JP5046742B2 - Retaining wall and its supporting method - Google Patents

Retaining wall and its supporting method Download PDF

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JP5046742B2
JP5046742B2 JP2007129930A JP2007129930A JP5046742B2 JP 5046742 B2 JP5046742 B2 JP 5046742B2 JP 2007129930 A JP2007129930 A JP 2007129930A JP 2007129930 A JP2007129930 A JP 2007129930A JP 5046742 B2 JP5046742 B2 JP 5046742B2
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wall
ground
retaining wall
steel pipe
wall body
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JP2007205161A (en
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鹿糠嘉津博
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有限会社カヌカデザイン
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本発明は、擁壁及びその支持方法に関するものであり、より詳細には、大型フーチングの省略を可能にするとともに、高い剛性を発揮する湿式工法の擁壁及びその支持方法に関するものである。 The present invention relates to a retaining wall and a method for supporting the retaining wall. More specifically, the present invention relates to a retaining wall for a wet method and a method for supporting the retaining wall, which enable a large footing to be omitted and exhibit high rigidity.

高さ2mを超える切土、或いは、高さ1mを超える盛土等によって生じる崖や、急傾斜
地又は水路等の如く高低差が生じる地盤においては、地盤の崩壊を防止する擁壁を設置す
る必要が生じる。この種の擁壁は、鉄筋コンクリート構造の壁体、或いは、プレキャスト
製品又はコンクリートブロックを組積した壁体からなる。
It is necessary to install a retaining wall to prevent the ground from collapsing on cliffs caused by cuts exceeding 2m in height, embankments exceeding 1m in height, etc. Arise. This type of retaining wall consists of a reinforced concrete wall or a wall made of precast products or concrete blocks.

このような擁壁は、通常は、全体的にL型断面又はT型断面に設計され、比較的大型の
基礎フーチングが、擁壁底部に形成される。基礎フーチングは、擁壁に作用する荷重(土
圧)及び擁壁の自重を支持地盤に伝達する広範な接地面積を有するとともに、擁壁の転倒
を防止するように機能する。
Such retaining walls are usually designed with an overall L-shaped or T-shaped cross section, and a relatively large foundation footing is formed at the bottom of the retaining wall. The foundation footing has a wide contact area for transmitting the load acting on the retaining wall (earth pressure) and the weight of the retaining wall to the supporting ground, and functions to prevent the retaining wall from falling.

基礎フーチングは、高地盤側に比較的大きく延びるので、擁壁施工時に高地盤を広範囲
に掘削し、擁壁施工後に掘削部分を埋戻す必要が生じる。殊に、軟弱地盤に擁壁を構築す
る場合、非現実的に大きな基礎フーチングを設計・施工しなければならない状況が生じる
。しかし、大型の基礎フーチングの施工は、基礎フーチング自体のコンクリート工事に過
大な工事費を要するばかりでなく、広範な高地盤の掘削及び埋戻しの必要を生じさせ、こ
れは、多大な掘削工事の労力、移動土量の増加、埋戻し土の非安定性等の問題につながる
。また、施工現場の環境、地層、地形、地盤性状又は施工条件等によっては、大型の基礎
フーチングを施工し難い状態が生じる。
Since the foundation footing extends relatively large toward the high ground side, it is necessary to excavate the high ground extensively during the retaining wall construction and backfill the excavated portion after the retaining wall construction. In particular, when a retaining wall is constructed on soft ground, there arises a situation where a large foundation footing must be designed and constructed unrealistically. However, the construction of large foundation footings not only requires excessive construction costs for the concrete work of the foundation footings themselves, but also necessitates extensive excavation and backfilling of the ground. It leads to problems such as labor, increase of moving soil, and instability of backfill soil. In addition, depending on the environment at the construction site, the strata, the topography, the ground properties, or the construction conditions, it may be difficult to construct a large-scale foundation footing.

このような基礎フーチング施工の問題を解消すべく、地山側に荷重を付加して親杭に予
め非転倒側の曲げモーメントを付与するように構成された乾式工法の擁壁構造が、特許第
2824217号掲載公報に開示されている。この擁壁は、地山側に錘構築用の溝を掘削
して鉄筋コンクリート構造の錘又は梁を溝内に形成するとともに、この錘と擁壁直下の親
杭とを支持梁で連結した構造を有し、親杭の間には、PC版等の土留め壁が形成される。
このような擁壁構造によれば、錘の荷重によって親杭に曲げモーメントが作用するととも
に、地盤に対する支持梁及び錘の粘着力及び摩擦力によって擁壁の耐力を増大し、これに
より、基礎フーチングの施工を省略し得るかもしれない。
特許第2824217号掲載公報
In order to solve such a problem of foundation footing construction, a retaining wall structure of a dry construction method configured to apply a load to the ground pile and to apply a bending moment on the non-falling side to the parent pile in advance is Japanese Patent No. 28824217. It is disclosed in the issue publication. This retaining wall has a structure in which a reinforced concrete structure weight or beam is formed in the groove by excavating a weight construction groove on the natural ground side, and this weight and the parent pile directly under the retaining wall are connected by a support beam. However, a retaining wall such as a PC plate is formed between the parent piles.
According to such a retaining wall structure, a bending moment acts on the parent pile due to the load of the weight, and the strength of the retaining wall is increased by the adhesive force and frictional force of the supporting beam and the weight against the ground, and thereby the foundation footing. It may be possible to omit the construction.
Patent No. 2824217

しかしながら、上記特許文献1の擁壁は、親杭(鋼材)の下端部を地中に埋込み、親杭
上部の間に壁体構成要素(PC版等)を掛け渡す乾式工法の擁壁であるにすぎず、高地盤
の土圧および壁体構成要素の自重は、壁体の変形と、親杭及び壁体構成要素の係止部に生
じる反力とによって、吸収し又は支持し得るにすぎない。
However, the retaining wall of Patent Document 1 is a retaining wall of a dry construction method in which a lower end portion of a main pile (steel material) is embedded in the ground and a wall element (such as a PC plate) is spanned between the upper portions of the main pile. However, the earth pressure of the high ground and the weight of the wall component can only be absorbed or supported by the deformation of the wall and the reaction force generated in the locking portion of the parent pile and the wall component. Absent.

