JP3736452B2 - Solder foil - Google Patents

Solder foil Download PDF

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Publication number
JP3736452B2
JP3736452B2 JP2001385444A JP2001385444A JP3736452B2 JP 3736452 B2 JP3736452 B2 JP 3736452B2 JP 2001385444 A JP2001385444 A JP 2001385444A JP 2001385444 A JP2001385444 A JP 2001385444A JP 3736452 B2 JP3736452 B2 JP 3736452B2
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Japan
Prior art keywords
solder
particles
foil
balls
chip
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Expired - Fee Related
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JP2001385444A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP2002301588A (en
Inventor
一真 三浦
英恵 下川
哲也 中塚
正英 岡本
太佐男 曽我
寿治 石田
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株式会社日立製作所
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Priority to JP2000-393267 priority
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Publication of JP2002301588A publication Critical patent/JP2002301588A/en
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    • H01L24/83Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected using a layer connector
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    • H01L2924/1615Shape
    • H01L2924/16152Cap comprising a cavity for hosting the device, e.g. U-shaped cap
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/15Details of package parts other than the semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/181Encapsulation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/19Details of hybrid assemblies other than the semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/1901Structure
    • H01L2924/1904Component type
    • H01L2924/19041Component type being a capacitor

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide fresh solder and a method for manufacturing the solder, or electronic apparatus using this solder and a method for manufacturing the apparatus, and also to provide solder connection in temperature hierarchical connection necessary in the method manufacturing the electronic apparatus, more particularly the solder connection on a high-temperature side. SOLUTION: This solder foil is formed by rolling a solder material containing Cu particles 2 as metallic particles and Sn particles 3 as solder particles. The Cu is in the state of the particles and the Sn is in a state 4 of embedding the spacings among the Cu particles. The surfaces of the Cu particles are covered by Cu6Sn5 when the particles are caused to reflow. The electronic apparatus connected by using this foil is provided.

Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  In the manufacture of electronic devices and electronic equipment, Sn-Ag-Cu system Pb Solder foil effective when applied to solder connections that require a high-temperature side layer connection to free solder, etc.Related to technology.
[0002]
[Prior art]
In Sn-Pb solder, Pb-rich Pb-5Sn (melting point: 314 to 310 ° C), Pb-10Sn (melting point: 302 to 275 ° C), etc. are soldered at a temperature around 330 ° C as high-temperature solder, After that, it was possible to perform a temperature hierarchical connection in which the soldered portion was not melted and was connected with a low-temperature solder Sn-37Pb eutectic (melting point: 183 ° C.). These solders were flexible and highly deformable, so that it was possible to join Si chips that were easily broken to substrates with different thermal expansion coefficients. Such a temperature hierarchy connection is applied to a semiconductor device of a type in which a chip is die-bonded or a semiconductor device such as a BGA or CSP in which a chip is flip-chip connected. That is, the solder used inside the semiconductor device and the solder that connects the semiconductor device itself to the substrate are connected in a temperature hierarchy.
[0003]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
Currently, lead-free technology is progressing in all fields.
[0004]
The mainstream of Pb-free solder is Sn-Ag eutectic (melting point: 221 ° C), Sn-Ag-Cu eutectic (melting point: 221-217 ° C), Sn-Cu eutectic (melting point: 227 ° C) However, it is desirable that the soldering temperature in surface mounting is low due to the heat resistance of the components. However, because of the need to ensure wettability to ensure reliability, the temperature inside the board can be maintained even if a furnace with excellent soaking control is used. Considering the variation, the actual situation is the Sn-Ag-Cu eutectic system, which is possible at the lowest temperature, around 235-245 ° C. Therefore, the solder for a layer that can withstand this soldering temperature needs to be 250 ° C. or higher even if the melting point is at least. Currently, there is no Pb-free solder for the high temperature side that can be used in combination with these solders. The most possible composition is Sn-5Sb (melting point: 240 to 232 ° C.), but since it melts, it is not suitable for the temperature class.
[0005]
Further, Au-20Sn (melting point: 280 ° C.) is known as a high-temperature solder, but it is hard and is limited to a narrow range due to high cost. In particular, when connecting Si chips to materials with different thermal expansion coefficients or connecting large chips, Au-20Sn solder is not used because it is likely to break the Si chip because it is hard.
[0006]
  The purpose of the present invention is toIn the manufacture of electronic devices and electronic equipment, the low temperature side solder connection in the temperature hierarchy connection is particularly Sn-Ag-Cu system Pb When using free solder, Pb The object is to provide a solder foil for use as free solder.
[0007]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
  In order to achieve the above object, the outline of typical ones of the inventions disclosed in the present application will be briefly described as follows.
  Cu , Ag , Au Or Al First particles of ( Volume ratio 50% ~ 74% ) When, Sn Or In The solder material in which the second particles are dispersed and mixed is pressed at a temperature lower than the melting point of the second particles and in a vacuum, in a reducing atmosphere or in an inert atmosphere to cause plastic flow in the solder material. It is a solder foil formed by rolling up and forming a lump of composite material by rolling. The solder foil is characterized in that, during reflow, the molten metal of the second particles forms a compound with the metal surface portion of the first particles at a temperature equal to or higher than the melting point of the second particles. .
  The particle diameter of the first particles is 10 to 40 μm, or 3 to 10 μm. The solder foil has a thickness of 80 μm to 150 μm, or 150 μm to 250 μm. In addition, as the third particles of a material having a smaller thermal expansion coefficient than the first particles, Invar, silica, alumina, AlN , SiC May also be included. The rolling rate is 15% to 20%.
[0008]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described.
When metal balls such as Cu and Sn-based solder balls are mixed and rolled at about 50%, Cu particles come into contact with each other, and Sn can be obtained as a composite solder that enters the gap. When this foil is sandwiched between the chip and the substrate and reflowed, the composite solder portion is connected between the Cu balls with a Cu-Sn compound, and between the composite solder portion and the chip and the substrate is a compound of a Cu ball and a chip electrode, By forming a compound between the Cu ball and the substrate terminal, a lead-free temperature hierarchical structure is obtained that ensures bonding strength even at high temperatures of 280 ° C. Thereby, the connection method which provided the temperature hierarchy in lead free solder can be provided.
Considering the temperature hierarchy connection, if the solder on the high-temperature side that has already been connected partially melts, but the other remaining parts do not melt, sufficient strength can be secured in the process of soldering later. it can. We are researching solder materials in which metal balls (Cu, Ag, Au, surface-treated Al, Zn-Al solder, etc.) and solder balls are mixed. If it is connected with this solder material, for example, even if it is passed through a reflow furnace (max 250 ° C) with Sn-Ag-Cu solder, which is a process at the time of soldering, the Sn part in the connecting part will melt However, since the Cu balls, the Cu balls and the chip, and the Cu balls and the substrate are connected by an intermetallic compound (Cu6Sn5) with a high melting point, the connection is sufficiently maintained at the set temperature of the reflow furnace (max 250 ° C). High connection strength can be ensured. That is, a temperature hierarchy connection to the Sn—Ag—Cu solder can be realized. The effect of this intermetallic compound formation is not limited to Cu-Sn, but is similar to compounds such as Ni-Sn (Ni3Sn4) and Ag-Sn (Ag3Sn), and Au-Sn. Also, the same solder can be used for In instead of Sn. Although there is a difference in the growth rate of the alloy layer, the melting point of the alloy layer formed by diffusion is high, and if formed, it melts at 280 ° C
It is not a thing.
[0009]
Since the connection with this solder material is not completely constrained by Cu, for example, even when used for die bonding, there is a certain degree of freedom in the vertical and horizontal directions, and mechanical properties at the intermediate stage between Cu and solder are expected. Even in temperature cycle tests, heat fatigue resistance due to Sn and high reliability by preventing crack growth due to Cu particles (balls) can be expected.
[0010]
However, in composite pastes that are a mixture of Cu balls and solder balls, Sn-based solder originally has the property of less wetting and spreading on Cu, and there are many parts that must be wetted with Cu. In addition, Cu and solder balls are initially constrained in a cross-linked state, so even if the solder melts, the part remains as a space, so there is a high probability of becoming a void. This has become clear as our research progresses. For this reason, this paste method inevitably becomes a process in which voids increase, and it becomes a material unsuitable for connection applications. It is sufficient that voids are removed when mounting electronic components. However, for example, die bonding of a Si chip, power module bonding, and the like are structured such that surfaces are connected to each other, so that voids are difficult to remove structurally. If voids remain, problems such as generation of cracks due to voids and inhibition of necessary thermal diffusion are caused.
[0011]
Therefore, we put this solder material in a mold that is easy to roll in advance, compress it uniformly in a vacuum, in a reducing atmosphere or in an inert atmosphere, and plasticize Sn solder balls between metal balls. The composite molded body was made to flow and filled with solder (Sn-based solder after plastic deformation), and a solder foil obtained by rolling this was used.
[0012]
For example, when this composite molded product is rolled into a die-bonding solder foil such as a Si chip, the metal balls such as Cu-Cu are brought into contact by compression and an intermetallic compound is easily formed between the metal balls during die bonding. As a result, it was confirmed that the whole was organically connected with a high melting point metal, and the strength was secured even at 280 ° C. As a matter of course, since the gap is compressed and filled in the connection portion in the vacuum, a connection with less voids is possible. Using a low temperature hot press in nitrogen, it was confirmed that when the particle size of the Cu balls and Sn solder balls is large (about 40 μm), the Sn solder shows a void filling rate of 97% or more. Further, by subjecting the foil surface to Sn plating with an appropriate film thickness, it is possible to prevent oxidation even in materials that are significantly oxidized.
[0013]
A copper foil lead was joined with this solder, and a laminated lap joint was subjected to a shear tensile test at 270 ° C and a tensile speed of 50 mm / min. About 0.3 kgf / mm2It was also confirmed that the strength at high temperature was sufficiently secured by obtaining the value of.
[0014]
This method is a method in which the space inside the solder material is prefilled with metal balls, so that there are few voids, and it is expected that the void rate will be the same level or lower than that of the conventional solder foil ( Large voids are difficult to make.) Therefore, the solder according to the present method is a lead-free material (not actively containing lead) suitable for, for example, Si die bonding, power module bonding, and the like, where voidlessness has been an important issue due to its large area. That is, it is possible to provide a highly reliable high-temperature lead-free material suitable for temperature hierarchical connection and the like.
