JP2015193044A - Block forging method of trunnion for universal joint and trunnion for universal joint - Google Patents

Block forging method of trunnion for universal joint and trunnion for universal joint Download PDF

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JP2015193044A
JP2015193044A JP2015051116A JP2015051116A JP2015193044A JP 2015193044 A JP2015193044 A JP 2015193044A JP 2015051116 A JP2015051116 A JP 2015051116A JP 2015051116 A JP2015051116 A JP 2015051116A JP 2015193044 A JP2015193044 A JP 2015193044A
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trunnion
shaft
universal joint
forging
billet
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JP6552848B2 (en
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家▲か▼ 繆
Jiahua Miao
家▲か▼ 繆
昌 世良
Akira Sera
昌 世良
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Ntn株式会社
Ntn Corp
Ntn株式会社
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/02Die forging; Trimming by making use of special dies ; Punching during forging
    • B21J5/025Closed die forging
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J9/00Forging presses
    • B21J9/02Special design or construction
    • B21J9/027Special design or construction with punches moving along auxiliary lateral directions
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K1/00Making machine elements
    • B21K1/76Making machine elements elements not mentioned in one of the preceding groups
    • B21K1/762Coupling members for conveying mechanical motion, e.g. universal joints
    • B21K1/763Inner elements of coupling members
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D3/00Yielding couplings, i.e. with means permitting movement between the connected parts during the drive
    • F16D3/16Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts
    • F16D3/20Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts one coupling part entering a sleeve of the other coupling part and connected thereto by sliding or rolling members
    • F16D3/202Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts one coupling part entering a sleeve of the other coupling part and connected thereto by sliding or rolling members one coupling part having radially projecting pins, e.g. tripod joints
    • F16D3/205Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts one coupling part entering a sleeve of the other coupling part and connected thereto by sliding or rolling members one coupling part having radially projecting pins, e.g. tripod joints the pins extending radially outwardly from the coupling part
    • F16D3/2052Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts one coupling part entering a sleeve of the other coupling part and connected thereto by sliding or rolling members one coupling part having radially projecting pins, e.g. tripod joints the pins extending radially outwardly from the coupling part having two pins
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D3/00Yielding couplings, i.e. with means permitting movement between the connected parts during the drive
    • F16D3/16Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts
    • F16D3/20Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts one coupling part entering a sleeve of the other coupling part and connected thereto by sliding or rolling members
    • F16D3/202Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts one coupling part entering a sleeve of the other coupling part and connected thereto by sliding or rolling members one coupling part having radially projecting pins, e.g. tripod joints
    • F16D3/205Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts one coupling part entering a sleeve of the other coupling part and connected thereto by sliding or rolling members one coupling part having radially projecting pins, e.g. tripod joints the pins extending radially outwardly from the coupling part
    • F16D3/2055Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts one coupling part entering a sleeve of the other coupling part and connected thereto by sliding or rolling members one coupling part having radially projecting pins, e.g. tripod joints the pins extending radially outwardly from the coupling part having three pins, i.e. true tripod joints

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a block forging method of a trunnion for universal joint which is satisfied in product quality even if a shaft part is enlarged in diameter, improved in rigidity, reduced in weight, and compact in size, and the trunnion for the universal joint.SOLUTION: In a block forging method of a trunnion for a universal joint in which a plurality of shaft parts 10 are radially formed at a boss part 8, a forging metal mold is constituted of: openable and closable dies 16, 17 in which cavities 20 substantially corresponding to the trunnion are formed; a pair of upper and lower punches 18, 19 which are relatively and movably arranged on center axes of the dies 16, 17, and press a billet 15b; and sufficing punches 30 which are arranged on center axes of shaft-part molding metal mold parts 16a, 17a of the cavities 20, and can advance and retreat with respect to a radial direction. The billet 15b is inputted into dies 16, 17, the sufficing punches 30 advance into the cavities 20 of the clamped dies 16, 17, the billet 15b is pressed by the upper and lower punches 18, 19, the shaft parts 10, 60 are formed, and recesses 25 are formed in the shaft parts.

Description

この発明は、自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法および自在継手用トラニオンに関する。   The present invention relates to a closed forging method for a universal joint trunnion and a universal joint trunnion.
プロペラシャフトやドライブシャフトに自在継手が用いられている。この自在継手の一つに、例えば、摺動式2ポッド継手と呼ばれる形式の継手がある。2ポッド継手は、外側継手部材、2本の軸部を有するトラニオンおよびトラニオンの軸部に転動体を介して装着される球状ローラを主な構成とする。   Universal joints are used for propeller shafts and drive shafts. One of these universal joints is, for example, a type of joint called a sliding two-pod joint. The two-pod joint mainly includes an outer joint member, a trunnion having two shaft portions, and a spherical roller attached to the shaft portion of the trunnion via a rolling element.