また、上記特許文献1の擁壁では、親杭の上部から高地盤側に鋼製ブラケットを突出さ
せ、ブラケットの先端部に錘を構築することによって、非転倒側のモーメントを擁壁に与
えているが、ブラケットは、線型部材であり、しかも、ブラケット及び親杭の接合部は、
ピン支持の支点であるにすぎず、このため、地盤の摩擦力を効果的に利用することはでき
ない。
Moreover, in the retaining wall of the said patent document 1, the moment of the non-falling side is given to a retaining wall by making a steel bracket protrude from the upper part of a main pile to the high ground side, and building a weight in the front-end | tip part of a bracket. However, the bracket is a linear member, and the joint between the bracket and the parent pile is
It is only a fulcrum for pin support, and therefore the frictional force of the ground cannot be used effectively.

上記特許文献1の擁壁は又、親杭(通常は山止め工事(仮設工事)に使用されるH型鋼
材)と、鋼製ブラケットと、PC版等の面材とを組付けた構造を有するにすぎず、各構成
要素を剛体として一体化したものではない。このため、このような擁壁の構造によっては
、擁壁全体で土圧に耐える効果は、得られない。しかも、軸組部材として鋼材を用いた特
許文献1の擁壁では、鋼材の発錆を回避し難く、擁壁の耐用年数の点においても、これを
改善すべき必要がある。
The retaining wall of Patent Document 1 also has a structure in which a main pile (usually an H-shaped steel material used for mountain retaining work (temporary work)), a steel bracket, and a face material such as a PC plate are assembled. It is only provided and each component is not integrated as a rigid body. For this reason, depending on the structure of such a retaining wall, the effect of enduring earth pressure in the entire retaining wall cannot be obtained. In addition, the retaining wall of Patent Document 1 using steel as the shaft assembly member is difficult to avoid rusting of the steel material, and this needs to be improved in terms of the service life of the retaining wall.

本発明は、このような事情に鑑みてなされたものであり、その目的とするところは、擁壁の各構成要素を一体化し、高地盤の土圧に対する耐力を擁壁全体として効果的且つ長期に発揮するとともに、掘削土、廃土及び埋戻し土の量を削減し、しかも、擁壁の転倒を確実に防止することができる擁壁及びその支持方法を提供することにある。 The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and the object of the present invention is to integrate the components of the retaining wall so that the resistance to the earth pressure of the high ground is effective and long-term as a whole. It is another object of the present invention to provide a retaining wall and a method for supporting the retaining wall that can reduce the amount of excavated soil, waste soil, and backfill soil, and can reliably prevent the retaining wall from falling over.

本発明は、上記目的を達成すべく、高地盤の土圧を支持し、高地盤の崩壊を阻止する擁壁において、
擁壁の壁芯方向に間隔を隔てて配置され、下端部が地盤の支持層に達し、上部が擁壁内に延びる垂直支柱を構成する円形断面の鋼管と、
土圧が作用する前記擁壁の壁体部分を構成する鉄筋コンクリート構造の壁体とを備え、
前記鋼管の下端部は閉塞し、該鋼管の内部中空域には、前記壁体のコンクリートと連続するコンクリートが鋼管の全長に亘って充填されており、
前記鋼管の外径は、前記壁体の壁厚よりも小さく、該壁体の低地盤側及び高地盤側の壁面は、柱型を有しない平坦な壁面であり、
前記支柱の地中部分は、擁壁に作用する鉛直荷重及び水平荷重と、前記壁体の自重とを前記地盤によって少なくとも部分的に支持する杭を構成し、
前記壁体の下部の断面を低地盤側及び高地盤側に拡大してなる鉄筋コンクリート構造の地中梁が、前記壁体の下端部に形成され、該地中梁の梁幅(W)は、該地中梁の梁せい(D)よりも大きい寸法に設定され、前記支柱は前記地中梁を垂直に貫通し、前記地中梁は、前記支柱を相互連結するとともに、地盤に接地して前記鉛直荷重、水平荷重及び自重の一部を地盤に伝達する直接基礎を構成することを特徴とする擁壁を提供する。
本発明は又、高地盤の土圧を支持し、高地盤の崩壊を阻止する擁壁を地盤によって支持する擁壁の支持方法において、
土圧が作用する前記擁壁の壁体部分を構成する鉄筋コンクリート構造の壁体が設けられるとともに、下端部が地盤の支持層に達し、上部が擁壁内に延びる垂直支柱を構成する円形断面の鋼管が、前記擁壁の壁芯方向に間隔を隔てて配置され、
前記鋼管の下端部は閉塞し、該鋼管の内部中空域には、前記壁体のコンクリートと連続するコンクリートが鋼管の全長に亘って充填されており、
前記鋼管の外径は、前記壁体の壁厚よりも小さく、該壁体の低地盤側及び高地盤側の壁面は、柱型を有しない平坦な壁面であり、
前記壁体の下部の断面を低地盤側及び高地盤側に拡大してなる鉄筋コンクリート構造の地中梁が前記壁体の下端部に形成され、該地中梁の梁幅(W)は、該地中梁の梁せい(D)よりも大きい寸法に設定され、前記支柱は、前記地中梁を垂直に貫通し、
擁壁に作用する鉛直荷重及び水平荷重と、前記壁体の自重とは、擁壁と地盤との間に作用する摩擦力と、前記支柱に対する地盤の支持層の支持力と、杭を構成する前記支柱の地中部分と地盤との摩擦力と、前記地中梁が接地する地盤の地盤耐力とによって支持されることを特徴とする擁壁の支持方法を提供する。
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention supports the earth pressure of the high ground and prevents the collapse of the high ground.
At intervals in the wall center direction of the retaining wall is placed, the lower end portion reaches the support layer of the ground, and the steel pipe of circular cross-section upper part constitutes the vertical struts extending retaining wall,
Comprising a wall body of a reinforced concrete structure that constitutes the wall body portion of the retaining wall on which earth pressure acts,
The lower end of the steel pipe is closed, and the internal hollow area of the steel pipe is filled with concrete that is continuous with the concrete of the wall body over the entire length of the steel pipe,
The outer diameter of the steel pipe is smaller than the wall thickness of the wall body, and the wall surface on the low ground side and the high ground side of the wall body is a flat wall surface having no column shape ,
The underground part of the support column constitutes a pile that at least partially supports the vertical load and horizontal load acting on the retaining wall and the weight of the wall body by the ground.
An underground beam of a reinforced concrete structure formed by expanding the lower section of the wall body to the low ground side and the high ground side is formed at the lower end of the wall body, and the beam width (W) of the underground beam is It is set to a size larger than the beam of the underground beam (D), the column vertically penetrates the underground beam, and the underground beam interconnects the column and is grounded to the ground. the vertical load, to provide a retaining wall characterized that you configure a direct basis for transferring a portion of the horizontal load and its own weight to the ground.
The present invention also supports a retaining wall that supports the earth pressure of the high ground and supports the retaining wall that prevents the collapse of the high ground by the ground.
The wall of the reinforced concrete structure that constitutes the wall part of the retaining wall on which earth pressure acts is provided, the lower end reaches the support layer of the ground, and the upper part has a circular cross section that constitutes a vertical column extending into the retaining wall Steel pipes are arranged at intervals in the direction of the wall core of the retaining wall,
The lower end of the steel pipe is closed, and the internal hollow area of the steel pipe is filled with concrete that is continuous with the concrete of the wall body over the entire length of the steel pipe,
The outer diameter of the steel pipe is smaller than the wall thickness of the wall body, and the wall surface on the low ground side and the high ground side of the wall body is a flat wall surface having no column shape,
An underground beam having a reinforced concrete structure formed by enlarging the lower cross section of the wall body to the low ground side and the high ground side is formed at the lower end of the wall body, and the beam width (W) of the underground beam is Set to a dimension larger than the beam of the underground beam (D), and the column vertically penetrates the underground beam,
The vertical load and horizontal load acting on the retaining wall, and the weight of the wall body constitute the pile, the frictional force acting between the retaining wall and the ground, the supporting force of the ground support layer with respect to the column. A retaining wall supporting method is provided, wherein the retaining wall is supported by a frictional force between an underground portion of the support column and the ground and a ground strength of the ground to which the underground beam contacts the ground.