[0015]
Furthermore, since it is easy to oxidize in the paste method, it has been difficult to make it fluxless, but this can also be solved. That is, in the field where the flux residue is disliked, it is necessary to clean the flux after the connection by the paste method.
[0016]
In addition, even in the case of a hard and rigid solder having a desirable melting point, such as Au-20Sn, Au- (50 to 55) Sn (melting point: 309 to 370 ° C.), Au-12Ge (melting point: 356 ° C.), By using these as metal balls and dispersing soft and elastic rubber particles together with soft solder balls such as Sn and In, the solidus temperature of the solder used for the metal balls has about 280 ° C or more. Thus, it has high-temperature connection strength, and soft Sn or In or rubber between the particles can be relaxed against deformation, and a new effect that complements the weaknesses of these solders can be expected.
[0017]
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. Note that components having the same function are denoted by the same reference symbols throughout the drawings for describing the embodiment of the invention, and the repetitive description thereof is omitted.
[0018]
FIG. 1 shows an outline of a production process of a composite metal made of composite balls (metal balls, solder balls). (A) shows a Cu ball 2 which is a metal ball in a carbon jig 1 of a vacuum hot press, and a solder ball. (B) is a cross-sectional model of the composite ball lump after the plastic hot-flow of the solder after vacuum hot pressing, and Sn and Cu are deformed into a “sea-island structure”. (c) is a model in which the composite ball lump is further rolled with a roll 5 to produce a solder foil.
[0019]
In the figure, 10 to 40 μm Cu balls and 10 to 40 μm Sn balls were mixed so that the volume ratio of Cu balls was 50 to 60%. For Cu balls, further fine particles are added, and close contact packing (for example, Shigeo Miwa; Powder Engineering, P39, 1981/2/5, Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun) makes contact between Cu balls. It is possible to do more. In the case of close-packing, the theoretical volume ratio of Cu is about 74%, and the solder is 26%. Also, it is possible to make fine grains of 10 μm or less, and the alloy layer network is fine, suitable for high density and fine connection. For example, in the case of 3 to 8 μm Cu ball and 10 to 40 μm Sn ball, in the case of 3 to 10 μm Cu ball and 10 to 40 μm Sn ball, or in the case of 5 to 15 μm Cu ball and 10 to 40 μm Sn ball Although the solder filling density of the foil is lowered, the connection is good. Note that the diameters (sizes) of Cu balls, Sn balls, etc. are not necessarily included in the disclosed sizes, and are within the range that does not affect the effects of the invention. However, it goes without saying that large or small balls may be included. These balls are mixed in nitrogen and placed in a pressure vessel made of a carbon jig shown in FIG. After evacuation, when pressure is applied uniformly from the surroundings over time, only Sn fills the gaps between the Cu balls while plastically deforming. Although Sn has a melting point of 232 ° C., it can be flowed by taking time even at room temperature. If it is not possible to flow to every corner at room temperature, it can be easily achieved by raising the temperature slightly (100 to 150 ° C.). In this process, Cu and Sn do not react so much that there is no constraint at the interface, so the degree of freedom increases and Sn is likely to deform (flow). And the composite ball lump formed by this vacuum hot press or the like is further rolled with a roll 5 to obtain a solder foil. By rolling, there are no more gaps between the Cu balls, and as a result, a solder foil with fewer voids can be formed. In this case, the above-mentioned composite ball lump is intended to produce a solder foil having a thickness of 150 μm (± 10 μm). Therefore, it is desirable to prepare a mold having a shape close to that in advance because the rolling rate can be reduced. Increasing the rolling rate increases the number of contact areas between Cu, which increases the restraint due to improved contact area. Therefore, in view of having flexibility corresponding to deformation such as a temperature cycle, it is desirable to reduce the contact portion, and the final rolling rate is preferably 20% or less. Further, the rolling rate is more preferably 15 to 20%.
[0020]
In addition, when Cu etc. are exposed by the formed solder foil, it is preferable to prevent the oxidation of Cu of an exposed part by further plating Sn to the thickness of 0.5-2 micrometers.
[0021]
The Cu ball and the solder ball are preferably spherical in terms of ease of production, easy uniform dispersion at the time of blending, ease of handling, and the like, but they are not necessarily spherical. Cu balls with a rough surface, sticks, needles, fibers, horns, dendrites may be combined, or a combination of these. . However, if the above-mentioned compression is too constrained by Cu and the degree of freedom is not sufficient, the cushioning property will be lost during soldering, and if the connection is prone to poor connection, the Cu ball will have more irregularities on the surface than the ball shape. A rod-like shape, a needle-like shape, a fibrous shape, an angular shape, a dendritic shape, or a combination thereof is preferable. As shown in FIG. 2, in addition to Cu2 and Sn3 balls, plasticized ball (rubber) 6 which is a heat-resistant soft elastic body (electroless Ni plating-Au plating or electroless Ni plating-solder plating) 6 Can be dispersed to lower the Young's modulus to ensure cushioning properties. FIG. 2 (a) shows before rolling and (b) shows after rolling. The diameter of the resin ball is ideally 10 μm or less, preferably 1 μm. For example, 0.5 to 5 μm is desirable. Even if the amount is several percent by volume, it is effective.
In this specification, the terms “metal” and “solder” are used in two terms, “particle” and “ball”. If it is strongly distinguished, “particle” is used in a slightly broad sense including “ball”.
[0022]
Next, the case where Al is used as an example of another metal ball will be described.
[0023]
High melting point metals are generally hard, but there is pure Al as a soft metal at low cost. Pure Al (99.99%) is soft (Hv17), but usually hard to get wet with Sn. Therefore, it is preferable to perform Ni—Au plating, Ni—Sn plating, or the like. The Al surface may be thinly coated with Au by sputtering or the like. Making fine particles of soft pure Al is difficult due to safety problems such as explosions, but it is manufactured in an inert atmosphere, and Ni-Au plating is immediately applied to the surface, so that Al does not contact with the atmosphere Safety can be ensured. In addition, even if some Al oxide forms an oxide film, since it can be removed by plating, there is no problem. Furthermore, since the Al oxide film is easily broken even in the rolling process, a new surface of Al is formed, so that the connection is not affected so much. The metallization on the Al surface is not limited to these, and it is necessary to secure the bonding strength at a high temperature after the solder foil is produced and the solder is wetted with Cu, Ni or the like. For this reason, it is necessary to connect between the Al particles and the Ni-plated Cu plate and between the Al particles and the Ni plating of the Si chip by forming the Sn compound of the metallization on the Al particles and Ni.
[0024]
In obtaining the composite ball lump, Al is easily diffused at a high temperature in a vacuum, so that a compound with Al can be formed by using Sn solder containing Ag. In addition to Ag, a small amount of Zn, Cu, Ni, Sb or the like may be put into Sn so that it can easily react with Al, and it may be used as a solder for Al connection. When a small amount of Ag, Zn, Cu, Ni, Sb, or the like is added to Sn, metallization on the Al surface is unnecessary, and the cost advantage is great.
[0025]
When the Al surface is completely wetted, it can be mottled. This is related to the area of metallization, and depends on whether the metallization is formed mottled or entirely. If stress is applied if it is mottled, it becomes easy to deform because the constraint becomes small at the time of deformation, and the part that is not wet absorbs energy as friction loss, so it becomes a material with excellent deformability . Of course, the bonding strength is secured.
[0026]
Instead of Al in the form of a ball, it is also possible to use a 20-40 μm Al wire plated with Sn, Ni—Sn, Au, etc. and cut into a granular or rod shape. Ball-like Al particles can be produced in large quantities at low cost by the atomizing method in nitrogen.
[0027]
Next, the Au ball will be described.
[0028]
In obtaining a composite ball lump, the Sn-based solder is easily wetted with respect to the Au ball, so there is no need for metallization for a short time connection. However, when the soldering time is long, Sn diffuses remarkably, and there remains anxiety about the formation of a brittle Au—Sn compound. For this reason, in order to obtain a soft structure, In plating with a small amount of Au diffusion is also effective, and Ni, Ni—Au or the like may be used as a barrier. By making the barrier layer as thin as possible, the Au ball is easily deformed. Other configurations may be used as long as the metallized configuration can suppress the growth of the alloy layer with Au. Diffusion can be suppressed by suppressing the temperature until rolling. When bonding by die bonding in a short time, since the alloy layer generated at the grain boundary is thin, the effect of the flexibility of Au can be greatly expected without providing a barrier. A combination of Au balls and In solder balls is also possible.
[0029]
Next, the Ag ball will be described.
[0030]
The Ag balls are the same as the Cu balls, but the mechanical properties of the Ag3Sn compound are not bad, so it is possible to connect the Ag particles with the compound by a normal process. It can also be used mixed with Cu or the like.
[0031]
Next, the case where an alloy material is used as the metal ball will be described.
[0032]
Typical examples of the alloy system include Zn-Al system and Au-Sn system. The melting point of Zn-Al solder is mainly in the range of 330 to 370 ° C, and it is in a temperature range suitable for hierarchical connection with Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu solder. Can be used for metal balls. Typical examples of Zn-Al system include Zn-Al-Mg, Zn-Al-Mg-Ga, Zn-Al-Ge, Zn-Al-Mg-Ge, and Sn, In, Ag, Cu, Au Including those containing at least one of Ni and the like.
[0033]
However, it has been pointed out that Zn-Al may be cracked in the Si chip when bonded to Si due to the fact that it is highly oxidized and the rigidity of the solder is high (Shimizu et al .: “Pb-free solder for die attach” Zn-Ai-Mg-Ga alloy "Mate99, 1999-2), if simply used as a metal ball of a composite ball lump, these problems must be solved.
[0034]
Therefore, since it is necessary to clear these issues, in order to reduce the rigidity of the solder, heat-resistant plastic balls with Ni-solder plating or Au plating are uniformly dispersed together with Sn balls and Zn-Al balls, The Young's modulus was reduced. When 10-50% of the Sn ball is mixed, molten Sn enters between the Zn-Al solder. In this case, Zn-Al balls are partly joined together, but the other part is mainly precipitated low-temperature soft Sn-Zn phase and undissolved Sn. The deformation is shared by the Sn, Sn-Zn phase and plastic ball rubber.
[0035]
When actually connecting using this solder foil, for example, even when die bonding is performed, deformation can be absorbed by Sn by leaving a part of the Sn layer after that. It can be expected that the rigidity is further relaxed by the combined action of the plastic ball and the Sn layer. In this case as well, since the solidus temperature of the Zn—Al solder is secured at 280 ° C. or higher, there is no problem in strength at high temperatures.
