JP3861149B2 - Geological structure and hydraulic modeling equipment - Google Patents

Geological structure and hydraulic modeling equipment Download PDF

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JP3861149B2
JP3861149B2 JP2002346636A JP2002346636A JP3861149B2 JP 3861149 B2 JP3861149 B2 JP 3861149B2 JP 2002346636 A JP2002346636 A JP 2002346636A JP 2002346636 A JP2002346636 A JP 2002346636A JP 3861149 B2 JP3861149 B2 JP 3861149B2
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plate
geological
loading
rectangular
transparent
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JP2004177358A (en
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銘 張
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独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所
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[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a modeling test technique capable of accurately elucidating the mechanism of the interaction between formation deformation and fluid movement in consideration of the characteristics of underground geology. Specifically, the presence of groundwater affects the formation of cracks and faults in the underground. The geological structure and hydraulic modeling device that can evaluate the influence, the influence of crustal deformation rate on fault formation, and the relative change and spatial distribution of fluid movement characteristics in the formation near cracks and faults Is.
This equipment is useful for modeling tests to properly predict and evaluate subsurface geological structures and subsurface fluid movements in various fields such as structural geology, petroleum geology, geotechnical engineering, hydraulics and waste geological disposal.
[0002]
[Prior art]
As a prior art for modeling the deformation structure of the formation, there is a so-called sandbox method as shown in FIG. 1 (see, for example, Non-Patent Document 1). In this method, two box members having a U-shaped side wall face each other and placed on a bottom plate, and these box members are configured to be movable in a nested manner in the horizontal direction to form a sandbox. A layered model geological formation is produced in the formed sandbox. In order to deform the model stratum, one U-shaped side wall is fixed, and the other U-shaped side wall is moved in the horizontal direction along the bottom plate. In order to observe the deformed geological structure, the U-shaped side wall is made of a transparent material and observed directly from the side of the sandbox, or the sample of the geological layer is solidified with a solidifying agent such as resin, and the cross section to be evaluated Cut, polish, and observe along. In recent years, the inside of a sample can be observed using an X-ray scanner. Dry sand, clay, glass beads, hard spheres, etc. are used as samples for modeling the formation.
On the other hand, in order to model the fluid movement state in the formation, a hydraulic test using a soil tank or a water tank as shown in FIG. 2 is performed (for example, refer to Patent Document 1). In this apparatus, at least one casing well having a small hole for inflowing air and drawing a vacuum is installed at both ends of a cell constituted by transparent front and back plates. The cell is then filled with a porous material and saturated with at least one liquid. After closing the top of the cell, draw a vacuum from one casing well, transmit gamma rays or X-rays between the front and back of the cell, and measure the moisture content by mapping the measurement results at multiple points. Evaluate the spatial distribution.
[0003]
[Non-Patent Document 1]
Ph. Davy and PR Cobbold (1991): Experiments on Shortening of A 4- Layer Model of the Continental Lithosphere, Tectonophysics, Vol. 188, pp. 1-25.
[Patent Document 1]
US Pat. No. 5,789,662 specification
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
The sandbox method as described above has been widely used in the fields of structural geology and petroleum geology as the only and effective laboratory test method for modeling the macroscopic deformation structure of the formation. However, in recent years, in the long-term safety assessment of geological disposal facilities for various types of waste including environmental conservation and nuclear waste, it has been required to measure and evaluate not only the structure of underground geology but also the fluid movement characteristics in it. The conventional modeling test apparatus cannot meet such new needs in the following points.
(1) The influence of fluid on the deformation of the formation cannot be evaluated. In fact, underground water is present underground, which strongly influences the formation of micro-structures that govern the deformation of the formation, especially fluid movement.
(2) The deformed formation is structurally inhomogeneous and anisotropic. Conventional modeling test techniques cannot evaluate the effect of these characteristics on the infiltration flow characteristics of the formation.
