JP4882346B2 - Cooling device for rotating electrical machine with permanent magnet - Google Patents

Cooling device for rotating electrical machine with permanent magnet Download PDF

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JP4882346B2
JP4882346B2 JP2005326129A JP2005326129A JP4882346B2 JP 4882346 B2 JP4882346 B2 JP 4882346B2 JP 2005326129 A JP2005326129 A JP 2005326129A JP 2005326129 A JP2005326129 A JP 2005326129A JP 4882346 B2 JP4882346 B2 JP 4882346B2
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JP2007135306A (en
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圭一 富永
明秀 真下
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富士電機株式会社
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本発明は回転子側に永久磁石を備え、固定子側が巻線と鉄心からなる回転電気機械の冷却装置に関する。   The present invention relates to a cooling device for a rotating electric machine that includes a permanent magnet on a rotor side, and a stator side including a winding and an iron core.
回転電気機械は主として固定子と回転子から構成されている。交流回転電気機械においては固定子側に固定子鉄心および固定子巻線、回転子側に回転子鉄心および界磁巻線が設置されるものが多い。固定子巻線には交流電流が通流される結果、固定子鉄心には交流磁界が生ずるので、固定子側には固定子巻線電流によるジュール損失の他に固定子鉄心内に鉄損( ヒステリシス損および渦電流損) が発生する。
一方、回転子側では界磁巻線に流す電流は通常直流であり、回転子は固定子側の固定子巻線電流によって生じる回転磁界の回転速度と同期して回転運動を行うため、回転子鉄心内を通過する磁束はほぼ直流とみなされる。したがって回転子側では鉄損は、界磁巻線電流によるジュール損失に比べて小さい。
界磁巻線電流が作る磁界は直流磁界であるので、これを永久磁石で置き換えることが可能である。回転子界磁巻線の代わりに永久磁石を使用した永久磁石回転電気機械は、界磁巻線による励磁を必要としないので、界磁巻線におけるジュール発熱もない。したがって回転子側を特別に冷却する必要がなく、全体の冷却装置の負担が少なくて済み、寸法が小さくできるため、電動機設置スペースの限られる舶用などによく採用されている。
A rotary electric machine is mainly composed of a stator and a rotor. In many AC rotating electrical machines, a stator core and a stator winding are installed on the stator side, and a rotor core and a field winding are installed on the rotor side. As a result of the alternating current being passed through the stator winding, an alternating magnetic field is generated in the stator core. Therefore, on the stator side, in addition to the Joule loss due to the stator winding current, iron loss (hysteresis in the stator core) Loss and eddy current loss).
On the other hand, on the rotor side, the current flowing through the field winding is usually a direct current, and the rotor rotates in synchronization with the rotational speed of the rotating magnetic field generated by the stator winding current on the stator side. The magnetic flux passing through the iron core is considered to be almost direct current. Therefore, the iron loss on the rotor side is smaller than the Joule loss due to the field winding current.
Since the magnetic field generated by the field winding current is a DC magnetic field, it can be replaced with a permanent magnet. A permanent magnet rotating electric machine that uses a permanent magnet instead of the rotor field winding does not require excitation by the field winding, so there is no Joule heat generation in the field winding. Therefore, it is not necessary to cool the rotor side specially, the burden on the entire cooling device can be reduced, and the size can be reduced. Therefore, the rotor side is often used for ships where the space for installing the motor is limited.
従来、この種の回転電気機械の冷却装置は特許文献1に開示されているような回転子に付属した攪拌ファンによるものが使用されている。図4は攪拌ファンにより冷却を行う永久磁石回転電気機械の軸方向断面を示したものである。すなわち図4において、この攪拌ファン8は、軸受12を介して固定子フレームに回転自在に取付けられ外周部に永久磁石2を搭載した回転子1の軸方向端部に突設した突片であり、回転子1の回転に伴い回転電気機械内の空気層を攪拌し、この攪拌作用により、外気が固定子フレームに設けた通風孔13を通じて内外を流通することにより巻線および鉄心の冷却が行われる。
特開2000−32709号公報
Conventionally, a cooling device for a rotating electric machine of this type has been used by a stirring fan attached to a rotor as disclosed in Patent Document 1. FIG. 4 shows an axial section of a permanent magnet rotary electric machine that is cooled by a stirring fan. That is, in FIG. 4, the stirring fan 8 is a projecting piece that is rotatably attached to the stator frame via a bearing 12 and protrudes from the axial end of the rotor 1 on which the permanent magnet 2 is mounted on the outer peripheral portion. As the rotor 1 rotates, the air layer in the rotating electrical machine is agitated, and by this agitating action, the outside air circulates inside and outside through the ventilation holes 13 provided in the stator frame, thereby cooling the winding and the iron core. Is called.