[0036]
It is desirable that plastic balls have a smaller diameter than Zn-Al balls and are uniformly dispersed. If a plastic ball of 1 μm level that has soft elasticity at the time of deformation is deformed, the effects of thermal shock relaxation and mechanical shock relaxation are great. There are commercially available heat-resistant plastic balls. Since plastic balls are almost uniformly inserted between the balls of Zn-Al solder, this dispersion will not be greatly affected by melting in a short time during connection. Since this heat-resistant resin has a thermal decomposition temperature of about 300 ° C., a heat-resistant material is desirable, but there is no problem in the case of a die bond with a short time.
[0037]
As described above, when hot-pressing in vacuum, plastic flow is achieved by uniformly compressing Sn on a Sn-plated plastic ball at a temperature at which Sn does not melt (melting point of Sn: 232 ° C.). At this time, the Zn-Al ball does not deform much. The space is uniformly filled with plastic balls, Sn, etc. by uniform compression, and rolled to about 150 μm to produce a solder foil. When used in die bonding, it can be wound in a roll and supplied in a continuous process.
[0038]
Since Zn-Al is easily oxidized, it is desirable to apply Cu-substituted Sn plating to the surface in consideration of storage. For example, Sn and Cu are dissolved in a Zn-Al solder at the time of die bonding. The presence of Sn on the surface facilitates connection to, for example, Ni—Au plating on a Cu electrode. The Si chip side can be similarly easily joined to, for example, Ti—Ni—Au metallization. At high temperatures of 200 ° C or higher, the growth rate of the alloy layer of Ni and Sn (Ni3Sn4) is higher than that of Cu-Sn. .
[0039]
In some cases, a composite ball lump may be composed of a Zn-Al solder ball and a plastic ball.
[0040]
In addition, it is possible to make a hierarchical connection in which a large amount of Sn and In is added to the Zn—Al solder to a level at which the solidus temperature is as high as 280 ° C. When a large amount of Sn, In, etc. is added, a low phase such as a Zn-Sn eutectic is partially generated, but the bonding strength is borne by the Zn-Al solid phase which is the skeleton. Therefore, there is no problem in strength at high temperatures.
[0041]
By the way, when Sn plating substituted with Cu is applied to Zn-Al solder, by increasing the temperature above the liquidus temperature of Zn-Al solder, Sn easily wets and spreads while thin Cu dissolves. Dissolves in Zn-Al solder. When Sn is large (5% or more), it cannot be dissolved in Zn—Al, and a low temperature Sn—Zn phase is precipitated at the grain boundary. By intentionally dispersing and precipitating a large number of Sn phases, the deformation can be shared by the Sn—Zn phase and the bonding strength can be shared by the Zn—Al solid phase. Therefore, by applying Sn plating to a Zn—Al solder ball and intentionally leaving an Sn phase that cannot be dissolved in the ball, deformation can be absorbed by the Sn layer and the rigidity of Zn—Al can be reduced. That is, the rigidity of the solder at the connected portion can be relaxed, and connection failures are reduced.
[0042]
FIG. 3 shows an example in which the Si chip 8 is die-bonded to the W—Cu plating metallization (or Ni plating) 14 on the Al 2 O 3 substrate 13 using the solder foil 11 described above. A typical example of the solder foil 11 is a combination in which the metal ball is Cu and the solder is Sn. Cu is relatively soft, reacts actively with Sn, and the mechanical properties of the intermetallic compound (Cu6Sn5) are excellent. In the unlikely event that compound growth is remarkable and its adverse effects appear, it is possible to suppress the alloy layer growth rate by adding a small amount of Cu or the like into Sn. Alternatively, it is possible to suppress the growth of the alloy layer by applying a thin Ni plating such as Ni or Ni—Au on Cu. Here, it is important to securely connect the Cu balls with an intermetallic compound at the time of soldering for a short time, and since it is desired to activate the reaction, excessive growth does not become a problem. Rather, it is more important to improve the wettability and wettability of Sn in the connection between Sn and the chip and Sn and the substrate. For this reason, the effect of improving the fluidity by adding a small amount of Cu and Bi to Sn and improving the wettability by reducing the surface tension can be expected. On the other hand, in order to improve the strength with the interface, the effect of adding trace amounts of Ni, Ag, Zn, etc. can be expected. In order to improve the melting point of Sn, Sn-Sb (5 to 10%) is used instead of Sn, so that the Sb concentration in the solder increases due to the formation of Cu-Sn compounds and Ni-Sn compounds. The melting point of can be improved.
[0043]
As another representative example, in the case of a pure Al ball that is softer than Cu, the deformability with respect to the temperature cycle is excellent. The problem is the reaction between the Al ball, the chip, and the metallization of the substrate. By applying Ni plating or Ni-Au flash plating to the Al surface, the bonding strength by Sn is similarly secured between Al balls, between Al balls and Ni-plated chips, and between Ni-plated substrates. The intermetallic compound between Ni and Sn is usually Ni3Sn4, and since it is faster than the growth rate of Cu-Sn above 200 ° C, there is no worry of lack of reaction. An alloy layer in which (NiCu) 3Sn4 is mixed may be formed in a part where Cu and Ni are present at the same time. By adding a small amount of Ag, Ni, Zn, Ti or the like into Sn so that the solder can directly react with the Al balls, connection between the Al balls can be made depending on the connection conditions.
[0044]
A similar approach is possible for Au balls. Since Au is flexible and can easily form a compound with Sn, it has a powerful composition except for cost. However, since the compound in a system with a large amount of Sn has a low melting point, in order to have a melting point of 280 ° C. or higher, it is necessary to use AuSn and AuSn 2 compounds having a composition ratio of Sn of 55% or less. For this reason, it is necessary to increase the soldering temperature and to form a structure with less Sn in the joint. Therefore, by providing, for example, Cr-Ni-Sn on the Si chip metallization, Au-Sn , AuSn can be easily formed. In consideration of cost reduction etc., it is possible to mix Cu, Al, Ag balls, etc. with Au balls.
[0045]
Similarly, Ag balls are promising candidates, and the formation of a high melting point Ag3Sn compound enables connection that does not melt even at 280 ° C.
[0046]
Next, an application example to a hard Zn-Al ball having a low melting point will be described. Zn-Al system generally has a melting point and brittleness, Al generally settles in the range of 3 to 5%, and Mg, Ge, Ga, etc. are added to further lower the melting point, and Sn and In are added mainly to form a solid phase. Reduce line temperature. In order to ensure wettability and strength, Cu, Ag, Ni, or the like may be added. Their melting points are on the level of 280-360 ° C. For example, in the case of Zn-4Al-2Mg-1Ag-10Sn, when Sn balls are mixed as solder balls, even if both are melted, Sn is only partly dissolved in the Zn-Al ball, and most of the rest Remains Sn. Further, in this case, the same effect can be expected because extra Sn, In and the like that cannot be dissolved in the solder can be well dispersed in the form of particles and can be isolated and dispersed in the solder. Thick Sn plating on Zn-Al balls is one solution to isolate and disperse Sn.
[0047]
In the case of a Zn-Al ball, since the whole is melted during soldering, the surface shape due to the action of surface tension tends to become a natural shape. In addition, since Zn-Al system undergoes severe surface oxidation, it is necessary to devise a technique that does not oxidize, including the preheating process. When used as a foil, Cu (0 to 0.2 μm) -Sn (1 μm) plating is applied to the surface to provide an antioxidant effect. In addition, Sn serves as a buffer material against deformation during temperature cycling due to the presence of Sn between Zn-Al balls, but if that is still insufficient, fine Sn-plated plastic ball rubber is dispersed. By mixing, the deformability and impact resistance can be further improved, the Young's modulus can be lowered, and the heat fatigue resistance can also be improved.
[0048]
Similarly, there are Au—Sn and the like as an alloy system that is hard and has a low melting point, but the same measures can be taken.
[0049]
The Al2O3 substrate 13 used is formed with an electrode subjected to W (sintered) -Cu plating (3 μm) 38 (or W-Ni plating). Other ceramic substrates include mullite, glass ceramic, and ALN. If a flux is used at the time of connection, or if it can be used in an inert atmosphere or a reducing atmosphere from the preheating stage, the Cu electrode may be used.
[0050]
The size of the Si chip 8 used is 5 mm □, and the size of the solder foil 11 is 4 mm □ × t (thickness) 0.15, but there is no restriction on the chip size, and a large chip can be used.
The compound layer ensures high-temperature strength against secondary reflow in the subsequent process, contributes to the Sn-based solder mainly for the subsequent thermal fatigue, and is partially elastic in places where stress is severe. The jointed part exerts the maximum effect, and the life is improved compared to the case where there is no elastic joint (although the part that cannot be tolerated is broken). Therefore, there is no image strongly constrained by the compound layer, and a part of the compound may be formed in a network form in the solder. By forming a compound at the bonding interface at the periphery of the chip where large strain and stress are applied, destruction is unlikely to occur due to strong connection. On the other hand, if there is little network coupling at the center of the solder foil at the same peripheral position, the stress and strain applied to the outermost peripheral portion are applied to Sn at the center of the solder foil, and the stress applied to the upper and lower interface portions can be alleviated.
[0051]
First, the Al 2 O 3 substrate 13 is fixed to the gantry by vacuum suction, and the Si chip 8 is also held by the resistance heating tool 7 serving as an attachment jig by the vacuum suction 9. Then, the Si heater 8 is brought into contact with the Al2O3 substrate 13 through the solder foil 11 by lowering the resistance heating tool 7 and held for 5 seconds by heating (max 380 ° C.) and pressurization (initially 2 kgf). The temperature measuring thermocouple 16 is embedded near the tool tip so that the temperature can be controlled.
[0052]
Further, when the temperature of the solder foil 11 reaches its melting point, Sn of the solder foil is instantaneously melted and pressure is applied to the bonding between the metal balls to start melting. Therefore, in order to prevent the metal ball joint from collapsing, when the set temperature is reached, the resistance heating tool 7 starts from the position when the solder foil 11 is pressed, and from that position, the solder foil thickness is about 10%. (max 20%) or less, and the amount of solder protruding from the chip is controlled. Since the thickness of the solder foil affects the thermal fatigue life, it is generally set to about 80 to 150 μm. The amount of crushing is controlled by the solder thickness and the size of the solder foil relative to the chip size.