具体的には、摺動式2ポッド継手1は、図1に示すように、外側継手部材2は筒状のカップ部3とその底部に軸部4が形成されている。カップ部3の内周には周方向に2等分位置(180°間隔)に2本のトラック溝5が形成され、トラック溝5の対向する側面に断面円弧状のローラ案内面6が形成されている。カップ部3の内周の中心部にトラニオン7のボス部8が嵌合する断面円弧上の凹部9が形成されている。   Specifically, as shown in FIG. 1, the sliding joint 2 pod joint 1 has a cylindrical cup portion 3 and a shaft portion 4 formed at the bottom of the outer joint member 2. Two track grooves 5 are formed on the inner periphery of the cup portion 3 at halves (180 ° intervals) in the circumferential direction, and a roller guide surface 6 having an arcuate cross section is formed on the opposite side surface of the track groove 5. ing. A concave portion 9 on a circular arc in which the boss portion 8 of the trunnion 7 is fitted is formed at the center of the inner periphery of the cup portion 3.
トラニオン7は、ボス部8から180°間隔で放射状に形成された2本の軸部10を有する。軸部10には、転動体としての針状ころ11を介して球状ローラ12が回転自在に装着されている。球状ローラ12は、外側継手部材2のトラック溝5のローラ案内面6に回転自在に案内される。このような構造により、外側継手部材2とトラニオン7との間の相対的な軸方向変位や角度変位が吸収され、回転トルクが伝達される。このような2ポッド継手の一例が特許文献1に記載されている。   The trunnion 7 has two shaft portions 10 formed radially from the boss portion 8 at intervals of 180 °. A spherical roller 12 is rotatably mounted on the shaft portion 10 via needle rollers 11 as rolling elements. The spherical roller 12 is rotatably guided by the roller guide surface 6 of the track groove 5 of the outer joint member 2. With such a structure, relative axial displacement and angular displacement between the outer joint member 2 and the trunnion 7 are absorbed, and rotational torque is transmitted. An example of such a two-pod joint is described in Patent Document 1.
特開昭61−171923号公報JP 61-171923 A
近年、自動車の燃費向上に対する要求がますます強くなり、自在継手のさらなる軽量・コンパクト化が強く望まれている。このような要求について、特許文献1は着目されていない。   In recent years, demands for improving the fuel efficiency of automobiles have become stronger, and further weight reduction and compactness of universal joints are strongly desired. Patent Document 1 does not pay attention to such a requirement.
本発明は、前述の問題点に鑑みて提案されたもので、その目的とするところは、トラニオンの軸部を大径化しても製品としての品質を満足し、トラニオンの強度を向上し、軽量・コンパクトな自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法および自在継手用トラニオンを提供することにある。   The present invention has been proposed in view of the above-mentioned problems, and the object of the present invention is to satisfy the quality as a product even when the diameter of the trunnion shaft is increased, to improve the strength of the trunnion, and to be lightweight. The object is to provide a closed forging method for a trunnion for a universal joint and a trunnion for a universal joint.
本発明者らは、上記の目的を達成するため鋭意検討および検証し、以下の知見を見出した。
(1)トラニオンの強度を向上させ、コンパクト化を図るには、製品設計として、軸部の外径を大きくし断面二次モーメントを大きくすることが考えられる。
(2)そこで、軸部の外径を大きくしたトラニオンの閉塞鍛造試験を実施した。図11が鍛造後のトラニオン成形品7’であり、軸部10の外径Dを大きくし、この外径Dを軸部10の軸方向長さLよりも大きくした。図12(a)に示すように、ビレット15をダイス16、17内に投入する。型閉め後、上下パンチ18、19によりビレット15を押圧すると、図12(b)の示すようにキャビティ20内に材料が流動する。閉塞鍛造試験の結果、軸部10の外径Dを大きくすると、図11および図12(b)に示すように、ボス部8の内径部13にヒケ14が発生した。これは、軸部10の先端へ向かう材料流動が多くなることによるものと考えられる。この試験結果より、製品としての品質を満足できない場合があるため、軸部10の大径化には鍛造面より制約があることが分かった。
(3)上記の問題について種々検討した結果、材料流量を抑制するという新たな閉塞鍛造コンセプトを着想し、本発明に至った。
The present inventors diligently studied and verified to achieve the above object, and found the following findings.
(1) In order to improve the trunnion strength and achieve compactness, as a product design, it is conceivable to increase the outer diameter of the shaft portion and increase the secondary moment of section.
(2) Therefore, a closed forging test of a trunnion in which the outer diameter of the shaft portion was increased was performed. FIG. 11 shows a trunnion molded product 7 ′ after forging. The outer diameter D of the shaft portion 10 is increased, and the outer diameter D is made larger than the axial length L of the shaft portion 10. As shown in FIG. 12A, the billet 15 is put into the dies 16 and 17. When the billet 15 is pressed by the upper and lower punches 18 and 19 after the mold is closed, the material flows into the cavity 20 as shown in FIG. As a result of the closed forging test, when the outer diameter D of the shaft portion 10 was increased, sink marks 14 were generated in the inner diameter portion 13 of the boss portion 8 as shown in FIGS. 11 and 12B. This is considered to be due to an increase in material flow toward the tip of the shaft 10. From this test result, it was found that the quality of the product could not be satisfied, and therefore the diameter of the shaft portion 10 was more restricted than the forged surface.
