JP4980258B2 - Optical element - Google Patents

Optical element Download PDF

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JP4980258B2
JP4980258B2 JP2008024003A JP2008024003A JP4980258B2 JP 4980258 B2 JP4980258 B2 JP 4980258B2 JP 2008024003 A JP2008024003 A JP 2008024003A JP 2008024003 A JP2008024003 A JP 2008024003A JP 4980258 B2 JP4980258 B2 JP 4980258B2
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optically anisotropic
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JP2009186579A (en
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秀樹 兼岩
一郎 網盛
聡美 鈴木
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富士フイルム株式会社
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Description

The present invention relates to an optical element. More specifically, the present invention relates to an optical element in which a latent image is visualized as an image including colors other than white and black by being observed through a polarizing plate.

Conventionally, reflection holograms have been used exclusively in the field of authentication images. Holograms are suitable as authentication images because they can be easily determined by visual inspection and are difficult to perform simple copying using a copying machine or the like. However, with the spread of technology in recent years, the production of holograms has become easier, and imitations that are indistinguishable from authentic holograms have become relatively easy to produce. In order to avoid counterfeiting, it is possible to use a machine that can detect the direction and intensity of diffracted light more strictly, but visual identification is difficult.

On the other hand, the birefringence pattern can be easily identified by using a polarizing plate. In addition, since the manufacturing technology is hardly spread and forgery is difficult, it is suitable as an authentication image. In Patent Document 1 or 2, a birefringence pattern is proposed as an image recording method, and a birefringence pattern that cannot be normally identified by human eyes is visualized through a polarizing plate. Here, the birefringence pattern is applied to the anisotropic film by applying heat to the image forming part using a heat mode laser, thermal head, or hot stamp to completely or partially reduce the anisotropy. It has been made.

  However, any of the patterns produced by the technique for reducing the birefringence using heat as described above has a drawback that it is inferior in heat resistance. That is, when heat is applied to a portion where birefringence remains, the birefringence of the portion may be lowered. Further, since it is difficult to make a difference between the heat transfer in the film thickness direction and the heat transfer in the in-plane direction with the technique using a thermal head or a heat stamp, it is extremely difficult to draw a pattern with a resolution less than the film thickness. Heating using a laser enables high resolution pattern drawing, but there is a problem that processing takes a long time because a fine pattern is drawn by laser scanning.

In the method described in Patent Document 1 or 2, the latent images to be visualized are all monochrome images, and a multicolor image that is more difficult to forge or alter is not obtained.

Patent Document 3 proposes forming a birefringence pattern by patterning the optical axis. It is said that an image having a large number of colors can be represented by the obtained birefringence pattern. However, a photo-alignment layer is required for patterning the optical axis, photolithography is required to adjust the luminance of the color, and in order to form a birefringence pattern with a single exposure, The birefringence pattern has a problem that the process is complicated in that patterning is necessary.
JP 2007-1130 A JP 2001-232978 A Special table 2001-258080 gazette

It is an object of the present invention to provide an optical element having a birefringence pattern in which a latent image is clearly visualized as an image including colors other than white and black when observed through a polarizing plate.

As a result of intensive studies, the present inventors have obtained an optical element capable of expressing a clear multicolor image by laminating two or more optically anisotropic layers having in-plane retardation in a pattern to produce a birefringent pattern. And the present invention was completed.
That is, the present invention provides the following [1] to [ 11 ].

[1] An optical element including two or more pixels,
Including two or more optically anisotropic layers,
Within each layer of the optically anisotropic layer, the direction of the slow axis is uniform,
The pixel includes three subpixels, a subpixel R, a subpixel G, and a subpixel B,
The subpixel includes a partial region of each layer of the optically anisotropic layer,
In-plane retardation is uniform within a partial region of each layer,
And when any one of the sub-pixels is observed through a polarizing plate from the normal direction of the optically anisotropic layer with any other one of the sub-pixels in the same pixel or in another pixel. Optical elements showing different colors ,
The directions of the slow axes of the two or more optically anisotropic layers are all the same,
The subpixel R has an in-plane retardation selected from the following Re (R) or Re (K), and the subpixel G has an in-plane retardation selected from the following Re (G) or Re (K). And the sub-pixel B has an in-plane retardation selected from the following Re (B) or Re (K):
(I) 350 nm <Re (R) <370 nm or 600 nm <Re (R) <700 nm;
(II) 440 nm <Re (G) <560 nm;
(III) 160 nm <Re (B) <220 nm;
(IV) 120 nm <Re (K) <160 nm.

[2] An optical element including two or more pixels,
Including two or more optically anisotropic layers,
Within each layer of the optically anisotropic layer, the direction of the slow axis is uniform,
The pixel is composed of three sub-pixel groups,
The subpixel includes a partial region of each layer of the optically anisotropic layer,
In-plane retardation is uniform within a partial region of each layer,
And when any one of the sub-pixels is observed through a polarizing plate from the normal direction of the optically anisotropic layer with any other one of the sub-pixels in the same pixel or in another pixel. Optical elements showing different colors,
The directions of the slow axes of the two or more optically anisotropic layers are all the same,
One subpixel group includes two or more subpixels selected from a subpixel having the following in-plane retardation Re (R) and a subpixel having the following in-plane retardation Re (K).
The other subpixel group includes two or more subpixels selected from a subpixel having in-plane retardation Re (G) and a subpixel having the following in-plane retardation Re (K).
The remaining one subpixel group is an optical system including two or more subpixels selected from a subpixel having the following in-plane retardation Re (B) and a subpixel having the following in-plane retardation Re (K). element:
(I) 350 nm <Re (R) <370 nm or 600 nm <Re (R) <700 nm;
(II) 440 nm <Re (G) <560 nm;
(III) 160 nm <Re (B) <220 nm;
(IV) 120 nm <Re (K) <160 nm.

[ 3 ] The optical element according to [1] or [2] , wherein a polarizing layer is provided on an outer surface of the outermost layer opposite to the observation side of the two or more optically anisotropic layers.
[ 4 ] The optical element according to any one of [1] to [ 3 ], having a reflective layer on the outer surface of the outermost layer on either side of the two or more optically anisotropic layers.

[ 5 ] The optical element according to any one of [1] to [ 4 ], wherein the color reproduction range observed through the polarizing plate is NTSC ratio of 7% or more.
[ 6 ] At least one or more of the two or more optically anisotropic layers are coated and dried by applying a solution containing a liquid crystalline compound to form a liquid crystal phase, and then the liquid crystal phase is irradiated with heat or ionizing radiation for polymerization fixation. The optical element according to any one of [1] to [ 5 ], comprising a layer formed by forming a layer.
[ 7 ] After all layers of the two or more optically anisotropic layers are coated and dried by applying a solution containing a liquid crystalline compound to form a liquid crystal phase, the liquid crystal phase is irradiated with heat or ionizing radiation to be polymerized and fixed. The optical element according to any one of [1] to [ 6 ], comprising a layer formed by forming a layer.

[ 8 ] The optical element according to [ 6 ] or [ 7 ], wherein the liquid crystalline compound has two or more different polymerizable groups.
[ 9 ] By the method including the step of performing pattern exposure on the layer comprising at least one of the two or more optically anisotropic layers comprising a polymer and the step of baking at 50 ° C to 400 ° C. The optical element according to any one of [1] to [ 8 ], which is a layer obtaining a partial region.
[ 10 ] The optical element according to any one of [1] to [ 9 ], which is used as an authentication image for preventing forgery / alteration.

[ 11 ] A method for producing an optical element according to [1] or [2] , comprising the following steps (1) and (2):
(1) In-plane retardation for each of the sub-pixels showing different colors and the direction of the slow axis of each layer of the optically anisotropic layer, and the one in the sub-pixel that realizes the in-plane retardation. Calculating in-plane retardation for each partial area by computer;
(2) The process of forming the laminated body of the patterning optically anisotropic layer which has the direction of a slow axis according to the said calculation result, and the in-plane retardation for every partial area | region.

  According to the present invention, there is provided an optical element having a birefringence pattern in which a latent image is clearly visualized as an image including colors other than white and black when observed through a polarizing plate. Since the optical element of the present invention includes an optically anisotropic layer having a slow axis in the same direction in the same layer, the manufacturing process is not complicated. The color of the optical element of the present invention can be adjusted by calculating a desired retardation value and the like by a computer and adjusting the exposure conditions for forming the optically anisotropic layer based on the calculation. , No additional manufacturing steps are required to manufacture the optical element.

Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail.
In the present specification, “to” is used to mean that the numerical values described before and after it are included as a lower limit value and an upper limit value.

  In this specification, retardation or Re represents in-plane retardation. In-plane retardation (Re (λ)) is measured with KOBRA 21ADH or WR (manufactured by Oji Scientific Instruments) by making light having a wavelength of λ nm incident in the normal direction of the film. Retardation or Re in this specification means those measured at wavelengths of 611 ± 5 nm, 545 ± 5 nm, and 435 ± 5 nm for R, G, and B, respectively. It means that measured at a wavelength of 5 nm or 590 ± 5 nm.

In this specification, “same”, “same”, or “uniform” in terms of angle means that the difference in angle is within a range of less than ± 5 °. This range is preferably less than ± 4 °, and more preferably less than ± 3 °. Therefore, for example, when “the direction of the shaft is the same”, it means that the difference in the direction of the shaft is within a range of less than ± 5 °, and when “the direction of the shaft is different”, It means that the difference in orientation is ± 5 ° or more.
When “different” is used for the retardation, it means that the retardation has a difference larger than ± 5%. Furthermore, Re being substantially 0 means that Re is 5 nm or less. In addition, the measurement wavelength of the refractive index indicates an arbitrary wavelength in the visible light region unless otherwise specified. In the present specification, “visible light” refers to light having a wavelength of 400 to 700 nm.

  In the present specification, the “NTSC ratio” means a color reproduction range with respect to a chromaticity range defined by the National Television Standards Committee standard expressed as an area ratio. For example, a general desktop PC display has about 68-72% of NTSC.

  In this specification, the “pixel” is a minimum unit of color when designing an image shown by the optical element of the present invention. One pixel is composed of two or more sub-pixels that can be colored in different colors when passing through the polarizing plate, and the color is uniformly developed in the sub-pixels. The color of each subpixel observed through the polarizing plate is the direction of the slow axis of each optically anisotropic layer described later, and the retardation value of each optically anisotropic layer (partial region) in each subpixel. Can be determined by.

  In the optical element of the present invention, one pixel is composed of two or more subpixels. Each subpixel can exhibit a color selected from two or more different colors. For example, one pixel is composed of two sub-pixels (sub-pixel 1 and sub-pixel 2), and each sub-pixel can develop color in one of two colors of R (red) or G (green). Suppose that In this case, when (subpixel 1, subpixel 2) = (R, R), the pixel is red, and when (subpixel 1, subpixel 2) = (G, G), the pixel is green. , (Subpixel 1, subpixel 2) = (R, G) or (G, R), yellow is exhibited by the principle of color mixing. Thus, it becomes possible to express more colors with a smaller number of colors.

  In order to increase the representable color gamut, one pixel is preferably composed of three or more subpixels. As an example, a pixel composed of three subpixels (subpixel R, subpixel G, and subpixel B) corresponding to R, G, and B is shown in FIG. The retardation of the optically anisotropic layer is adjusted so that the sub-pixel R develops R or K (black) when passing through the polarizing plate, depending on the color of the pixel to be developed. For the sub-pixel G, the color is adjusted to G or K, and for the sub-pixel B, the color is adjusted to B or K. When the pixels are designed in this way, as shown in Table 1, eight colors can be expressed. Here, R, G, and B are given as examples, but C, M, and Y may be used, or both may be used in combination. Alternatively, an intermediate color tone can be used. Further, although black is prepared in common for all the sub-pixels, white may be further added to improve the luminance of the pixel. In general, it is preferable to set the retardation to zero in the sub-pixel indicating white.

By providing a plurality of the same sub-pixels in one pixel, gradation expression is also possible. For example, as shown in FIG. 2, a subpixel R group that develops color R or K (subpixel R1, subsubpixel R2, subsubpixel R3), a subpixel G group that develops color G or K (subpixel G1, subsubpixel) G2, sub-subpixel G3), a pixel composed of a sub-pixel B group (sub-pixel B1, sub-sub-pixel B2, sub-sub-pixel B3) that develops color in B or K can also be formed. At this time, it is possible to express the gradation of each color by adjusting the K ratio of each subpixel group. In this case, each color can be expressed with 4 gradations, and 64 colors can be expressed by combining 4 types of colors.
A plurality of pixel designs are conceivable, but it is preferable to select them in accordance with the original image to be a latent image.