(3) In the conventional hydraulic modeling test using a soil tank, only a fluid flow test can be performed in a homogeneously filled model formation. The actual strata are not ideal and have undergone many years of crustal deformation. Especially in the case of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is necessary to evaluate the ultra-long-term safety for 100,000 years after the construction of the facility, but it is indispensable to predict the movement of groundwater considering the impact of crustal deformation. ing.
[0005]
A first object of the present invention is to provide a modeling test apparatus for formation deformation that solves the above-described problems of the prior art and considers the presence of groundwater.
It is a second object of the present invention to provide an apparatus capable of performing an osmotic flow test on a deformed model formation in the horizontal or vertical direction on the spot.
It is a third object of the present invention to provide an apparatus that can sample a model stratum after a deformation test without damaging it and also measure the spatial distribution of the permeability.
[0006]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In order to achieve the above object, the geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus of the present invention includes a rectangular earth basin composed of a bottom plate, a side plate, a front transparent plate and a rear transparent plate, and a simulated stratum in the rectangular earth basin. A loading plate installed in a rectangular soil tank for loading a horizontal force, and means for measuring and observing the deformation of the simulated formation and the flow of the test fluid in the deformed simulated formation.
Further, the geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus of the present invention comprises a rectangular earth basin composed of a fixed bottom plate, a front fixed side plate, a rear fixed side plate, an assembly-type front transparent plate and a rear transparent plate, and the fixed bottom plate and the front fixed plate A perforated rigid plate and a porous filter plate or an impermeable plate are provided inside the side plate through a spacer.
The geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus of the present invention is characterized in that a transparent liner plate is provided inside the assembly-type front transparent plate and the back transparent plate.
Further, in the geological structure and hydraulic modeling device of the present invention, the loading plate has a water stop structure between the inner wall of the rectangular earthen basin, and a perforated rigid plate and a porous filter plate are interposed inside the loading plate via a spacer. Alternatively, an impervious plate is provided, and an inclination preventing mechanism for preventing inclination due to an uneven load is provided.
In addition, the geological structure and hydraulic modeling device of the present invention connects a loading / unloading device for loading or unloading a load on the loading plate, and controls the deformation rate of the simulated stratum via the loading plate. An unloading control device is provided.
In addition, the geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus of the present invention is provided with permeation holes in the lower and upper portions of the rectangular soil tank in order to conduct a vertical seepage flow test of the simulated formation created in the rectangular soil tank. The test fluid injected from the permeation holes can be supplied from the lower part or the upper part of the simulated formation through a tank-like space formed by a spacer and a porous filter plate.
In addition, the geological structure and hydraulic modeling device of the present invention is provided with a permeation hole in the loading plate and injected from the permeation hole in order to perform a horizontal seepage flow test of the simulated stratum formed in the rectangular soil tank. The test fluid can be supplied through a tank-shaped space formed by a spacer, a porous rigid plate, and a lower portion of a porous filter plate.
Further, the geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus of the present invention includes a tilting mechanism capable of tilting the rectangular soil tank toward the assembly-type front transparent plate or the rear transparent plate, and the rectangular soil tank is tilted in front. The transparent plate or the back transparent plate is disassembled so that sampling can be performed at any place in the simulated stratum.
In addition, the geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus of the present invention includes a sampling transparent guide plate having a large number of guide holes into which a sample container can be inserted.
[0007]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.
3 is a front view showing the configuration of the geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus according to the embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 4 is a plan view thereof, FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken along line AA of FIG. These are BB sectional drawing of FIG.
[0008]
The model geological layer G accommodated and produced in the rectangular earthen tank T is an object of measurement and evaluation, and is produced in a single layer or multiple layers in the rectangular earthen tank T according to the purpose. Examples of the sample often used for the model test include sand and clay, but various types such as glass beads and silicon powder can be used depending on the purpose.
