JP4022815B2 - Solid-liquid separation tank and sewage septic tank having a filter medium layer in the second chamber - Google Patents

Solid-liquid separation tank and sewage septic tank having a filter medium layer in the second chamber Download PDF

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JP4022815B2
JP4022815B2 JP2002288979A JP2002288979A JP4022815B2 JP 4022815 B2 JP4022815 B2 JP 4022815B2 JP 2002288979 A JP2002288979 A JP 2002288979A JP 2002288979 A JP2002288979 A JP 2002288979A JP 4022815 B2 JP4022815 B2 JP 4022815B2
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chamber
tank
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liquid separation
sewage
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JP2004121964A (en
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宏 山下
信義 片貝
淳 日比野
裕二 小泉
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株式会社日立ハウステック
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【0001】
【発明の属する技術分野】
本発明は、固液分離槽(又は固液分離兼嫌気処理槽)及びこれを嫌気処理槽として組み込んだ汚水浄化槽に関する。更に詳しくは、屎尿、その他の生活排水、又はこれらの合併汚水(以下、汚水ともいう)を物理的及び生物化学的に浄化処理する汚水浄化槽と、その汚水浄化槽に好適に組み込まれる固液分離槽(又は固液分離兼嫌気処理槽)とに関するものである。
【0002】
【従来の技術】
家庭等で用いられる汚水浄化槽は、従来から種々知られている。図3は、嫌気濾床接触曝気方式又は沈殿分離接触曝気方式と呼ばれる汚水浄化槽(従来例)の一つで、上流側から、嫌気濾床槽第一室(沈殿分離槽第一室)51、嫌気濾床槽第二室(沈殿分離槽第二室)52、接触曝気槽53、沈殿槽54及び消毒槽55が配置されている。嫌気濾床槽第一室及び嫌気濾床槽第二室には短時間における汚水の多量流入を緩和するため、水量変動吸収部56を設けているほか、嫌気濾床槽第二室52を下降流で通過した後に移流管57に入った移流液を後段の接触曝気槽53へ定量供給させる流量調整ポンプ58を設けている(例えば、特許文献1参照)。
【0003】
【特許文献1】
特開平4―367793号公報
【0004】
【発明が解決しようとする課題】
本発明は、このような汚水浄化槽における嫌気濾床槽第一室及び嫌気濾床槽第二室よりも構造が単純で、更に固液分離性能の高い固液分離槽(又は固液分離兼嫌気処理槽)を提供すること、またこの固液分離槽を汚水浄化槽に組み込むことによって、従来よりも安定に汚水を浄化処理できる汚水浄化槽を提供することを課題とする。
【0005】
【課題を解決するための手段】
上記課題を達成するため、本発明では次の構成をとった。すなわち、本発明は、
最高水位(H.W.L)よりも上方にある汚水流入口14と、最低水位(L.W.L)にある移流口19と、底部に開口部15とを有する沈殿部20、及び
前記沈殿部20の下方に設けられた汚泥貯留部21からなる第一の固液分離室(第一の嫌気処理室;単に、第一室ともいう)11、並びに
前記第一室11の下流側にあって、最低水位よりも下方に濾材層23を有し、最低水位に移送ポンプ13の吸込口18が設けられている第二の固液分離室(第二の嫌気処理槽;単に、第二室ともいう)12、を備え、
汚水の水準は最高水位(H.W.L)と最低水位(L.W.L)との間で変動可能な固液分離槽(又は固液分離兼嫌気処理槽)10、である。
【0006】
ここで、沈殿部20の底部に設ける開口部15は、奥行き全幅に亘って設けても、奥行きの一部に設けても構わない。沈殿部20内の液を乱さない観点からは、好ましくは、奥行き全幅に亘って設ける。
【0007】
本発明は、また、上記固液分離槽を組み込んだ汚水浄化槽でもある。典型的には、上記固液分離槽(固液分離兼嫌気処理槽)と、その後流に順に配される好気処理槽、処理水槽及び消毒槽を備える汚水浄化槽である。ここで、好気処理槽、処理水槽及び消毒槽としては種々のタイプのものが使え、特に限定するものではない。場合によっては、処理水槽又は消毒槽を省くことも可能である。
【0008】
【作用】
固液分離槽(固液分離兼嫌気処理槽)10の第一室11では、沈殿部20において、流入汚水中に存在する沈降しやすい固形物を先ず沈殿させ、沈殿した固形物を汚泥貯留部21へ落としてそこで貯留させる。第二室12においては、室内に形成した濾材層23により、更に固形物を除去するとともに、濾材層23に付着した嫌気性微生物により汚水中の有機物質を嫌気分解させる。