However, since this method contains half Cu and is connected in a network form, it is excellent in heat conduction. Therefore, even if it is 200 to 250 μm, it is thermally superior to the conventional one.
[0053]
The preheating 15 of the Al2O3 substrate 13 was about 100 ° C. Since rapid temperature rise and fall places great stress on the joint, preheating is also important in terms of mitigating thermal shock.
[0054]
In the case of die bonding using a resistance heating body, a mechanism is used in which nitrogen 10 is locally blown from the surroundings in order to prevent oxidation of the solder foil 11 during connection. Also, nitrogen 10 may be blown around the resistance heating tool 7 that adsorbs the Si chip 8 so that the bonded portion is always kept at an oxygen purity of 50 to 100 ppm.
[0055]
With this solder foil, die bonds such as Si chips, power modules, etc. can be joined at about 270 ° C. in an inert atmosphere furnace such as a hydrogen furnace or nitrogen. In the case of using a furnace, the maximum temperature can be 260 ° C to 350 ° C in the case of Sn, but it is necessary to select the conditions in consideration of the formation state of the compound.
[0056]
FIG. 4 shows a cross-sectional model of a typical joint portion die-bonded by a resistance heater and die-bonded by an inert atmosphere furnace such as a hydrogen furnace or nitrogen. The upper surface of the die-bonded chip is connected to the terminal of the substrate by wire bonding or the like, and the chip is sealed with a cap or sealed with resin, and further, small chip components are connected around the substrate. (In this case, it is also possible to connect the foil suitable for the terminal, which is temporarily attached to the electrode of the chip component, etc., to the substrate, or to connect the thermocompression bonded at the same time in the reflow furnace), Modules are completed by taking external connection terminals (usually joined with solder such as Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu) from the back side of the board.
[0057]
Two Cu balls, metallization 44 on the Cu ball and the chip side (for example, Cr—Ni—Au; Au is very thin, so the actual formation of an alloy layer between Cu and Sn—Ni), metallization on the Cu ball and the substrate side 42 (For example, Ni plating on an Ag—Pd conductor; formation of an alloy layer between Cu—Sn—Ni) means that an alloy layer is firmly formed and a connected state is secured. There are various combinations of metallization on the chip side, but most of Cu or Ni reacts with solder Sn. Au may be used for the surface layer mainly to prevent oxidation, but it dissolves in Sn at a level of 0.1 μm or less and does not participate in the formation of the alloy layer. On the other hand, there are various bases on the substrate side as well, but the reaction layer with Sn is Ni or Cu like the chip. Special cases include thick film conductors such as Ag, Ag-Pt, Ag-Pd, and Au-Pd. In power die bonds, voids are considered to be the most important factor because there is a significant effect on the characteristics of voids in terms of heat conduction. In the case of solder paste, the amount of gas is large due to flux reaction, solvent volatilization, etc., and therefore, it is applied to a joint structure in which gas easily escapes, for example, a long and narrow terminal, a die bond of a small Si chip, and the like. Therefore, in die bonding of medium and large Si chips, it is common to use die bonding with a resistance heating body using a solder foil without flux in an inert atmosphere, or die bonding with an inert atmosphere furnace such as a hydrogen furnace or nitrogen. is there. In addition, the voids incorporated in the solder foil made according to the present invention tend to increase as the Cu particle size decreases, but because of the fine dispersion to the particle size or less on the structure, there is no image of large voids so far, Expected to have little impact on properties. When Cu particles and Sn particles having a particle diameter of 3 to 8 μm were used, the solder filling ratio in the foil was about 80% (void ratio 20%). When this foil is sandwiched between Sn-plated Cu plates and pressure bonded with a die bonder in a nitrogen atmosphere, a Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound is firmly formed between the Cu balls and the Cu plate, and the extra Sn is microscopic inside the solder. It was found that a good joint can be obtained by being absorbed by the space (void). The cross-sectional observation result also confirmed that the filling rate after joining was improved as compared with the filling rate of the foil before joining. From this, it has been found that the problem of voids, which has been a problem in the past, is not so much a problem in this method. If the Cu particle diameter is refined to 3 μm level or less, the reaction with Sn is active when the soldering temperature is connected at a high temperature of 300 ° C or higher, or the holding time at a high temperature is long. The shape of the material may collapse and become a Cu—Sn compound linkage, but the properties such as high temperature resistance remain unchanged. In particular, when it is desired to suppress the reaction, chemical Ni / Au plating (a compound is difficult to be formed thick even at high temperatures) or the like, or Ag particles or the like can be used. When the Cu particles are coarse at the 30 μm level, the void ratio is 3% or less, and since it is a dispersed void, it can be said that the void does not affect the characteristics.
[0058]
By the way, the solder foil produced in the process shown in the above embodiment can be continuously supplied by winding it on a reel including the cutting process. Therefore, when using it for the sealing part of a part which requires a temperature hierarchy, and the connection of a terminal connection part, what was match | combined with the shape by punching processing, laser processing, etc. can be used. And the sealing part and the terminal connection part of the component can be connected without flux by heating and pressurizing in a nitrogen atmosphere with a pulse-type pressurizing heat tool. In order to prevent oxidation during preheating and ensure wettability, a Sn-plated solder foil is desirable. Connection of components with a small pitch and a small number of terminals is easy and easy, such as mounting of solder foil, positioning of component terminals, and pressure connection with resistance heating electrodes using pulse current.
[0059]
FIG. 5 (a) shows the above-described solder foil 39 as shown in FIG. 5 (c) placed between the chip 8 and the relay substrate 36 by a resistance heating element by pulse heating in a nitrogen atmosphere without using a flux. After die bonding, a wire bond 35 of Au wire connects the terminal on the chip and the terminal on the relay substrate 36, and a foil is placed between the Ni-plated Al cap 23 and the relay substrate 36 in a nitrogen atmosphere. It is a cross section of a BGA and CSP type chip carrier that is sealed without flux with a resistance heating element. The solder foil can also be temporarily bonded to the object to be joined. Note that the relay substrate 36 secures an electrical connection between the upper and lower sides, that is, an electrical connection between the chip 8 and the external connection terminals by a through hole (not shown). This structure is a typical example of a normal module structure, and although not shown, chip parts such as resistors and capacitors may be mounted on the relay substrate 36. In the case of a high-power chip, it is preferable to use an AlN relay substrate that is excellent in thermal conductivity from the efficiency of heat dissipation. The solder composition of the external connection terminals of this module is Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu. When the terminal pitch is wide, it is supplied by a ball, and when the pitch is narrow, it is formed by a paste. In some cases, Cu terminals or Ni-Au plated terminals remain. The module is then mounted on a printed circuit board and Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder (melting point: 217-221 ° C) paste is reflow-connected at a maximum of 240 ° C at the same time as other components. Since the bonding of the solder foil itself is secured at the temperature, it can be connected to the printed circuit board with high reliability. That is, the connection in module mounting and the connection on the printed circuit board can realize a temperature hierarchy connection. Although the form of the external connection terminal is various, in any case, by using the solder foil, the temperature hierarchy connection can be realized for the connection between the external connection terminal and the printed circuit board. In this structure, the semiconductor chip is die-bonded on the substrate with solder foil, the terminal of the semiconductor chip and the terminal on the substrate are connected by wire bonding, and the solder ball that becomes the external connection terminal is formed on the back surface of the substrate Needless to say, the present invention can also be applied to a so-called BGA type semiconductor device. In this case, a resin mold is applied to the chip mounting surface. In addition, in order to improve the wettability of the outer peripheral part of a connection part, a good joint can be formed by reflowing in a nitrogen furnace or a hydrogen furnace after connecting with a resistance heating body by pulse heating.
[0060]
FIG. 5 (b) shows an example in which the Al fin 23 plated with Ni in a nitrogen atmosphere in the structure shown in FIG. 5 (a) is placed on a relay substrate 43 and sealed with a resistance heating element in a fluxless manner. It is.
[0061]
5 (b) is a solder foil 24 made of Cu balls and Sn balls and cut by punching. FIG. 5 (b) is a resistance pressurizing body 41 by pulse heating in a nitrogen atmosphere. This is a cross section of a model in which a Ni-plated Al fin 23 is heated and sealed to a terminal portion (Ni-Au flash 42) on a relay substrate by BB 'cross section in the figure. After the connection in the right state in FIG. 5B, the shape of the joint 24 in FIG. 5A is obtained. The solder foil shown in FIG. 5C was also used as described above.
[0062]
A fluxless reflow connection in a reducing atmosphere furnace such as hydrogen is also possible. Also, in the case of a rosin-based flux that can ensure long-term insulation, there is no problem of corrosion, so a cleaning-less reflow connection can be used depending on the product.
[0063]
By the way, when using a high melting point metal ball, the problem of reflow is to make a state where the solder foil and the side to be connected are in contact with each other in order to facilitate diffusion connection on both sides of the solder foil. It is preferable to press and contact. Therefore, it is preferable to employ a process having a temporary attaching step or a pressurizing step. For example, it is preferable to fix and supply the lead and the electrode part of the component by pressure contact or the like in advance. In the case of Zn-Al type, all are soluble, so there is no concern.
[0064]
FIG. 6 shows an example applied to power module connection. In many cases, the Si chip 8 is intended for dimensions of 10 mm □ level. For this reason, soft Pb-rich high-temperature solder has been used in the past. When it becomes Pb-free, there are Sn-3.5Ag (221 ° C), Sn-0.7Cu (227 ° C) or Sn-5Sb (235 ° C). Considering that there is a problem of environmental load on Sb, there is no actual situation other than Sn-3.5Ag and Sn-0.7Cu. Since Zn-Al is hard, there is a high possibility of causing Si chip cracking.
[0065]
The solder in this case has a history of using the Pb-5Sn system because it cannot generate high reliability even with conventional Sn-5Sb or the like because of high heat generation rather than a high-temperature solder for hierarchical connection. There is no Pb-free soft solder to replace high Pb solder, so this is an alternative. The required specification shows the degree to which the condition of reaching the 230 ° C level rarely occurs in a car. Furthermore, it is required to withstand reflow at 260 ° C. This composite solder melts Sn when reflowed at 260 ° C, but intermetallic compounds are connected by a network, so that strength at high temperatures is secured. In cars where there is an opportunity to be exposed to high temperatures of 220 ° C, Sn- (5-7)% Sb solder (melting point: 236-243 ° C) balls are used as Sn solder to prevent instantaneous partial melting at high temperatures. By doing so, the reaction between Sn and Cu balls, the reaction between Sn and the substrate terminal (Cu, Ni), the Sb concentration becomes 10% or more, and the lower limit temperature is raised to the 245 ° C level above Sn (232 ° C) be able to. For this reason, there is no worry of partial melting even at 220 ° C. The shear strength of this method at 280 ° C is 1N / mm2 (0.1kgf / mm2) The above is secured.