[0009]
The rectangular soil tank T is composed of a bottom plate 1, a front fixed side plate 2, a rear fixed side plate 3, a scaled front rigid transparent plate 4 and a scaled rear rigid transparent plate 5. In order to prevent deterioration and transparency of the rigid transparent plates 4 and 5 on the front and back sides, transparent liner plates L1 and L2 that can be easily replaced are attached to the inside of each. Specifically, in this example, acrylic plates having a thickness of 20 mm were used for the front and back rigid transparent plates 4 and 5, and the center and periphery thereof were reinforced with stainless plates. Moreover, the acrylic board of thickness 5mm was employ | adopted as liner board L1 and L2.
[0010]
The loading plate 8 applies a horizontal force to the model formation G to deform the model formation G, and is in close contact with the liner plates L1 and L2 and the bottom plate 1 of the rectangular soil tank T as shown in FIGS. Thus, it can be slid in the left-right direction. The loading plate 8 includes a followable double water-stop packing 6, a loading plate tilt prevention mechanism 7 for preventing tilting due to an uneven load, a spacer S3 for conducting a seepage flow test in the horizontal direction of the model formation G, and a perforated rigidity. A plate P3, a porous filter plate (or impervious plate) F3, a permeation hole for permeation flow test, and an accompanying pipe V3 are provided. The followable double water-stop packing 6 has a structure that can always stop water even when the loading plate 8 moves, and uses highly elastic rubber.
[0011]
The loading / unloading device 9 for loading or unloading the load on the loading plate 8 can be switched arbitrarily by the loading / unloading control device 10 or manually by the manual handle 11. The load generated by the loading / unloading device 9 is transmitted to the loading plate 8 through the load meter 12. The loading / unloading control device 10 can automatically and manually switch loading / unloading and control the loading speed. For example, in this embodiment, when a 100 cm long model geological formation is compressed to a maximum of 50 cm, the loading time can be arbitrarily set between 1 hour and 10 hours. Further, the loading / unloading device can generate a maximum thrust of 50 KN (5 tons). The height of the normal model formation is about half of the height of the soil tank of 60 cm, and it is possible to apply a pressure of about 1400 kPa to the model formation with respect to the soil tank having a width of 11.4 cm. The loading / unloading manual handle 11 is used when adjusting the position of the loading plate before or after the test.
The load meter 12 and the displacement meter 13 detect the load and displacement during the test, and these outputs can be displayed by the monitoring / measuring device 14 and transferred to another recording medium if necessary. .
[0012]
The rigid guide plate 15 guides the loading plate tilt prevention mechanism 7 along the horizontal direction, and a stainless plate is used.
The holder 16 is attached to the reinforcing frame of the transparent plates 4 and 5 with the scales on the front and back sides, and prevents the lateral deformation of the rectangular soil tank during the test and also serves to suppress the rigid guide plate 15.
The lid 17 is used only when necessary, and includes a spacer S4, a perforated rigid plate P4, and a permeation hole V4 for osmotic flow test.
The two tie lots 18 are for increasing the rigidity of the entire rectangular soil tank.
The pedestal 19 is for installing the rectangular soil tank T and the loading / unloading device 9, and the height is determined in consideration of the convenience of the test work.
[0013]
7 and 8 are side views showing a mechanism for inclining the rectangular soil tank T. FIG.
By rotating the soil tank tilting handle 20, the main soil tank tilting mechanism 21 and the passive soil tank tilting mechanism 22 are interlocked by the interlocking chain 23, and the entire rectangular soil tank T can be tilted up to 45 °. Thus, when the front rigid transparent plate 4 and the front transparent liner plate L1 are removed and sampling is performed at an arbitrary place from the soil tank, it is possible to prevent the model formation G from collapsing due to its own weight.
[0014]
The plurality of holding screws 24 are used when assembling or disassembling the scaled rigid transparent plates 4 and 5 and the transparent liner plates L1 and L2 as a soil tank, and are attached around the scaled rigid transparent plates 4 and 5. It is equally applied to the rigid transparent plates 4 and 5 through the metal reinforcing frame.