The optical element of the present invention is formed from a plurality of pixels. The pixels are preferably distributed in a pattern on the plane of the optical element. Each pixel of the optical element of the present invention includes at least two sub-pixels that exhibit different colors when observed through a polarizing plate. In order to widen the color reproduction range, it is preferable that the number of subpixels in one pixel is three or more. The subpixels are preferably distributed in a pattern in the pixel. The subpixel sizes may be different from each other. Each of the sub-pixels can exhibit a color selected from two or more different colors. The color choices may be the same or different for each subpixel.

In order to perform gradation expression, a pixel can be designed based on the concept of a subpixel group including a set of two or more subpixels. For example, from a subpixel group Rg consisting of three subpixels indicating R or K, a subpixel group Gg consisting of three subpixels indicating G or K, a subpixel group Bg consisting of three subpixels indicating B or K When a pixel is designed, it is possible to represent all 64 colors with 4 gradations. When an image such as a face photograph is desired to be used as a latent image, it is preferable to design so that each color has 4 gradations or more.

The optical element of the present invention includes two or more optically anisotropic layers. The schematic diagram of the example of the optical element of this invention which consists of a two-layer optically anisotropic layer is shown to Fig.3 (a)-(c). FIG. 3A is a view of this example viewed from the side. A second optical anisotropic layer is laminated on the first optical anisotropic layer, and a partial region of the first optical anisotropic layer and a partial region of the second optical anisotropic layer To form a sub-pixel. Two subpixels form one pixel. FIG. 3B is a view of the second optical anisotropic layer in the same example as seen from above, and FIG. 3C is a view of the first optical anisotropic layer in the same example as seen from above. FIG. 3B and 3C, a portion surrounded by a thick frame indicates a pixel, and a portion surrounded by a thin frame indicates a subpixel.

In the optical element of the present invention, the directions of the slow axes of two or more optically anisotropic layers may be the same or different. For example, in the above example, the direction of the slow axis in the first optical anisotropic layer is uniform, and the direction of the slow axis in the second optical anisotropic layer is uniform, The direction of the slow axis of the optically anisotropic layer and the direction of the slow axis of the second optically anisotropic layer may be the same or different.

When the direction of the slow axis of two or more optically anisotropic layers is the same, the direction of the slow axis of the optically anisotropic layer may be shifted by 45 degrees with respect to the absorption axis of the polarizing plate. preferable. When the directions of the slow axes of two or more optically anisotropic layers are the same, the color to be developed is determined by the total retardation value of all the optically anisotropic layers. In order to develop color in R, the total retardation value of the optically anisotropic layer is preferably 340 to 380 nm, or 600 to 700 nm, more preferably 350 to 370 nm, or 630 to 670 nm. In order to cause G to develop color, it is preferably 440 to 560 nm, more preferably 470 to 530 nm, and most preferably 490 to 510 nm. In order to develop color in B, the thickness is preferably 160 to 220 nm, more preferably 160 to 210 nm, and most preferably 160 to 190 nm. K needs to be designed so that the luminance is low. It is preferable to set it as 120-160 nm, and it is most preferable to set it as 130-150 nm.

When the direction of the slow axis of the optically anisotropic layer is different, there are many choices for the direction of the slow axis, and an optimum retardation value may be selected accordingly. By laminating with the slow axis shifted, it is considered that it is more difficult for others to imitate.
The optical element of the present invention has a birefringence pattern formed by the set of pixels and is used as an authentication image or the like.

  In addition, the optical element of the present invention shows color based on the following principle. When an optically anisotropic layer is inserted between the crossed Nicols polarizing plates, the light transmittance changes according to the phase difference. Since the phase difference also changes depending on the wavelength, the light transmittance also changes depending on the wavelength. Therefore, the transmitted light appears colored, but the transmitted light changes depending on the retardation of the optically anisotropic layer. Similarly, when an optically anisotropic layer is provided on a reflecting plate, the reflected color appears colored by overlapping a polarizing plate thereon, and the color changes depending on the retardation of the optically anisotropic layer. . In addition, since retardation can be patterned, a multicolor image can be handled as a latent image.

An appropriate retardation value for the sub-pixel of each pixel to exhibit a desired color can be calculated by optical simulation. To simulate the transmission color or reflection color from the layer configuration (refractive index of each layer, film thickness, direction of absorption axis of polarizing plate, direction of slow axis of optically anisotropic layer, etc.) It is necessary to obtain a transmission spectrum or a reflection spectrum. To simulate these, Berremann's 4 × 4 method, or Pochi. It is preferable to use the Yeh 4 × 4 method. In these methods, interference fringes that do not appear in the actual measurement appear in the calculated spectrum. However, the interference fringes can be eliminated by applying apodization. The spectrum calculated in this way can almost reproduce the actual measurement value.
Several methods of apodization have been proposed. For example, SID 93 DIGEST P. 101 and SID 98 DIGEST P.I. 825 can be used.
In order to calculate a transmission color or a reflection color from a transmission spectrum or a reflection spectrum, see, for example, Color Optics Second Edition (Noboru Ohta) 73 can be used.

  The retardation of the optically anisotropic layer in the optical element of the present invention can be adjusted, for example, by adjusting UV light exposure conditions using a liquid crystalline composition as a raw material. Therefore, simulating the transmission color or reflection color when the retardation is changed with the direction of the slow axis of each optically anisotropic layer and the direction of the absorption axis of the polarizing plate fixed. Good. For example, in order to obtain a retardation corresponding to RGBK, it is only necessary to calculate a color change when exhaustively changing the retardation within a realizable range and extract a retardation closest to the RGB pure color. In order to obtain a retardation corresponding to K, a retardation with low luminance may be selected.

  Hereinafter, examples of materials and methods for manufacturing the optical element will be described in detail. However, the present invention is not limited to this embodiment, and other embodiments can be carried out with reference to the following description and conventionally known methods, and the present invention is limited to the embodiments described below. It is not something.

[Patterning optical anisotropic layer]
The optically anisotropic layer in the optical element of the present invention is characterized by including two or more partial regions having different retardations. The optically anisotropic layer in the optical element of the present invention may contain a portion having substantially zero retardation. An optically anisotropic layer for producing such an optically anisotropic layer (hereinafter referred to as “patterning optically anisotropic layer”) including two or more partial regions having different in-plane retardations will be described below.

[Optically anisotropic layer]
The optically anisotropic layer is a layer that has at least one incident direction in which Re is not substantially 0 when the phase difference is measured, that is, has optical characteristics that are not isotropic. The optically anisotropic layer preferably has a retardation disappearance temperature. In the present specification, the “retardation disappearance temperature” is the retardation of the optically anisotropic layer at a certain temperature when the temperature of the optically anisotropic layer is increased from 20 ° C. at a rate of 20 ° C. per minute. Means a temperature at which the retardation of the optically anisotropic layer at 20 ° C. is 30% or less. The retardation disappearance temperature is preferably greater than 20 ° C. and 250 ° C. or less, more preferably 40 ° C. to 245 ° C., further preferably 50 ° C. to 245 ° C., and 80 ° C. to 240 ° C. Is most preferred.

  Further, as the optically anisotropic layer, an optically anisotropic layer whose retardation disappearing temperature rises upon exposure is used. As a result, there is a difference in the retardation disappearance temperature between the exposed area and the unexposed area, and the baking is performed at a temperature higher than the retardation disappearance temperature of the unexposed area and lower than the retardation disappearance temperature of the exposed area. Only the retardation of the exposed portion can be selectively lost. In this case, the increase in the retardation disappearance temperature due to exposure is preferably 5 ° C. or more in consideration of the efficiency of selective disappearance of only the retardation of the unexposed area and the robustness against temperature variations in the heating apparatus. More preferably, the temperature is at least 20 ° C, and particularly preferably at least 20 ° C.

  The optically anisotropic layer may have a retardation of 5 nm or more at 20 ° C., preferably 10 nm or more and 10,000 nm or less, and most preferably 20 nm or more and 2000 nm or less. If the retardation is 5 nm or less, it may be difficult to form a birefringence pattern. If the retardation exceeds 10,000 nm, the error may increase and it may be difficult to achieve practical accuracy.

The optically anisotropic layer is preferably formed from a composition containing a polymer. The polymer that forms the optically anisotropic layer preferably has at least one unreacted reactive group. The method for producing the optically anisotropic layer is not particularly limited, but the liquid crystallinity having at least one reactive group. A method in which a solution containing a compound is applied and dried to form a liquid crystal phase, and then polymerized and fixed by irradiation with heat or ionizing radiation; a layer in which a monomer having at least one reactive group is polymerized and fixed A method in which a reactive group is introduced into a layer made of a polymer using a coupling agent, or a method in which a reactive group is stretched; or a layer in which a polymer is made and then the reactive group is introduced using a coupling agent The method etc. are mentioned.
Further, the optically anisotropic layer of the present invention may be formed by transfer.
The thickness of the optically anisotropic layer is preferably 0.1 to 20 μm, and more preferably 0.5 to 10 μm.

[Optically anisotropic layer formed by polymerizing and fixing a composition containing a liquid crystalline compound]
When preparing a liquid crystal phase by applying a solution containing a liquid crystalline compound having at least one reactive group as a method for producing an optically anisotropic layer to form a liquid crystal phase, and then fixing by polymerization by irradiation with heat or ionizing radiation Is described below. In this production method, it is easy to obtain an optically anisotropic layer having a thin film thickness and an equivalent retardation as compared with a production method of obtaining an optically anisotropic layer by stretching a polymer described later.

[Liquid crystal compounds]
In general, liquid crystal compounds can be classified into a rod-shaped type and a disk-shaped type based on their shapes. In addition, there are low and high molecular types, respectively. Polymer generally refers to a polymer having a degree of polymerization of 100 or more (Polymer Physics / Phase Transition Dynamics, Masao Doi, 2 pages, Iwanami Shoten, 1992). In the present invention, any liquid crystal compound can be used, but a rod-like liquid crystal compound or a disk-like liquid crystal compound is preferably used. Two or more kinds of rod-like liquid crystalline compounds, two or more kinds of disc-like liquid crystalline compounds, or a mixture of a rod-like liquid crystalline compound and a disk-like liquid crystalline compound may be used. It is more preferable to use a rod-like liquid crystal compound or a disk-like liquid crystal compound having a reactive group because temperature change and humidity change can be reduced, and at least one of the reactive groups in one liquid crystal molecule is 2 or more. More preferably it is. The liquid crystalline compound may be a mixture of two or more, and in that case, at least one preferably has two or more reactive groups.

It is also preferable that the liquid crystal compound has two or more reactive groups having different polymerization conditions. In this case, it is possible to produce an optically anisotropic layer including a polymer having an unreacted reactive group by selecting conditions and polymerizing only a part of plural types of reactive groups. . The polymerization conditions used may be the wavelength range of ionizing radiation used for polymerization immobilization, or the difference in polymerization mechanism used, but preferably a radical reaction group and a cationic reaction that can be controlled by the type of initiator used. A combination of groups is good. A combination in which the radical reactive group is an acrylic group and / or a methacryl group and the cationic group is a vinyl ether group, an oxetane group and / or an epoxy group is particularly preferable because the reactivity can be easily controlled.

Examples of rod-like liquid crystalline compounds include azomethines, azoxys, cyanobiphenyls, cyanophenyl esters, benzoic acid esters, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid phenyl esters, cyanophenylcyclohexanes, cyano-substituted phenylpyrimidines, alkoxy-substituted phenylpyrimidines. , Phenyldioxanes, tolanes and alkenylcyclohexylbenzonitriles are preferably used. Not only the above low-molecular liquid crystalline compounds but also high-molecular liquid crystalline compounds can be used. The polymer liquid crystalline compound is a polymer compound obtained by polymerizing a rod-like liquid crystalline compound having a low molecular reactive group. The rod-like liquid crystal compound having a low-molecular reactive group that is particularly preferably used is a rod-like liquid crystal compound represented by the following general formula (I).
Formula (I): Q 1 -L 1 -A 1 -L 3 -ML 4 -A 2 -L 2 -Q 2
In the formula, Q 1 and Q 2 are each independently a reactive group, and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 and L 4 each independently represent a single bond or a divalent linking group. A 1 and A 2 each independently represent a spacer group having 2 to 20 carbon atoms. M represents a mesogenic group.
Hereinafter, the rod-like liquid crystal compound having a reactive group represented by the general formula (I) will be described in more detail. In the formula, Q 1 and Q 2 are each independently a reactive group. The polymerization reaction of the reactive group is preferably addition polymerization (including ring-opening polymerization) or condensation polymerization. In other words, the reactive group is preferably a reactive group capable of addition polymerization reaction or condensation polymerization reaction. Examples of reactive groups are shown below.