固液分離槽10からの(流出)液は、第二室12の最低水位に設けたポンプ吸込口18から揚水させる構造であり、流れ込む汚水量(速度)が移送ポンプ13で送り出す液量(速度)よりも多い場合には、固液分離槽10の水位は上昇していく。ただ、最高水位(H.W.L)は予め安全をみて設定されているので、流入汚水がその水位(H.W.L)を越えて槽外へ溢れ出ることはない。すなわち、固液分離槽10内の水位はL.W.LとH.W.Lとの間を上下する。
【0009】
第一室11における汚泥貯留部21と沈殿部20とは、傾斜のついた仕切壁16及び17によって区画すると、汚水(原水)が第一室11へ流入した際の液撹乱の影響を受けにくい。そのため、汚泥貯留部21に沈殿した固形物は、高濃度に蓄積し、更には、嫌気分解も進行し、スカム化も促進され、水面付近にスカムが(上昇して)蓄積する。この場合、スカムは沈殿した固形物よりも高濃度に蓄積することができる。
【0010】
第一室11と第二室12とからなる固液分離槽10では、汚水中に含まれる固形物を効果的に分離でき、嫌気処理も行うことができるので、後段の処理槽での負荷を低減させる。この固液分離槽10を汚水浄化槽に組み込めば、汚水浄化槽の処理性能は更に向上する。
【0011】
【発明の実施の形態】
以下、図面を参照して、本発明を更に具体的に説明する。
図1は、本発明の固液分離槽(固液分離兼嫌気処理槽)10の一例である。第一室11では、槽内の液面よりも上方の浄化槽外壁部に汚水流入口14が設けられ、その反対側の仕切壁25には第二室12へ移流させる移流口19が設けられている。また、沈殿部20を囲み対峙する仕切壁16、17の下部には、汚水流入口14側の壁面から移流口19側の仕切壁25の全幅に亘って開口部15が設けられている。
【0012】
ここで、仕切壁16の下端は、図1に示すように、仕切壁17の下端よりも下方に長く伸張させ(水平方向で距離Lだけ張り出させ)、仕切壁16、17の下部の傾斜角度は沈殿部20内で沈殿した汚泥が汚泥貯留部21へ落下しやすいように50〜70度が好ましい。また、沈殿部20の底部の開口部15の隙間(W)は沈殿部20から汚泥貯留部21へ流入する液の速度を抑えるため、あるいは沈殿部20内で沈殿した汚泥(若しくは固形物)を汚泥貯留部21に落下させるため等の理由から、概ね80〜150mmが好ましい。また、液面から仕切壁16の下端までの深さ(h)は、液深(H)の20〜80%程度(更に好ましくは、40〜60%)である。
【0013】
また、沈殿部20にある汚水流入口14の付近には、水流抑止板24を立てることが好ましく、その水流抑止板24の下部は汚水流入口14側の壁寄りに傾斜している構造がさらに好ましい。
【0014】
そうすれば、汚水流入口14から第一室11の沈殿部20へ流入した汚水は、水流抑止板24をくぐり抜けた後、略水平流となって移流口19に向かって移流する。この間、水平流の流速よりも速い沈降速度をもつ固形物は、沈殿部20下部の開口部15に向かい、ここを通過したのち、汚泥貯留部21の底部に蓄積する。
【0015】
蓄積した固形物は液流によって乱されることが少ないので高濃度となり汚泥化する。汚泥化した固形物は、時間経過とともに徐々に嫌気化し、その一部はスカムとなって汚泥貯留部21上部の液面付近に浮上してくる。この際、浮上するスカムは、上記したように仕切壁16の下端が仕切壁17の下端よりも下方に長くかつ水平方向で張り出ているので、開口部15から沈殿部20内へは侵入しない。
【0016】
第二室12内のエアリフトポンプ13の吸込口18はL.W.Lの位置に設ける。固液分離槽10の水位は、汚水の流入量がエアリフトポンプ13の送液量よりも多いと上昇し、少ないと下降し、L.W.LとH.W.Lとの間を上下する。また、吸込口18は、水面に浮上した汚泥などの流入を防ぐために、移流管22内に設けている。
【0017】
第二室12には、濾材を充填した濾床(濾材層)23を設けている。濾材としては、ヘチマ様、波板状、多孔質状等の板状部材、蜂の巣状(ハニカムコア)部材などが好ましく用いられる。骨格球状、網様円筒状部材なども用いることができる。
濾床23の上端は、最低水位以下にすることが好ましい。最低水位よりも上にすると、濾床23の上部が水面下になったり、露出したりの繰返しになるので、濾材への汚泥付着の安定性に悪い影響を及ぼす。
【0018】
なお、図1では、第二室12に設ける移送ポンプはエアリフトポンプとしたが、エアリフトポンプ式に代えて、密閉容器の空気圧送による間欠定量ポンプや電動ポンプ等を用いてもよい。
【0019】
また、図1では、固液分離槽10の全体形状を平面視で略四角形状(箱型)としたが、場合によっては、平面視で円形や楕円形等とすることもできる。
【0020】
図2は、上記固液分離槽10を組み込んだ汚水浄化槽の一例である。槽内に第一室11及び第二室12からなる固液分離槽10を備え、この固液分離槽10の後流に、(好気的)生物反応室31及び濾過室32を並置させた好気処理槽30と、消毒槽33とを備えている。なお、固液分離槽10の説明は、先の固液分離槽での説明と重複するので省略する。
【0021】