JP 2000-32709 A
前記従来構造の冷却装置では、攪拌ファンにより回転電気機械内の空気を攪拌することにより冷却を行うのであるが、この装置では空気流の流路の指定や流量の配分などの制御ができず、発熱密度が高い部分や空気流のみで冷却を行わなければならない固定子コイルのコイルエンドなど重点的に冷却を要する部分に充分な空気流を供給することができないという欠点がある。
また、回転電気機械内に発生した発熱は空気流が内外を流通することにより行われるので、ハウジングに通風孔を設けることが必要となり、密閉構造を必要とする回転電気機械には採用できないという問題もある。
本発明は、前記の問題点を解決し、回転電気機械内部に発生する発熱の放熱効率を向上させる冷却装置を提供することを目的とする。
In the cooling device of the conventional structure, cooling is performed by stirring the air in the rotating electric machine with a stirring fan, but in this device, it is not possible to control the designation of the flow path of the air flow or the distribution of the flow rate, There is a drawback in that a sufficient air flow cannot be supplied to a portion that requires cooling, such as a portion having a high heat generation density or a coil end of a stator coil that must be cooled only by an air flow.
Further, since the heat generated in the rotary electric machine is generated by the air flow flowing inside and outside, it is necessary to provide a ventilation hole in the housing, which cannot be adopted for a rotary electric machine that requires a sealed structure. There is also.
An object of the present invention is to solve the above-mentioned problems and to provide a cooling device that improves the heat dissipation efficiency of heat generated in a rotating electric machine.
このため本発明では、永久磁石を備えた回転子と、鉄心と固定子コイルによって構成され、中子リングを介してフレームに取り付けられる固定子からなる回転電気機械において、回転子の軸方向端部に攪拌ファン、前記固定子コイル端部に近設して設けた第1仕切り、前記攪拌ファンの軸方向端部に設けた第2仕切りを備え、前記攪拌ファンによる空気流を、前記固定子コイル端部の隙間、前記空気冷却部、前記第1、第2仕切りの外側を循環させ、冷却空気との熱交換を行わせる。
また、別の手段として、空気冷却部は固定子鉄心を支持する中子リング内に冷却水を通し、該中子リングの軸方向の端部に設けた水室および冷却フィンからなる構造とする。
For this reason, in the present invention, in a rotating electric machine comprising a rotor having a permanent magnet, an iron core and a stator coil, and a stator attached to the frame via a core ring, the axial end of the rotor A stirrer fan, a first partition provided close to the end of the stator coil, and a second partition provided at the end of the stirrer in the axial direction. Circulating the gaps at the ends, the air cooling section, and the first and second partitions, heat is exchanged with the cooling air.
As another means, the air cooling section has a structure including a water chamber and cooling fins provided at an end portion in the axial direction of the core ring through which cooling water is passed through the core ring that supports the stator core. .