(3) As a result of various studies on the above problems, a new closed forging concept of suppressing the material flow rate was conceived and the present invention was achieved.
前述の目的を達成するための技術的手段として、本発明は、ボス部に放射状に複数の軸部が形成された自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法において、鍛造金型は、前記トラニオンに略相当するキャビティが形成された開閉可能なダイスと、このダイスの中心軸上で相対的に移動可能に配置され、ビレットを押圧する一対の上下パンチと、前記キャビティの軸部成形金型部の中心軸上に配置され、半径方向に進退可能な充足パンチから構成され、前記ビレットを前記ダイス内に投入し、型閉めされた前記ダイスのキャビティ内に前記充足パンチが前進し前記キャビティ内に配置された状態で、前記上下パンチによりビレットを押圧することにより前記軸部およびその内部に凹部が形成されることを特徴とする。   As technical means for achieving the above-mentioned object, the present invention is a closed forging method for a universal joint trunnion in which a plurality of shaft portions are radially formed on a boss portion, and the forging die is substantially equivalent to the trunnion. An openable and closable die having a cavity to be formed, a pair of upper and lower punches that are relatively movable on the center axis of the die and press the billet, and the center axis of the cavity mold part It is composed of a sufficiency punch that is arranged on the top and is capable of advancing and retreating in the radial direction. The billet is introduced into the die, and the sufficiency punch is advanced into the cavity of the die that is closed and placed in the cavity. When the billet is pressed by the upper and lower punches in the state, a concave portion is formed in the shaft portion and the inside thereof.
また、自在継手用トラニオンとしての本発明は、放射状に複数の軸部が形成された自在継手用トラニオンにおいて、前記トラニオンの軸部の外径が軸方向長さよりも大きく設定されており、前記軸部の中心軸上に鍛造時の材料流量を抑制するために形成された凹部を備えていることを特徴とする。   Further, the present invention as a universal joint trunnion is a universal joint trunnion having a plurality of radially formed shaft portions, wherein the outer diameter of the shaft portion of the trunnion is set larger than the axial length, and the shaft A concave portion formed to suppress the material flow rate during forging is provided on the central axis of the portion.
上記の構成により、トラニオンの軸部を大径化してもボス部の内径部にヒケの発生がなく、製品としての品質を満足する自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法を実現することができる。また、トラニオンの軸部の大径化による鍛造時の増肉分を、軸部の中心軸上に設けた凹部によって減肉することで、強度を確保し、軽量・コンパクトな自在継手用トラニオンを実現することができる。   With the above configuration, even if the diameter of the trunnion shaft portion is increased, there is no sink in the inner diameter portion of the boss portion, and a closed forging method for a universal joint trunnion that satisfies the product quality can be realized. In addition, the thickness of the trunnion shaft is increased by reducing the thickness of the forging due to the recess provided on the central shaft of the shaft, ensuring strength and reducing the size and weight of the trunnion for universal joints. Can be realized.
上記の軸部の横断面積Aに対する凹部の横断面積Bの比B/Aを0.35〜0.80とすることが好ましい。これにより、ボス部の内径部のヒケが抑制できる。さらに比B/Aを0.45〜0.75とするとより好ましい。これにより、ボス部の内径部のヒケが抑制できることに加えて、側方押出しに必要な加工荷重の増加を抑えることができ、工具寿命に対して有利となる。   The ratio B / A of the cross-sectional area B of the recess to the cross-sectional area A of the shaft is preferably 0.35 to 0.80. Thereby, the sink of the internal diameter part of a boss | hub part can be suppressed. Further, the ratio B / A is more preferably 0.45 to 0.75. Thereby, in addition to being able to suppress the sink of the inner diameter portion of the boss portion, it is possible to suppress an increase in processing load necessary for side extrusion, which is advantageous for the tool life.
上記の閉塞鍛造方法において、軸部および凹部が成形される間、充足パンチは半径方向に位置決めされている。これにより、充足パンチの位置決め手段は、成形荷重を受けるのみで、充足パンチと位置決め手段との間の相対移動がない金型構造にできるため、摺動摩耗やかじりを防止できる。   In the closed forging method described above, the sufficiency punch is positioned in the radial direction while the shaft portion and the recess are formed. Thereby, the positioning means for the sufficiency punch can receive a molding load and can have a mold structure without relative movement between the sufficiency punch and the positioning means, so that sliding wear and galling can be prevented.
上記の軸部成形金型部の内面の半径方向外側端部近傍に段差部を設けることが好ましい。これにより、軸部の充足度合いを判定するマーキングとすることができる。また、段差部による成形面は、高精度に型成形されるので、軸部の円筒形外周面の研削仕上げ加工の際の位置決めに使用することができる。   It is preferable to provide a stepped portion in the vicinity of the radially outer end of the inner surface of the shaft molding die. Thereby, it can be set as the marking which determines the satisfaction degree of an axial part. Further, since the molding surface by the step portion is molded with high accuracy, it can be used for positioning in grinding finishing of the cylindrical outer peripheral surface of the shaft portion.