Examples of the divalent linking group represented by L 1 , L 2 , L 3 and L 4 include —O—, —S—, —CO—, —NR 2 —, —CO—O—, and —O—CO. —O—, —CO—NR 2 —, —NR 2 —CO—, —O—CO—, —O—CO—NR 2 —, —NR 2 —CO—O—, and NR 2 —CO—NR 2. A divalent linking group selected from the group consisting of-is preferred. R 2 is an alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms or a hydrogen atom. In the formula (I), Q 1 -L 1 and Q 2 -L 2 -are CH 2 ═CH—CO—O—, CH 2 ═C (CH 3 ) —CO—O—, and CH 2 ═C ( Cl) -CO-O-CO- O- are preferable, CH 2 = CH-CO- O- is most preferable.

A 1 and A 2 represent spacer groups having 2 to 20 carbon atoms. An alkylene group having 2 to 12 carbon atoms, an alkenylene group, and an alkynylene group are preferable, and an alkylene group is particularly preferable. The spacer group is preferably a chain and may contain oxygen atoms or sulfur atoms that are not adjacent to each other. The spacer group may have a substituent and may be substituted with a halogen atom (fluorine, chlorine, bromine), a cyano group, a methyl group, or an ethyl group.
Examples of the mesogenic group represented by M include all known mesogenic groups. In particular, a group represented by the following general formula (II) is preferable.
Formula (II): - (- W 1 -L 5) n -W 2 -
In the formula, W 1 and W 2 each independently represent a divalent cyclic alkylene group or a cyclic alkenylene group, a divalent aryl group or a divalent heterocyclic group, and L 5 represents a single bond or a linking group. Specific examples of the linking group include specific examples of groups represented by L 1 to L 4 in the formula (I), —CH 2 —O—, and —O—CH 2 —. n represents 1, 2 or 3.

W 1 and W 2 include 1,4-cyclohexanediyl, 1,4-phenylene, pyrimidine-2,5-diyl, pyridine-2,5diyl, 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-diyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diyl, naphthalene-2,6-diyl, naphthalene-1,5-diyl, thiophene-2,5-diyl, pyridazine-3,6-diyl . In the case of 1,4-cyclohexanediyl, there are trans isomers and cis isomers, but either isomer may be used, and a mixture in any proportion may be used. More preferably, it is a trans form. W 1 and W 2 may each have a substituent. Examples of the substituent include a halogen atom (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine), a cyano group, an alkyl group having 1 to 10 carbon atoms (methyl group, ethyl group, propyl group, etc.), and an alkoxy group having 1 to 10 carbon atoms. (Methoxy group, ethoxy group, etc.), C1-10 acyl group (formyl group, acetyl group, etc.), C1-10 alkoxycarbonyl group (methoxycarbonyl group, ethoxycarbonyl group, etc.), carbon atom Examples thereof include an acyloxy group having 1 to 10 (acetyloxy group, propionyloxy group, etc.), nitro group, trifluoromethyl group, difluoromethyl group and the like.
Preferred examples of the basic skeleton of the mesogenic group represented by the general formula (II) are shown below. These may be substituted with the above substituents.

  Examples of the compound represented by the general formula (I) are shown below, but the present invention is not limited thereto. In addition, the compound represented by general formula (I) is compoundable by the method as described in Japanese National Patent Publication No. 11-513019 (WO97 / 00600).

  As another aspect of the present invention, there is an aspect in which a discotic liquid crystal is used for the optically anisotropic layer. The optically anisotropic layer is preferably a layer of a low molecular weight liquid crystal discotic compound such as a monomer or a polymer layer obtained by polymerization (curing) of a polymerizable liquid crystal discotic compound. Examples of the discotic (discotic) compound include C.I. Destrade et al., Mol. Cryst. 71, 111 (1981), benzene derivatives described in C.I. Destrade et al., Mol. Cryst. 122, 141 (1985), Physicslett, A, 78, 82 (1990); Kohne et al., Angew. Chem. 96, page 70 (1984) and the cyclohexane derivatives described in J. Am. M.M. Lehn et al. Chem. Commun. , 1794 (1985), J. Am. Zhang et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, page 2655 (1994), and azacrown-based and phenylacetylene-based macrocycles. The above discotic (discotic) compounds generally have a discotic nucleus at the center of the molecule, and groups (L) such as linear alkyl groups, alkoxy groups, and substituted benzoyloxy groups are substituted in a radial pattern. In other words, it has liquid crystallinity and generally includes a so-called discotic liquid crystal. However, when such an aggregate of molecules is uniformly oriented, it exhibits negative uniaxiality, but is not limited to this description. Further, in the present invention, it is not necessary that the final product is formed from a discotic compound, for example, the low molecular discotic liquid crystal has a group that reacts with heat, light, or the like. As a result, it may be polymerized or cross-linked by reaction with heat, light or the like, resulting in high molecular weight and loss of liquid crystallinity.

In the present invention, it is preferable to use a discotic liquid crystalline compound represented by the following general formula (III).
Formula (III): D (-LP) n
In the formula, D is a discotic core, L is a divalent linking group, P is a polymerizable group, and n is an integer of 4 to 12.
In the formula (III), preferred specific examples of the discotic core (D), the divalent linking group (L) and the polymerizable group (P) are (D1) described in JP-A No. 2001-4837, respectively. To (D15), (L1) to (L25), (P1) to (P18), and the discotic core (D), divalent linking group (L) and polymerizable group ( The contents regarding P) can be preferably applied here.
Preferred examples of the discotic compound are shown below.

The optically anisotropic layer is formed by applying a composition containing a liquid crystalline compound (for example, a coating solution) onto the surface of an alignment layer described later to obtain an alignment state exhibiting a desired liquid crystal phase, and then changing the alignment state to heat or A layer prepared by fixing by irradiation with ionizing radiation is preferred.
When a discotic liquid crystalline compound having a reactive group is used as the liquid crystalline compound, it may be fixed in any alignment state of horizontal alignment, vertical alignment, tilt alignment, and twist alignment. In the present specification, “horizontal alignment” means that, in the case of a rod-like liquid crystal, the molecular long axis and the horizontal plane of the transparent support are parallel, and in the case of a disc-like liquid crystal, the circle of the core of the disc-like liquid crystal compound. The horizontal plane of the board and the transparent support is said to be parallel, but it is not required to be strictly parallel. In the present specification, an orientation with an inclination angle of less than 10 degrees with the horizontal plane is meant. And The inclination angle is preferably 0 to 5 degrees, more preferably 0 to 3 degrees, further preferably 0 to 2 degrees, and most preferably 0 to 1 degree.

The two or more patterned optically anisotropic layers in the optical element of the present invention can be prepared by simultaneously exposing and baking two or more optically anisotropic layers (before pattern formation) by the method described below. .
When two or more optically anisotropic layers comprising a composition containing a liquid crystalline compound are laminated, the combination of the liquid crystalline compounds is not particularly limited, and a laminate of all layers made of a discotic liquid crystalline compound, all having rod-like properties. It may be a laminate of a layer made of a liquid crystal compound, a laminate of a layer made of a composition containing a discotic liquid crystal compound and a layer made of a composition containing a rod-like liquid crystal compound. The combination of the alignment states of the layers is not particularly limited, and optically anisotropic layers having the same alignment state may be stacked, or optically anisotropic layers having different alignment states may be stacked.

  The optically anisotropic layer is preferably formed by applying a coating liquid containing a liquid crystalline compound and the following polymerization initiator and other additives onto a predetermined alignment layer described later. As a solvent used for preparing the coating solution, an organic solvent is preferably used. Examples of organic solvents include amides (eg, N, N-dimethylformamide), sulfoxides (eg, dimethyl sulfoxide), heterocyclic compounds (eg, pyridine), hydrocarbons (eg, benzene, hexane), alkyl halides (eg, , Chloroform, dichloromethane), esters (eg, methyl acetate, butyl acetate), ketones (eg, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone), ethers (eg, tetrahydrofuran, 1,2-dimethoxyethane). Alkyl halides and ketones are preferred. Two or more organic solvents may be used in combination.

[Fixation of alignment state of liquid crystalline compounds]
The aligned liquid crystalline compound is preferably fixed while maintaining the alignment state. The immobilization is preferably carried out by a polymerization reaction of a reactive group introduced into the liquid crystal compound. The polymerization reaction includes a thermal polymerization reaction using a thermal polymerization initiator and a photopolymerization reaction using a photopolymerization initiator, and a photopolymerization reaction is more preferable. The photopolymerization reaction may be either radical polymerization or cationic polymerization. Examples of radical photopolymerization initiators include α-carbonyl compounds (described in US Pat. Nos. 2,367,661 and 2,367,670), acyloin ethers (described in US Pat. No. 2,448,828), α-hydrocarbon substituted aromatics. An acyloin compound (described in US Pat. No. 2,722,512), a polynuclear quinone compound (described in US Pat. Nos. 3,046,127 and 2,951,758), a combination of a triarylimidazole dimer and p-aminophenyl ketone (US Pat. No. 3,549,367) Acridine and phenazine compounds (JP-A-60-105667, US Pat. No. 4,239,850) and oxadiazole compounds (US Pat. No. 4,212,970). Examples of the cationic photopolymerization initiator include organic sulfonium salt systems, iodonium salt systems, phosphonium salt systems, and the like. Organic sulfonium salt systems are preferable, and triphenylsulfonium salts are particularly preferable. As counter ions of these compounds, hexafluoroantimonate, hexafluorophosphate, and the like are preferably used.

The amount of the photopolymerization initiator used is preferably 0.01 to 20% by mass, more preferably 0.5 to 5% by mass, based on the solid content of the coating solution. Light irradiation for the polymerization of the liquid crystalline compound is preferably performed using ultraviolet rays. Irradiation energy is preferably 10mJ / cm 2 ~10J / cm 2 , further preferably 25~800mJ / cm 2. Illuminance is preferably 10 to 1,000 / cm 2, more preferably 20 to 500 mW / cm 2, further preferably 40~350mW / cm 2. The irradiation wavelength preferably has a peak at 250 to 450 nm, and more preferably has a peak at 300 to 410 nm. In order to accelerate the photopolymerization reaction, light irradiation may be performed under an inert gas atmosphere such as nitrogen or under heating conditions.

[Optical alignment by polarized irradiation]
The optically anisotropic layer may be a layer that exhibits or increases in-plane retardation due to photo-alignment by irradiation with polarized light. This polarized irradiation may also serve as a photopolymerization process in the above-described orientation fixation, or may be further fixed by non-polarized irradiation after performing polarized irradiation first, or may be fixed first by non-polarized irradiation. The photo-alignment may be performed by irradiation with polarized light, but it is desirable to perform only the irradiation with polarized light or to further fix by non-polarized light irradiation after the irradiation with polarized light first. When polarized light irradiation also serves as a photopolymerization process in the above-described orientation fixation and a radical polymerization initiator is used as a polymerization initiator, polarized light irradiation should be performed in an inert gas atmosphere with an oxygen concentration of 0.5% or less. preferable. The irradiation energy is preferably 20mJ / cm 2 ~10J / cm 2 , further preferably 100 to 800 mJ / cm 2. The illuminance is preferably 20 to 1000 mW / cm 2, more preferably 50 to 500 mW / cm 2, further preferably 100 to 350 mW / cm 2. Although there is no restriction | limiting in particular about the kind of liquid crystalline compound hardened | cured by polarized light irradiation, The liquid crystalline compound which has an ethylenically unsaturated group as a reactive group is preferable. The irradiation wavelength preferably has a peak at 300 to 450 nm, and more preferably has a peak at 350 to 400 nm.

[Post-curing by UV irradiation after polarized irradiation]
The optically anisotropic layer may be further irradiated with polarized or non-polarized ultraviolet rays after the first irradiation with polarized light (irradiation for photo-alignment). By further irradiating polarized or non-polarized ultraviolet rays after the first irradiation with polarized light, the reaction rate of the reactive group is increased (post-curing), the adhesion and the like are improved, and production can be performed at a high transport speed. Post-curing may be polarized or non-polarized, but is preferably polarized. Moreover, it is preferable to carry out post-curing twice or more, and polarized light or non-polarized light may be combined with polarized light and non-polarized light. However, when combined, it is preferable to irradiate polarized light before non-polarized light. Irradiation with ultraviolet rays may or may not be replaced with an inert gas. However, particularly when a radical polymerization initiator is used as the polymerization initiator, it is preferably performed in an inert gas atmosphere having an oxygen concentration of 0.5% or less. The irradiation energy is preferably 20mJ / cm 2 ~10J / cm 2 , further preferably 100 to 800 mJ / cm 2. The illuminance is preferably 20 to 1000 mW / cm 2, more preferably 50 to 500 mW / cm 2, further preferably 100 to 350 mW / cm 2. In the case of polarized light irradiation, the irradiation wavelength preferably has a peak at 300 to 450 nm, and more preferably 350 to 400 nm. In the case of non-polarized light irradiation, it preferably has a peak at 200 to 450 nm, and more preferably has a peak at 250 to 400 nm.