本発明の上記構成によれば、梁幅(W)が梁せい(D)よりも大きい地中梁は、支柱を相互連結するとともに、地盤に接地して擁壁の鉛直荷重、水平荷重及び自重の一部を地盤に伝達する直接基礎を構成する。また、本発明の上記構成によれば、垂直支柱(鋼管)の下部は、杭を構成し、支柱の上部は、壁体と一体化した壁体内の立柱を構成する。高地盤の土圧は、主として壁体に作用し、壁体に作用する荷重は、支柱及び地中梁を介して地盤に伝達する。壁体は、土壌による腐食に耐え、比較的長期に亘って所望の耐力を維持する。 According to the above-described configuration of the present invention, the underground beam having a beam width (W) larger than the beam width (D) interconnects the columns, and contacts the ground so that the vertical load, the horizontal load and the own weight of the retaining wall are grounded. Constitutes a direct foundation to transmit a part of the ground to the ground. Moreover, according to the said structure of this invention, the lower part of a vertical support | pillar (steel pipe) comprises a pile, and the upper part of a support | pillar comprises the standing pillar in the wall body integrated with the wall body. The earth pressure of the high ground mainly acts on the wall body, and the load acting on the wall body is transmitted to the ground through the columns and underground beams . The wall body resists corrosion by soil and maintains a desired strength for a relatively long time.

また、本発明によれば、鋼管(支柱)の内部中空域には、コンクリートが充填される。コンクリートを充填した支柱は、中空鋼材とコンクリートとの相互拘束効果(コンファインド効果)により、高い軸圧縮耐力、曲げ耐力及び変形性能を発揮する。例えば、中空鋼材の局部座屈が充填コンクリートによって抑制され、その靱性が向上するとともに、充填コンクリートの剛性が中空鋼材に付加され、支柱全体の剛性が向上する。更には、充填コンクリートによって、鋼管内部の防錆効果が得られる。 Moreover, according to this invention , concrete is filled into the internal hollow area of a steel pipe (support | pillar) . The column filled with concrete exhibits high axial compression strength, bending strength and deformation performance due to the mutual restraint effect (confined effect) between the hollow steel material and the concrete. For example, local buckling of the hollow steel material is suppressed by the filled concrete, the toughness thereof is improved, and the rigidity of the filled concrete is added to the hollow steel material, thereby improving the rigidity of the entire column. Furthermore, the rust prevention effect inside a steel pipe is acquired by filling concrete.

更に好ましくは、立柱部分、鋼管又は杭体上部は、地上レベルにおいて横架材又はトラ
ス構造によって相互連結される。トラス構造は、水平横架材及び斜材によって形成される
。横架材及び斜材は、鋼管に溶接した鋼材からなる。横架材又はトラス構造は、杭部分を
相互連結し、複数の杭部分からなる杭群全体の剛性を向上させる。横架材又はトラス構造
は、擁壁の施工中に杭部分の位置を設定し又は調整するのに使用することができる。また
、横架材又はトラス構造の施工は、杭部分の位置を施工中に安定させ又は保持する上でも
有効である。斜材は、交差ブレース形態(たすき掛け形態)に配設しても良い。
More preferably, the upright column part, the steel pipe or the upper part of the pile body are interconnected by a horizontal member or a truss structure at the ground level. The truss structure is formed by horizontal horizontal members and diagonal members. The horizontal member and the diagonal member are made of a steel material welded to a steel pipe. The horizontal member or truss structure interconnects the pile portions and improves the rigidity of the entire pile group composed of a plurality of pile portions. A horizontal member or truss structure can be used to set or adjust the position of the pile portion during construction of the retaining wall. Moreover, construction of a horizontal member or a truss structure is also effective in stabilizing or holding the position of the pile portion during construction. The diagonal members may be arranged in a cross brace form (taped form).