On the other hand, Sn—Ag—Cu based solder, unlike Sn—Pb eutectic, is said to have an adverse effect on elements, components, etc. due to its high strength, high rigidity and poor deformability. For this reason, by using flexible Sn-In, Sn-Cu-In, Sn- (0-1) Ag-Cu, Sn- (0-1) Ag-Cu-In solders, etc. Even if the melting point of the solder is slightly lowered to the 200 ° C. level, the solder itself can cope with the deformation, so that it can be expected to be applied as a hierarchical solder for mounting a portable device or the like that requires impact resistance. Of course, the strength required for secondary soldering ensures high-temperature strength by connecting the compound with Cu, which has developed into a network, especially at the outermost periphery of chips, components, etc. where the maximum stress or strain is applied. In this part, it is desirable to form a network that forms a compound with the Cu ball to prevent breakage near the interface and break inside the solder.
[0066]
Therefore, Cu ball and Sn ball solder foils are used here. 10-30μm soft Cu balls and 10-30μm Sn balls are mixed in a weight ratio of about 1: 1, Sn is plastically flowed between Cu balls in vacuum or in a reducing atmosphere, and further rolled to solder foil Is made. Alternatively, 3 to 8 μm soft Cu balls and 3 to 8 μm Sn balls are mixed at a weight ratio of about 1: 1, and Sn is plastically flowed between the Cu balls in a vacuum or reducing atmosphere, and further rolled. A solder foil may be produced. This foil is cut to the required dimensions, between the Cu lead 51 plated with Ni and the Si chip, between the Si chip 8 and the Cu disk plate (or Mo disk plate) 48 with Ni plating 46, and the Cu disk plate. The solder foil is mounted between the alumina insulating substrate 50 provided with Ni plating 49 on 48 and W metallization, and between the alumina insulating substrate 50 and the Cu base plate 49 provided with electric Ni plating 46, 280 Reflow connection was performed at once in a hydrogen furnace at ℃. This allows Cu between Cu balls, between Cu balls and Cu leads, between Cu balls and chips, between Cu balls and Ni-plated Cu plates, between Cu balls and Ni-plated alumina insulating substrates, between Cu balls and Ni-plated Cu bases, etc. And Ni intermetallic compound. The connected parts are already connected with a high-temperature resistant intermetallic compound (Cu6Sn5 for Cu and Ni3Sn4 for Ni), so the strength is maintained at 260 ° C (260 ° C to 280 ° C is acceptable). There is no problem in the reflow of the post process. Even if this joint was subjected to a temperature cycle test and a power cycle test, it was confirmed that the joint had a life equivalent to that of the conventional high Pb-containing solder.
[0067]
Furthermore, by dispersing the Sn-plated plastic ball rubber, the thermal shock resistance can be further improved by lowering the Young's modulus, and a larger Si chip can be joined. Note that mounting is also possible by a method in which nitrogen is blown with a pulse heating type die bonder and pressure bonding is performed at a maximum of 350 ° C. for 5 seconds (or 5 to 10 seconds). In addition, it is possible to ensure the wetness of the outer peripheral part and ensure the connection of the bonding interface by tacking with the pulse heating method, ensuring contact at the interface, and then reflowing in a hydrogen furnace all at once. . In addition, since it is desirable to form a smooth fillet around the chip, it is possible to provide a layer of only Sn on the outer periphery of the solder foil.
[0068]
Instead of Cu balls, Zn-Al (Zn-Al-Mg, Zn-Al-Ge, Zn-Al-Mg-Ge, Zn-Al-Mg-Ga, etc.) solder balls such as Sn, In, Furthermore, as a result of using a rolled foil in which Sn-plated plastic ball rubber is dispersed and mixed, temperature cycle resistance and impact resistance can be similarly reduced, and high reliability can be ensured. Zn-Al solder alone is hard (about Hv120-160) and has high rigidity, so there is a risk that large Si chips will be easily destroyed. Therefore, the soft low-temperature Sn layer and In layer exist around the ball, and the rubber is dispersed around the ball. Can be improved.
[0069]
In addition, by mixing Ni-plated or Ni-Au-plated particles into low thermal expansion fillers (SiO2, AlN, Invar, etc.), the thermal expansion coefficient approaches that of Si, etc., and the stress that acts is reduced, and a longer life can be expected. .
[0070]
FIG. 7 shows an example in which a high frequency RF (Radio Frequency) module used for signal processing used in a cellular phone or the like is mounted on a printed circuit board.
[0071]
This type of configuration is generally a method in which the back surface of an element is die-bonded to a relay substrate having excellent thermal conductivity, and the wire is bonded to a terminal portion of the relay substrate. There are many examples in which several chips and chip parts such as R, C, etc. are arranged around them to form an MCM (multi-chip module). Conventional HICs (Hybrid ICs), power MOSICs, etc. are representative examples. Si thin film substrate as module substrate material, AlN substrate with low thermal expansion coefficient and high thermal conductivity, glass ceramic substrate with low thermal expansion coefficient, Al2O3 substrate with thermal expansion coefficient close to GaAs, metal core such as Invar with high heat resistance and improved thermal conductivity There are organic substrates.
[0072]
FIG. 7A shows an example in which the Si chip 8 is mounted on the Si module substrate 29. On the Si module substrate 29, R, C, etc. can be formed as a thin film, so that higher-density mounting is possible, and only the Si chip 8 is mainly flip-chip mounted. Mounting on the printed circuit board 22 is performed via a soft Cu-based lead 20 of the QFP-LSI type. The connection between the lead 20 and the Si substrate 29 is performed by pressurizing and heating using the solder foil 17 cut in this proposal. Thereafter, protection and reinforcement are finally performed with a soft resin 19 such as silicone. The solder bump 18 of the Si chip is composed of Sn-3Ag (melting point: 221 ° C.) and connected to the relay substrate 29. The printed circuit board 22 is connected by Sn-Ag-Cu Pb-free solder 21. Even if the solder bump 18 is remelted during reflow of the Sn-Ag-Cu-based Pb-free solder 21, it hardly changes due to the weight of the Si chip 8 when mounted on the printed circuit board 22, and the connection of Si-Si Therefore, there is no stress burden and there is no problem in reliability. After the mounting on the printed circuit board 22 is finished, it is possible to coat the Si chip 8 with a silicon gel 12 or the like for protection.
[0073]
As another method, if the solder bumps 18 of the Si chip 8 are changed to Au ball bumps and Sn plating is applied to the terminals formed on the relay substrate 29, Au-Sn bonding can be obtained by thermocompression bonding. It does not melt at a reflow temperature of 250 ° C. in mounting on the substrate 22, and therefore, a temperature hierarchy connection is possible and the joint can sufficiently withstand reflow.
[0074]
As described above, the connection by the solder foil 17 is maintained by the intermetallic compound formed between the metal balls such as Cu, and ensures the strength even at the reflow temperature of 250 ° C. when mounted on the printed circuit board 22. I can do it. This makes it possible to realize a lead-free connection with a temperature hierarchy, which has been a major issue until now.
[0075]
When a thick film substrate such as an AlN substrate, a glass ceramic substrate, or an Al2O3 substrate is used in place of the Si substrate, mounting of chip parts such as R and C is necessary for making a functional element. On the other hand, there is a method of forming R and C by laser trimming with a thick film paste. In the case of R and C by thick film paste, the same mounting method as that of the Si substrate is possible.
[0076]
FIG. 7B shows a case where a module using an Al 2 O 3 module substrate 29 having excellent thermal conductivity and mechanical properties is insulated and sealed in a case of an Al fin 23 for the GaAs chip 8. Since GaAs and Al2O3 have similar thermal expansion coefficients, flip chip mounting has no problem in reliability. For terminal connection of these chip components, if the terminal area is □ 0.6mm or more, solder with a solder thickness t: 0.05 to 0.10 foil and a small number of terminals, temporarily attached to the chip component, or temporarily to the terminal on the board side In addition, it is possible to individually connect with a resistance heating body by pressure connection in a nitrogen atmosphere, or by reflow in a reducing atmosphere or an inert atmosphere. It is also possible to use a foil having a solder thickness t; 0.15 to 0.25. Although not shown here for high output, a chip mounting method using the foil of the present proposal (chip back surface 8), die bonding, and wire bonding of terminals is general.
[0077]
In the case of Al fin connection, foil having a shape surrounding the periphery of the fin is used, and pressure connection is made with a resistance heating body in a nitrogen atmosphere. In FIG. 7C, the left side is an example of terminal connection, and the right side is an example of an Al fin 23, both of which are joined by sandwiching the solder foil 27 between the terminal 28 of the module substrate and the terminal of the fin connection portion. At this time, the solder foil is preferably temporarily attached to either the substrate or the fin. In the case of Al, the terminal portion is plated with Ni or the like.
[0078]
FIG. 7 (d) shows a setup model to be mounted on a C organic substrate 32 such as Invar. The heat generating chip can be directly mounted with a GaAs chip by using an organic substrate such as a metal core polyimide having low thermal expansion and excellent heat resistance, or a build-up substrate corresponding to high-density mounting. In the case of a high heat generating chip, a dummy terminal can be provided to directly conduct heat to the metal.
[0079]
In addition, although the RF module was taken up as an example to the element of this proposal, SAW (surface acoustic wave) element structure used as a band pass filter for various mobile communication devices, PA (high frequency power amplifier) module, The present invention can be similarly applied to other modules and elements. The product field includes not only mobile phones and laptop computers, but also module-mounted products that can be used for new home appliances in the age of digitalization.
[0080]
FIG. 8 is a more specific example of application to RF module mounting. 8A is a cross-sectional view of the module, and FIG. 8B is a model of a plan view in which the member 23 is seen through the upper surface. The actual structure is that about □ 2mm chip 8 MOSFET elements that generate radio waves are equipped with multiple face-up connections to support multi-band, and there are high-frequency circuits that efficiently generate radio waves in the periphery. R, C chip parts 52 and the like are formed.