好気処理槽30を構成する(好気的)生物反応室31には、底部から曝気するための反応用散気部材(散気管)34を配置し、ブロワ35からの空気を吐出させる。また、生物反応室31には担体(微生物担体、微生物付着材、接触材)を充填させた生物反応床31aが形成されており、生物反応床31aで汚水を好気処理する。ここで生物反応床31aは流動床でも固定床でもよい。微生物担体の形状は、板状、網板状、ヘチマ状、多孔質状、筒状、棒状、骨格球状、紐状、更には粒状、不定形な塊状、立方体状、繊維塊状等の種々の形状に加工したものを用いることができる。また、その微生物担体の基材としては、例えばポリ塩化ビニル、ポリエステル、ポリ塩化ビニリデン、ポリビニルフォルマール、ポリウレタン、メラミン樹脂等の合成樹脂製加工物、セラミックス、珪砂等の無機製加工物、アンスラサイト等の化石加工物、活性炭等で、比重約1又は1以上のもの、ポリエチレン、ポリプロピレン等のポリオレフィン系樹脂、ポリスチレン等の比重約1又は1以下のもののいずれも用いることができる。
【0022】
好気処理槽30と第一室11の汚泥貯留部21上部の間には、移送管26が設けてあり、好気処理槽30と第一室11との水位差を利用して、好気処理槽30の槽内液を第一室11の汚泥貯留部21に移送させている。これにより、汚水の流入がないときでも槽内液を循環させることができ、処理の安定とSS負荷の低減を図っている。
【0023】
濾過室32には、濾材が充填された濾過床32aが形成されており、流れ込む液中のSSをそこで捕捉する。充填される濾材としては、液中で浮上するものを用いることができるが、好ましくは沈降性濾材である。沈降性濾材には、例えば、ポリ塩化ビニル、ポリエステル、ポリ塩化ビニリデン、ポリビニルフォルマール、ポリウレタン、メラミン樹脂等の合成樹脂製加工物、セラミックス、珪砂等の無機製加工物、アンスラサイト等の化石加工物、活性炭等の、比重約1又は1以上のもの、又はポリエチレン、ポリプロピレン等のポリオレフィン系樹脂、ポリスチレン等に充填剤を添加して比重約1又は1以上に調整したものがあり、これを粒状、塊状、筒状、網状、棒状、繊維塊状等、更には多孔質状等に成形、加工したものでもよい。
また、濾過室32の底部には濾過床32aを逆洗するための洗浄用散気部材(散気管)36が配され、これは空気を供給するブロワ35に接続されている。
【0024】
運転を続けると、濾過床32aは蓄積したSSで目詰まりするので、濾過床32aを定期的又は適宜に(逆)洗浄して除く。この洗浄は、ブロワ35の空気を洗浄用散気部材36から吐出させ、濾過床32aをバブリングするとともに、ブロワ35の空気の一部を洗浄排水引抜きポンプ(エアリフトポンプ)37にも供給する。剥離したSSは槽内液とともに洗浄排水となって濾過床32aを下降し、洗浄排水引抜きポンプ37によって洗浄排水排出管37aを経て、第一室11の汚水流入口14付近へ戻る。槽内液の全てを洗浄排水として濾過室32の底部から引き抜くことができるので、濾過床32aの洗浄は良好に行われる。なお、洗浄排水引抜きポンプ37には電動ポンプ等を用いることもできる。濾過床32aの洗浄は、固液分離槽10の水位がL.W.Lのとき(すなわち、深夜に)行うことが好ましい。一般家庭では、通常、深夜は汚水が排出されることが少なく、固液分離槽10(11+12)はL.W.Lになるからである。
【0025】
消毒槽33は、濾過室32からの移流液を薬筒38と接触させて消毒又は殺菌させる槽である。汚水浄化槽は、各槽の点検清掃等の維持管理が行えるようにマンホールを設け、通常マンホールカバー39を取り付けている。
【0026】
なお、図2では、生物反応室31と濾過室32とはそれぞれ横並びに並置させたが、これは、上下2層の構造、すなわち、生物反応室31を上に配し、その下に濾過室32を配置させることもできる。この場合には、移流液の流れ方向は、通常、生物反応室31から濾過室32へと向かう下向流となる。
【0027】
次に、汚水浄化槽における汚水の処理を説明する。汚水(原水)は汚水流入口14から第一室11の沈殿部20に入り、固形物の沈殿分離が行われる。沈殿部20で分離された汚泥は、底部の開口部15から汚泥貯留部21に入り濃縮貯留され、嫌気化して発生したスカムが槽上部で貯留される。第一室11からの移流液は、移流口19から第二室12に入り、槽内に形成された濾材により更なる固形物の分離と移流液の嫌気処理が行われる。第二室12からの移流液の移流は、移送ポンプ13で行い、この際、移流液をL.W.Lの吸込口18より揚水させ、移送ポンプ13の上部から所定量(ほぼ一定量)を生物反応室31に移流させる。このとき、流入する原水量が移送ポンプ13の移送量よりも多い場合には、固液分離槽10の水位は上昇するが、固液分離槽(流量調整部)の容量はH.W.Lを越えないように設計されているので、通常、上記水位はH.W.Lを越えて上昇しない。
【0028】
生物反応室31では、固液分離槽10からの移流液中の有機物を好気的に生物分解させる。この際、ほぼ一定量の移流液が負荷されるので安定した処理が行われる。生物反応室31からの移流液は、次に濾過室32に入り、移流液に含まれるSSの捕捉・除去が行われ、場合によっては生物反応室31から持ち込まれる溶存酸素によって更に好気的生物処理が行われる。濾過室32を経た移流液は、消毒槽33に入り消毒された後、処理水として放流口40から放流される。
【0029】
【発明の効果】
本発明の固液分離槽(固液分離兼嫌気処理槽)では、第一室と第二室の両室により、流入した汚水(原水)に含まれる固形物の分離・貯留と汚水の嫌気処理を効果的に行える。また、第一室には濾床が形成されておらず、構造が単純である。