かくして、本発明の擁壁は、その鉛直荷重、水平荷重及び壁体自重を、擁壁と地盤との間に作用する摩擦力と、支柱に対する地盤の支持層の支持力と、杭を構成する支柱の地中部分と地盤との摩擦力と、地中梁が接地する地盤の地盤耐力とによって支持する構造のものであり、高地盤の土圧に対する耐力を擁壁全体として効果的且つ長期に発揮し、また、コンクリートを充填した支柱と、上記地中梁とは、擁壁の転倒を確実に防止する。 Thus, the retaining wall of the present invention constitutes a pile , the vertical load, the horizontal load, and the weight of the wall body, the frictional force acting between the retaining wall and the ground, the supporting force of the ground support layer against the column. The structure is supported by the frictional force between the underground part of the column and the ground and the ground strength of the ground where the underground beam touches, and the resistance to the earth pressure of the high ground is effective and long-term for the entire retaining wall. The pillars filled with concrete and the above-mentioned underground beam reliably prevent the retaining wall from falling down.

本発明の擁壁は又、高地盤側に延びる大型フーチングを省略した構成を備えるので、施
工において、支柱及び壁体を施工可能な範囲のみを掘削すれば良い。従って、本発明によ
れば、地盤掘削の工程及び労力を短縮又は軽減し、掘削土、廃土及び埋戻し土の量を削減
することができる。掘削土量の削減は、移動土量の減少や、埋戻し土の非安定性に伴う課
題を同時に解消するので、実務的に極めて有利である。また、本発明の擁壁は、フーチン
グを施工困難な地形に適用し得るので、擁壁の適用範囲は、大きく拡大する。
Since the retaining wall of the present invention also has a configuration in which a large footing extending to the high ground side is omitted, it is only necessary to excavate only a range where the column and the wall body can be constructed. Therefore, according to the present invention, the ground excavation process and labor can be shortened or reduced, and the amount of excavated soil, waste soil, and backfill soil can be reduced. The reduction of the excavated soil volume is extremely advantageous in practice because it simultaneously eliminates the problems associated with the reduction of the moving soil volume and the instability of the backfill soil. Moreover, since the retaining wall of this invention can apply footing to the terrain where construction is difficult, the applicable range of a retaining wall expands greatly.

本発明の擁壁及びその支持方法によれば、擁壁の各構成要素を一体化し、高地盤の土圧に対する耐力を擁壁全体として効果的且つ長期に発揮するとともに、掘削土、廃土及び埋戻し土の量を削減し、しかも、擁壁の転倒を防止することができる。 According to the retaining wall and the supporting method of the present invention, the constituent elements of the retaining wall are integrated, and the proof strength against the earth pressure of the high ground is exhibited effectively and in the long term as the entire retaining wall. The amount of backfill soil can be reduced, and the retaining wall can be prevented from falling.

好ましくは、上記地中梁には、壁芯方向に延びる梁主筋と、主筋を囲むスタラップ筋とが配筋されるPreferably said ground beam, a beam main reinforcement extending Kabeshin direction, and the Sturup muscle surrounding the main reinforcement is reinforcement.

本発明の好適な実施形態において、鋼管(支柱)の下端部は、鋼管の直径と同等の直径を有する円形板によって閉塞される。好ましくは、鋼管の直径は、コンクリート充填時の施工性を考慮し、150mm以上の寸法に設定される。好適には、壁体の壁厚は、200mm以上の寸法に設定される。壁体は、全高に亘って均一な壁厚を有する。 In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the lower end of the steel pipe (post) is closed by a circular plate having a diameter equivalent to the diameter of the steel pipe. Preferably, the diameter of the steel pipe is set to a dimension of 150 mm or more in consideration of workability during concrete filling. Preferably, the wall thickness of the wall body is set to a dimension of 200 mm or more. The wall body has a uniform wall thickness over its entire height.

以下、添付図面を参照して本発明の好適な実施例について詳細に説明する。   Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.

図1は、本発明の擁壁の基本構成を示す横断面図であり、図2は、擁壁の側面側及び正
面側の部分立面図である。また、図3は、図1のI−I線、II−II線及びIII−III線にお
ける断面図である。
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view showing a basic configuration of a retaining wall according to the present invention, and FIG. 2 is a partial elevation view of a side surface and a front side of the retaining wall. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along lines II, II-II, and III-III in FIG.

図1に示す如く、擁壁1は、高地盤HGの地形に相応した平面形態に配置され、左右の
端部が高地盤HG側に屈曲している。擁壁1は、高地盤HGを囲み、低地盤LG側への高
地盤HGの崩壊又は崩落を阻止する
As shown in FIG. 1, the retaining wall 1 is arranged in a planar form corresponding to the topography of the high ground HG, and the left and right ends are bent toward the high ground HG. The retaining wall 1 surrounds the high ground HG and prevents the high ground HG from collapsing or collapsing toward the low ground LG.

擁壁1は、壁芯方向に所定間隔を隔てて配置された円形断面の鋼製垂直支柱2と、鉄筋コンクリート構造の壁体3とから構成される。支柱2の上部は、壁体3内に埋設され、支柱2の下部は、地中に貫入する。壁体3の下部は、断面が拡大され、断面拡大部分は、擁壁1の壁芯に沿って壁長方向に延びる鉄筋コンクリート構造の地中梁4を構成する。地中梁4は、壁体3の基礎を構成するとともに、支柱2を相互連結するように機能する。 The retaining wall 1 includes a steel vertical column 2 having a circular cross section disposed at a predetermined interval in the wall core direction, and a wall body 3 having a reinforced concrete structure. The upper part of the support column 2 is embedded in the wall body 3, and the lower part of the support column 2 penetrates into the ground. The lower part of the wall body 3 has an enlarged cross section, and the enlarged cross section constitutes an underground beam 4 having a reinforced concrete structure extending in the wall length direction along the wall core of the retaining wall 1 . The underground beam 4 constitutes the foundation of the wall 3 and functions to interconnect the columns 2.