[Fixing of alignment state of liquid crystal compound having radical reactive group and cationic reactive group]
As described above, it is also preferable that the liquid crystalline compound has two or more kinds of reactive groups having different polymerization conditions. In this case, it is possible to produce an optically anisotropic layer including a polymer having an unreacted reactive group by selecting conditions and polymerizing only a part of plural types of reactive groups. . Polymerization particularly suitable when a liquid crystalline compound having a radical reactive group and a cationic reactive group (for example, the aforementioned I-22 to I-25) is used as such a liquid crystalline compound. The immobilization conditions will be described below.

  First, as the polymerization initiator, it is preferable to use only a photopolymerization initiator that acts on a reactive group intended to be polymerized. That is, it is preferable to use only a radical photopolymerization initiator when selectively polymerizing radical reactive groups and only a cationic photopolymerization initiator when selectively polymerizing cationic reactive groups. The amount of the photopolymerization initiator used is preferably 0.01 to 20% by mass, more preferably 0.1 to 8% by mass, and 0.5 to 4% by mass of the solid content of the coating solution. It is particularly preferred.

Next, it is preferable to use ultraviolet rays for light irradiation for polymerization. At this time, if the irradiation energy and / or illuminance is too strong, both the radical reactive group and the cationic reactive group may react non-selectively. Accordingly, the irradiation energy is preferably 5mJ / cm 2 ~500mJ / cm 2 , more preferably 10 to 400 mJ / cm 2, and particularly preferably 20mJ / cm 2 ~200mJ / cm 2 . The illuminance is preferably 5 to 500 mW / cm 2, more preferably 10 to 300 mW / cm 2, and particularly preferably 20 to 100 mW / cm 2. The irradiation wavelength preferably has a peak at 250 to 450 nm, and more preferably has a peak at 300 to 410 nm.

  Of the photopolymerization reactions, reactions using radical photopolymerization initiators are inhibited by oxygen, and reactions using cationic photopolymerization initiators are not inhibited by oxygen. Therefore, when a liquid crystal compound having a radical reactive group and a cationic reactive group is used as the liquid crystalline compound and one kind of the reactive group is selectively polymerized, the radical reactive group is selectively polymerized. In some cases, it is preferable to perform light irradiation in an inert gas atmosphere such as nitrogen, and in the case of selectively polymerizing a cationic reactive group, light irradiation is performed under an oxygen-containing atmosphere (for example, in the air). It is preferable.

[Horizontal alignment agent]
In the composition for forming an optically anisotropic layer, at least one of a fluorine-containing homopolymer or copolymer using a compound represented by the following general formulas (1) to (3) and a monomer represented by the general formula (4): By containing, the molecules of the liquid crystal compound can be substantially horizontally aligned.
Hereinafter, the following general formulas (1) to (4) will be described in order.

In the formula, R 1 , R 2 and R 3 each independently represent a hydrogen atom or a substituent, and X 1 , X 2 and X 3 each represent a single bond or a divalent linking group. The substituent represented by each of R 1 to R 3 is preferably a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group (more preferably an unsubstituted alkyl group or a fluorine-substituted alkyl group), an aryl group (particularly a fluorine-substituted alkyl). An aryl group having a group is preferred), a substituted or unsubstituted amino group, an alkoxy group, an alkylthio group, and a halogen atom. The divalent linking groups represented by X 1 , X 2 and X 3 are each an alkylene group, an alkenylene group, a divalent aromatic group, a divalent heterocyclic residue, —CO—, —NR a — ( R a is a divalent linking group selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms or a hydrogen atom), —O—, —S—, —SO—, —SO 2 —, and combinations thereof. Preferably there is. The divalent linking group is selected from the group consisting of an alkylene group, a phenylene group, —CO—, —NR a —, —O—, —S—, and SO 2 —, or the group. It is more preferably a divalent linking group in which at least two groups are combined. The alkylene group preferably has 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The alkenylene group preferably has 2 to 12 carbon atoms. The number of carbon atoms of the divalent aromatic group is preferably 6-10.

In the formula, R represents a substituent, and m represents an integer of 0 to 5. When m represents an integer greater than or equal to 2, several R may be same or different. Preferred substituents for R are the same as those listed as preferred ranges for the substituents represented by R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 . m preferably represents an integer of 1 to 3, particularly preferably 2 or 3.

In the formula, R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , R 7 , R 8 and R 9 each independently represent a hydrogen atom or a substituent. The substituents represented by R 4 , R 5 , R 6 , R 7 , R 8 and R 9 are preferably the substituents represented by R 1 , R 2 and R 3 in the general formula (1). It is listed as a thing. As the horizontal alignment agent used in the present invention, the compounds described in paragraph numbers [0092] to [0096] of JP-A-2005-99248 can be used, and the synthesis method of these compounds is also described in the specification. ing.

In the formula, R represents a hydrogen atom or a methyl group, X represents an oxygen atom or a sulfur atom, Z represents a hydrogen atom or a fluorine atom, m represents an integer of 1 to 6, and n represents an integer of 1 to 12. Represents. In addition to the fluorine-containing polymer containing the general formula (4), the compounds described in JP-A-2005-206638 and JP-A-2006-91205 can be used as the unevenness improving polymer in coating as a horizontal alignment agent. Are also described in the specification.
The addition amount of the horizontal alignment agent is preferably 0.01 to 20% by mass, more preferably 0.01 to 10% by mass, and particularly preferably 0.02 to 1% by mass of the mass of the liquid crystal compound. In addition, the compounds represented by the general formulas (1) to (4) may be used alone or in combination of two or more.

[Optically anisotropic layer produced by stretching]
The optically anisotropic layer may be prepared by stretching a polymer. As described above, the optically anisotropic layer preferably has at least one unreacted reactive group. However, when preparing such a polymer, the polymer having a reactive group may be stretched in advance. Alternatively, a reactive group may be introduced into the optically anisotropic layer after stretching using a coupling agent or the like. Features of the optically anisotropic layer obtained by the stretching method include low cost and self-supporting property (no support is required for forming and maintaining the optically anisotropic layer).

[Post-treatment of optically anisotropic layer]
Various post-treatments may be performed to modify the produced optically anisotropic layer. Examples of post-treatment include corona treatment for improving adhesion, addition of a plasticizer for improving flexibility, addition of a thermal polymerization inhibitor for improving storage stability, and a coupling treatment for improving reactivity. It is done. Moreover, when the polymer in the optically anisotropic layer has an unreacted reactive group, it is also an effective modifying means to add a polymerization initiator corresponding to the reactive group. For example, adding a radical photopolymerization initiator to an optically anisotropic layer obtained by polymerizing and fixing a liquid crystalline compound having a cationic reactive group and a radical reactive group using a cationic photopolymerization initiator Thus, the reaction of an unreacted radical reactive group when pattern exposure is performed later can be promoted. Examples of the means for adding the plasticizer and the photopolymerization initiator include a means for immersing the optically anisotropic layer in a solution of the corresponding additive and a solution of the corresponding additive on the optically anisotropic layer. And means for infiltration. In addition, when another layer is applied on the optically anisotropic layer, an additive may be added to the coating solution of the layer and immersed in the optically anisotropic layer.

[Other layers]
The shape of the optical element of the present invention may be usually a film or a sheet shape. The optical element may have a functional layer capable of imparting various secondary functions in addition to the optically anisotropic layer described above. Examples of the functional layer include a support, an alignment layer, a reflective layer, and a back adhesive layer. The optical element of the present invention may have a polarizing layer.

[Support]
The optical element of the present invention may have a support. Although there is no limitation in particular in a support body, selecting according to the intended purpose of the optical element of this invention is preferable. For example, a transparent support is preferable in the case of an optical element in which a polarizing layer is arranged on the surface opposite to the observation side, and in the case of an optical element used in an aspect in which a latent image is visualized exclusively by reflected light, instead of the reflective layer described later. In addition, it is also preferable that the support itself has a reflecting function. As an example of the support having a reflection function, in addition to aluminum foil and stainless steel, the reflection function may be provided by providing glossy printing on an arbitrary support. A support subjected to hologram processing can also be used. Other examples of the support include cellulose ester (eg, cellulose acetate, cellulose propionate, cellulose butyrate), polyolefin (eg, norbornene polymer), poly (meth) acrylic acid ester (eg, polymethyl methacrylate), Examples thereof include plastic films such as polycarbonate, polyester and polysulfone, and norbornene-based polymers, paper, and cloth. As a film thickness of a support body, 3-500 micrometers is preferable and 10-200 micrometers is more preferable. The support preferably has heat resistance sufficient not to be colored or deformed by baking to be described later.

[Alignment layer]
As described above, an alignment layer may be used for forming the optically anisotropic layer. The alignment layer is generally provided on a support or temporary support or an undercoat layer coated on the support or temporary support. The alignment layer functions so as to define the alignment direction of the liquid crystal compound provided thereon. The orientation layer may be any layer as long as it can impart orientation to the optically anisotropic layer. Preferred examples of the alignment layer include a rubbing treatment layer of an organic compound (preferably a polymer), an oblique deposition layer of an inorganic compound, and a layer having a microgroove, and ω-tricosanoic acid, dioctadecylmethylammonium chloride and stearyl. Examples thereof include a cumulative film formed by Langmuir-Blodgett method (LB film) such as methyl acid, or a layer in which a dielectric is oriented by applying an electric field or a magnetic field.

  Examples of organic compounds for the alignment layer include polymethyl methacrylate, acrylic acid / methacrylic acid copolymer, styrene / maleimide copolymer, polyvinyl alcohol, poly (N-methylolacrylamide), polyvinylpyrrolidone, styrene / vinyltoluene. Copolymer, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, nitrocellulose, polyvinyl chloride, chlorinated polyolefin, polyester, polyimide, vinyl acetate / vinyl chloride copolymer, ethylene / vinyl acetate copolymer, carboxymethyl cellulose, polyethylene, polypropylene, polycarbonate, etc. And polymers such as silane coupling agents. Examples of preferable polymers include polyimide, polystyrene, polymers of styrene derivatives, gelatin, polyvinyl alcohol, and alkyl-modified polyvinyl alcohol having an alkyl group (preferably having 6 or more carbon atoms).

  A polymer is preferably used for forming the alignment layer. The type of polymer that can be used can be determined according to the orientation (particularly the average tilt angle) of the liquid crystal compound. For example, in order to align the liquid crystalline compound horizontally, a polymer that does not decrease the surface energy of the alignment layer (ordinary alignment polymer) is used. Specific types of polymers are described in various documents about liquid crystal cells or optical compensation sheets. For example, polyvinyl alcohol or modified polyvinyl alcohol, a copolymer with polyacrylic acid or polyacrylate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, cellulose, or modified cellulose are preferably used. The alignment layer material may have a functional group capable of reacting with the reactive group of the liquid crystal compound. The reactive group can be introduced by introducing a repeating unit having a reactive group in the side chain or as a substituent of a cyclic group. It is more preferable to use an alignment layer that forms a chemical bond with the liquid crystal compound at the interface. Such an alignment layer is described in JP-A-9-152509, and acid chloride or Karenz MOI (manufactured by Showa Denko KK). The modified polyvinyl alcohol in which an acrylic group is introduced into the side chain by using The thickness of the alignment layer is preferably 0.01 to 5 μm, and more preferably 0.05 to 2 μm. The alignment layer may have a function as an oxygen blocking film.

  A polyimide film (preferably fluorine atom-containing polyimide) widely used as an alignment layer for LCD is also preferable as the organic alignment layer. This is a polyamic acid (for example, LQ / LX series manufactured by Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd., SE series manufactured by Nissan Chemical Co., Ltd., etc.) is applied to the support surface and baked at 100 to 300 ° C. for 0.5 to 1 hour. And then obtained by rubbing.