The plurality of soil tank bottom plate fixing screws 25 are for firmly fixing the rectangular soil tank T on the pedestal 19.
Each of the spacers S1 to S4 is a structure for constructing a narrow tank-like space at each place, and for quickly spreading the fluid for the osmotic flow test to the entire tank-like space without resistance.
The perforated rigid plates P1 to P4 disperse the fluid flowing in from the tank-like spaces constructed in the respective sections relatively evenly in the cross section to be examined for permeability of the model formation G, and each porous filter It becomes a support structure of a board or impermeable board F1-F3. A rubber sheet for water stop is attached around the impervious plate excluding the contact surface with the porous filter plate.
[0015]
The porous filter plates F1 to F2 serve to disperse the osmotic fluid more evenly in the cross section where the permeability of the model formation is to be investigated, and to prevent the model formation G sample from being lost. Specifically, pearl corn or the like is used.
The water-stop packings R1 to R4 are for assembling the entire rectangular soil tank T as a water-stop structure.
The permeation flow test permeation holes and the associated pipes V1 to V4 are for allowing the permeation fluid to flow into or out of the tank-shaped space constructed in each place.
The transparent liner plates L1 and L2 prevent the friction generated between the model strata G and the side surface of the rectangular soil tank T from damaging the scaled front and back rigid transparent plates 4 and 5, and the front surface of the soil tank. And keep the transparency of the back.
[0016]
Next, an assembly procedure of the rectangular earthen basin T as a preparation stage for the test will be described.
First, the spacer S2, the perforated rigid plate P2, and the porous filter F2 are set in order inside the front fixed side plate 2 of the rectangular soil tank T. When conducting the vertical seepage flow test of the model formation G, the porous filter F2 is not used, but an impermeable plate is used instead. Thereafter, the spacer S1, the porous rigid plate P1, and the porous filter F1 are set in order on the bottom plate 1 of the earth tub. The porous filter F1 has a length corresponding to the final compressed length of the model formation G, and the remaining portion uses an impervious plate having the same thickness as the porous filter. Similarly, when performing the horizontal seepage flow of the model formation G, only the impervious plate is used on the perforated rigid plate P1. Thereafter, the front rigid transparent plate 4 with scale, the rear rigid transparent plate 5 with scale, and the positive and rear transparent liners L1 and L2 are fitted into predetermined positions, respectively. Thereafter, the loading plate 8 is mounted in the rectangular soil tank B, and the position of the loading plate 8 is adjusted to a predetermined position by the loading / unloading manual handle 11. Thereafter, the plurality of holding screws 24 are uniformly tightened to complete the assembly of the rectangular soil tank T. Thereafter, the loading / unloading device 10 is operated by the loading / unloading control device 10 to measure the frictional force when the loading plate 8 is not loaded. In this case, the frictional force is detected by the load meter 12 and displayed by the monitoring measurement device 14.
[0017]
Next, the procedure for producing the model strata G in the assembled rectangular soil tank T will be described.
In order to produce a dry model ground layer, a dry sample is used, and the layers are evenly placed in the rectangular clay tank T and compacted to a predetermined density and a predetermined height with a tamper. At this time, the density of the model formation is calculated from the weight of the sample and the volume in the soil tank. In order to prepare a wet model ground layer, a sample is prepared in advance with a predetermined water content ratio and is compacted to a predetermined density in the same procedure. In order to create a fully saturated model geological formation, water in an appropriate depth is placed in a rectangular soil tank in advance, and the sample is uniformly filled in it, and then compacted to the prescribed density and height, or dried. Alternatively, it can also be produced by saturating a wet model formation. After the production of the model stratum is completed, the rigid guide plate 15 is placed on the upper part of the soil tank T and fixed with a holder. The lid 17 is put on the remaining opening of the earth tub T. Thereafter, the tie lot 18 is set and tightened appropriately.