支柱2、壁体3及び地中梁4は、図2に示すように、高地盤HGの土圧に耐える一体的な土留め壁を構成する。支柱2の下端部は、支持層Sに達する。擁壁1に作用する土圧、地震力等の鉛直荷重及び水平荷重と、擁壁1の自重とは、擁壁1と地盤Gとの間に作用する摩擦力、地中梁4が接地する地盤Gの地盤耐力、支柱2の地中部分と地盤Gとの摩擦力、更には、支柱2に対する支持層Sの支持力によって支持される。 As shown in FIG. 2, the column 2, the wall body 3, and the underground beam 4 constitute an integral earth retaining wall that can withstand the earth pressure of the high ground HG. The lower end portion of the support column 2 reaches the support layer S. The vertical load and horizontal load such as earth pressure and seismic force acting on the retaining wall 1 and the weight of the retaining wall 1 are the frictional force acting between the retaining wall 1 and the ground G, and the underground beam 4 is grounded. It is supported by the ground strength of the ground G, the frictional force between the underground portion of the support 2 and the ground G, and the support force of the support layer S on the support 2.

図1に示す如く、擁壁1の屈曲部には、所望により、コンクリート増打ち等のフカシ部5が形成される。図3(C)に示す如く、低地盤LGの地盤面に高低差が生じる場合には、低地盤LGの地盤面に相応するように地中梁4のレベルを段階的又は連続的に変化させることが望ましい。支柱2として、円形断面の鋼管を好適に使用し得る。以下、支柱2として、円形断面の鋼管を使用した好適な実施例について説明する。 As shown in FIG. 1, the bent portion of the retaining wall 1 is formed with a fuzzy portion 5 such as a concrete beating-up if desired. As shown in FIG. 3C, when a level difference occurs in the ground surface of the low ground LG, the level of the underground beam 4 is changed stepwise or continuously so as to correspond to the ground surface of the low ground LG. It is desirable. As the support 2, a steel pipe having a circular cross section can be suitably used. Hereinafter, a preferred embodiment using a steel pipe having a circular cross section as the support 2 will be described.

図4は、擁壁1の断面構造を示す縦断面図及びIV−IV線断面図である。   FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view showing a sectional structure of the retaining wall 1 and a sectional view taken along line IV-IV.

支柱2は、均一な円形断面の鋼管からなり、支柱2の下部(杭部分2a)は、地中に埋入される。支柱2の下端部は、好ましくは、N値10以上の支持層Sに達する。支柱2の下端開口は、円形盲板6によって閉塞され、盲板6は、埋入時に生じ得る土砂の鋼管内進入を阻止する。好ましくは、円形盲板6は、鋼管内への水の進入を防止可能な水密性を有し、或いは、水密性シール等の水密手段を備える。支柱2の上部(立柱部分2b)は、概ね高地盤Gの地盤面のレベルまで低地盤LGから上方に突出する。支柱2の内部中空域には、コンクリート8が充填される。支柱2を構成する鋼管の直径は、好ましくは、100mm〜300mmの範囲に設定される。コンクリート充填の施工性を考慮し、鋼管の直径を150mm以上に設定することが望ましい。本例では、鋼管の直径は、約170mmに設定されている。好適には、支柱2は、図3に示すように、トラス構造20によって相互連結される。トラス構造20を構成する上下の水平横架材(上弦材、下弦材)及び交差ブレース形態(たすき掛け形態)の斜材(ラチス材)として、鋼材、例えば、端部を鋼管に溶接したFB−6×50程度のフラットバーを好適に使用し得る。水平横架材及び斜材として、アングル形鋼材等の構造用形鋼、小寸法断面の鋼管、丸鋼、或いは、鉄筋等を用いることも可能である。トラス構造20は、離間した鋼管を相互連結し、複数の鋼管からなる杭群全体の剛性を向上させる。トラス構造20は又、擁壁1の施工中に鋼管の位置を設定し又は調整するのに使用することができる。トラス構造20の施工は、鋼管位置を施工中に安定させ又は保持する上でも有効である。 The support column 2 is made of a steel pipe having a uniform circular cross section, and the lower portion (pile portion 2a) of the support column 2 is buried in the ground. The lower end portion of the support column 2 preferably reaches the support layer S having an N value of 10 or more. The lower end opening of the support column 2 is closed by a circular blind plate 6, and the blind plate 6 prevents soil and sand from entering the steel pipe that may occur during embedding. Preferably, the circular blind plate 6 has water tightness capable of preventing water from entering the steel pipe, or includes a water tight means such as a water tight seal. The upper part (standing column part 2b) of the support column 2 protrudes upward from the low ground LG to the level of the ground surface of the high ground G. Concrete 8 is filled in the internal hollow region of the column 2. The diameter of the steel pipe constituting the support column 2 is preferably set in the range of 100 mm to 300 mm. In consideration of the workability of filling concrete, it is desirable to set the diameter of the steel pipe to 150 mm or more. In this example, the diameter of the steel pipe is set to about 170 mm. Preferably, the struts 2 are interconnected by a truss structure 20 as shown in FIG. As an upper and lower horizontal horizontal member (upper chord member, lower chord member) constituting the truss structure 20 and an oblique member (lattice member) in the form of cross braces (shaking form), a steel material, for example, FB− whose end is welded to a steel pipe A flat bar of about 6 × 50 can be preferably used. As the horizontal horizontal member and the diagonal member, a structural steel such as an angle steel, a steel pipe having a small cross section, a round steel, a reinforcing bar, or the like can be used. The truss structure 20 interconnects the separated steel pipes and improves the rigidity of the entire pile group composed of a plurality of steel pipes. The truss structure 20 can also be used to set or adjust the position of the steel pipe during the construction of the retaining wall 1. The construction of the truss structure 20 is also effective in stabilizing or holding the steel pipe position during construction.