本発明の汚水浄化槽は、従来の嫌気濾床接触曝気方式(又は沈殿分離接触曝気方式)の汚水浄化槽よりも単純な構造であり、これにより汚水を安定に処理できる。また、維持管理も容易である。
【図面の簡単な説明】
【図1】本発明の固液分離槽の一例で、(a)は概略平面図、(b)は(a)のA―A矢視における概略縦断面図。
【図2】本発明の固液分離槽を組み込んだ汚水浄化槽の一例で、(a)は概略平面図、(b)は(a)のA―A矢視における概略縦断面図。
【図3】従来例の汚水浄化槽の概略縦断面図。
【符号の説明】
10:固液分離槽(固液分離兼嫌気処理槽)
11:第一の固液分離室(第一の嫌気処理室;第一室)
12:第二の固液分離室(第二の嫌気処理室;第二室)
13:移送ポンプ(エアリフトポンプ)
13a:エアリフトポンプ管
14:汚水流入口 15:開口部
16:(下部傾斜の)仕切壁 17:(下部傾斜の)仕切壁
17a:仕切壁 18:(ポンプ)吸込口 19:移流口
20:沈殿部 21:汚泥貯留部 22:移流管
23:濾材層(濾床) 24:水流抑止板 25:仕切壁
26:移送管 30:好気処理槽(31+32)
31:(好気的)生物反応室 31a:生物反応床
32:濾過室 32a:濾過床
33:消毒槽 34:反応用散気部材(散気管)
35:ブロワ 36:洗浄用散気部材(散気管)
37:洗浄排水引抜きポンプ(エアリフトポンプ)
37a:洗浄排水排出管 38:薬筒
39:マンホールカバー 40:放流口
51:嫌気濾床槽第一室(又は沈殿分離槽第一室)
52:嫌気濾床槽第二室(又は沈殿分離槽第二室)
53:接触曝気槽 54:沈殿槽
55:消毒槽 56:水量変動吸収部
57:移流管 58:流量調整ポンプ
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a solid-liquid separation tank (or a solid-liquid separation and anaerobic treatment tank) and a sewage purification tank incorporating the same as an anaerobic treatment tank. More specifically, a sewage septic tank that physically and biochemically purifies human waste, other domestic wastewater, or a combined sewage (hereinafter also referred to as sewage), and a solid-liquid separation tank suitably incorporated in the sewage septic tank. (Or solid-liquid separation and anaerobic treatment tank).
[0002]
[Prior art]
Various sewage septic tanks used in homes and the like are conventionally known. FIG. 3 is one of sewage purification tanks (conventional example) called an anaerobic filter bed contact aeration system or a precipitation separation contact aeration system. From the upstream side, an anaerobic filter bed tank first chamber (precipitation separation tank first chamber) 51, An anaerobic filter bed tank second chamber (precipitation separation tank second chamber) 52, a contact aeration tank 53, a precipitation tank 54, and a disinfection tank 55 are arranged. The anaerobic filter bed first chamber and the anaerobic filter bed second chamber are provided with a water amount fluctuation absorption part 56 in order to alleviate a large amount of sewage inflow in a short time, and the anaerobic filter bed second chamber 52 is lowered. A flow rate adjusting pump 58 is provided for supplying a constant amount of the advection liquid that has entered the advection pipe 57 after passing through the flow into the subsequent contact aeration tank 53 (see, for example, Patent Document 1).