The chip parts are also miniaturized, 1005 and the like are used, and the module has a vertical and horizontal dimension of about 7 × 14 and is mounted with high density. Here, considering only the functional aspect of solder, a model in which one element and one chip component are mounted is shown as a representative. As will be described later, the chip 8 and the chip component 52 are solder-connected to the Al 2 O 3 substrate 13. The terminal of the chip 8 is connected to the electrode of the Al2O3 substrate 13 by wire bonding, and is further electrically connected to the thick film electrode 60 serving as the external connection portion on the back surface of the substrate through the through hole 59 and the thick film conductor 61. . The chip component 52 is solder-connected to the electrode of the substrate 13 and is further electrically connected to the thick film electrode 60 serving as an external connection portion on the back surface of the substrate through the through hole 59 and the wiring 61. Although not shown, the electrode 62 and the through hole 59 of the substrate connected to the chip or chip component are electrically connected by wiring. The member (Al fin) 23 covering the entire module and the Al 2 O 3 substrate 13 are joined by caulking or the like. In addition, this module is mounted by solder connection with a thick film electrode 60 serving as an external connection portion on a printed circuit board or the like, and requires a temperature hierarchy connection.
[0081]
FIG. 9 is a flowchart showing four processes on the premise of die bonding of a Si (or GaAs) chip using a solder foil in the structure shown in FIG. Processes (1) and (2) select a conventional Ag paste from the viewpoint of workability for small R and C chip parts such as 1005, and (1) is flux-free with a clean substrate surface. In this method, die bonding is performed using a solder foil in a nitrogen atmosphere in a short time, wire bonding is performed, and then chip components are connected with Ag paste. (2) is a method of connecting chip parts with Ag paste first, and using a furnace to cure the resin may contaminate the substrate surface and affect wire bonding in the subsequent process. Then, wire bonding will occur. (3) is the same as the soldering foil in order to ensure the same temperature hierarchy on the high temperature side, but for small chip components, it is a mixed paste of metal balls and solder balls that excels in workability. This is a supply method, and can be printed or dispensed. Cleaning after reflow and high-power Si chips are required to be voided as much as possible, so die bonding of solder foil suitable for voiding is performed, and finally wire bonding is performed. If die bonding and wire bonding are performed in the step (3), the flux cleaning step can be omitted. (4) is a method of die-bonding and wire-bonding first, and there are two ways of thinking in the subsequent process. One is a method in which chip components are connected one after another in a nitrogen atmosphere without flux in a subsequent process. This method has the disadvantage of taking time. Therefore, the other is a method in which, in the process shown in (4), the chip parts are temporarily attached to the chip parts by using flux, and then connected together by reflow later. Specifically, after die bonding and wire bonding, for example, a composite solder foil composed of, for example, Cu balls and Sn balls and having a surface plated with Sn plating of about 1 μm (mostly chip parts are pre-plated with Ni. In this case, Sn plating is not necessary), cut to approximately the electrode dimensions, temporarily fixed to the electrode part of the component by pressure heating (a flux may be used), and the temporarily fixed component on the Al2O3 substrate It is preferable that the solder is temporarily fixed to the W-Ni-Au plating electrode portion of the solder so that the solder is plastically deformed by thermocompression bonding. In addition, if you press individual parts one by one with a resistance heating element of pulse in a nitrogen atmosphere at 300 to 350 ° C for 5 seconds, an intermetallic compound is formed and connected, and the strength is high even at a high temperature of 260 ° C or higher. Needless to say, keep it. And if it passes through a reflow furnace (max 270-320 degreeC), the part currently crimped | bonded will be connected by connection of an alloy layer with Cu and Ni. This connection does not need to be perfect, and if it is connected somewhere, even if the strength is small, there is no problem at high temperatures.
[0082]
The small chip component does not reach a temperature as high as the element, but when used for a long period of time, when deterioration of the Ag paste becomes a problem, high reliability can be ensured by using the solder of the component of the present invention. The problem is that it takes time and effort to securely fix small chip components one by one by thermocompression.
[0083]
FIG. 8C shows an example in which the above-described module is soldered to the printed circuit board 22. In addition to the module, an electronic component 52 and a BGA type semiconductor device are soldered. In the semiconductor device, the semiconductor chip 8 is connected to the relay substrate 43 in a face-up state with the above-described solder foil, and the terminals of the semiconductor chip 8 and the terminals of the relay substrate 43 are connected by wire bonding 35. The periphery is sealed with resin 58 by resin 58. A solder ball bump 21 is formed on the lower side of the relay substrate 43. For the solder ball bump 21, for example, Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu solder is used. The solder balls 30 are preferably Sn- (1 to 2.5) Ag-0.5Cu, and for example, Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu may be used. Also, an electronic component is soldered to the back surface, which is an example of so-called double-sided mounting.
[0084]
As a mounting form, first, for example, Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder (melting point: 217 to 221 ° C.) paste is printed on the electrode portion on the printed circuit board. First, in order to perform solder connection from the mounting surface side of the electronic component 54, the electronic component 54 is mounted and reflow connection is performed at a maximum of 240 ° C. Next, double-sided mounting is realized by mounting electronic components, modules, and semiconductor devices and performing reflow connection at max. Thus, it is common to first reflow light parts with heat resistance and then connect heavy parts without heat resistance later. When reflow connection is made later, it is ideal not to remelt the solder on the side to which the connection is made first.
[0085]
As described above, in this case as well, the reflow temperature at the time of mounting on the printed circuit board ensures the bonding of the solder foil itself used for connection in the module, so the module and the semiconductor device are connected to the printed circuit board with high reliability. I can do it. That is, it is possible to realize a temperature hierarchy connection between the connection in the semiconductor device or module and the connection on the printed circuit board. In addition, although both sides of the printed circuit board are connected by the same solder, even if the solder melts in the reflow connection of the electronic component, module, or semiconductor device in the small component such as 1005 as the electronic component 54 itself Because of its light weight, the surface tension is more effective than gravity and it does not fall. Therefore, when considering the worst case, no intermetallic compound is formed with the terminal of the substrate, and no problem arises even if it is simply joined with Sn. For small parts mounted in a module, a combination of using a solder paste mixed with Cu and Sn is more preferable than a method of temporarily fixing a solder foil mixed with Cu and Sn in consideration of productivity.
[0086]
Next, an application example of a high output chip such as a motor driver IC to a resin package will be described. FIG. 10 (a) is a plan view in which the lead frame 65 and the heat diffusing plate 64 are bonded together, and there are two caulking locations 63. FIG. FIG. 10B is a cross-sectional view of the package, and FIG. 10C is an enlarged view of a part thereof. Heat from the 3 W level heat generating chip 8 is transferred to the header heat diffusion plate (Cu-based low expansion composite material) 64 through the solder 47. The lead material is made of, for example, 42 Alloy type material.
[0087]
FIG. 11 shows a process chart of the package. First, a lead frame and a heat diffusion plate (heat sink) are caulked and joined. Then, the semiconductor chip 8 is die-bonded via solder (foil) 47 onto the heat diffusion plate 64 that has been crimped. The die-bonded semiconductor chip 8 is wire bonded with leads 56 and gold wires 35 as shown in the drawing. Thereafter, resin molding is performed, and after dam 57 is cut, Sn-based solder plating is performed. Then, lead cutting is performed, and the thermal diffusion plate is cut and completed. The electrode on the back surface of the Si chip 8 can be a metallization generally used such as Cr—Ni—Au, Cr—Cu—Au, Ti—Pt—Au, Ti—Ni—Au. Even when there is a large amount of Au, a compound on the Au rich side having a high melting point of Au—Sn may be formed. The die bond of the chip was performed by blowing nitrogen and using a pulse resistance heating body at an initial pressure of 2 kgf and 350 ° C. for 5 seconds. The control of the solder thickness is set when it is 10 μm lower than the initial pressurization position (70 μm film thickness), and it is a system that ensures the film thickness due to the mechanism to improve thermal fatigue resistance. In addition to the above, initial pressurization was performed at 1 kgf and 350 ° C. for 5 to 10 seconds. The control of the solder thickness was the same even when the solder thickness was set 10 μm below the initial pressurization position (150 μm film thickness). Because of the high output chip, it was important to reduce the void ratio, and the target of 5% or less was achieved. Since the solder is contained in a state where Cu balls are uniformly dispersed, it is difficult for structurally large voids to be generated. Even for severe thermal fatigue, Sn and Sn-based solder itself have excellent heat fatigue resistance and excellent deformability. Furthermore, since an intermetallic compound is formed on the network between the Cu particles and between the Cu particles and the electrode, the strength is ensured even at a high temperature of 260 ° C. or higher. If the Cu particles and the like are too strongly bonded (the Cu layer has a large number of alloy layer forming surfaces), they are constrained and the degree of freedom is lost, resulting in strong elastic bonding. Moderate binding exists. In particular, in the peripheral portion of the chip, the conventional solder breaks in the vicinity of the joint interface where the stress is concentrated, and the breakage hardly occurs inside the solder. In this method, it is possible to form a network in which the interface of the joint is less likely to break by reaction with the Cu ball and can be broken inside the solder. After die bonding and wire bonding, resin molding is performed, and the dam 57 is cut, and Sn—Bi, Sn—Ag, Sn—Cu Pb-free solder plating is applied to the leads at 2 to 8 μm. Furthermore, lead cutting is performed, and the heat diffusion plate at an unnecessary portion is cut to complete.
[0088]
FIG. 12 shows an example applied to a general plastic package. The back surface of the Si chip is bonded onto a tab 66 of 42Alloy via a solder foil 67 (conductive paste 67). The element is connected to the lead 56 through the wire bond 35 and molded with the resin 58. Thereafter, the lead is plated with Sn-Bi based on Pb-free. Conventionally, Sn-37Pb eutectic solder with a melting point of 183 ° C could be used for printed circuit board mounting, so reflow connection was possible at a maximum of 220 ° C. When Pb-free is used, reflow connection is performed with Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu (melting point: 217-221 ° C), so the maximum temperature is 240 ° C, and the maximum temperature is about 20 ° C higher. For this reason, when a conventional heat-resistant conductive paste or adhesive is used to connect the Si chip 8 and the tab 66 of the 42 Alloy, the adhesive strength at high temperatures is lowered, and it is expected that the reliability thereafter will be affected. Therefore, by using the solder foil in place of the conductive paste, the strength at a high temperature of max 270 to 350 ° C. is secured, so that hierarchical connection by Pb-free solder is possible. This plastic package application can be applied to all plastic package structures that connect the Si chip and the tab. Structurally, Gull Wing type, Flat type, J-Lead type, Butt-Leed type. There is a Leadless type.