壁体3は、縦横の壁筋3aを配筋した鉄筋コンクリート構造の壁体からなる。壁体3の壁厚は、好ましくは、250mm〜400mmの範囲に設定される。本例では、壁体3の壁厚は、300mmに設定されている。壁筋3aとして、D10〜D16程度の汎用の異形鉄筋が使用され、壁筋間隔は、150mm〜300mm程度に設定される。本例では、壁筋3aとして、D13の異形鉄筋が使用され、壁筋3aの間隔は、250mm に設定されている。壁筋3aを構成する縦筋は、地中梁4内に延び、地中梁4のコンクリートに定着する。なお、壁体3の裏面には、透水マット7が配置される。また、壁体3の壁芯CWは、支柱2の垂直中心軸線CLと交差するThe wall body 3 is a wall body of a reinforced concrete structure in which vertical and horizontal wall bars 3a are arranged. The wall thickness of the wall body 3 is preferably set in the range of 250 mm to 400 mm. In this example, the wall thickness of the wall body 3 is set to 300 mm. As the wall reinforcement 3a, general-purpose deformed reinforcing bars of about D10 to D16 are used, and the wall reinforcement interval is set to about 150 mm to 300 mm. In this example, a deformed reinforcing bar of D13 is used as the wall reinforcement 3a, and the interval between the wall reinforcements 3a is set to 250 mm. Vertical stripe constituting the wall muscle 3a extends into the ground beam 4 is fixed to the concrete ground beams 4. A water permeable mat 7 is disposed on the back surface of the wall 3. Further, the wall core CW of the wall body 3 intersects the vertical center axis CL of the column 2 .

地中梁4は、壁芯方向に延びる主筋4aと、主筋4aを囲むスタラップ筋4bとを配筋した鉄筋コンクリート構造の梁型部材からなり、地中梁4の下面は、捨てコンクリート及び採石等によって整地した掘削地盤面に接地する。主筋4aとして、D13〜D25程度の汎用の異形鉄筋を使用し、スタラップ筋4bとして、D10〜D13程度の汎用の異形鉄筋を使用することができる。本例では、主筋4a及びスタラップ筋4bとして、いずれもD13の異形鉄筋が使用されている。地中梁4の幅Wは、一般には、400〜600mm程度に設定され、本例では、500mmに設定されている。地中梁4の高さDは、一般には、200〜400mm程度に設定され、本例では、250mmに設定されている。 Underground beam 4 includes a main reinforcement 4a extending Kabeshin direction consists beam-type member of reinforced concrete structures Haisuji the Sturup muscle 4b surrounding the main reinforcement 4a, the lower surface of the ground beam 4, the discarded concrete and quarrying like Make contact with the leveled excavated ground surface. A general-purpose deformed reinforcing bar of about D13 to D25 can be used as the main reinforcing bar 4a, and a general-purpose deformed reinforcing bar of about D10 to D13 can be used as the stirrup muscle 4b. In this example, a deformed reinforcing bar of D13 is used as the main muscle 4a and the stirrup muscle 4b. The width W of the underground beam 4 is generally set to about 400 to 600 mm, and is set to 500 mm in this example. The height D of the underground beam 4 is generally set to about 200 to 400 mm, and is set to 250 mm in this example.

かくして、壁体3及び地中梁4は、一体的な鉄筋コンクリート構造体を構成し、地中梁4の幅Wは、従来の擁壁におけるフーチングの幅(奥行)と比べ、遥かに小さい寸法に設定される。 Thus, the wall 3 and the underground beam 4 constitute an integral reinforced concrete structure, and the width W of the underground beam 4 is much smaller than the width (depth) of the footing in the conventional retaining wall. Is set.

図5、図6及び図7は、擁壁1の施工方法を段階的に示す縦断面図である。   5, 6, and 7 are vertical cross-sectional views showing the method of installing the retaining wall 1 in stages.

図5に示す如く、高地盤HGは、支柱2、壁体3及び地中梁4の施工のために掘削される。擁壁1の施工において、高地盤Gの掘削範囲は、支柱2、壁体3及び地中梁4を施工可能な最小限の範囲に限定される。即ち、擁壁1の施工においては、従来の擁壁施工方法と異なり、フーチング施工のために高地盤HGを大きく掘削することを要しない。 As shown in FIG. 5, the high ground HG is excavated for the construction of the column 2, the wall body 3 and the underground beam 4. In the construction of the retaining wall 1, the excavation range of the high ground G is limited to the minimum range in which the support column 2, the wall body 3 and the underground beam 4 can be constructed. That is, in the construction of the retaining wall 1, unlike the conventional retaining wall construction method, it is not necessary to excavate the high ground HG for the footing construction.

オーガ併用の杭打ち機等によって、杭孔を掘削した後、鋼管杭を地盤に圧入し、鋼管杭
の先端部が支持層Sに若干喰込む位置まで鋼管杭を埋込み、支柱2を施工する。支柱2と
して施工した鋼管杭の上部は、掘削地盤から上方に突出し、支柱2の上部が、鋼管杭によ
って形成される。
After excavating the pile hole with a pile driving machine combined with an auger, the steel pipe pile is press-fitted into the ground, the steel pipe pile is embedded to a position where the tip of the steel pipe pile slightly bites into the support layer S, and the column 2 is constructed. The upper part of the steel pipe pile constructed as the support column 2 protrudes upward from the excavated ground, and the upper part of the support column 2 is formed by the steel pipe pile.

捨てコンクリート及び採石等によって掘削地盤を整地した後、図6に示すように壁体3及び地中梁4の壁筋3a、主筋4a及びスタラップ筋4bが配筋され、コンクリート工事用の型枠9が建込まれる。型枠9の施工を完了した後、コンクリート8が型枠9の上部から流し込まれる。図7に示す如く、コンクリート8は、型枠9内に充填されるのみならず、支柱2の上部開口を介して支柱2内に流入し、支柱2の内部中空域に完全に充填される。 After leveling the excavated ground with abandoned concrete, quarrying, etc., as shown in FIG. 6, the wall 3 and the wall bars 3a, main bars 4a, and stirrup bars 4b of the underground beam 4 are arranged, and a formwork 9 for concrete work is provided. Is built. After completing the construction of the mold 9, the concrete 8 is poured from the upper part of the mold 9. As shown in FIG. 7, the concrete 8 is not only filled into the mold 9, but also flows into the column 2 through the upper opening of the column 2 and completely fills the internal hollow area of the column 2.