[0003]
[Patent Document 1]
JP-A-4-367793
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
The present invention has a simpler structure than the first anaerobic filter bed tank and the second anaerobic filter bed tank in such a sewage septic tank, and further has a solid-liquid separation performance (or solid-liquid separation and anaerobic performance). It is an object of the present invention to provide a sewage purification tank capable of purifying sewage more stably than before by providing a treatment tank) and incorporating this solid-liquid separation tank into the sewage purification tank.
[0005]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention has the following configuration. That is, the present invention
A sewage inlet 14 that is above the highest water level (HWL), an advection port 19 that is at the lowest water level (LWL), a precipitation part 20 that has an opening 15 at the bottom, and a lower part of the precipitation part 20. A first solid-liquid separation chamber (first anaerobic treatment chamber; also simply referred to as a first chamber) 11 and a downstream side of the first chamber 11 below the lowest water level. And a second solid-liquid separation chamber (second anaerobic treatment tank; also simply referred to as a second chamber) 12 having a filter medium layer 23 and having a suction port 18 of the transfer pump 13 at the lowest water level. ,
The level of sewage is a solid-liquid separation tank (or solid-liquid separation and anaerobic treatment tank) 10 that can vary between the highest water level (HWL) and the lowest water level (LWL).
[0006]
Here, the opening part 15 provided in the bottom part of the sedimentation part 20 may be provided over the full depth, or may be provided in a part of depth. From the viewpoint of not disturbing the liquid in the sedimentation section 20, it is preferably provided over the entire depth.
[0007]
The present invention is also a sewage purification tank incorporating the solid-liquid separation tank. Typically, it is a sewage purification tank comprising the solid-liquid separation tank (solid-liquid separation and anaerobic treatment tank) and an aerobic treatment tank, a treatment water tank, and a disinfection tank that are sequentially arranged in the downstream. Here, various types of aerobic treatment tanks, treated water tanks and disinfection tanks can be used, and are not particularly limited. In some cases, it is possible to omit the treatment water tank or the disinfection tank.
[0008]
[Action]
In the first chamber 11 of the solid-liquid separation tank (solid-liquid separation and anaerobic treatment tank) 10, in the sedimentation unit 20, the solids that are likely to settle are first precipitated, and the precipitated solids are sludge storage unit. Drop it to 21 and store it there. In the second chamber 12, the solid material is further removed by the filter medium layer 23 formed in the chamber, and the organic substances in the sewage are anaerobically decomposed by the anaerobic microorganisms attached to the filter medium layer 23.
The (outflow) liquid from the solid-liquid separation tank 10 has a structure in which water is pumped from a pump suction port 18 provided at the lowest water level of the second chamber 12. ), The water level in the solid-liquid separation tank 10 rises. However, since the maximum water level (HWL) is set in advance for safety, the inflowing sewage does not overflow beyond the water level (HWL). That is, the water level in the solid-liquid separation tank 10 fluctuates between LWL and HWL.
[0009]
When the sludge storage part 21 and the sedimentation part 20 in the first chamber 11 are partitioned by the inclined partition walls 16 and 17, they are not easily affected by liquid disturbance when the sewage (raw water) flows into the first chamber 11. . Therefore, the solid matter precipitated in the sludge storage unit 21 accumulates at a high concentration, and further, anaerobic decomposition proceeds, scumification is promoted, and scum accumulates (increases) near the water surface. In this case, scum can accumulate at a higher concentration than the precipitated solid.
[0010]
In the solid-liquid separation tank 10 composed of the first chamber 11 and the second chamber 12, the solid matter contained in the sewage can be effectively separated and anaerobic treatment can be performed. Reduce. If this solid-liquid separation tank 10 is incorporated in a sewage septic tank, the processing performance of the sewage septic tank is further improved.
[0011]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, the present invention will be described more specifically with reference to the drawings.
FIG. 1 is an example of a solid-liquid separation tank (solid-liquid separation and anaerobic treatment tank) 10 of the present invention. In the first chamber 11, a sewage inlet 14 is provided in the outer wall of the septic tank above the liquid level in the tank, and an advection port 19 for transferring the sewage to the second chamber 12 is provided in the partition wall 25 on the opposite side. Yes. Moreover, the opening part 15 is provided in the lower part of the partition walls 16 and 17 which enclose and oppose the sedimentation part 20 ranging from the wall surface by the side of the sewage inflow port 14 to the full width of the partition wall 25 by the side of the advection opening 19 side.