上記の凹部の横断面における形状を円形とすることが好ましい。これにより、充足パンチの形状を単純化され、製作が容易となる。また、鍛造時、材料がスムーズに流れる。ただし、凹部の横断面における形状は、円形に限ることなく、楕円形や一部直線を含む円形および楕円形状とすることもできる。   It is preferable that the shape of the recess in the cross section is circular. This simplifies the shape of the sufficiency punch and facilitates production. Also, the material flows smoothly during forging. However, the shape of the cross section of the recess is not limited to a circle, and may be an ellipse, a circle including a partial straight line, and an ellipse.
上記のビレットは、予備成形により軸部に対応する側面を平坦面に形成することができる。これにより、成形後の軸部の先端面のダレを抑制できる。   Said billet can form the side surface corresponding to an axial part in a flat surface by preforming. Thereby, the sagging of the front end surface of the axial part after shaping | molding can be suppressed.
上記の自在継手として、具体的には、2本の軸部が形成されたトラニオンを有する2ポッド継手や3本の軸部が形成されたトラニオンを有するトリポード型等速自在継手がある。   Specific examples of the universal joint include a two-pod joint having a trunnion having two shaft portions and a tripod constant velocity universal joint having a trunnion having three shaft portions.
本発明によれば、トラニオンの軸部を大径化してもボス部の内径部にヒケの発生がなく、製品としての品質を満足する自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法を実現することができる。また、強度を確保し、軽量・コンパクトな自在継手用トラニオンを実現することができる。   According to the present invention, it is possible to realize a closed forging method for a universal joint trunnion that does not cause sink marks in the inner diameter portion of the boss portion even when the diameter of the trunnion shaft portion is increased, and satisfies the quality as a product. In addition, the strength can be ensured, and a lightweight and compact trunnion for a universal joint can be realized.
軸部および凹部が成形される間、充足パンチが半径方向に位置決めされる構成とした場合は、簡便な機構で摺動摩耗やかじりを防止した金型構造とすることが可能となる。   When the filling punch is configured to be positioned in the radial direction while the shaft portion and the recess are formed, it is possible to obtain a mold structure that prevents sliding wear and galling with a simple mechanism.
本発明の自在継手用トラニオンについての第1の実施形態に係るトラニオンおよび自在継手を示し、(a)は横断面図で、(b)は部分縦断面図である。The trunnion and universal joint which concern on 1st Embodiment about the trunnion for universal joints of this invention are shown, (a) is a cross-sectional view, (b) is a partial longitudinal cross-sectional view. 図1(a)の拡大図である。It is an enlarged view of Fig.1 (a). 本発明の閉塞鍛造方法についての第1の実施形態を説明する図で、図1のトラニオンを鍛造する前のビレットを示し、(a)はバー材を切断した状態を示す斜視図であり、(b)は(a)のビレットを予備成形した状態を示す斜視図である。It is a figure explaining 1st Embodiment about the closed forging method of this invention, and shows the billet before forging the trunnion of FIG. 1, (a) is a perspective view which shows the state which cut | disconnected the bar material, b) is a perspective view showing a state in which the billet of FIG. 本発明の閉塞鍛造方法についての第1の実施形態を説明する図で、(a)は図1のトラニオンの鍛造後の状態を示す斜視図であり、(b)は軸部の横断面積と凹部の横断面積を示す図である。BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS It is a figure explaining 1st Embodiment about the closed forging method of this invention, (a) is a perspective view which shows the state after the forge of the trunnion of FIG. 1, (b) is the cross-sectional area and recessed part of an axial part. FIG. 閉塞鍛造工程を示し、(a)はビレットを投入した状態を示す縦断面図であり、(b)は成形完了状態を示す縦断面図である。The closed forging process is shown, (a) is a longitudinal sectional view showing a state in which a billet is charged, and (b) is a longitudinal sectional view showing a completed state. 充足パンチの進退機構を含めた概要図である。It is a schematic diagram including the advance / retreat mechanism of the sufficiency punch. 図6の充足パンチが後退した状態を示す縦断面図である。It is a longitudinal cross-sectional view which shows the state which the sufficiency punch of FIG. 6 retracted. 充足パンチの駆動機構の第1の変形例を示す縦断面図である。It is a longitudinal cross-sectional view which shows the 1st modification of the drive mechanism of a sufficiency punch. 充足パンチの駆動機構の第2の変形例を示す縦断面図である。It is a longitudinal cross-sectional view which shows the 2nd modification of the drive mechanism of a sufficiency punch. 軸部の凹部の変形例を示す斜視図である。It is a perspective view which shows the modification of the recessed part of an axial part. 本発明に至る過程の知見を示す斜視図である。It is a perspective view which shows the knowledge of the process leading to this invention. 本発明に至る過程の知見を示し、(a)はビレットを投入した状態を示す縦断面図であり、(b)は成形完了状態を示す縦断面図である。The knowledge of the process leading to the present invention is shown, (a) is a longitudinal sectional view showing a state in which a billet is charged, and (b) is a longitudinal sectional view showing a completed state. 本発明の自在継手用トラニオンについての第2の実施形態に係るトラニオンおよびトリポード型等速自在継手を示し、(a)は横断面図で、(b)は部分縦断面図である。The trunnion and tripod type constant velocity universal joint concerning the 2nd Embodiment about the trunnion for universal joints of this invention are shown, (a) is a cross-sectional view, (b) is a partial longitudinal cross-sectional view. 図13のトリポード型等速自在継手が作動角を取った状態を示す部分縦断面図である。It is a fragmentary longitudinal cross-section which shows the state which the tripod type constant velocity universal joint of FIG. 13 took the operating angle. 図13(a)の拡大図である。It is an enlarged view of Fig.13 (a). 本発明の閉塞鍛造方法についての第2の実施形態おけるビレットを示し、(a)はバー材を切断した状態を示す斜視図であり、(b)は(a)のビレットを予備成形した状態を示す斜視図である。The billet in 2nd Embodiment about the closed forging method of this invention is shown, (a) is a perspective view which shows the state which cut | disconnected the bar material, (b) is the state which preformed the billet of (a). It is a perspective view shown. 本発明の閉塞鍛造方法についての第2の実施形態を説明する図で、トラニオンの鍛造後の状態を示す斜視図である。It is a figure explaining 2nd Embodiment about the closed forging method of this invention, and is a perspective view which shows the state after forging of a trunnion.