  Moreover, the rubbing process can utilize a processing method widely adopted as a liquid crystal alignment process of LCD. That is, a method of obtaining the orientation by rubbing the surface of the orientation layer in a certain direction using paper, gauze, felt, rubber, nylon, polyester fiber or the like can be used. Generally, it is carried out by rubbing several times using a cloth or the like in which fibers having a uniform length and thickness are planted on average.

Moreover, as a vapor deposition material for the inorganic oblique vapor deposition film, SiO 2 is representative, and metal oxides such as TiO 2 and ZnO 2 , fluorides such as MgF 2 , and metals such as Au and Al. The metal oxide can be used as an oblique deposition material as long as it has a high dielectric constant, and is not limited to the above. The inorganic oblique deposition film can be formed using a deposition apparatus. An inorganic oblique vapor deposition film can be formed by fixing the film (support) and performing vapor deposition, or moving the long film and performing continuous vapor deposition.

[Reflective layer]
By using the reflective layer or the support having the reflection function as described above in the optical element of the present invention, it is possible to pass through the polarizing plate from the opposite side of the reflective layer or the support as viewed from the two or more patterned optically anisotropic layers. By observing, the latent image by the birefringence pattern can be visualized.
Although it does not specifically limit as a reflection layer, For example, metal layers, such as aluminum and silver, are mentioned. The support body which vapor-deposited such a metal layer may be sufficient, and the support body which foil-pressed metal foil may be sufficient. Alternatively, a support printed with gold or silver ink can also be used. It does not have to be a complete mirror surface, and the surface may be matted.

[Rear adhesive layer]
The optical element of the present invention may have a post-adhesion layer for being attached to other articles. The material for the post-adhesion layer is not particularly limited, but is preferably a material having adhesiveness even after undergoing a baking step during production.

[Polarizing layer]
By providing a polarizing layer on the side opposite to the viewing side when viewed from two or more patterned optically anisotropic layers, and observing through the polarizing plate from the viewing side when viewed from two or more patterned optically anisotropic layers, When provided on the opposite side transparent support, by providing the optical element of the present invention between two polarizers, a latent image by a birefringence pattern can be visualized. In this case, it is preferable that the polarizing layer in the optical element and the two polarizing plates used for observation are arranged at an angle at which crossed Nicols are formed. In the present specification, “cross Nicol” means a state in which a sample is disposed between two polarizing plates stacked so that the absorption axes are substantially orthogonal.
Instead of using such a polarizing layer, a polarizing plate may be disposed on the opposite surface and the viewing side surface of the viewing side (usually preferably crossed Nicols) to visualize the latent image by the birefringence pattern.
Below, the transfer material used when the said optically anisotropic layer is produced by transcription | transfer and the functional layer contained in this transfer material are demonstrated.

[Temporary support]
The transfer material preferably has a temporary support. The temporary support may be transparent or opaque and is not particularly limited. Examples of polymers constituting the temporary support include cellulose esters (eg, cellulose acetate, cellulose propionate, cellulose butyrate), polyolefins (eg, norbornene-based polymers), poly (meth) acrylic acid esters (eg, poly Methyl methacrylate), polycarbonate, polyester and polysulfone, norbornene-based polymers. For the purpose of inspecting optical properties in the production process, the transparent support is preferably a transparent and low birefringent material, and cellulose ester and norbornene are preferred from the viewpoint of low birefringence. As a commercially available norbornene-based polymer, Arton (manufactured by JSR Co., Ltd.), Zeonex, Zeonore (manufactured by Nippon Zeon Co., Ltd.), or the like can be used. Inexpensive polycarbonate, polyethylene terephthalate, and the like are also preferably used.

[Transfer adhesive layer]
The transfer material preferably has a transfer adhesive layer. The transfer adhesive layer is not particularly limited as long as it is transparent, uncolored, and has sufficient transferability. However, a photosensitive or heat-sensitive resin layer is desirable from the viewpoint of baking resistance required when used for a substrate for a liquid crystal display device.

[Adhesive layer]
As the pressure-sensitive adhesive, for example, a material that is excellent in optical transparency and exhibits appropriate wettability, cohesiveness, and adhesive pressure-sensitive adhesive properties is preferable. Specific examples include pressure-sensitive adhesives that are appropriately prepared using a polymer such as an acrylic polymer, silicone polymer, polyester, polyurethane, polyether, and synthetic rubber as a base polymer. Control of the adhesive properties of the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer can be achieved by, for example, controlling the degree of crosslinking and molecular weight depending on the composition and molecular weight of the base polymer forming the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer, the crosslinking method, the content ratio of the crosslinkable functional group, the blending ratio of the crosslinking agent, etc. It can be suitably performed by a conventionally known method such as adjustment.

[Pressure-sensitive resin layer]
The pressure-sensitive resin layer is not particularly limited as long as adhesiveness is exhibited by applying pressure, and rubber-based, acrylic-based, vinyl ether-based, and silicone-based pressure-sensitive adhesives can be used as the pressure-sensitive adhesive. In the production stage and coating stage of adhesives, solvent-based adhesives, non-aqueous emulsion adhesives, water-based emulsion adhesives, water-soluble adhesives, hot melt adhesives, liquid curable adhesives, and delayed A tack-type adhesive can be used. The rubber-based pressure-sensitive adhesive is disclosed in New Polymer Library 13 “Adhesion Technology”, Kobunshi Publishing Co., Ltd. 41 (1987). The vinyl ether-based pressure-sensitive adhesive includes those having a main component of an alkyl vinyl ether polymer having 2 to 4 carbon atoms, vinyl chloride / vinyl acetate copolymer, vinyl acetate polymer, polyvinyl butyral and the like mixed with a plasticizer. As the silicone-based pressure-sensitive adhesive, a rubber-like siloxane can be used to give film formation and film condensing power, and a resin-like siloxane can be used to give stickiness and adhesion.

[Thermosensitive resin layer]
The heat-sensitive resin layer is not particularly limited as long as it exhibits adhesiveness by applying heat, and examples of the heat-sensitive adhesive include hot-melt compounds and thermoplastic resins. Examples of the heat-meltable compound include low molecular weight products of thermoplastic resins such as polystyrene resin, acrylic resin, styrene-acrylic resin, polyester resin, and polyurethane resin, carnauba wax, molasses, candelilla wax, rice wax, and Plant waxes such as aucuric wax, beeswax, insect wax, shellac, and animal waxes such as whale wax, paraffin wax, microcrystalline wax, polyethylene wax, Fischer-Tropsch wax, ester wax, and oxidation Examples include various waxes such as petroleum waxes such as waxes, and mineral waxes such as montan wax, ozokerite, and ceresin wax. Further, rosin, hydrogenated rosin, polymerized rosin, rosin modified glycerin, rosin modified maleic resin, rosin modified polyester resin, rosin modified phenolic resin, rosin derivatives such as ester gum, phenol resin, terpene resin, ketone resin, cyclopentadiene Examples thereof include resins, aromatic hydrocarbon resins, aliphatic hydrocarbon resins, and alicyclic hydrocarbon resins.

  These heat-meltable compounds preferably have a molecular weight of usually 10,000 or less, particularly 5,000 or less and a melting point or softening point in the range of 50 to 150 ° C. These hot melt compounds may be used alone or in combination of two or more. Examples of the thermoplastic resin include ethylene copolymers, polyamide resins, polyester resins, polyurethane resins, polyolefin resins, acrylic resins, and cellulose resins. Of these, ethylene copolymers and the like are particularly preferably used.

[Photosensitive resin layer]
The photosensitive resin layer is made of a photosensitive resin composition, and may be positive type or negative type, and is not particularly limited. A commercially available resist material can be used, and it is preferable to exhibit adhesiveness by light irradiation. In view of environmental and explosion-proof problems in the manufacturing process of articles such as substrates for liquid crystal display devices, aqueous development with an organic solvent of 5% or less is preferred, and alkaline development is particularly preferred. The photosensitive resin layer is preferably formed from a resin composition containing at least (1) a polymer, (2) a monomer or oligomer, and (3) a photopolymerization initiator or a photopolymerization initiator system.

Hereinafter, the components (1) to (3) will be described.
(1) Polymer As the polymer (hereinafter sometimes simply referred to as “binder”), an alkali-soluble resin composed of a polymer having a polar group such as a carboxylic acid group or a carboxylic acid group in the side chain is preferable. Examples thereof include JP-A-59-44615, JP-B-54-34327, JP-B-58-12577, JP-B-54-25957, JP-A-59-53836, and JP-A-57-36. A methacrylic acid copolymer, an acrylic acid copolymer, an itaconic acid copolymer, a crotonic acid copolymer, a maleic acid copolymer, a partially esterified maleic acid copolymer as described in JP-A-59-71048 Etc. Moreover, the cellulose derivative which has a carboxylic acid group in a side chain can also be mentioned, In addition to this, what added the cyclic acid anhydride to the polymer which has a hydroxyl group can also be used preferably. Further, as particularly preferred examples, copolymers of benzyl (meth) acrylate and (meth) acrylic acid described in US Pat. No. 4,139,391, benzyl (meth) acrylate, (meth) acrylic acid and other monomers And a multi-component copolymer. These binder polymers having polar groups may be used alone or in the form of a composition used in combination with ordinary film-forming polymers. The polymer content relative to the total solid content is generally 20 to 70% by mass, preferably 25 to 65% by mass, and more preferably 25 to 45% by mass.

(2) Monomer or oligomer The monomer or oligomer used in the photosensitive resin layer is preferably a monomer or oligomer that has two or more ethylenically unsaturated double bonds and undergoes addition polymerization by light irradiation. . Examples of such monomers and oligomers include compounds having at least one addition-polymerizable ethylenically unsaturated group in the molecule and having a boiling point of 100 ° C. or higher at normal pressure. Examples include monofunctional acrylates and monofunctional methacrylates such as polyethylene glycol mono (meth) acrylate, polypropylene glycol mono (meth) acrylate and phenoxyethyl (meth) acrylate; polyethylene glycol di (meth) acrylate, polypropylene glycol di (meth) ) Acrylate, trimethylolethane triacrylate, trimethylolpropane tri (meth) acrylate, trimethylolpropane diacrylate, neopentyl glycol di (meth) acrylate, pentaerythritol tetra (meth) acrylate, pentaerythritol tri (meth) acrylate, di Pentaerythritol hexa (meth) acrylate, dipentaerythritol penta (meth) acrylate, hexa Diol di (meth) acrylate, trimethylolpropane tri (acryloyloxypropyl) ether, tri (acryloyloxyethyl) isocyanurate, tri (acryloyloxyethyl) cyanurate, glycerin tri (meth) acrylate; multifunctional such as trimethylolpropane and glycerin Polyfunctional acrylates and polyfunctional methacrylates such as those obtained by adding ethylene oxide or propylene oxide to alcohol and then (meth) acrylated can be mentioned.

Further, urethane acrylates described in JP-B-48-41708, JP-B-50-6034 and JP-A-51-37193; JP-A-48-64183, JP-B-49-43191 And polyester acrylates described in JP-B-52-30490; polyfunctional acrylates and methacrylates such as epoxy acrylates which are reaction products of epoxy resin and (meth) acrylic acid.
Among these, trimethylolpropane tri (meth) acrylate, pentaerythritol tetra (meth) acrylate, dipentaerythritol hexa (meth) acrylate, and dipentaerythritol penta (meth) acrylate are preferable.
In addition, “polymerizable compound B” described in JP-A-11-133600 can also be mentioned as a preferable example.
These monomers or oligomers may be used alone or in admixture of two or more. The content of the colored resin composition with respect to the total solid content is generally 5 to 50% by mass, and 10 to 40% by mass. Is preferred.

(3) Photopolymerization initiator or photopolymerization initiator system As the photopolymerization initiator or photopolymerization initiator system used in the photosensitive resin layer, a vicinal poly disclosed in US Pat. No. 2,367,660 is used. Ketaldonyl compounds, acyloin ether compounds described in US Pat. No. 2,448,828, aromatic acyloin compounds substituted with α-hydrocarbons described in US Pat. No. 2,722,512, US Pat. No. 3,046,127 And a polynuclear quinone compound described in U.S. Pat. No. 2,951,758, a combination of a triarylimidazole dimer described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,549,367 and a p-aminoketone, and a benzoin described in JP-B 51-48516. Thiazole compounds and trihalomethyl-s-triazine compounds, US Pat. No. 4,239,850 It may be mentioned triazine compounds, U.S. Patent trihalomethyl oxadiazole compounds described in No. 4,212,976 specification or the like - trihalomethyl listed in. In particular, trihalomethyl-s-triazine, trihalomethyloxadiazole, and triarylimidazole dimer are preferable.
In addition, “polymerization initiator C” described in JP-A-11-133600 can also be mentioned as a preferable example.