[0012]
Here, as shown in FIG. 1, the lower end of the partition wall 16 extends longer than the lower end of the partition wall 17 (extends by a distance L in the horizontal direction), and the lower part of the partition walls 16 and 17 is inclined. The angle is preferably 50 to 70 degrees so that the sludge settled in the sedimentation part 20 can easily fall into the sludge storage part 21. Further, the gap (W) of the opening 15 at the bottom of the sedimentation section 20 is used to suppress the speed of the liquid flowing from the sedimentation section 20 into the sludge storage section 21, or the sludge (or solid matter) precipitated in the sedimentation section 20. For reasons such as dropping into the sludge storage section 21, approximately 80 to 150 mm is preferable. The depth (h) from the liquid level to the lower end of the partition wall 16 is about 20 to 80% (more preferably 40 to 60%) of the liquid depth (H).
[0013]
Moreover, it is preferable to stand the water flow suppression plate 24 in the vicinity of the sewage inflow port 14 in the settling portion 20, and the lower part of the water flow suppression plate 24 is further inclined toward the wall on the sewage flow inlet 14 side. preferable.
[0014]
If it does so, the sewage which flowed into the sedimentation part 20 of the 1st chamber 11 from the sewage inflow port 14 will pass through the water flow suppression board 24, and will move to the advection opening 19 by becoming a substantially horizontal flow. During this time, the solid matter having a sedimentation speed faster than the horizontal flow velocity is directed to the opening 15 at the bottom of the sedimentation section 20 and passes there, and then accumulates at the bottom of the sludge storage section 21.
[0015]
Accumulated solid matter is less disturbed by the liquid flow and becomes high in concentration and becomes sludge. The sludge solidified material gradually becomes anaerobic over time, and part of it becomes scum and rises near the liquid surface above the sludge reservoir 21. At this time, the floating scum does not enter the settling portion 20 from the opening 15 because the lower end of the partition wall 16 is longer and lower than the lower end of the partition wall 17 in the horizontal direction as described above. .
[0016]
The suction port 18 of the air lift pump 13 in the second chamber 12 is provided at the LWL position. The water level in the solid-liquid separation tank 10 rises when the amount of inflow of sewage is greater than the amount of liquid fed by the air lift pump 13, falls when it is less, and rises and falls between LWL and HWL. Further, the suction port 18 is provided in the advection pipe 22 in order to prevent inflow of sludge and the like floating on the water surface.
[0017]
The second chamber 12 is provided with a filter bed (filter medium layer) 23 filled with a filter medium. As the filter medium, plate-like members such as loofah-like, corrugated plate-like, porous, etc., honeycomb-like (honeycomb core) members, etc. are preferably used. Skeletal spherical, mesh-like cylindrical members and the like can also be used.
The upper end of the filter bed 23 is preferably below the minimum water level. If the water level is higher than the minimum water level, the upper part of the filter bed 23 becomes repeatedly below the surface of the water or exposed, which adversely affects the stability of the sludge adhesion to the filter medium.
[0018]
In FIG. 1, the transfer pump provided in the second chamber 12 is an air lift pump. However, an intermittent metering pump or an electric pump by pneumatically feeding a sealed container may be used instead of the air lift pump type.
[0019]
Moreover, in FIG. 1, although the whole shape of the solid-liquid separation tank 10 was made into the substantially square shape (box shape) by planar view, it can also be made circular, an ellipse, etc. by planar view depending on the case.
[0020]
FIG. 2 is an example of a sewage purification tank incorporating the solid-liquid separation tank 10. A solid-liquid separation tank 10 composed of a first chamber 11 and a second chamber 12 is provided in the tank, and a (aerobic) biological reaction chamber 31 and a filtration chamber 32 are juxtaposed in the downstream of the solid-liquid separation tank 10. An aerobic treatment tank 30 and a disinfection tank 33 are provided. In addition, since description of the solid-liquid separation tank 10 overlaps with the description in the previous solid-liquid separation tank, it abbreviate | omits.
[0021]
A reaction aeration member (aeration tube) 34 for aeration from the bottom is disposed in the (aerobic) biological reaction chamber 31 constituting the aerobic treatment tank 30, and air from the blower 35 is discharged. The biological reaction chamber 31 is formed with a biological reaction bed 31a filled with a carrier (a microbial carrier, a microorganism adhering material, and a contact material), and sewage is aerobically treated in the biological reaction bed 31a. Here, the biological reaction bed 31a may be a fluidized bed or a fixed bed. The shape of the microbial carrier can be various shapes such as plate, net plate, loofah, porous, cylinder, rod, skeleton sphere, string, and granular, irregular lump, cube, and fiber lump. What was processed into can be used. The base material of the microbial carrier includes, for example, synthetic resin processed products such as polyvinyl chloride, polyester, polyvinylidene chloride, polyvinyl formal, polyurethane, melamine resin, inorganic processed products such as ceramics and silica sand, anthracite For example, fossil processed products such as activated carbon, activated carbon and the like having a specific gravity of about 1 or 1 or more, polyolefin resins such as polyethylene and polypropylene, and polystyrene having a specific gravity of about 1 or 1 or less can be used.