[0018]
Next, the process of deforming the model formation G will be described.
The model strata G produced as described above is compressed by applying a force in the horizontal direction via the loading plate 8. This is because it is recognized that this is due to the relative horizontal movement between the plates as the main cause of crustal deformation in nature. In this case, the loading speed can be controlled to a predetermined level by the loading / unloading control device 10. Further, the loaded load and the horizontal deformation amount are detected by the load meter 12 and the displacement meter 13, respectively, and are displayed by the monitoring measurement device 14. In addition, the load actually applied to the model formation is a difference between the measured value at the time of the deformation test and the friction force between the loading plate 8 and the inside of the earth tub measured in the preparation stage. The deformation state of the model stratum G being compressed, that is, the state of folds, cracks, faults, etc. occurring in the model strata G is observed and recorded. Specifically, continuous shooting is performed using a video camera. In addition, using a camera or a digital camera, a typical deformed state can be photographed. The compression deformation test ends when the model formation G is compressed to a predetermined length. Of course, even during the compression deformation test, it is possible to temporarily stop the deformation test if necessary.
[0019]
Next, a procedure for performing a vertical seepage flow test on the model strata G deformed as described above will be described.
In order to conduct an osmotic flow test in the vertical direction and observe and photograph the flow of fluid in the model stratum G, the test fluid, for example, from the permeation hole V1 connected to the narrow tank-like space constructed at the bottom of the rectangular earthen tank T The colored fluid is injected, and the fluid is uniformly permeated into the lower part of the model formation G through the tank-shaped space constructed by the spacer S1, the perforated rigid plate P1, and the porous filter plate F1. If it passes through the model formation G and reaches the upper part of the formation, the osmotic flow test is terminated. In this case, it is possible to simulate the flow of rising water from the deep underground in the natural world. Even in the case of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it must be evaluated how the water contaminated in the deep underground basically reaches the living area near the surface of the earth. On the contrary, the colored fluid is injected from the permeation flow test hole V4 in the lid 17, and the fluid is sprayed evenly on the upper part of the model formation G through the tank-shaped space constructed by the spacer S4 and the perforated rigid plate P4. . The fluid that permeates the model formation G and reaches the lower part of the formation passes through the tank-shaped space constructed by the porous filter plate F1, the perforated rigid plate P1, and the spacer S1 laid at the lower part of the soil tank. Discharged by V1. In this case, it is possible to simulate the flow of surface water penetrating deep underground. At that time, measure and observe the flow of surface water penetrating deep underground using a measurement and observation means such as a video camera, and record it. In order to perform the osmotic flow test in the vertical direction, the porous filter plate F2 installed inside the front fixed side plate 2 and the porous filter plate F3 installed inside the loading plate 8 in advance are not used in the test preparation stage. It is necessary to replace the permeable plate.
[0020]
Next, the horizontal seepage flow test in the model formation G will be described.
In this case, it is necessary to replace the porous filter plate F1 laid on the bottom of the rectangular soil tank T in advance with an impermeable plate, but the lid 17 does not need to be used. A model formation G is produced under the same conditions as the penetration test in the vertical direction described above, and is deformed under the same loading conditions. Then, a water stop galle sheet is affixed on the surface of the porous filter plates F2 and F3 exposed at the upper part of the model formation G. Moreover, a waterproof sheet is put on the upper part of the model stratum G, and appropriate weight is added. For example, coating with a thin clay cake. In order to perform a seepage flow test in the horizontal direction and visualize and photograph the fluid movement in the model formation G, a test fluid, for example, a colored fluid, is introduced from the seepage hole V3 for the seepage flow test provided in the loading plate 8. . This osmotic fluid is uniformly permeated into the model formation G through the tank-shaped space constructed by the spacer S3, the perforated rigid plate P3, and the lower part of the porous filter plate F3. The fluid that has permeated the model formation G flows out through the permeation hole V2 for the osmotic flow test via the lower part of the tank-like space constructed by the porous filter plate F2, the porous rigid plate P2, and the spacer S2 on the front side. At that time, the measurement and observation means such as a video camera is used to measure, observe and record the state of penetration of the osmotic fluid. Accurate prediction and evaluation of fluid movement in the horizontal direction of the formation is extremely important in the field of underground fluid resources development represented by oil and geothermal.