[0089]
FIG. 13 shows an example of a model structure at the previous stage of making a composite solder foil. 3-15μm level Sn-plated Cu or other metal fiber 69 (If forming or rolling at high temperature, surface treatment such as Ni / Au may be applied to suppress reaction between Cu and Sn) Lay the foil mixed with an appropriate blending (about 50%) with a solder ball such as Sn and a metal ball such as Sn-plated Cu on it, and then processed it into a 150 to 250 μm level foil create. In order to further lower the Young's modulus, heat-resistant plastic balls plated with Sn, or Cu / Sn-plated low thermal expansion silica or invar may be added as a part of the metal balls. At the stage of molding and rolling, the soft solder ball enters the gap between the metal ball and the metal fiber to form a sea shape of “sea-island structure”. The metal fiber diameter is not limited to the above 3 to 15 μm, and becomes a nucleus at the center of the foil, and metal balls play a major role at the bonding interface with the object to be bonded. By directing the metal fiber in that direction in continuous rolling or the like, the work becomes easy. Carbon fibers that can be thinned and reduced in expansion instead of metal fibers are plated with Cu (or Cu / solder), and other fibers such as ceramic, glass, invar, Ni / Au, Ni / solder, Cu (Or Cu / solder) plating is also possible.
[0090]
FIG. 13 shows an example in which the metal fibers that form the core of the foil are arranged in a line, but FIG. 14 shows a stable structure in which the metal fibers are arranged in a cross (the angle is free). A mixture of a solder ball such as Sn and a metal ball such as Sn-plated Cu in an appropriate composition (about 50%) is inserted in the gap of the cloth, and the application is possible as in FIG. .
[0091]
FIG. 15 is a cross section of the foil in the case of using the wire net-like fibers 71, and the cross section of the metal net extending in the depth direction is indicated by a cross 70. FIG. 15A shows a foil composed of a wire mesh and solder. There is a limit to making the mesh of the metal mesh finer, the smallest mesh of the current commercial product is 325, the passing particle size is as large as 44 μm, and the wire diameter forming the mesh is thick, so the contact area at the joint interface is large Since it is small (compound formation region), there is a problem in securing strength at high temperatures. Accordingly, FIG. 15 shows a cross section of a foil prepared by filling a gap between the metal meshes 70 and 71 with a solder ball such as Sn and a metal ball 2 such as Sn-plated Cu mixed in an appropriate composition (about 50%). Shown in (b). The solder 72 has a structure that enters the gap. When strength is required at high temperatures, Cu balls are compounded in many cases, emphasizing the formation of compounds at the interface with the joints, and when emphasizing the thermal fatigue of joints, solder is compounded in many cases. Therefore, it is possible to control with emphasis on the thermal fatigue resistance of the solder. In addition, the metal ball to be filled is not limited to the ball, and fibers and the like described later are powerful. The compounding ratio of the metal balls and the solder may also be greatly different depending on the shape of the metal, the contact state, and the like.
[0092]
FIG. 16 shows an appropriate blending (about 50%) of elongated metal fibers 73 that are randomly flattened to make paper, and a framework is formed and solder balls 68 such as Sn and metal balls 2 such as Sn plated Cu are formed on both sides. It is a model in a state filled with the mixture. FIG. 16A is a plan view, and FIG. 16B is a cross-sectional view.
[0093]
FIG. 17 shows a strip metal fiber instead of a metal ball, or a carbon fiber capable of low expansion plated with Cu (or Cu / solder), and other fibers such as ceramic, glass, invar, Ni / Au, Ni / Solder, Cu (or Cu / solder) plated strip fibers, etc. are possible. The amount of solder can be greatly increased by using strip fibers. It is also possible to reinforce the network by compound formation by mixing metal balls in the gap. The metal ball is constrained and becomes a rigid structure, but by dispersing the strip-like fibers in this way, a structure with excellent deformability and elasticity can be expected, and good performance can be obtained during die bonding or thermal fatigue. I think that The length of the strip is preferably 1/10 or less if the thickness of the foil is 200 μm. As an example, it is desirable that the diameter is in the range of 1 to 5 μm and the length is in the range of 5 to 15 μm.
Although the invention made by the present inventor has been specifically described based on the embodiment, the present invention is not limited to the embodiment described above, and various modifications can be made without departing from the scope of the invention. Nor.
The representative aspects disclosed in the above embodiments are as follows.
It is a solder foil formed by rolling a solder material containing metal particles and solder particles. This is a solder foil formed by rolling a solder material containing metal particles having a plating layer such as Sn.
This is a method for producing a solder foil in which a solder material containing metal particles and solder particles is rolled. This is a method for producing a solder foil in which a solder material containing metal particles having a plating layer such as Sn is rolled.
In the solder foil, for example, metal particles are Cu particles, and solder particles are Sn particles.
A solder foil having Cu and Sn formed by applying pressure to solder, where Cu is in a particle state and Sn is in a state of filling between the Cu particles.
When the solder foil is reflowed, at least a part of the surface of the Cu particles is covered with Cu6Sn5.
In the solder foil, Cu particles and Sn after plastic deformation are bonded by a compound containing Cu6Sn5 when the solder foil is reflowed.
It is the said solder foil, Comprising: The particle size of Cu particle | grains is 10-40 micrometers.
It is the said solder foil, Comprising: The particle size of Cu particle | grains is 3-10 micrometers.
The solder foil has a Ni plating or Ni / Au plating layer on the surface of the Cu particles.
It is the said solder foil, Comprising: At least the part which Cu has exposed is plated with Sn.
The solder foil having a thickness of 80 μm to 150 μm.
The solder foil having a thickness of 150 μm to 250 μm.
The solder foil has plastic particles.
The solder foil has other particles having a smaller coefficient of thermal expansion than Cu.
The other particles of the solder foil whose thermal expansion coefficient is smaller than that of the Cu are Invar, silica, alumina, AlN (aluminum nitride), and SiC particles. Invar (alloy) is an alloy of 34% to 36% of Ni (nickel) to Fe (iron), and has a small linear expansion coefficient.
The solder foil further contains In particles.
The solder foil is obtained by mixing Cu particles and Sn particles in a vacuum, in a reducing atmosphere or in an inert atmosphere, and then applying pressure to form a foil.
The solder foil has a rolling rate of 15% to 20%.
The solder foil is formed by rolling a material containing metal fibers and solder particles.
This is a solder foil formed by rolling a solder material containing Cu metal fibers and Sn particles.
It is the said solder foil, Comprising: The metal fiber of this Cu is a strip shape among this solder material.
This is a solder foil formed by rolling a solder material containing particles of any one of Al, Au, and Ag and Sn particles.
This is a solder foil formed by rolling a solder material containing particles of Zn-Al alloy, Au-Sn alloy and Sn.
Also, a metal ball containing a single metal, an alloy, a compound or a mixture thereof wetted by solder and a solder ball containing one or more of Sn and In are mixed, filled in a gap, press-fitted and rolled. It is the solder foil characterized by this.
Also, a metal ball containing a single metal, alloy, compound or mixture thereof wetted by solder and a solder ball containing one or more of Sn and In are mixed and pre-rolled molds that are applied with uniform pressure. It is a solder foil produced by rolling the composite body after being embedded and filled in evenly with no gaps.
In the solder foil described above, the solder contains one or more of Ag, Bi, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pd, Au, Sb and the like in addition to Sn and In.
Further, in the solder foil described above, the metal ball is Cu, Cu alloy, Cu6Sn5 compound, Ag, Ag-Sn compound, Au, Au-Sn compound, Al, Al-Ag compound, Al-Au compound, Zn -Balls containing Al solder or a mixture thereof.
Further, the solder foil described above, Sn plating to the rolled foil or solder composite, or plating containing any one or more of Bi, In, Ag, Au, Cu, Ni, Pd in Sn It has been applied.
Further, in the case of the solder foil described above, when the metal ball containing the single metal, alloy, compound or mixture thereof is not wetted, the surface is plated with Ni, Ni-Au, Cu, Ag, Sn, Au, etc. Or, these composite platings, or further metallized so as to be wetted by solder such as Sn-based plating.
Further, the solder foil described above is a solder foil having a particle size distribution in consideration of close-packing of metal balls containing the single metal, alloy, compound or mixture thereof.
Further, in the solder foil described above, in order to reduce the rigidity of the composite solder, plastic balls having metallized surfaces on which the solder is wet are dispersed.
The solder foil is a particle having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion than a metal including a single metal, an alloy, a compound or a mixture thereof for reducing the thermal expansion coefficient of the composite solder, and wets the solder on the surface. For this purpose, or solder plating such as Sn or In on the metallization for dispersion.
In the solder foil described above, the particles having a low thermal expansion coefficient are Invar, silica, alumina, AlN, SiC, or the like.
Also, in the above-described solder foil, the plastic ball material is a polyimide resin, a heat-resistant epoxy resin, a silicone resin, various polymer beads, modified ones thereof, or a mixture thereof.
Moreover, it is a solder foil of the above-mentioned description, Comprising: It is a strip | belt, a line | wire, a ball | bowl, and lump shape.
Also, the solder foil as described above, wherein metal fibers or copper-plated carbon, glass, ceramic or other fibers are used instead of the metal balls, or the metal balls are dispersed and mixed in the metal fibers Things are used.
Further, in the solder foil described above, a metal fiber or copper-plated carbon, glass, ceramic, or other fiber is stacked on the cloth instead of the metal ball, or the cloth fiber and the metal ball are dispersed. Things are used.
Also, the solder foil described above, wherein the metal balls are replaced with metal fibers or copper-plated carbon, glass, ceramic or other fibers, or the metal balls are dispersed in the mesh It is a thing.
Moreover, it is a solder foil of the said description, Comprising: It is 1-20 micrometers as a diameter of this fiber, Preferably it is 3-15 micrometers.
Also, the solder foil as described above, wherein short metal fibers or copper-plated short fibers such as carbon, glass and ceramic are used instead of the metal balls, or the metal balls are dispersed in the short fibers Is used.