以下に本発明の実施の形態を図面に基づいて説明する。   Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.
本発明の自在継手用トラニオンについての第1の実施形態を図1および図2に示し、本発明の自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法についての第1の実施形態を図3〜7に示す。   1 and 2 show a first embodiment of a trunnion for a universal joint according to the present invention, and FIGS. 3 to 7 show a first embodiment of a closed forging method for a trunnion for a universal joint according to the present invention.
まず、図1に基づいて、第1の実施形態に係る自在継手用トラニオンを説明する。図1は、第1の実施形態に係るトラニオンおよび自在継手を示し、(a)は横断面図で、(b)は部分縦断面図である。この自在継手1は、摺動式2ポッド継手と呼ばれるものである。2ポッド継手1は、外側継手部材2、内方継手部材としてのトラニオン7、転動体としての針状ころ11および球状ローラ12を主な構成とする。   First, the universal joint trunnion according to the first embodiment will be described with reference to FIG. 1A and 1B show a trunnion and a universal joint according to a first embodiment, wherein FIG. 1A is a transverse sectional view and FIG. 1B is a partial longitudinal sectional view. The universal joint 1 is called a sliding two-pod joint. The two-pod joint 1 mainly includes an outer joint member 2, a trunnion 7 as an inner joint member, a needle roller 11 and a spherical roller 12 as rolling elements.
具体的には、摺動式2ポッド継手1は、図1に示すように、外側継手部材2は筒状のカップ部3とその底部に軸部4が形成されている。カップ部3の内周には周方向の2等分位置(180°間隔)に2本のトラック溝5が形成され、トラック溝5の対向する側面に断面円弧状のローラ案内面6が形成されている。また、カップ部3の内周の中心部に断面円弧状の凹部9が形成されている。   Specifically, as shown in FIG. 1, the sliding joint 2 pod joint 1 has a cylindrical cup portion 3 and a shaft portion 4 formed at the bottom of the outer joint member 2. Two track grooves 5 are formed on the inner periphery of the cup portion 3 at bisected positions (at intervals of 180 °) in the circumferential direction, and a roller guide surface 6 having an arcuate cross section is formed on the opposite side surface of the track groove 5. ing. A concave portion 9 having a circular arc cross section is formed at the center of the inner periphery of the cup portion 3.
トラニオン7は、ボス部8から180°間隔で放射状に突出して形成された2本の軸部10を有する。各軸部10は、円筒状外周面10aと、軸端付近に形成された環状の止め輪溝21を備えている。軸部10の円筒状外周面10aの周りに複数の針状ころ11を介して回転自在に球状ローラ12が装着されている。軸部10の円筒状外周面10aは針状ころ11の内側軌道面を形成する。球状ローラ12の内周面12aは円筒形状で、針状ころ11の外側軌道面を形成する。   The trunnion 7 has two shaft portions 10 formed to protrude radially from the boss portion 8 at intervals of 180 °. Each shaft portion 10 includes a cylindrical outer peripheral surface 10a and an annular retaining ring groove 21 formed near the shaft end. A spherical roller 12 is rotatably mounted around a cylindrical outer peripheral surface 10 a of the shaft portion 10 via a plurality of needle rollers 11. The cylindrical outer peripheral surface 10 a of the shaft portion 10 forms the inner raceway surface of the needle roller 11. The inner peripheral surface 12 a of the spherical roller 12 is cylindrical and forms the outer raceway surface of the needle roller 11.