本発明では、攪拌された冷却空気が仕切りの周囲を循環するよう空気流路の設定を行うとともに、固定子側端部に空気冷却部を設け、冷却空気との熱交換を行わせる構成としたので、従来の冷却装置が攪拌ファン周辺のみに空気流を起すのに対し、特に冷却条件の悪くなりがちな固定子コイルのコイルエンド部に充分な冷却空気を供給することができ、かつ、冷却空気が空気冷却部で熱交換され、固定子側に放熱することにより、密閉構造の回転電気機械内部においても空気の循環のみで冷却機能を果たすことができる。
固定子コイルのコイル数が多く、隣り合うコイルの間隔が狭い場合、コイルエンド部は通風抵抗が大きくなって、冷却空気が通過しにくくなるため、冷却空気は攪拌ファン周囲を短絡的に周回する割合が高くなる。本発明では、固定子コイル端部近傍の仕切りに加えて、回転子の攪拌ファンの軸方向両端にも仕切りを設けることにより、攪拌ファン周囲のみで冷却空気が短絡的に循環することが防げるので、コイルエンド部を通過する冷却空気量が確保できる。
また、固定子側を水冷却とし、該水冷却装置の軸方向の両端に設けた水室および冷却フィンを空気冷却部とすることにより、冷却性能の向上、ひいては回転電気機械全体の小型化を図ることができる。
In the present invention, the air flow path is set so that the agitated cooling air circulates around the partition, and an air cooling unit is provided at the end on the stator side to perform heat exchange with the cooling air. Therefore, while the conventional cooling device generates an air flow only around the stirring fan, it is possible to supply sufficient cooling air to the coil end portion of the stator coil, which tends to be particularly bad in cooling conditions, and to cool the cooling fan. Air is heat-exchanged in the air cooling section and dissipates heat to the stator side, so that the cooling function can be achieved only by air circulation even in the rotary electric machine having a sealed structure.
When the number of coils of the stator coil is large and the interval between adjacent coils is narrow, the ventilation resistance at the coil end portion becomes large and the cooling air becomes difficult to pass. Therefore, the cooling air circulates around the stirring fan in a short circuit. The ratio is high. In the present invention, in addition to the partition near the end of the stator coil, by providing partitions at both axial ends of the stirring fan of the rotor, it is possible to prevent the cooling air from circulating in a short circuit only around the stirring fan. The amount of cooling air passing through the coil end portion can be secured.
In addition, by using water cooling on the stator side and water chambers and cooling fins provided at both ends in the axial direction of the water cooling device as air cooling units, the cooling performance can be improved, and the overall size of the rotating electric machine can be reduced. Can be planned.
次に、本発明による回転電気機械の冷却装置の具体的な実施形態について、図面を用いて説明する。   Next, specific embodiments of the cooling device for a rotating electrical machine according to the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
図1は本発明を説明するための冷却装置を備えた永久磁石回転電気機械の軸方向断面図である。図1において永久磁石2をその表面に取り付けた回転子1は回転軸11に止着され、軸受12を介して固定子フレームと回転自在に支承されている。該永久磁石2 に対向して固定子鉄心3および固定子巻線4が配置され、これらは中子リング5を介して固定子フレームに固設されている。
図1の回転電気機械の冷却装置は該回転子1の軸方向両端に施設した攪拌ファン8、空気冷却部として該中子リング5の軸方向両端に施設した冷却フィン7、および固定子巻線のコイルエンド10に近接して設置した仕切り9からなる。
冷却フィン7は空気流が半径方向に流れるのを妨げず、かつ空気流との熱交換が充分行われることが必要で、本実施例では金属製の薄板を複数枚、円周方向に隙間を設けて放射状に並べ、全円周上に配置した構造としている。この他の構造として円柱状の突起を多数配設するのも同様の効果を発揮する。
FIG. 1 is an axial cross-sectional view of a permanent magnet rotating electric machine equipped with a cooling device for explaining the present invention. In FIG. 1, a rotor 1 having a permanent magnet 2 attached to its surface is fixed to a rotating shaft 11 and is rotatably supported by a stator frame via a bearing 12. A stator core 3 and a stator winding 4 are arranged opposite to the permanent magnet 2, and these are fixed to the stator frame via a core ring 5.
1 includes a stirring fan 8 provided at both axial ends of the rotor 1, cooling fins 7 provided at both axial ends of the core ring 5 as air cooling units, and a stator winding. It consists of the partition 9 installed in the vicinity of the coil end 10 of this.
The cooling fin 7 does not prevent the airflow from flowing in the radial direction, and heat exchange with the airflow must be sufficiently performed. In this embodiment, a plurality of metal thin plates and a gap in the circumferential direction are formed. Provided and arranged in a radial pattern, arranged on the entire circumference. Arranging a large number of cylindrical protrusions as another structure also exhibits the same effect.