[0021]
Finally, a method of sampling the test specimen to evaluate the permeability in the direction orthogonal to the scaled front rigid transparent plate 4 and scaled rear rigid transparent plate 5 will be described.
After the vertical or horizontal osmotic flow test is completed, the 14 soil tank bottom plate fixing screws 25 are removed. Thereafter, the tie-lot 18, the lid 17, the holder 16, and the rigid guide plate 15 are removed in order. Thereafter, the soil tank tilting handle 20 is rotated, and the main tilt mechanism 21 and the passive tilt mechanism 22 are operated in the same manner by the interlocking chain 23, so that the entire rectangular soil tank T is tilted up to 45 ° (FIGS. 7 and 8). ). Thereafter, the holding screw 24 of the front rigid transparent plate 4 is loosened, and the front rigid transparent plate 4 and the liner L1 are removed in order. From the soil tank tilted in this way, it is possible to sequentially collect the necessary number of samples while preventing the collapse of the model stratum sample due to its own weight.
FIG. 9 is a perspective view of a sampling transparent guide plate 26 that is convenient when sampling a specimen. In collecting the sample, a sampling transparent guide plate 26 is fixed along the surface of the model stratum sample, and a cylindrical sample container (not shown) is inserted into a number of guide holes 27 formed in the sampling transparent guide plate 26. Insert and collect sample in sample container.
The collected specimen can be evaluated for permeability using a conventional indoor water permeability or air permeability test method. Usually, cracks and faults occur in the direction perpendicular to the force that gives deformation inside the formation, and the fluid flow along the cracks and faults is most likely to flow. In the safety assessment of various waste geological disposal facilities, it is important to accurately predict and evaluate this maximum ease of flow. This is necessary when evaluating the reach of pollutants.
[0022]
As described above, a model strata is prepared twice under the same conditions, deformed under the same loading conditions, and each deformed model strata is vertically, horizontally, further graduated with the front rigid transparent plate 4 and graduated. It is possible to three-dimensionally evaluate the permeability in the direction orthogonal to the back rigid transparent plate 5.
[0023]
【The invention's effect】
According to the present invention, it has become possible to evaluate the influence of the presence of groundwater, which has not been evaluated by the conventional modeling test technique for deformation of the formation, on the formation of underground cracks and faults. In addition, the three-dimensional spatial distribution of the seepage flow characteristics in the deformed model strata can be evaluated.
This device is useful in all fields for predicting and evaluating fluid movement in geological formations, especially related to waste geological disposal that needs to accurately predict and evaluate the isolation and shielding properties of geological formations expected as natural barriers. This is extremely important in the field of environmental control technology.
In addition, since the produced model formation is compressed by applying a force in the horizontal direction via the loading plate, the simulated formation can be compressed horizontally by up to 50% or more and can be moved freely.
In addition, vertical or horizontal osmotic flow tests can be performed on the formations deformed according to the test purpose.
In addition, it is possible to perform sampling with a sampling holder at an arbitrary place in a state where the entire rectangular soil tank of the test apparatus is tilted to disassemble the front plate and prevent the simulated stratum from collapsing.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a conventional technique called a sandbox method for modeling a deformation structure of a formation.
FIG. 2 is a diagram showing a conventional hydraulic test using a soil tank or a water tank in order to model the fluid movement state in the formation.
FIG. 3 is a front view showing a configuration of a geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a plan view showing a configuration of a geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.
5 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line AA in FIG.
6 is a cross-sectional view taken along line BB in FIG.
FIG. 7 is a side view showing a mechanism for inclining a rectangular soil tank.