軸部10の軸端付近に形成された止め輪溝21には、アウタワッシャ22を介して止め輪23が装着されている。針状ころ11は、軸部10の付け根段部とアウタワッシャ22により、軸部10の軸方向の移動が規制されている。アウタワッシャ22は、軸部10の半径方向に延びた円盤部22aと、軸部10の軸線方向に延びた円筒部22bとからなる。アウタワッシャ22の円筒部22bは球状ローラ12の内周面12aより小さな外径を有し、トラニオン7の半径方向で見た円筒部22bの外側の端部22cは、球状ローラ12の内周面12aよりも大径に形成されている。したがって、球状ローラ12は、軸部10の軸線方向に移動することができ、かつ、端部22cにより脱落が防止されている。   A retaining ring 23 is attached to a retaining ring groove 21 formed near the shaft end of the shaft portion 10 via an outer washer 22. In the needle roller 11, the axial movement of the shaft portion 10 is restricted by the base step portion of the shaft portion 10 and the outer washer 22. The outer washer 22 includes a disk portion 22 a extending in the radial direction of the shaft portion 10 and a cylindrical portion 22 b extending in the axial direction of the shaft portion 10. The cylindrical portion 22 b of the outer washer 22 has a smaller outer diameter than the inner peripheral surface 12 a of the spherical roller 12, and the outer end 22 c of the cylindrical portion 22 b viewed in the radial direction of the trunnion 7 is the inner peripheral surface of the spherical roller 12. The diameter is larger than 12a. Therefore, the spherical roller 12 can move in the axial direction of the shaft portion 10 and is prevented from falling off by the end portion 22c.
トラニオン7の軸部10に回転自在に装着された球状ローラ12は、外側継手部材2のトラック溝5のローラ案内面6に回転自在に案内される。また、トラニオン7のボス部8は球状に形成されており、このボス部8が外側継手部材2の凹部9に嵌合され、凹部9の軸線方向に摺動自在であるが、軸線方向に対して直交する面内では変位しないように案内されている。このような構造により、外側継手部材2とトラニオン7との間の相対的な軸方向変位や角度変位が吸収され、回転が伝達される。   The spherical roller 12 rotatably mounted on the shaft portion 10 of the trunnion 7 is guided rotatably on the roller guide surface 6 of the track groove 5 of the outer joint member 2. Further, the boss portion 8 of the trunnion 7 is formed in a spherical shape, and this boss portion 8 is fitted in the concave portion 9 of the outer joint member 2 and is slidable in the axial direction of the concave portion 9. Therefore, it is guided so as not to be displaced in a plane orthogonal to each other. With such a structure, relative axial displacement and angular displacement between the outer joint member 2 and the trunnion 7 are absorbed, and rotation is transmitted.
トラニオン7のボス部8の内周面には雌スプライン24が形成されており、この雌スプライン24に、図示は省略するが、中間シャフトの雄スプラインが嵌合され、トルク伝達可能に連結される。   A female spline 24 is formed on the inner peripheral surface of the boss portion 8 of the trunnion 7, and although not shown, a male spline of an intermediate shaft is fitted into the female spline 24 and connected so as to be able to transmit torque. .
本実施形態に係る2ポッド継手1は、軽量・コンパクト化を図るために、図2に示す各寸法関係を有する。中間シャフトの軸径(スプライン大径)dとローラ案内面のPCDの比d/PCDを0.65〜0.75と大きく設定する共に、トラニオン7の軸部10の外径Djと前記軸径dとの比Dj/dを0.87〜0.93と大きく設定している。また、針状ころ長さLnと軸部10の外径Djとの比Ln/Djを0.40〜0.47と小さく、すなわち、軸部10の外径Djを軸部10の軸方向長さよりも大幅に大きく設定している。   The two-pod joint 1 according to the present embodiment has the dimensional relationships shown in FIG. 2 in order to reduce weight and size. The ratio d / PCD of the shaft diameter (spline large diameter) d of the intermediate shaft and the PCD of the roller guide surface is set large as 0.65 to 0.75, and the outer diameter Dj of the shaft portion 10 of the trunnion 7 and the shaft diameter are set. The ratio Dj / d with respect to d is set as large as 0.87 to 0.93. Further, the ratio Ln / Dj between the needle roller length Ln and the outer diameter Dj of the shaft portion 10 is as small as 0.40 to 0.47, that is, the outer diameter Dj of the shaft portion 10 is the axial length of the shaft portion 10. It is set significantly larger than this.
各軸部10は上記のように大径化されているが、各軸部10の中心軸上に鍛造時の材料流量を抑制するために形成された凹部25を備えている。軸部10の横断面積A〔図4(b)参照〕に対する凹部25の横断面積B〔図4(b)参照〕の比B/Aを0.35〜0.80とすることが好ましく、さらに比B/Aを0.45〜0.75とするとより好ましい。これにより、トラニオンの軸部を大径化しても鍛造時の材料流量を十分抑制することができるので、ヒケの発生がなく、製品としての良好な品質を確保することができる。加えて、側方押出しに必要な加工荷重の増加を抑えることができ、工具寿命に対して有利となる。この点については、後述の閉塞鍛造方法の実施形態においてさらに詳細に説明する。   Each shaft portion 10 has a large diameter as described above, but includes a recess 25 formed on the central axis of each shaft portion 10 to suppress the material flow rate during forging. The ratio B / A of the cross-sectional area B (see FIG. 4 (b)) of the recess 25 to the cross-sectional area A (see FIG. 4 (b)) of the shaft 10 is preferably 0.35 to 0.80. The ratio B / A is more preferably 0.45 to 0.75. As a result, even if the diameter of the trunnion shaft is increased, the material flow rate during forging can be sufficiently suppressed, so that there is no occurrence of sink marks, and good product quality can be ensured. In addition, an increase in processing load required for side extrusion can be suppressed, which is advantageous for tool life. This point will be described in more detail in an embodiment of a closed forging method described later.