コンクリートの硬化後に型枠9を解体し、掘削土を埋戻すことにより、図4に示す擁壁
1が完成する。
After the concrete is hardened, the formwork 9 is disassembled and the excavated soil is backfilled, whereby the retaining wall 1 shown in FIG. 4 is completed.

このような構成の擁壁1によれば、擁壁1の自重及び荷重の多くは、支柱2によって支持層Sに伝達することから、従来のような大型フーチングの施工を省略することができるので、掘削範囲を制限し、掘削土、廃土及び埋戻し土の量を削減することができる。壁体3及び地中梁4は、支柱2を相互連結し、擁壁1の剛性を全体的に向上させるとともに、高地盤HGの土圧に耐える一体的な擁壁として働く。 According to the retaining wall 1 having such a configuration, most of the weight and load of the retaining wall 1 are transmitted to the support layer S by the support column 2, so that the conventional large footing can be omitted. Can limit the excavation range and reduce the amount of excavated soil, waste soil and backfill soil. The wall body 3 and the underground beam 4 interconnect the support columns 2 to improve the rigidity of the retaining wall 1 as a whole and work as an integral retaining wall that can withstand the earth pressure of the high ground HG.

殊に、上記擁壁1においては、擁壁1に作用する水平荷重(土圧及び地震力等)の支持
に支持層Sの支持力を利用するので、地震時に地盤の液状化が生じ得る軟弱地盤に本発明
の擁壁1を構築した場合、従来の擁壁では達成し得なかった高い耐震性が得られる。
In particular, the retaining wall 1 uses the supporting force of the supporting layer S to support horizontal loads (such as earth pressure and seismic force) acting on the retaining wall 1, so that the ground can be liquefied during an earthquake. When the retaining wall 1 of the present invention is constructed on the ground, high earthquake resistance that cannot be achieved by the conventional retaining wall can be obtained.

以上、本発明の好適な実施例について詳細に説明したが、本発明は上記実施例に限定さ
れるものではなく、特許請求の範囲に記載された本発明の範囲内で種々の変形又は変更が
可能である。
The preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described in detail above, but the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiments, and various modifications or changes can be made within the scope of the present invention described in the claims. Is possible.

本発明の擁壁は、直線的な擁壁に限定されるものではなく、湾曲した擁壁や、角度をな
して複雑に屈曲する擁壁等の各種形態の擁壁として施工することができる。
The retaining wall of the present invention is not limited to a linear retaining wall, and can be constructed as various types of retaining walls, such as a curved retaining wall and a retaining wall that is bent at an angle in a complicated manner.

また、擁壁には、水抜孔等を適所に配設しても良い。   Moreover, you may arrange | position a drain hole etc. in an appropriate place in a retaining wall.

本発明は、崖、急傾斜地又は水路等に施工される擁壁に適用される。本発明の擁壁は、
大型フーチングの施工を要しないので、擁壁の施工性は、大きく改善する。また、本発明
によれば、従来の擁壁では施工困難であった地盤に垂直な擁壁を施工することができる。
加えて、本発明は、既存擁壁の上に更に擁壁を構築する擁壁改修工事等を可能にする。ま
た、地震時に地盤の液状化が生じ得る軟弱地盤に本発明の擁壁を施工した場合、従来の擁
壁では達成し得なかった高い耐震性が得られるので、その有益性は顕著である。
The present invention is applied to a retaining wall constructed on a cliff, a steep slope, a water channel or the like. The retaining wall of the present invention is
Since construction of large footings is not required, the workability of retaining walls is greatly improved. Moreover, according to this invention, the vertical retaining wall perpendicular | vertical to the ground which was difficult to construct with the conventional retaining wall can be constructed.
In addition, the present invention enables a retaining wall renovation work and the like that further constructs a retaining wall on the existing retaining wall. In addition, when the retaining wall of the present invention is applied to soft ground where liquefaction of the ground can occur at the time of an earthquake, a high earthquake resistance that cannot be achieved by a conventional retaining wall can be obtained, and its benefit is remarkable.

本発明の擁壁の基本構成を示す横断面図である。It is a cross-sectional view which shows the basic composition of the retaining wall of this invention. 図1に示す擁壁の側面側及び正面側の部分立面図である。FIG. 2 is a partial elevational view of a side wall side and a front side of the retaining wall shown in FIG. 1. 図1のI−I線、II−II線及びIII−III線における断面図である。It is sectional drawing in the II line of FIG. 1, the II-II line, and the III-III line. 擁壁の断面構造を示す縦断面図及びIV−IV線断面図である。It is the longitudinal cross-sectional view which shows the cross-section of a retaining wall, and IV-IV sectional view. 擁壁の施工方法を示す縦断面図であり、鋼管杭の杭打ち工程が示されている。It is a longitudinal cross-sectional view which shows the construction method of a retaining wall, and the pile driving process of a steel pipe pile is shown. 擁壁の施工方法を示す縦断面図であり、配筋・型枠工程が示されている。It is a longitudinal cross-sectional view which shows the construction method of a retaining wall, and the bar arrangement and formwork process is shown. 擁壁の施工方法を示す縦断面図であり、コンクリート打設工程が示されている。It is a longitudinal cross-sectional view which shows the construction method of a retaining wall, and the concrete placement process is shown.