[0022]
A transfer pipe 26 is provided between the aerobic treatment tank 30 and the upper part of the sludge storage part 21 of the first chamber 11, and the aerobic treatment tank 30 and the first chamber 11 are utilized to take advantage of the water level difference. The tank liquid in the processing tank 30 is transferred to the sludge storage part 21 in the first chamber 11. Thereby, even when there is no inflow of sewage, the liquid in the tank can be circulated, and the process is stabilized and the SS load is reduced.
[0023]
A filtration bed 32a filled with a filter medium is formed in the filtration chamber 32, and the SS in the flowing liquid is captured there. As the filter medium to be filled, one that floats in the liquid can be used, but a sedimentation filter medium is preferable. Examples of sedimentary filter media include synthetic resin processed products such as polyvinyl chloride, polyester, polyvinylidene chloride, polyvinyl formal, polyurethane, and melamine resin, inorganic processed products such as ceramics and quartz sand, and fossil processing such as anthracite. Products, activated carbon, etc., with specific gravity of about 1 or more, or polyolefin resin such as polyethylene, polypropylene, etc., and those with a specific gravity of about 1 or more adjusted by adding fillers to polystyrene. It may be formed and processed into a lump shape, a cylindrical shape, a net shape, a rod shape, a fiber lump shape, or a porous shape.
Further, at the bottom of the filtration chamber 32, a cleaning air diffuser member (air diffuser pipe) 36 for backwashing the filter bed 32a is disposed, and this is connected to a blower 35 for supplying air.
[0024]
If the operation is continued, the filtration bed 32a is clogged with the accumulated SS, and therefore the filtration bed 32a is removed periodically or appropriately (reversely). In this cleaning, the air in the blower 35 is discharged from the cleaning air diffuser 36 to bubbling the filter bed 32a, and a part of the air in the blower 35 is also supplied to the cleaning drainage pump (air lift pump) 37. The peeled SS becomes washing wastewater together with the liquid in the tank, descends the filtration bed 32a, returns to the vicinity of the sewage inlet 14 of the first chamber 11 through the washing drainage discharge pipe 37a by the washing drainage pump 37. Since all of the liquid in the tank can be drawn out from the bottom of the filtration chamber 32 as washing wastewater, the filtration bed 32a is washed well. Note that an electric pump or the like can be used as the cleaning drainage pump 37. The filtration bed 32a is preferably washed when the water level of the solid-liquid separation tank 10 is LWL (that is, at midnight). This is because in ordinary households, sewage is usually not discharged at midnight, and the solid-liquid separation tank 10 (11 + 12) becomes LWL.
[0025]
The disinfection tank 33 is a tank that disinfects or sterilizes the advection liquid from the filtration chamber 32 by contacting the medicine barrel 38. The septic tank is provided with a manhole so that maintenance and management such as inspection and cleaning of each tank can be performed, and a manhole cover 39 is usually attached.
[0026]
In FIG. 2, the biological reaction chamber 31 and the filtration chamber 32 are juxtaposed side by side, but this has a two-layered structure, that is, the biological reaction chamber 31 is disposed on the upper side, and the filtration chamber is disposed below the biological reaction chamber 31. 32 can also be arranged. In this case, the flow direction of the advection liquid is usually a downward flow from the biological reaction chamber 31 to the filtration chamber 32.
[0027]
Next, treatment of sewage in the sewage septic tank will be described. The sewage (raw water) enters the settling portion 20 of the first chamber 11 from the sewage inflow port 14, and the solid is settled and separated. The sludge separated in the sedimentation section 20 enters the sludge storage section 21 through the opening 15 at the bottom, is concentrated and stored, and the scum generated by anaerobic storage is stored in the tank top. The advection liquid from the first chamber 11 enters the second chamber 12 through the advection port 19, and further solid separation and anaerobic treatment of the advection liquid are performed by the filter medium formed in the tank. Advection of the advection liquid from the second chamber 12 is performed by the transfer pump 13. At this time, the advection liquid is pumped from the suction port 18 of the LWL, and a predetermined amount (almost constant amount) is transferred from the upper part of the transfer pump 13 to the biological reaction chamber. Advection to 31. At this time, when the amount of raw water flowing in is larger than the transfer amount of the transfer pump 13, the water level of the solid-liquid separation tank 10 rises, but the capacity of the solid-liquid separation tank (flow rate adjusting unit) does not exceed HWL. In general, the water level does not rise above the HWL.