次に、本発明の自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法についての第1の実施形態を図3〜7に基づいて説明する。まず、鍛造前の素材を図3に示す。図3(a)はバー材を切断したビレットを示す斜視図であり、図3(b)は図3(a)のビレットを予備成形した状態を示す斜視図である。   Next, a first embodiment of a closed forging method for a universal joint trunnion according to the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. First, the material before forging is shown in FIG. 3A is a perspective view showing a billet obtained by cutting a bar material, and FIG. 3B is a perspective view showing a state in which the billet of FIG. 3A is preformed.
バー材は、クロム鋼(SCr420)やクロムモリブデン鋼(SCM420)等の肌焼鋼からなる。図3(a)に示すように、鍛造重量に基づいてバー材を所定長さで切断し、円柱状のビレット15aを製作する。このビレット15aの閉塞鍛造工程(本成形工程)の前に、予備成形工程により図3(b)に示す形状の予備成形材15bを成形する。予備成形材15bは、軸部10に対応する側面を平坦面26とし、両端部には上下のパンチ18、19〔図5(a)参照〕の膨出部18a、19aが嵌合するに凹部27a、27b〔図5(a)参照〕が形成されている。予備成形材15bは上記の形状に成形されるが、その作用効果については後述する。ここで、ビレットとは、ビレット15aと予備成形材15bのいずれをも指す。   A bar material consists of case hardening steel, such as chromium steel (SCr420) and chromium molybdenum steel (SCM420). As shown in FIG. 3A, the bar material is cut at a predetermined length based on the forging weight to produce a cylindrical billet 15a. Prior to the closed forging step (main forming step) of the billet 15a, a preforming material 15b having the shape shown in FIG. The preform 15b has a side surface corresponding to the shaft portion 10 as a flat surface 26, and is recessed at both ends so that the bulging portions 18a and 19a of the upper and lower punches 18 and 19 [see FIG. 27a and 27b (see FIG. 5A) are formed. The preforming material 15b is formed into the above-mentioned shape, and the effect thereof will be described later. Here, the billet refers to both the billet 15a and the preformed material 15b.
トラニオンの閉塞鍛造後の状態を図4(a)に示す。図示のように、鍛造後のトラニオン成形品7’は、ボス部8から180°間隔で放射状に突出した軸部10が成形され、軸部10には、その中心軸上に鍛造時の材料流量を抑制するための凹部25が形成されている。ボス部8の両端部には凹部27a’、27b’〔図5(b)参照〕が形成されている。   The state after closed forging of the trunnion is shown in FIG. As shown in the figure, the trunnion molded product 7 ′ after forging is formed with a shaft portion 10 protruding radially from the boss portion 8 at an interval of 180 °, and the shaft portion 10 has a material flow rate during forging on its central axis. A recess 25 is formed to suppress the above. Concave portions 27 a ′ and 27 b ′ (see FIG. 5B) are formed at both ends of the boss portion 8.
トラニオン成形品7’を得る閉塞鍛造工程を図5〜7に基づいて説明する。図5(a)は、予備成形材15bを投入後、上下のダイス16、17を型閉めし、充足パンチ30を所定の成形位置に配置した状態を示す。この状態になるまでの各金型の動きを説明する。開閉可能な上下のダイス16、17を離間させた状態で、予備成形材15bを投入する。この時、上下パンチ18、19は後退した位置に待機した状態にあり、投入された予備成形材15bの下端部の凹部27bが下パンチ19の膨出部19aに嵌合し姿勢が保持されてセットされる。その後、上下のダイス16、17が接近し、図6に示すカム31が充足パンチ30を前進させる。上下のダイス16、17が当接し型閉め後、充足パンチ30の前進を終了し、半径方向の所定の成形位置に配置される。この状態が図5(a)に示されている。ここで、鍛造金型とは、上下ダイス16、17、上下パンチ18、19および充足パンチ30を指す。   The closed forging process for obtaining the trunnion molded product 7 ′ will be described with reference to FIGS. FIG. 5A shows a state where the upper and lower dies 16 and 17 are closed after the preforming material 15b is introduced, and the sufficiency punch 30 is arranged at a predetermined molding position. The movement of each mold until reaching this state will be described. In a state where the upper and lower dies 16 and 17 that can be opened and closed are separated, the preforming material 15b is introduced. At this time, the upper and lower punches 18 and 19 are in a standby state in a retracted position, and the recessed portion 27b at the lower end portion of the charged preforming material 15b is fitted into the bulging portion 19a of the lower punch 19 so that the posture is maintained. Set. Thereafter, the upper and lower dies 16, 17 approach each other, and the cam 31 shown in FIG. After the upper and lower dies 16 and 17 are in contact with each other and the mold is closed, the advancement of the sufficiency punch 30 is finished, and the die is placed at a predetermined molding position in the radial direction. This state is shown in FIG. Here, the forging die refers to the upper and lower dies 16 and 17, the upper and lower punches 18 and 19, and the sufficiency punch 30.