These photopolymerization initiators or photopolymerization initiator systems may be used singly or in combination of two or more, but it is particularly preferable to use two or more. When at least two kinds of photopolymerization initiators are used, display characteristics, particularly display unevenness, can be reduced.
The content of the photopolymerization initiator or the photopolymerization initiator system with respect to the total solid content of the colored resin composition is generally 0.5 to 20% by mass, and preferably 1 to 15% by mass.

The photosensitive resin layer preferably contains an appropriate surfactant from the viewpoint of effectively preventing unevenness. The surfactant can be used as long as it is mixed with the photosensitive resin composition. Preferred surfactants used in the present invention include JP2003-337424A [0090] to [0091], JP2003-177522A [0092] to [0093], and JP2003-177523A [0094]. ] To [0095], JP 2003-177521 A [0096] to [0097], JP 2003-177519 A [0098] to [0099], JP 2003-177520 A [0100] to [0101]. [0102] to [0103] of JP-A-11-133600 and surfactants disclosed as inventions of JP-A-6-16684 are preferred. In order to obtain a higher effect, a fluorosurfactant and / or a silicon surfactant (a fluorosurfactant or a silicon surfactant, a surfactant containing both a fluorine atom and a silicon atom) ) Or two or more types are preferable, and a fluorine-based surfactant is most preferable. When using a fluorosurfactant, the number of fluorine atoms in the fluorine-containing substituent in the surfactant molecule is preferably 1 to 38, more preferably 5 to 25, and most preferably 7 to 20. If the number of fluorine atoms is too large, it is not preferable in that the solubility in an ordinary solvent not containing fluorine is lowered. When the number of fluorine atoms is too small, it is not preferable in that the effect of improving unevenness cannot be obtained.
As a particularly preferred surfactant, the following general formula (a) and a monomer represented by the general formula (b) are included, and the mass ratio of the general formula (a) / the general formula (b) is 20/80 to 60 / The thing containing 40 copolymers is mentioned.

In the formula, R 1 , R 2 and R 3 each independently represent a hydrogen atom or a methyl group, and R 4 represents a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms. n represents an integer of 1 to 18, and m represents an integer of 2 to 14. p and q represent integers of 0 to 18, but are not included when both p and q are simultaneously 0.

A particularly preferred surfactant represented by the general formula (a) is referred to as a monomer (a), and a monomer represented by the general formula (b) is referred to as a monomer (b). C m F 2m + 1 shown in the general formula (a) may be linear or branched. m shows the integer of 2-14, Preferably it is an integer of 4-12. The content of C m F 2m + 1 is preferably 20 to 70% by mass, particularly preferably 40 to 60% by mass, based on the monomer (a). R 1 represents a hydrogen atom or a methyl group. Moreover, n shows 1-18, and 2-10 are preferable especially. R 2 and R 3 shown in the general formula (b) each independently represent a hydrogen atom or a methyl group, and R 4 represents a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group having 1 to 5 carbon atoms. p and q each represent an integer of 0 to 18, but p and q do not include 0. p and q are preferably 2 to 8.

Moreover, as a particularly preferable monomer (a) contained in one molecule of the surfactant, those having the same structure or those having different structures within the above defined range may be used. The same applies to the monomer (b).
The weight average molecular weight Mw of the particularly preferable surfactant is preferably 1000 to 40000, and more preferably 5000 to 20000. The surfactant contains the monomers represented by the general formula (a) and the general formula (b), and the weight ratio of the general formula (a) / the general formula (b) is 20/80 to 60/40. It is characterized by containing a coalescence. Particularly preferred 100 parts by weight of the surfactant is preferably composed of 20 to 60 parts by weight of the monomer (a), 80 to 40 parts by weight of the monomer (b), and the remaining part by weight of other optional monomers. It is preferable that the monomer (a) is composed of 25 to 60 parts by mass, the monomer (b) is composed of 60 to 40 parts by mass, and other optional monomers are composed of the remaining part by mass.

Examples of the copolymerizable monomer other than the monomers (a) and (b) include styrene, vinyl toluene, α-methyl styrene, 2-methyl styrene, chlorostyrene, vinyl benzoic acid, vinyl benzene sulfonic acid soda, and amino styrene. Styrene and its derivatives, substituted products, dienes such as butadiene and isoprene, acrylonitrile, vinyl ethers, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid, itaconic acid, crotonic acid, maleic acid, partially esterified maleic acid, styrene sulfonic acid maleic anhydride, silica And vinyl monomers such as cinnamate, vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate.
Particularly preferred surfactants are copolymers such as monomer (a) and monomer (b), but the monomer sequence is not particularly limited and may be random or regular, for example, block or graft. Furthermore, particularly preferable surfactants can be used by mixing two or more of those having different molecular structures and / or monomer compositions.
As content of the said surfactant, 0.01-10 mass% is preferable with respect to the layer total solid of a photosensitive resin layer, and 0.1-7 mass% is especially preferable. The surfactant contains a predetermined amount of a surfactant having a specific structure, an ethylene oxide group, and a polypropylene oxide group, and a liquid crystal provided with the photosensitive resin layer by containing it in a specific range in the photosensitive resin layer. Display unevenness of the display device is improved. If it is less than 0.01% by mass relative to the total solid content, the display unevenness is not improved, and if it exceeds 10% by mass, the effect of improving the display unevenness does not appear much. When the above-mentioned particularly preferable surfactant is contained in the photosensitive resin layer to produce a color filter, it is preferable in that display unevenness is improved.

  Specific examples of preferable fluorine-based surfactants include compounds described in paragraph numbers [0054] to [0063] of JP-A No. 2004-163610. Moreover, the following commercially available surfactant can also be used as it is. Examples of commercially available surfactants that can be used include F-top EF301 and EF303 (manufactured by Shin-Akita Kasei Co., Ltd.), Florard FC430 and 431 (manufactured by Sumitomo 3M Ltd.), MegaFuck F171, F173, F176, F189, and R08. (Dainippon Ink Co., Ltd.), Surflon S-382, SC101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106 (Asahi Glass Co., Ltd.) and other fluorine-based surfactants, or silicon-based surfactants. be able to. Polysiloxane polymers KP-341 (manufactured by Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd.) and Troisol S-366 (manufactured by Troy Chemical Co., Ltd.) can also be used as the silicon surfactant. In the present invention, a compound described in paragraphs [0046] to [0052] of JP-A No. 2004-331812, which is a fluorine-based surfactant not containing the monomer represented by the general formula (a), is used. Is also preferable.

[Mechanical property control layer]
It is preferable to form a mechanical property control layer between the temporary support and the optically anisotropic layer of the transfer material in order to control the mechanical properties and the uneven followability. As the mechanical property control layer, those exhibiting flexible elasticity, those softened by heat, those exhibiting fluidity by heat, and the like are preferable, and a thermoplastic resin layer is particularly preferable. As the component used for the thermoplastic resin layer, organic polymer materials described in JP-A-5-72724 are preferable. It is particularly preferable that the softening point by the measurement method is selected from organic polymer substances having a temperature of about 80 ° C. or less. Specifically, polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene, ethylene copolymers such as ethylene and vinyl acetate or saponified products thereof, ethylene and acrylic acid esters or saponified products thereof, polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate and saponified products thereof. Vinyl chloride copolymer such as fluoride, polyvinylidene chloride, vinylidene chloride copolymer, polystyrene, styrene copolymer such as styrene and (meth) acrylic acid ester or saponified product thereof, polyvinyl toluene, vinyl toluene and (meta ) Vinyl toluene copolymer such as acrylic ester or saponified product thereof, poly (meth) acrylic ester, (meth) acrylic ester copolymer such as butyl (meth) acrylate and vinyl acetate, vinyl acetate copolymer Combined nylon, copolymer nylon, N-alkoxy Chill nylon, and organic polymeric polyamide resins such as N- dimethylamino nylon.

[Peeling layer]
The transfer material may have a release layer on the temporary support. The release layer controls the adhesion between the temporary support and the release layer, or between the release layer and the layer immediately above the release layer, and serves to assist the release of the temporary support after transferring the optically anisotropic layer. In addition, the other functional layers described above, such as an alignment layer and a mechanical property control layer, may have a function as a release layer.
In the transfer material, it is preferable to provide an intermediate layer for the purpose of preventing mixing of components during application of a plurality of application layers and during storage after application. As the intermediate layer, an oxygen blocking film having an oxygen blocking function described in JP-A-5-72724 and an alignment layer for forming the optical anisotropy are preferably used. Among these, a layer formed by mixing polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl pyrrolidone and one or more of their modified products is particularly preferable. The thermoplastic resin layer, the oxygen barrier film, and the alignment layer can also be used.

[Surface protective layer]
A thin surface protective layer is preferably provided on the resin layer in order to protect it from contamination and damage during storage. The property of the surface protective layer is not particularly limited and may be made of the same or similar material as the temporary support, but it should be easily separated from the adjacent layer (for example, transfer adhesive layer). As a material for the surface protective layer, for example, silicon paper, polyolefin or polytetrafluoroethylene sheet is suitable.

  Each layer such as optically anisotropic layer, photosensitive resin layer, transfer adhesive layer, orientation layer, thermoplastic resin layer, mechanical property control layer and intermediate layer is dip coating, air knife coating, spin coating, slit coating. It can be formed by coating by the method, curtain coating method, roller coating method, wire bar coating method, gravure coating method or extrusion coating method (US Pat. No. 2,681,294). Two or more layers may be applied simultaneously. The methods of simultaneous application are described in US Pat. Nos. 2,761,791, 2,941,898, 3,508,947, and 3,526,528 and Yuji Harasaki, Coating Engineering, page 253, Asakura Shoten (1973).

[Birefringence pattern builder]
Using the above materials, a birefringence pattern builder is produced by the method exemplified below.
An optically anisotropic layer is formed on a support; an alignment layer is provided on the support and an optically anisotropic layer is directly formed thereon; a transfer material having an optically anisotropic layer formed on a temporary support The optically anisotropic layer is transferred onto the support using a transfer material; the optically anisotropic layer is transferred onto the support using a transfer material in which the optically anisotropic layer is formed on the alignment layer on the temporary support. Forming as a self-supporting optically anisotropic layer; forming another functional layer on the self-supporting optically anisotropic layer; laminating the self-supporting optically anisotropic layer on a support; . Among these, from the point of not restricting the physical properties of the optically anisotropic layer, the method of forming the optically anisotropic layer or the alignment layer and the optically anisotropic layer on the support and the transfer material are used. A method of transferring the optically anisotropic layer to the support is preferable, and a method of transferring the optically anisotropic layer onto the support using a transfer material is more preferable because there are few restrictions on the support.

[Method of transferring transfer material onto transfer material]
The method for transferring the transfer material onto a transfer material such as a support is not particularly limited, and the method is not particularly limited as long as the optically anisotropic layer can be transferred onto the substrate. For example, a transfer material formed in a film shape can be attached by pressing or thermocompression bonding with a roller or flat plate heated and / or pressurized using a laminator with the transfer adhesive layer surface side of the transfer material surface side. . Specific examples include laminators and laminating methods described in JP-A-7-110575, JP-A-11-77942, JP-A-2000-334836, and JP-A-2002-148794. From this point of view, it is preferable to use the method described in JP-A-7-110575.
Examples of the material to be transferred include a support, a laminate including a support and another functional layer, or a birefringence pattern builder.

[Transfer process]
After transferring the birefringence pattern transfer material onto the transfer material, the temporary support may or may not be peeled off. However, when it does not peel, it is preferable that the temporary support has transparency suitable for subsequent pattern exposure, heat resistance that can withstand baking, and the like. Further, there may be a step of removing an unnecessary layer transferred together with the optically anisotropic layer. For example, when a copolymer of polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone is used as the alignment layer, the layer above the alignment layer can be removed by development with a weak alkaline aqueous developer. As a development method, a known method such as paddle development, shower development, shower & spin development, dip development or the like can be used. The liquid temperature of the developer is preferably 20 ° C. to 40 ° C., and the pH of the developer is preferably 8 to 13.

  Further, after transfer, another layer may be formed on the surface after the temporary support is peeled off or the unnecessary layer is removed as necessary. Alternatively, the transfer material may be transferred to the surface after the temporary support is removed or the unnecessary layer is removed as necessary. The transfer material used at this time may be the same as or different from the transfer material previously transferred. Further, the slow axis of the optically anisotropic layer of the transfer material previously transferred and the optically anisotropic layer and slow axis of the newly transferred transfer material may be in the same direction or in different directions. As described above, transferring a plurality of optically anisotropic layers means that a birefringence pattern having a large retardation and a slow axis having a large retardation formed by laminating a plurality of optically anisotropic layers having the same slow axis direction. This is useful for producing a special birefringence pattern in which a plurality of layers having different directions are laminated.