符号の説明Explanation of symbols

1 擁壁
支柱
3 壁体
地中梁
2a 杭部分
2b 立柱部分
20 トラス構造
HG 高地盤
LG 低地盤
1 Retaining wall
2 columns 3 walls 4 underground beams 2a piles 2b uprights 20 truss structures
HG High Ground LG Low Ground

Claims (4)

高地盤の土圧を支持し、高地盤の崩壊を阻止する擁壁において、
擁壁の壁芯方向に間隔を隔てて配置され、下端部が地盤の支持層に達し、上部が擁壁内に延びる垂直支柱を構成する円形断面の鋼管と、
土圧が作用する前記擁壁の壁体部分を構成する鉄筋コンクリート構造の壁体とを備え、
前記鋼管の下端部は閉塞し、該鋼管の内部中空域には、前記壁体のコンクリートと連続するコンクリートが鋼管の全長に亘って充填されており、
前記鋼管の外径は、前記壁体の壁厚よりも小さく、該壁体の低地盤側及び高地盤側の壁面は、柱型を有しない平坦な壁面であり、
前記支柱の地中部分は、擁壁に作用する鉛直荷重及び水平荷重と、前記壁体の自重とを前記地盤によって少なくとも部分的に支持する杭を構成し、
前記壁体の下部の断面を低地盤側及び高地盤側に拡大してなる鉄筋コンクリート構造の地中梁が、前記壁体の下端部に形成され、該地中梁の梁幅(W)は、該地中梁の梁せい(D)よりも大きい寸法に設定され、前記支柱は前記地中梁を垂直に貫通し、前記地中梁は、前記支柱を相互連結するとともに、地盤に接地して前記鉛直荷重、水平荷重及び自重の一部を地盤に伝達する直接基礎を構成することを特徴とする擁壁。
In the retaining wall that supports the earth pressure of the high ground and prevents the collapse of the high ground,
At intervals in the wall center direction of the retaining wall is placed, the lower end portion reaches the support layer of the ground, and the steel pipe of circular cross-section upper part constitutes the vertical struts extending retaining wall,
Comprising a wall body of a reinforced concrete structure that constitutes the wall body portion of the retaining wall on which earth pressure acts,
The lower end of the steel pipe is closed, and the internal hollow area of the steel pipe is filled with concrete that is continuous with the concrete of the wall body over the entire length of the steel pipe,
The outer diameter of the steel pipe is smaller than the wall thickness of the wall body, and the wall surface on the low ground side and the high ground side of the wall body is a flat wall surface having no column shape ,
The underground part of the support column constitutes a pile that at least partially supports the vertical load and horizontal load acting on the retaining wall and the weight of the wall body by the ground.
An underground beam of a reinforced concrete structure formed by expanding the lower section of the wall body to the low ground side and the high ground side is formed at the lower end of the wall body, and the beam width (W) of the underground beam is It is set to a size larger than the beam of the underground beam (D), the column vertically penetrates the underground beam, and the underground beam interconnects the column and is grounded to the ground. the vertical loads, retaining wall portions of the horizontal load and its own weight, characterized that you configure a direct basis to transmit to the ground.
前記地中梁には、壁芯方向に延びる梁主筋と、該主筋を囲むスタラップ筋とが配筋されることを特徴とする請求項1に記載された擁壁。 Wherein the ground beams, retaining wall according to claim 1, characterized in that the beam main reinforcement extending Kabeshin direction, and the Sturup muscle surrounding the main muscle is Haisuji. 前記壁体は、全高に亘って均一な壁厚を有することを特徴とする請求項1又は2に記載された擁壁。   The retaining wall according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the wall body has a uniform wall thickness over the entire height. 高地盤の土圧を支持し、高地盤の崩壊を阻止する擁壁を地盤によって支持する擁壁の支持方法において、In the supporting method of the retaining wall that supports the earth pressure of the high ground and supports the retaining wall that prevents the collapse of the high ground by the ground,
土圧が作用する前記擁壁の壁体部分を構成する鉄筋コンクリート構造の壁体が設けられるとともに、下端部が地盤の支持層に達し、上部が擁壁内に延びる垂直支柱を構成する円形断面の鋼管が、前記擁壁の壁芯方向に間隔を隔てて配置され、  The wall of the reinforced concrete structure that constitutes the wall part of the retaining wall on which earth pressure acts is provided, the lower end reaches the support layer of the ground, and the upper part has a circular cross section that constitutes a vertical column extending into the retaining wall Steel pipes are arranged at intervals in the direction of the wall core of the retaining wall,
前記鋼管の下端部は閉塞し、該鋼管の内部中空域には、前記壁体のコンクリートと連続するコンクリートが鋼管の全長に亘って充填されており、  The lower end of the steel pipe is closed, and the internal hollow area of the steel pipe is filled with concrete that is continuous with the concrete of the wall body over the entire length of the steel pipe,
前記鋼管の外径は、前記壁体の壁厚よりも小さく、該壁体の低地盤側及び高地盤側の壁面は、柱型を有しない平坦な壁面であり、  The outer diameter of the steel pipe is smaller than the wall thickness of the wall body, and the wall surface on the low ground side and the high ground side of the wall body is a flat wall surface having no column shape,
前記壁体の下部の断面を低地盤側及び高地盤側に拡大してなる鉄筋コンクリート構造の地中梁が前記壁体の下端部に形成され、該地中梁の梁幅(W)は、該地中梁の梁せい(D)よりも大きい寸法に設定され、前記支柱は、前記地中梁を垂直に貫通し、  An underground beam having a reinforced concrete structure formed by enlarging the lower cross section of the wall body to the low ground side and the high ground side is formed at the lower end of the wall body, and the beam width (W) of the underground beam is Set to a dimension larger than the beam of the underground beam (D), and the column vertically penetrates the underground beam,
擁壁に作用する鉛直荷重及び水平荷重と、前記壁体の自重とは、擁壁と地盤との間に作用する摩擦力と、前記支柱に対する地盤の支持層の支持力と、杭を構成する前記支柱の地中部分と地盤との摩擦力と、前記地中梁が接地する地盤の地盤耐力とによって支持されることを特徴とする擁壁の支持方法。  The vertical load and horizontal load acting on the retaining wall, and the weight of the wall body constitute the pile, the frictional force acting between the retaining wall and the ground, the supporting force of the ground support layer with respect to the column. A retaining wall supporting method, wherein the retaining wall is supported by a frictional force between an underground portion of the support and the ground and a ground strength of the ground to which the underground beam contacts the ground.
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