仕切り9の形状は、図1では回転子軸に対して直角に配置された円盤状であるが、コイルエンド近傍で空気流が軸方向に流れるのを阻止する機能を持つことができれば、他の形状、例えば複数の扇形または四角形の板の組合せでも差し支えない。
次に、図1に示す冷却装置の動作について説明する。回転子1が回転すると、攪拌ファン8の周辺で空気が攪拌されるが、仕切り9が存在するため空気流はコイルエンド10コイル隙間を通り、次に冷却フィン7に接触し、仕切り9の裏側を通って攪拌ファン8に戻る順路を循環することになる。この循環の中で空気流は該コイルエンド1 0 を冷却し温度が上昇するが、冷却フィン7で熱交換するため、ここで元の温度に復帰する。したがってこの空気流は攪拌ファン8に戻った後、連続的にコイルエンドの冷却に資することができる。外部から新たな空気の供給は必要ないので密閉構造の回転電機の場合でも有効である。結局、コイルエンド部の発熱は中子リング5を通して固定子側に伝達され、固定子フレームから外気に放熱される。
The shape of the partition 9 is a disk shape arranged at right angles to the rotor shaft in FIG. 1, but if it has a function of preventing the air flow from flowing in the axial direction in the vicinity of the coil end, The shape, for example, a combination of a plurality of fan-shaped or rectangular plates may be used.
Next, the operation of the cooling device shown in FIG. 1 will be described. When the rotor 1 rotates, the air is stirred around the stirring fan 8. However, since the partition 9 exists, the air flow passes through the coil end 10 and the coil gap, and then contacts the cooling fin 7. It circulates in the normal route which returns to the stirring fan 8 through. In this circulation, the air flow cools the coil end 1 0 and the temperature rises, but since the heat is exchanged by the cooling fins 7, it returns to the original temperature here. Therefore, this air flow can continuously contribute to cooling the coil end after returning to the stirring fan 8. Since it is not necessary to supply new air from the outside, it is effective even in the case of a rotary electric machine having a sealed structure. Eventually, the heat generated in the coil end portion is transmitted to the stator side through the core ring 5 and is radiated from the stator frame to the outside air.
図2は他の冷却装置を備えた永久磁石回転電気機械の軸方向断面図である。固定子鉄心3を支持する中子リング5内に冷却水を通し、該中子リングの軸方向の両端に設けた水室6および冷却フィン7を空気冷却部とした構造である。この冷却装置の場合でも攪拌ファン8によって攪拌された空気流は実施例1と同じくコイルエンド10、冷却フィン7、仕切り9の裏側を循環する。コイルエンド部の発熱は冷却フィン7、水室6を介して中子リング5内の冷却水に伝熱され、図示しない水槽、ポンプ、クーラを用いて外部に排出される。水冷方式としたことによりコイルエンド10だけでなく固定子鉄心3、固定子コイル4の冷却性能も向上し、ひいては回転電気機械全体の小型化を図ることができる。 FIG. 2 is a sectional view in the axial direction of a permanent magnet rotating electric machine provided with another cooling device. In this structure, cooling water is passed through a core ring 5 that supports the stator core 3, and water chambers 6 and cooling fins 7 provided at both ends in the axial direction of the core ring are used as air cooling units. Even in the case of this cooling device, the air flow stirred by the stirring fan 8 circulates behind the coil ends 10, the cooling fins 7, and the partitions 9 as in the first embodiment. The heat generated in the coil end is transferred to the cooling water in the core ring 5 through the cooling fins 7 and the water chamber 6, and is discharged to the outside using a water tank, pump, and cooler (not shown). By adopting the water cooling method, not only the coil end 10 but also the cooling performance of the stator core 3 and the stator coil 4 can be improved, and as a result, the entire rotating electrical machine can be reduced in size.
図3は本発明の冷却装置を備えた永久磁石回転電気機械の軸方向断面図である。固定子側に配置した仕切りA9aに加えて、回転子1の攪拌ファン8の軸方向両端にも仕切りB9bを設けたものである。固定子巻線4のコイル数が多く、コイルエンド10の導体間隔が狭い場合、流路抵抗が大きくなって攪拌された空気流がコイルエンド10の導体隙間を通りにくくなり、攪拌ファン8周辺のみで短絡的に周回する空気量が増えてしまう。攪拌ファン8の軸方向両端の仕切りB9bは固定子側の仕切りA9aとともに、この短絡的な流路の流路抵抗を高めることによりコイルエンド10の導体隙間を通る空気量を確保する。 FIG. 3 is an axial cross-sectional view of a permanent magnet rotating electric machine equipped with the cooling device of the present invention . In addition to the partition A9a arranged on the stator side, partitions B9b are also provided at both axial ends of the stirring fan 8 of the rotor 1. When the number of coils of the stator winding 4 is large and the conductor interval between the coil ends 10 is narrow, the flow resistance becomes large and the agitated air flow becomes difficult to pass through the conductor gap of the coil end 10, and only around the stirring fan 8. As a result, the amount of air circulating in a short circuit increases. The partitions B9b at both axial ends of the agitating fan 8 together with the stator-side partition A9a secure the amount of air passing through the conductor gap of the coil end 10 by increasing the short-circuit flow path resistance.