[Preparation of birefringence pattern]
By performing at least pattern exposure and heating (baking) in this order on the optically anisotropic layer, a patterned optically anisotropic layer (birefringence pattern) can be produced.

[Pattern exposure]
In this specification, pattern exposure includes exposure performed so as to form regions exposed under different exposure conditions, in addition to exposure performed so as to form an exposed portion and an unexposed portion. The pattern exposure is usually performed so as to expose a region where birefringence in the optically anisotropic layer is desired to remain. The retardation disappearance temperature rises in the optically anisotropic layer in the exposed area. As a pattern exposure method, contact exposure using a mask, proxy exposure, projection exposure, or the like may be used, or direct drawing may be performed by focusing on a predetermined position without using a mask using a laser or an electron beam. The irradiation wavelength of the light source for the exposure preferably has a peak at 250 to 450 nm, and more preferably has a peak at 300 to 410 nm. Specifically, exposure can be performed using an ultrahigh pressure mercury lamp, a high pressure mercury lamp, a metal halide lamp, a blue laser, or the like. Usually 3~2000mJ / cm 2 about the preferred amount of exposure, and more preferably 5~1000mJ / cm 2 or so, more preferably 10 to 500 mJ / cm 2 or so, and most preferably at about 10 to 100 mJ / cm 2 .
Examples of exposure performed so as to form regions exposed under different exposure conditions include exposure using a photomask having regions with different transmittances for ultraviolet light to be used.

The pattern exposure of the optically anisotropic layer may be performed separately for each layer, but two or more layers may be performed simultaneously. From the viewpoint of process reduction, it is preferable to perform two or more layers simultaneously. When performing each layer separately, after pattern exposure is performed on the birefringence pattern builder as described above, an optically anisotropic layer is directly provided thereon or by using a transfer material or the like. There is a need. At this time, the orientation of the slow axes of the plurality of layers may be adjusted. For example, in the case where optically anisotropic layers having the same slow axis direction are laminated, it is preferable that these layers are subjected to pattern exposure simultaneously. When laminating optically anisotropic layers having different slow axis directions, mask exposure is preferably performed one by one.

[Heating (Bake)]
A birefringence pattern can be prepared by heating the birefringence pattern builder subjected to pattern exposure to 50 ° C. or higher and 400 ° C. or lower, preferably 80 ° C. or higher and 400 ° C. or lower. When the retardation disappearance temperature before exposure of the optically anisotropic layer of the birefringence pattern builder used for birefringence pattern fabrication is T1 [° C.] and the retardation disappearance temperature after exposure is T2 [° C.] (retardation) When the disappearing temperature is not in the temperature range of 250 ° C. or lower, T2 = 250), and the baking temperature is preferably T1 ° C. or higher and T2 ° C. or lower, more preferably (T1 + 10) ° C. or higher and (T2-5) ° C. or lower, Most preferable is (T1 + 20) ° C. or higher and (T2-10) ° C. or lower.
Baking reduces the retardation of the unexposed area of the optically anisotropic layer, while the exposed area where the retardation disappearance temperature has increased in the previous pattern exposure has little or no decrease in retardation. As a result, the retardation of the unexposed area becomes smaller than that of the exposed area, and a birefringence pattern (patterned optically anisotropic layer) is produced.
Usually, two or more layers may be baked at the same time as the optically anisotropic layer, but may be performed separately one by one as necessary.

[Functional layer laminated on birefringence pattern]
In the production of the optical element of the present invention, a functional layer having various functions may be further laminated after producing a birefringent pattern by performing exposure and baking as described above. Although it does not specifically limit as a functional layer, For example, the hard-coat layer which prevents the damage | wound of the surface, said reflection layer, etc. are mention | raise | lifted.

[Two or more optically anisotropic layers]
The optical element of the present invention has two or more patterned optically anisotropic layers. Two or more optically anisotropic layers may be adjacent to each other in the normal direction, or another functional layer may be sandwiched therebetween. Two or more optically anisotropic layers may have almost the same retardation or different retardations. Further, the slow axis directions may be in the same direction, or may be in different directions.
When the directions of the slow axes are the same, a large retardation exceeding, for example, several hundred nm can be obtained. That is, the retardation realized by a single layer is represented by the product of the birefringence of the liquid crystal and the film thickness. Since the alignment of liquid crystals is controlled by the regulation force at the interface, the alignment tends to deteriorate with the film thickness. Therefore, when birefringence is imparted by liquid crystal, there is an upper limit for retardation that can be achieved by a single layer, and it is difficult to achieve retardation exceeding several hundred nm by a single layer, but the direction of the slow axis However, a large retardation can be realized by laminating the same layers. In particular, in reflection type display, in order to expand the color reproduction range, a retardation of several hundred nm or more is required. Therefore, it is significant to stack layers having the same slow axis direction.
Note that the direction of the slow axis of the optically anisotropic layer generally coincides with the direction of rubbing applied to the alignment layer. As described above, the retardation in the patterned optically anisotropic layer may be substantially zero, but in this case, the direction of the slow axis of the optically anisotropic layer before exposure is The rubbing direction can be considered.

  The present invention will be described more specifically with reference to the following examples. The materials, reagents, amounts and ratios of substances, operations, and the like shown in the following examples can be appropriately changed without departing from the gist of the present invention. Therefore, the scope of the present invention is not limited to the following specific examples.

[simulation]
A simulation was performed on the premise that a latent image is visualized through a polarizing plate by the optical element of the present invention having a reflective support. The reflected color was simulated using the Berreman 4 × 4 method, taking into account the air layer. An apodization method was used to eliminate the interference fringes. Aluminum reflective glass was assumed for the reflective support. The reflection spectrum is shown in FIG. As a light source, a spectral distribution of a white wall room illuminated by a general fluorescent lamp was assumed. The spectral distribution is shown in FIG.

As the refractive index of the liquid crystal layer, the refractive index of the optically anisotropic layer described later was used. Moreover, the refractive index of the super high contrast linear polarizing plate made from a Sanritz company was used for the refractive index of a polarizing plate.
With the above configuration, the reflection color was calculated.

Calculation example 1 (in the case of one layer)
An optically anisotropic layer having a retardation upper limit of 330 nm is disposed on an aluminum vapor-deposited glass so that the direction of the slow axis is 45 °, and further, a polarizing plate is formed thereon via an air layer. Was arranged so that the direction of the absorption axis was 90 °, the reflection color when the retardation value of the optically anisotropic layer was changed was comprehensively calculated. Among them, a design exhibiting a reflection color closest to the chromaticities of R, G, and B in the NTSC standard was extracted. The results are shown in Table 2.

The NTSC ratio calculated from the results shown in Table 2 is 2.9%, indicating that the color reproduction range is very narrow.

Calculation example 2 (in the case of two coaxial layers)
On the aluminum vapor-deposited glass, an optically anisotropic layer having a retardation upper limit of 330 nm is laminated so that the direction of the slow axis is 45 °, and further, an air layer is formed thereon, When the polarizing plate was arranged so that the direction of the absorption axis was 90 °, the reflection color when the retardation value of the optically anisotropic layer was changed was comprehensively calculated. Among them, a design exhibiting a reflection color closest to the chromaticities of R, G, and B in the NTSC standard was extracted. The results are shown in Table 3. The retardation values in Table 3 are shown as the sum of the two-layer retardation values.

  Compared to Calculation Example 1, it can be seen that the saturations of R and G are greatly improved. In addition, the NTSC ratio was 7.5%, indicating that the color reproduction range was widened.

Calculation example 3 (in the case of two axes shifted)
A first optically anisotropic layer having a retardation upper limit of 330 nm is deposited on the aluminum-deposited glass so that the direction of the slow axis is φ1, and further on the first optical anisotropic layer having a retardation upper limit of 330 nm. In the case where the second optically anisotropic layer is provided so that the direction of the slow axis is φ2, and the polarizing plate is disposed so that the absorption axis is 90 ° via the air layer thereon, The reflection colors when the retardation values of the first and second optically anisotropic layers were changed were comprehensively calculated. Among them, a design exhibiting a reflection color closest to the chromaticities of R, G, and B in the NTSC standard was extracted. Table 4 shows the results when φ1 is 5 ° and φ2 is 25 °.

Compared to Calculation Example 2, it can be seen that the chromaticity of B further moves outward. In addition, the NTSC ratio was 8.1%, indicating that the color reproduction range was widened.

[Sample preparation]
(Preparation of coating liquid CU-1 for mechanical property control layer)
The following composition was prepared, filtered through a polypropylene filter having a pore size of 30 μm, and used as a coating liquid CU-1 for a mechanical property control layer.
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Coating composition for mechanical properties control layer (mass%)
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Methyl methacrylate / 2-ethylhexyl acrylate / benzyl methacrylate / methacrylic acid copolymer (copolymerization composition ratio (molar ratio) = 55/30/10/5, mass average molecular weight = 100,000, Tg≈70 ° C.)
5.89
Styrene / acrylic acid copolymer (copolymerization composition ratio (molar ratio) = 65/35, mass average molecular weight = 10,000, Tg≈100 ° C.)
13.74
BPE-500 (manufactured by Shin-Nakamura Chemical Co., Ltd.) 9.20
Megafuck F-780-F (manufactured by Dainippon Ink & Chemicals, Inc.) 0.55
Methanol 11.22
Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate 6.43
Methyl ethyl ketone 52.97
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(Preparation of coating liquid AL-1 for alignment layer)
The following composition was prepared, filtered through a polypropylene filter having a pore size of 30 μm, and used as an alignment layer coating liquid AL-1.
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Coating liquid composition for alignment layer (% by mass)
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Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA205, manufactured by Kuraray Co., Ltd.) 3.21
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Luvitec K30, manufactured by BASF) 1.48
Distilled water 52.10
Methanol 43.21
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(Preparation of coating liquid LC-1 for optically anisotropic layer)
After the following composition was prepared, it was filtered through a polypropylene filter having a pore size of 0.2 μm and used as a coating liquid LC-1 for optically anisotropic layers.
LC-1-1 is a liquid crystal compound having two reactive groups. One of the two reactive groups is an acrylic group which is a radical reactive group, and the other is an oxetane group which is a cationic reactive group. is there.
LC-1-2 is a discotic compound added for the purpose of orientation control. Tetrahedron Lett. It was synthesized according to the method described in Journal, Vol. 43, page 6793 (2002).
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Coating liquid composition for optically anisotropic layer (% by mass)
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Bar-shaped liquid crystal (LC-1-1) 32.59
Horizontal alignment agent (LC-1-2) 0.02
Cationic photopolymerization initiator (CPI100-P, manufactured by San Apro Co., Ltd.) 0.66
Polymerization control agent (IRGANOX1076, manufactured by Ciba Specialty Chemicals Co., Ltd.) 0.07
Methyl ethyl ketone 66.66
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(Preparation of coating solution AD-1 for transfer adhesive layer)
After preparing the following composition, it was filtered through a polypropylene filter having a pore size of 0.2 μm and used as a coating solution AD-1 for transfer adhesive layer.
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Coating solution composition for transfer adhesive layer (% by mass)
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Benzyl methacrylate / methacrylic acid / methyl methacrylate = 35.9 / 22.4 / 41.7 molar ratio random copolymer (weight average molecular weight 38,000) 8.05
KAYARAD DPHA (manufactured by Nippon Kayaku Co., Ltd.) 4.83
Radical photopolymerization initiator (2-trichloromethyl-5- (p-styrylstyryl)
1,3,4-oxadiazole) 0.12
Hydroquinone monomethyl ether 0.002
Megafuck F-176PF (Dainippon Ink Chemical Co., Ltd.) 0.05
Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate 34.80
Methyl ethyl ketone 50.538
Methanol 1.61
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(Creation of retardation pattern BP-1 corresponding to calculation example 2 above)
(Preparation of optically anisotropic layer-coated sample TRC-1 and birefringence pattern transfer material TR-1)
On the temporary support of a 100 μm-thick easy-adhesive polyethylene terephthalate film (Cosmo Shine A4100, manufactured by Toyobo Co., Ltd.), in order using a wire bar, the coating liquid CU-1 for the mechanical property control layer, The coating liquid AL-1 was applied and dried. The dry film thicknesses were 14.6 μm and 1.6 μm, respectively. Next, the alignment layer is rubbed in the MD direction, the coating liquid LC-1 for optically anisotropic layer is applied using a wire bar, dried at a film surface temperature of 105 ° C. for 2 minutes to form a liquid crystal phase, Irradiate ultraviolet rays using an air-cooled metal halide lamp (manufactured by Eye Graphics Co., Ltd.) of 160 mW / cm 2 to fix the orientation state and form an optically anisotropic layer having a thickness of 3.6 μm. An anisotropic layer-coated sample TRC-1 was produced. The illuminance of ultraviolet rays used at this time was 100 mW / cm 2 in the UV-A region (integration of wavelengths from 320 nm to 400 nm), and the irradiation amount was 80 mJ / cm 2 in the UV-A region. The optically anisotropic layer of TRC-1 was a solid polymer at 20 ° C. and exhibited MEK (methyl ethyl ketone) resistance.
Finally, a coating solution AD-1 for transfer adhesive layer is applied on the optically anisotropic layer coating sample TRC-1 and dried to form a transfer adhesive layer having a thickness of 1.2 μm, and then a protective film (polypropylene having a thickness of 12 μm). Film) was pressure-bonded to prepare a birefringence pattern transfer material TR-1.