[0028]
In the biological reaction chamber 31, the organic matter in the advection liquid from the solid-liquid separation tank 10 is aerobically biodegraded. At this time, since a substantially constant amount of advection liquid is loaded, stable processing is performed. The advection liquid from the biological reaction chamber 31 then enters the filtration chamber 32, where SS contained in the advection liquid is captured and removed, and in some cases, aerobic organisms are further dissolved by dissolved oxygen brought from the biological reaction chamber 31. Processing is performed. The advection liquid that has passed through the filtration chamber 32 enters the sterilization tank 33 and is sterilized, and then discharged from the discharge port 40 as treated water.
[0029]
【The invention's effect】
In the solid-liquid separation tank (solid-liquid separation and anaerobic treatment tank) of the present invention, separation and storage of solid matter contained in the inflowing sewage (raw water) and anaerobic treatment of sewage by both the first chamber and the second chamber. Can be done effectively. In addition, no filter bed is formed in the first chamber, and the structure is simple.
The sewage septic tank of the present invention has a simpler structure than a conventional sewage septic tank of an anaerobic filter bed contact aeration system (or precipitation separation contact aeration system), and can thereby treat sewage stably. In addition, maintenance is easy.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is an example of a solid-liquid separation tank according to the present invention, in which (a) is a schematic plan view, and (b) is a schematic longitudinal sectional view taken along line AA in (a).
FIG. 2 is an example of a sewage purification tank incorporating the solid-liquid separation tank of the present invention, in which (a) is a schematic plan view, and (b) is a schematic longitudinal sectional view taken along line AA in (a).
FIG. 3 is a schematic longitudinal sectional view of a conventional sewage septic tank.
[Explanation of symbols]
10: Solid-liquid separation tank (solid-liquid separation and anaerobic treatment tank)
11: First solid-liquid separation chamber (first anaerobic treatment chamber; first chamber)
12: Second solid-liquid separation chamber (second anaerobic treatment chamber; second chamber)
13: Transfer pump (air lift pump)
13a: air lift pump pipe 14: sewage inlet 15: opening 16: partition wall (lower slope) 17: partition wall 17a (lower slope) 18: partition wall 18: (pump) suction port 19: transfer port 20: sedimentation Part 21: Sludge storage part 22: Advection pipe 23: Filter medium layer (filter bed) 24: Water flow restraint plate 25: Partition wall 26: Transfer pipe 30: Aerobic treatment tank (31 + 32)
31: (aerobic) biological reaction chamber 31a: biological reaction bed 32: filtration chamber 32a: filtration bed 33: disinfection tank 34: aeration member for the reaction (aeration tube)
35: Blower 36: Air diffuser for cleaning (air diffuser)
37: Cleaning drainage pump (air lift pump)
37a: Washing drain discharge pipe 38: Tube 39: Manhole cover 40: Outlet 51: Anaerobic filter bed first chamber (or precipitation separation tank first chamber)
52: Second chamber of anaerobic filter bed (or second chamber of precipitation separation tank)
53: Contact aeration tank 54: Sedimentation tank 55: Disinfection tank 56: Water quantity fluctuation absorption part 57: Advection pipe 58: Flow control pump

Claims (2)

最高水位よりも上方にある汚水流入口と、最低水位にある移流口と、底部に開口部とを有する沈殿部、及び
前記沈殿部の下方に設けられた汚泥貯留部からなる第一の固液分離室(第一室)、並びに
前記第一室の下流側にあって、最低水位よりも下方に濾材層を有し、最低水位に移送ポンプの吸込口が設けられている第二の固液分離室(第二室)を備え、
汚水の水準は最高水位と最低水位との間で変動可能である固液分離槽。
A first solid-liquid consisting of a sewage inlet above the highest water level, an advection port at the lowest water level, a precipitation part having an opening at the bottom, and a sludge storage part provided below the precipitation part. A separation chamber (first chamber), and a second solid liquid downstream of the first chamber, having a filter medium layer below the lowest water level, and provided with a suction port of a transfer pump at the lowest water level Equipped with a separation chamber (second chamber),
Solid-liquid separation tank in which the level of sewage can vary between the highest and lowest levels.
請求項1の固液分離槽を備える汚水浄化槽。A wastewater septic tank comprising the solid-liquid separation tank according to claim 1.
JP2002288979A 2002-10-01 2002-10-01 Solid-liquid separation tank and sewage septic tank having a filter medium layer in the second chamber Expired - Fee Related JP4022815B2 (en)

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JP2007136378A (en) * 2005-11-21 2007-06-07 Hitachi Housetec Co Ltd Septic tank
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