本発明を説明するための永久磁石回転電気機械の軸方向断面図Axial sectional view of a permanent magnet rotary electric machine for explaining the present invention 他の冷却装置を備えた永久磁石回転電気機械の軸方向断面図Axial cross-sectional view of a permanent magnet rotating electrical machine with other cooling devices 本発明の冷却装置を備えた永久磁石回転電気機械の軸方向断面図Axial sectional view of a permanent magnet rotary electric machine equipped with a cooling device of the present invention 従来の冷却装置をもつ永久磁石回転電気機械の軸方向断面図Axial sectional view of a permanent magnet rotary electric machine with a conventional cooling device
1 回転子
2 永久磁石
3 固定子鉄心
4 固定子巻線
5 中子リング
6 水室
7 冷却フィン
8 攪拌ファン
9 仕切り
9a 仕切りA
9b 仕切りB
10 コイルエンド
11 回転軸
12 軸受
13 通風孔
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Rotor 2 Permanent magnet 3 Stator iron core 4 Stator winding 5 Core ring 6 Water chamber 7 Cooling fin 8 Stirring fan 9 Partition 9a Partition A
9b Partition B
10 Coil end 11 Rotating shaft 12 Bearing 13 Ventilation hole

Claims (2)

  1. 永久磁石を備えた回転子と、鉄心と固定子コイルによって構成され、中子リングを介してフレームに取り付けられる固定子からなる回転電気機械において、
    前記回転子の軸方向端部に設けた攪拌ファンと、前記固定子コイル端部に近設して設けた第1仕切りと、前記攪拌ファンの軸方向端部に設けた第2仕切りと、前記中子リング端部に設けた空気冷却部とを備え、前記攪拌ファンによる空気流を、前記固定子コイル端部の隙間、前記空気冷却部、前記第1、第2仕切りの裏側を循環させることを特徴とした永久磁石を備えた回転電気機械の冷却装置。
    In a rotating electric machine composed of a rotor having a permanent magnet, a stator that is constituted by an iron core and a stator coil, and is attached to a frame via a core ring,
    A stirring fan provided in the axial end of the rotor, a first partition provided in proximity set to said stator coil end portion, and a second partition provided in the axial end portion of the agitation fan, wherein An air cooling section provided at the end of the core ring, and circulating the air flow by the stirring fan through the clearance of the end of the stator coil, the air cooling section, and the back sides of the first and second partitions. A cooling device for a rotating electrical machine comprising a permanent magnet.
  2. 請求項1に記載の冷却装置において、空気冷却部は中子リング内に冷却水を通流し、該中子リングの軸方向の端部に設けた水室および冷却フィンからなることを特徴とした永久磁石を備えた回転電気機械の冷却装置。   2. The cooling device according to claim 1, wherein the air cooling portion includes a water chamber and a cooling fin provided at an end portion in the axial direction of the core ring, allowing cooling water to flow through the core ring. Cooling device for rotating electrical machines with permanent magnets.
JP2005326129A 2005-11-10 2005-11-10 Cooling device for rotating electrical machine with permanent magnet Active JP4882346B2 (en)

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JP4882346B2 true JP4882346B2 (en) 2012-02-22

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JP5656758B2 (en) * 2011-06-29 2015-01-21 株式会社日本自動車部品総合研究所 Rotating electric machine
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JP5674900B1 (en) * 2013-11-08 2015-02-25 三菱電機株式会社 Electric power supply unit integrated rotating electric machine
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CN112383173A (en) * 2020-11-30 2021-02-19 东风商用车有限公司 Permanent magnet synchronous motor with rotor cooling structure

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