Moreover, it is a solder foil of the said description, Comprising: It is 1-10 micrometers as a diameter of this short fiber, Preferably it is 1-5 micrometers, Aspect ratio (length / diameter): 2-5.
An electronic device having a first electronic device, a second electronic device, and a third electronic device, wherein the first electronic device and the second electronic device are connected by the solder foil, The second electronic device and the third electronic device are connected by a solder different from the first solder.
A semiconductor device comprising a semiconductor chip, a tab on which the semiconductor chip is disposed, and a lead serving as a connection terminal to the outside, wherein the electrode of the semiconductor chip and the lead are connected by wire bonding, The semiconductor chip and the tab are connected by the solder foil.
An electronic device having a first electronic component, a second electronic component, and a third electronic component, wherein the first electronic component and the second electronic component include metal particles and solder particles. A second solder having a melting point different from that of the first solder, wherein the second electronic component and the third electronic component are connected using a first solder which is a solder foil formed by rolling a material containing It is connected using.
An electronic device having a first electronic component, a second electronic component, and a third electronic component, wherein the first electronic component and the second electronic component include metal particles and solder particles. By applying pressure to the solder material, the metal is in the form of particles, and the solder particles are connected using the first solder that fills the space between the metal particles, and the second electrons The component and the third electronic component are connected using a second solder having a melting point different from that of the first solder.
In the electronic device, the solder particles in the first solder are Sn.
An electronic device having a first electronic device, a second electronic device, and a third electronic device, wherein the first electronic device and the second electronic device are metal particles having a Sn plating layer The second electronic component and the third electronic component are connected to each other using a first solder, which is a solder foil formed by rolling a solder material including: a second melting point different from that of the first solder. It is connected using the solder.
An electronic device having a first electronic component, a second electronic component, and a third electronic component, wherein the first electronic component and the second electronic component are metal particles having a Sn plating layer When the pressure is applied to the metal, the metal is in a state of particles, and the Sn is connected by using a first solder that fills the space between the metal particles, and the second electronic component and the first The three electronic components are connected using a second solder having a melting point different from that of the first solder.
In the electronic device, metal particles in the first solder are Cu.
In the electronic device, the metal particles in the first solder are particles of any one of Al, Au, and Ag.
In the electronic device, the melting point of the second solder is lower than the melting point of the metal particles of the first solder.
In the electronic device, when Sn contained in the first solder is melted, the Cu particles react with the Sn, and the Cu particles are bonded by a compound containing Cu6Sn5.
In the electronic device, the metal particles have a diameter of 10 to 40 μm.
In the electronic device, the thickness of the first solder is 80 μm to 150 μm.
In the electronic device, the first solder further includes plastic particles.
In the electronic device, the first solder further includes other particles having a smaller coefficient of thermal expansion than the metal particles.
In the electronic device, the second solder is Sn-Ag-Cu-based lead-free solder.
An electronic device having a first electronic component and a second electronic component, wherein the first electronic component and the second electronic component are connected by a solder connection portion, and the solder connection portion is made of a metal It has an Sn portion filling between the particles and the metal particles.
In the electronic device, the metal particles are bonded by a compound formed of the metal and Sn.
A semiconductor device comprising a semiconductor chip, a tab on which the semiconductor chip is disposed, and a lead serving as a connection terminal to the outside, wherein the electrode of the semiconductor chip and the lead are connected by wire bonding, The semiconductor chip and the tab are connected using a solder foil in which metal particles and solder particles are mixed.
A semiconductor device comprising a semiconductor chip, a tab on which the semiconductor chip is disposed, and a lead serving as a connection terminal to the outside, wherein the electrode of the semiconductor chip and the lead are connected by wire bonding, The semiconductor chip and the tab have metal particles and solder particles. By applying pressure to the solder material, the metal is in a state of particles and the solder particles are filled between the metal particles. It is connected using the first solder.
A semiconductor device comprising a semiconductor chip, a tab on which the semiconductor chip is disposed, and a lead serving as a connection terminal to the outside, wherein the electrode of the semiconductor chip and the lead are connected by wire bonding, The semiconductor chip and the tab are connected to each other by a connection portion having a Sn portion filling between the metal particles and the metal particles.
In the semiconductor device, the metal particles are bound by a compound formed of the metal and Sn.
A module having a substrate, a passive component mounted on the substrate, and a semiconductor chip, wherein the electrode of the semiconductor chip and the electrode of the substrate are connected by a wire, and the surface of the semiconductor chip not connected by wire bonding and the substrate are The metal particles are connected to each other by a connecting portion having an Sn portion filling the space between the metal particles.
In the module, the passive component and the substrate are also connected by a connecting portion having a Sn portion filling between the metal particles and the metal particles.
In the module, the substrate has a through hole in a portion on which the semiconductor chip is mounted, and the inside of the through hole is also filled with solder filling between the metal particles. Is.
[0094]
【The invention's effect】
The effects obtained by the representative ones of the inventions disclosed in the present application will be briefly described as follows.
(1) It is possible to provide an electronic device by a completely new solder connection and a method for manufacturing the electronic device.
(2) It is possible to provide solder connection in a temperature hierarchy connection required in the method for manufacturing an electronic device, particularly high-temperature side solder connection.
(3) It is possible to provide a completely new solder and a manufacturing method thereof.
[Brief description of the drawings]
1 is a diagram of the production process of composite metal made from composite balls.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional model view before and after rolling in a state where elastic plastic balls are dispersed.
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional model showing an example of a die bonding process.
[Fig.4] Cross-sectional model of die-bonded joint with Cu, Sn-mixed solder foil
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional model of connecting LSI and cap to the substrate.
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional model of a power module
7 is a cross-sectional model of a module mounted on a printed circuit board.
[Fig.8] RF module mounting cross-section model diagram
FIG. 9 is a flowchart showing an RF module mounting process.
FIG. 10 is a plane and cross-sectional model view of a high-power resin package.
FIG. 11 is a flowchart showing a process of a high-power resin package.
FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional model view of a plastic package.
FIG. 13 is a plan view and a cross-sectional view of a model blended with metal fibers.
FIG. 14 is a plan view of a model using cross metal fibers.
FIG. 15 is a sectional view of a model using wire mesh fibers.
FIG. 16 is a plan view and a cross-sectional view in which elongated metal fibers are randomly placed and flattened.
FIG. 17 is a cross section of a model using strip metal and non-metal fibers.
[Explanation of symbols]
1. Carbon jig 2. Cu ball
3.Sn ball 4.Sn
5. Roll 6. Plastic ball
7. Resistance heating tool 8. Si chip
9.Vacuum suction hole 10.Nitrogen
11.Solder foil 12.Silicone gel
13.Al2O3 substrate 14.W (sintered) -Cu plating electrode
15. Preheater heater 16. Nitrogen
17.Cu, Sn mixed foil 18.Bump
19.Soft resin 20.Lead
21. Solder ball bumps 22. Printed circuit board
23.Al fin 24.Junction with fin
25. Joint with lead 26. Lead
27. Solder foil 28. Board terminals
29. Module board 30. Terminal
31.Cu 32.Organic substrate
33.Cu through-hole conductor 34.Ag-Pd conductor
35.Wire bond 36.AlN relay board
37.Connection terminal 38.Cr-Cu-Au
39. Die bond 40. Solder foil
41.Pressure body 42.Ni-Au plating metallization
43. Relay board 44. Cr-Ni-Au metallization
45. Chemical Ni plating 46. Electric Ni plating
47.Solder 48.Cu disk
49.Cu base 50.Al2O3 insulation substrate
51.Cu lead 52.Chip component
53.Cu pad 54.TQFP-LSI
55.Sn-Ag-Cu solder 56.Lead
57. Dam cutting part
58.Resin 59.Through hole
60.W-Ni-Au thick film electrode 61.W-Ni (or Ag-Pd, Ag) thick film conductor
62.Au plating electrode 63.Caulking part
64. Thermal diffusion plate (header) 65. Lead frame
66. Tab 67. Conductive paste
68.Solder 69.Fiber
70.Cu mesh (cross section) 71.Cu mesh (longitudinal section)
72.Solder (sea) 73.Striped fiber
74. Strip fiber

Claims (14)

  1. A solder material in which first particles of Cu , Ag , Au, or Al (volume ratio of 50% to 74%) and second particles of Sn or In are dispersed is mixed at a temperature lower than the melting point of the second particles. And in a vacuum, a reducing atmosphere or an inert atmosphere to cause plastic flow in the solder material to form a mass of the composite material, and the solder formed by rolling the mass of the composite material Foil,
    The solder foil , wherein the molten metal of the second particles forms a compound with the metal surface portion of the first particles at a temperature equal to or higher than the melting point of the second particles .
  2. The solder foil according to claim 1, wherein the first particles have a particle size of 10 to 40 μm .
  3. 3. The solder foil according to claim 1, wherein the particle diameter of the first particles is 3 to 10 μm . 4.
  4. 4. The solder foil according to claim 1, wherein the surface of the first particle has a Ni plating layer or a Ni / Au plating layer . 5.
  5. 5. The solder foil according to claim 1, wherein at least a portion of the foil where the first particles are exposed is plated with a material of the second particles. Solder foil.
  6. 6. The solder foil according to claim 1, wherein the solder foil has a thickness of 80 μm to 150 μm .
  7. The solder foil according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the solder foil has a thickness of 150 to 250 µm .
  8. The solder foil according to any one of claims 1 to 7, comprising plastic particles .
  9. The solder foil according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the solder foil has third particles made of a material having a smaller thermal expansion coefficient than the first particles .
  10. 10. The solder foil according to claim 9, wherein the third particles made of a material having a smaller thermal expansion coefficient than the first particles are Invar, silica, alumina, AlN , and SiC particles. Solder foil.
  11. The solder foil according to claim 1, wherein the rolling rate is 15% to 20% .
  12. The Cu, Ag, instead of the first particles of Au or Al, Cu, Ag, solder foil according to claim 1, characterized in that formed from the solder material obtained by mixing metal fibers of Au or Al.
  13. 2. The soldering material according to claim 1, wherein the first particles of Cu , Ag , Au, or Al are formed of a solder material mixed with particles of a Zn Al alloy or Au Sn alloy. Solder foil.
  14. 2. The solder foil according to claim 1, wherein the solder foil is formed from a solder material in which particles obtained by plating an Sn layer on the first particles are mixed .
JP2001385444A 2000-12-21 2001-12-19 Solder foil Expired - Fee Related JP3736452B2 (en)

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