric conversion layer,
    In the photosensor, the first light reflective electrode and a first wiring provided on the first substrate are electrically connected, and the second light reflective electrode and the first substrate are electrically connected. A display device, wherein the display device is bonded to the first substrate so as to be electrically connected to a second wiring provided thereon.
  2. A light sensor,
    a control circuit including a γ correction circuit and electrically connected to the optical sensor;
    A source signal line driver circuit electrically connected to the control circuit;
    A pixel portion electrically connected to the source signal line driver circuit,
    The pixel portion is provided on a first substrate having translucency,
    The photosensor is provided on a second substrate;
    The second substrate is provided on the first substrate;
    The light sensor is
    A light reflective electrode provided on the second substrate;
    A photoelectric conversion layer provided on the light reflective electrode;
    A transparent electrode provided on the photoelectric conversion layer;
    And first and second external connection terminals provided on the transparent electrode,
    The first external connection terminal is electrically connected to the light reflective electrode through a first opening provided in the photoelectric conversion layer,
    The second external connection terminal is electrically connected to the transparent electrode;
    In the optical sensor, the first external connection terminal and a first wiring provided on the first substrate are electrically connected, and the second external connection terminal and the first substrate are connected to each other. A display device, wherein the display device is bonded to the first substrate so as to be electrically connected to a provided second wiring.
  3. In claim 1,
    An element formation region and an input / output terminal provided on the first substrate;
    A third substrate provided on the element formation region;
    A printed circuit board provided on the back side of the first substrate;
    A housing that covers the first and third substrates,
    The input / output terminal is electrically connected to the printed circuit board through a flexible printed wiring board,
    The housing is located on the first substrate and has a second opening at a position overlapping the photosensor,
    The display device, wherein the light sensor is irradiated with light through the second opening and the second substrate.
  4. In claim 2,
    An element formation region and an input / output terminal provided on the first substrate;
    A third substrate provided on the element formation region;
    A printed circuit board provided on the third substrate;
    A housing that covers the first and third substrates,
    The input / output terminal is electrically connected to the printed circuit board through a flexible printed wiring board,
    The housing is located on the first back surface side and has a second opening at a position overlapping the photosensor,
    The display device, wherein the light sensor is irradiated with light through the second opening and the first substrate.
  5. In any one of Claims 1 thru | or 4,
    Having a video signal processing circuit,
    The control circuit includes a detection circuit including a source follower circuit, an A / D conversion circuit, and an arithmetic processing circuit.
    The detection circuit is electrically connected to the optical sensor;
    The A / D conversion circuit is electrically connected to the detection circuit;
    The arithmetic processing circuit is electrically connected to the A / D conversion circuit,
    The γ correction circuit is electrically connected to the arithmetic processing circuit,
    The video signal processing circuit is electrically connected to the γ correction circuit,
    The display device, wherein the source signal line driver circuit is electrically connected to the video signal processing circuit.
  6. In any one of Claims 1 thru | or 5,
    The display device, wherein the pixel portion includes at least a pixel electrode, a liquid crystal layer, and a counter electrode.
  7. In any one of Claims 1 thru | or 5,
    The display device, wherein the pixel portion includes at least a pixel electrode and a light emitting layer.
  8. In any one of Claims 1 thru | or 7,
    The optical sensor has an amorphous silicon layer.
JP2001171802A 2000-06-06 2001-06-06 Display device Active JP5110748B2 (en)

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