FIG. 8 is a side view showing a state of an inclined rectangular earth tub.
FIG. 9 is a view showing a transparent guide plate for sampling.
[Explanation of symbols]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Bottom plate 2 Front fixed side plate 3 Rear fixed side plate 4 Scaled front rigid transparent plate 5 Scaled rear rigid transparent plate 6 Double waterstop packing 7 Loading plate tilt prevention mechanism 8 Loading plate 9 Loading / unloading device 10 Loading / unloading Control device 11 Manual handle for loading / unloading 12 Load meter 13 Displacement meter 14 Monitoring / measuring device 15 Rigid guide plate 16 Holder 17 Lid 18 Tylot 19 Pedestal 20 Rectangular soil tank tilting handle 21 Main soil tank tilting mechanism 22 Passive soil Tank tilting mechanism 23 Interlocking chain 24 Holding screw 25 Earth tank bottom plate fixing screw G Model base layer T Rectangular earth tanks S1 to S4 Spacers P1 to P4 Perforated rigid plates F1 to F3 Porous filter plates or impermeable plates R1 to R4 Packing V1-V4 Permeation hole for osmotic flow test and associated piping L1, L2 front and back transparent liner plates

Claims (9)

  1. A rectangular earth basin composed of a bottom plate, a side plate, a front transparent plate and a rear transparent plate, a loading plate installed in the rectangular earth basin in order to load a horizontal force on the simulated earth in the rectangular earth basin, and the simulated earth layer An apparatus for modeling geological structure and hydraulics , comprising means for measuring and observing the flow of the test fluid in the deformation layer and the deformed simulated formation.
  2. The rectangular soil tank is composed of a fixed bottom plate, a front fixed side plate, a rear fixed side plate, an assembly-type front transparent plate and a rear transparent plate. Inside the fixed bottom plate and the front fixed side plate, a perforated rigid plate and a porous plate are provided via spacers. The geological structure and hydraulic modeling device according to claim 1 , wherein a quality filter plate or an impermeable plate is provided.
  3. 3. The geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus according to claim 1 , wherein a transparent liner plate is provided inside the assembly-type front transparent plate and the back transparent plate.
  4. The loading plate has a water blocking structure between the inner wall of the rectangular earthen basin, and a perforated rigid plate and a porous filter plate or impervious plate are provided on the inner side of the loading plate via a spacer, and tilting due to uneven load is prevented. and providing a anti-tilt mechanism, geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 3.
  5. With connecting loading-unloading device for loading or unloading a load to loading plate, characterized in that a loading-unloading control device for controlling the deformation rate of the simulated formation through the loading plate, claim The geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 4.
  6. In order to conduct a vertical seepage flow test of a simulated stratum formed in a rectangular earthen basin, a tank is provided with permeation holes in the lower and upper parts of the rectangular earthen basin, and the test fluid injected from the permeation hole is formed by a spacer. Jo space, characterized in that it can be supplied from the bottom or top of the simulated formation through the perforated rigid plate or a porous filter plate, geological structure of any one of claims 1 to 5 and Hydraulic modeling device.
  7. In order to conduct a horizontal seepage test of a simulated stratum formed in a rectangular soil tank, a perforated hole is provided in the loading plate, and a test space injected from the permeate hole is formed into a tank-like space formed by a spacer, a perforated hole characterized in that it can be supplied through the lower sexual rigid plate and the porous filter plate, geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5.
  8. It is equipped with a tilting mechanism that can tilt the rectangular soil tank toward the assembly-type front transparent plate or the back transparent plate, and the front transparent plate or the rear transparent plate is disassembled in a state where the rectangular soil tank is tilted. characterized in that to enable sampling at, geological structure and hydraulic modeling apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 7.
  9. The geological structure and hydraulic modeling device according to any one of claims 1 to 8 , further comprising a sampling transparent guide plate having a plurality of guide holes into which a sample container can be inserted. .
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