(Preparation of birefringence pattern builder BPM-1)
The glass substrate on which aluminum was deposited was washed with a rotating brush having nylon hair while spraying a glass detergent solution adjusted to 25 ° C. for 20 seconds with a shower. After pure water shower washing, a silane coupling solution (N-β (amino Ethyl) γ-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane 0.3% aqueous solution, trade name: KBM-603, Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd.) was sprayed for 20 seconds with a shower and washed with pure water. This substrate was heated at 100 ° C. for 2 minutes by a substrate preheating apparatus.
After peeling off the protective film of the transfer material TR-1 for producing the birefringence pattern, a laminator (manufactured by Hitachi Industries (Lamic II type)) was used, and the substrate heated at 100 ° C. for 2 minutes was subjected to the rubber roller temperature. Lamination was performed at 130 ° C., linear pressure of 100 N / cm, and conveyance speed of 1.4 m / min. After lamination, the temporary support was peeled off. On this, the birefringence pattern production transfer material TR-1 was again laminated in the same manner. At this time, attention was paid so that the directions of the slow axes of the optically anisotropic layer laminated earlier and the optically anisotropic layer laminated later substantially coincided. After lamination, the temporary support was peeled off to prepare a birefringence pattern builder BPM-1.

(Preparation of birefringence pattern material BP-1)
BPM-1 was exposed for 30 seconds at an exposure illuminance of 6.25 mW / cm 2 using a photomask I having three regions having different densities from the M-3L mask aligner manufactured by Mikasa. The photomask I includes four regions BP-1R, BP-1G, BP-1B, and BP-1K having different densities. Table 5 shows the transmittance of each region with respect to λ = 365 nm ultraviolet light.

BPM-1 after exposure was baked for 1 hour in a clean oven at 230 ° C. to prepare retardation pattern BP-1.

(Reflection color measurement)
An angle formed between the direction of the absorption axis and the direction of the slow axis of the optically anisotropic layer is 45 ° on a super high contrast linear polarizing plate (manufactured by Sanlitz) on the retardation pattern BP-1. Overlaid on. The regions BP-1R, 1G, 1B, and 1K were red, green, blue, and black, respectively. The reflection color (Yxy) of each region was measured using a radiance meter BM-5A (Topcon Corporation) in a room illuminated with a fluorescent lamp. Table 6 shows the measurement results.

Compared with Table 2, it can be seen that the reflected color calculated by the simulation reproduces the measured value well.

(Heat resistance evaluation)
BP-1 was heated in an oven at 150 ° C. for 10 minutes. The regions of BP-1R, BP-1G, and BP-1B after the heat treatment are referred to as BPB-1R, 1G, and 1B, respectively. Table 7 shows the reflected colors measured by the method described above.

Even after the heat treatment, the reflection color of the latent image is hardly changed, which indicates that the optical element of the present invention is excellent in heat resistance.

(Preparation of retardation pattern BP-2 corresponding to calculation example 3 above)
(Preparation of optically anisotropic layer coating sample TRC-2, 3 and birefringence pattern transfer material TR-2, 3)
Optically anisotropic layer-coated samples TRC-2 and 3 were prepared in the same manner as TRC-1, except that the rubbing direction of the alignment layer was 25 ° and 5 ° clockwise from the MD direction. Further, birefringence pattern-preparing transfer materials TR-2 and 3 were prepared in the same manner as TR-1, except that TRC-2 and 3 were used as the optically anisotropic layer-coated samples.

(Preparation of birefringence pattern builder BPM-2)
Similarly to BPM-1, TRC-3 was laminated on a glass on which aluminum was vapor-deposited so that the TD direction of the film coincided with the front side of the glass. After lamination, the temporary support was peeled off to prepare a birefringence pattern builder BPM-2.

(Preparation of birefringence pattern material BP-2)
BPM-2 was exposed for 5 seconds at an exposure illuminance of 6.25 mW / cm 2 using a photomask II having four regions having different densities from the M-3L mask aligner manufactured by Mikasa. At this time, the front side of the photomask II was parallel to the front side of the BMP-2 glass. This is designated as BP-2A.
The photomask II includes four regions BP-2R1, BP-2G1, BP-2B1, and BP-2K1 having different densities. Table 8 shows the transmittance of each region with respect to λ = 365 nm ultraviolet light.

Table 9 shows the retardation predicted after baking for each region.

Next, the TRC-2 was exposed for 25 seconds at an exposure illuminance of 6.25 mW / cm 2 using a photomask III having four regions having different concentrations from the M-3L mask aligner manufactured by Mikasa. The front side of the photomask III was made parallel to the TD direction of TRC-2. The photomask III includes four regions BP-2R2, BP-2G2, BP-2B2, and BP-2K2 having different concentrations. Table 10 shows the transmittance of each region with respect to λ = 365 nm ultraviolet light.

Table 11 shows the retardation predicted after baking for each region.

TR-2A was laminated on BP-2A. At this time, the patterns of the regions BP-2R1 and BP-2R2, BP-2G1 and BP-2G2, BP-2B1 and BP-2B2, and BP-2K1 and BP-2K2 were made to match. After lamination, the temporary support was peeled off to prepare a birefringence pattern builder BPM-2.
BPM-2 was baked in a clean oven at 230 ° C. for 1 hour to prepare a retardation pattern BP-2.
The regions of BP-2R, BP-2G, BP-2B, and BP-2K after the heat treatment are designated as BPB-2R, 2G, 2B, and 2K, respectively. Table 12 shows the reflected colors measured by the above-described method.

Compared with Table 4, it can be seen that the reflected color calculated by the simulation reproduces the measured value well.

(Gradation expression)
A face photograph of four gradations for each color of RGB was prepared and used as an original image.
A mask was formed to form this original image as a latent image. In the mask, one pixel was divided into nine, and three subpixels were assigned to R, G, and B, respectively. Depending on the RGB value of each pixel of the original image, the R sub-pixel portion develops R or K after exposure, and the G sub-pixel portion develops G or K after exposure. In the sub-pixel portion, the transmittance was patterned so that B or K was colored after exposure.
Except that the exposure mask designed in this way was used in place of the respective photomasks used in the production of BP-1 and BP-2, the same procedure as in the production of BP-1 and BP-2 was followed. An optical element was produced. When the polarizing plate was held up from above, a face photograph emerged in any of the optical elements.

It is a figure which shows the pixel which consists of three subpixels (subpixel R, subpixel G, subpixel B) corresponding to R, G, B. It is a figure which shows the pixel which consists of the sub pixel R group, the sub pixel G group, and the sub pixel B group which can express gradation. It is a schematic diagram of the example of the optical element of this invention which consists of a two-layer optically anisotropic layer. It is a graph which shows the reflection spectrum of the reflective support body (aluminum vapor deposition glass) assumed in simulation. It is a graph which shows the spectral distribution of the light source (white wall room illuminated with the general fluorescent lamp) assumed in simulation.

Claims (11)

  1. An optical element comprising two or more pixels,
    Including two or more optically anisotropic layers,
    Within each layer of the optically anisotropic layer, the direction of the slow axis is uniform,
    The pixel includes three subpixels, a subpixel R, a subpixel G, and a subpixel B,
    The subpixel includes a partial region of each layer of the optically anisotropic layer,
    In-plane retardation is uniform within a partial region of each layer,
    And when any one of the sub-pixels is observed through a polarizing plate from the normal direction of the optically anisotropic layer with any other one of the sub-pixels in the same pixel or in another pixel. Optical elements showing different colors ,
    The directions of the slow axes of the two or more optically anisotropic layers are all the same,
    The subpixel R has an in-plane retardation selected from the following Re (R) or Re (K), and the subpixel G has an in-plane retardation selected from the following Re (G) or Re (K). And the sub-pixel B has an in-plane retardation selected from the following Re (B) or Re (K):
    (I) 350 nm <Re (R) <370 nm or 600 nm <Re (R) <700 nm;
    (II) 440 nm <Re (G) <560 nm;
    (III) 160 nm <Re (B) <220 nm;
    (IV) 120 nm <Re (K) <160 nm.
  2. An optical element comprising two or more pixels,
    Including two or more optically anisotropic layers,
    Within each layer of the optically anisotropic layer, the direction of the slow axis is uniform,
    The pixel is composed of three sub-pixel groups,
    The subpixel includes a partial region of each layer of the optically anisotropic layer,
    In-plane retardation is uniform within a partial region of each layer,
    And when any one of the sub-pixels is observed through a polarizing plate from the normal direction of the optically anisotropic layer with any other one of the sub-pixels in the same pixel or in another pixel. Optical elements showing different colors,
    The directions of the slow axes of the two or more optically anisotropic layers are all the same,
    One subpixel group includes two or more subpixels selected from a subpixel having the following in-plane retardation Re (R) and a subpixel having the following in-plane retardation Re (K).
    The other subpixel group includes two or more subpixels selected from a subpixel having in-plane retardation Re (G) and a subpixel having the following in-plane retardation Re (K).
    The remaining one subpixel group is an optical system including two or more subpixels selected from a subpixel having the following in-plane retardation Re (B) and a subpixel having the following in-plane retardation Re (K). element:
    (I) 350 nm <Re (R) <370 nm or 600 nm <Re (R) <700 nm;
    (II) 440 nm <Re (G) <560 nm;
    (III) 160 nm <Re (B) <220 nm;
    (IV) 120 nm <Re (K) <160 nm.
  3. Wherein in two or more layers of the optically anisotropic layer, optical element according to claim 1 or 2 having a polarizing layer on the outer surface of the outermost layer opposite to the observation side.
  4. The optical element according to any one of claims 1 to 3 having a reflective layer on the outer surface of the outermost layer on either side of said two or more layers of the optically anisotropic layer.
  5. The optical element according to any one of claims 1 to 4 , wherein a color reproduction range observed through a polarizing plate is 7% or more of NTSC ratio.
  6. At least one of the two or more optically anisotropic layers is formed by applying and drying a solution containing a liquid crystalline compound to form a liquid crystal phase, and then polymerizing and fixing the liquid crystal phase by irradiation with heat or ionizing radiation. The optical element according to any one of claims 1 to 5 , wherein the optical element is formed of a layer formed by the following steps.
  7. All of the two or more optically anisotropic layers are formed by applying and drying a solution containing a liquid crystal compound to form a liquid crystal phase, and then polymerizing and fixing the liquid crystal phase by irradiation with heat or ionizing radiation. The optical element according to any one of claims 1 to 6 , wherein the optical element is formed of a layer formed by the following steps.
  8. The optical element according to claim 6 or 7 , wherein the liquid crystal compound has two or more different polymerizable groups.
  9. At least one of the two or more optically anisotropic layers includes the step of pattern exposure to a layer made of a composition containing a polymer, and the partial region by a method including a step of baking at 50 ° C. to 400 ° C. the optical element according to any one of claims 1-8 is a layer to obtain a.
  10. The optical element according to any one of claims 1 to 9 used as an authentication image to prevent counterfeited or forged.
  11. A method for producing an optical element according to claim 1 or 2 , comprising the following steps (1) and (2):
    (1) In-plane retardation for each of the sub-pixels showing different colors and the direction of the slow axis of each layer of the optically anisotropic layer, and the one in the sub-pixel that realizes the in-plane retardation. Calculating in-plane retardation for each partial area by computer;
    (2) The process of forming the laminated body of the patterning optically anisotropic layer which has the direction of a slow axis according to the said calculation result, and the in-plane retardation for every partial area | region.
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