図5(a)の状態から上下パンチ18、19が接近し、上パンチ18の膨出部18aが予備成形材15bの上端部の凹部27aに嵌合し、上パンチ18の下端面18bと下パンチ19の上端面19bが予備成形材15bの上下端面を押圧する。上下パンチ18、19が押し込まれると、図5(b)に示すように、予備成形材15bを塑性変形させて、上下ダイス16、17の軸部成形金型部16a、17aの内面に形成されたキャビティ20に材料を流動させる。この成形の際、充足パンチ30が所定の成形位置に配置されているので、トラニオン7の軸部10が大径であっても、充足パンチ30の横断面積により材料流量を抑制することができる。この成形時に軸部10の中心軸上に凹部25が形成される。このため、ボス部8の内径部13のヒケが抑制される。   From the state of FIG. 5A, the upper and lower punches 18 and 19 approach, the bulging portion 18a of the upper punch 18 fits into the recess 27a at the upper end portion of the preform 15b, and the lower end surface 18b of the upper punch 18 and the lower portion The upper end surface 19b of the punch 19 presses the upper and lower end surfaces of the preforming material 15b. When the upper and lower punches 18 and 19 are pushed in, as shown in FIG. 5 (b), the preforming material 15b is plastically deformed and formed on the inner surfaces of the shaft forming mold parts 16a and 17a of the upper and lower dies 16 and 17. The material is caused to flow into the cavity 20. At the time of molding, the sufficiency punch 30 is disposed at a predetermined molding position, so that the material flow rate can be suppressed by the cross-sectional area of the sufficiency punch 30 even if the shaft portion 10 of the trunnion 7 has a large diameter. A concave portion 25 is formed on the central axis of the shaft portion 10 during this molding. For this reason, sink marks of the inner diameter portion 13 of the boss portion 8 are suppressed.
図4(a)に示すように、トラニオン成形品7’の軸部10は、その外径Dを大きくし、外径Dは軸方向長さLよりも大幅に大きく設定されているが、図4(b)に基づいて、前記ヒケを抑制するための有利な構成について付け加える。軸部10の横断面積Aに対する充足パンチ30の横断面積に対応して形成される凹部25の横断面積Bの比B/Aを0.35〜0.80とすることが好ましい。これにより、軸部10の外径Dを大径化しても、鍛造時に材料が流れる横断面積が軸部10の横断面積Aから凹部25の横断面積Bを差し引いたものになり、材料流量を抑制できるので、ボス部8の内径部13のヒケが抑制できる。図4(b)において、軸部10の横断面積Aはハッチングを施した部分であり、凹部25の横断面積Bはクロスハッチングを施した部分である。さらに比B/Aは0.45〜0.75とするとより好ましい。これにより、ヒケが抑制できるという上記効果に加え、側方押出しに必要な加工荷重の増加を抑えることができ、工具寿命に対して有利となる。   As shown in FIG. 4A, the shaft portion 10 of the trunnion molded product 7 ′ has an outer diameter D that is set to be significantly larger than the axial length L. Based on 4 (b), an advantageous configuration for suppressing the sink marks will be added. The ratio B / A of the cross-sectional area B of the recess 25 formed corresponding to the cross-sectional area of the sufficiency punch 30 with respect to the cross-sectional area A of the shaft portion 10 is preferably 0.35 to 0.80. As a result, even if the outer diameter D of the shaft portion 10 is increased, the cross-sectional area through which the material flows during forging becomes the cross-sectional area A of the shaft portion 10 minus the cross-sectional area B of the recess 25, thereby suppressing the material flow rate. Since this is possible, the sink of the inner diameter portion 13 of the boss portion 8 can be suppressed. In FIG. 4B, the cross-sectional area A of the shaft portion 10 is a hatched portion, and the cross-sectional area B of the recess 25 is a cross-hatched portion. Furthermore, the ratio B / A is more preferably 0.45 to 0.75. Thereby, in addition to the above effect that sink can be suppressed, an increase in processing load necessary for side extrusion can be suppressed, which is advantageous for tool life.
図3(b)に示した予備成形材15bは、前述したように軸部10に対応する側面を平坦面26とした。この作用効果を説明する。閉塞鍛造において軸部10の先端面10b〔図5(b)参照〕となる部分は、軸部成形金型部16a、17aや充足パンチ30に接する部分が、その間の部分に比べ流動しにくくなる。しかし、上記形状の予備成形材15bを用いることによって、軸部成形金型部16a、17aのキャビティ20に逃げ部20aを設けても図5(b)に示すように、軸部10の先端面10bのダレを小さくできる。このように、軸部10の先端面10bのダレを小さくできれば、このトラニオン7を用いた2ポッド継手1のコンパクト化、軽量化を図ることができる。上記の予備成形材15bでは、軸部に対応する側面を平坦面26にしたものを例示したが、これに限られず、曲率半径の大きななだらかな円筒状面や楕円筒状面としてもよい。   In the preform 15b shown in FIG. 3B, the side surface corresponding to the shaft portion 10 is the flat surface 26 as described above. This effect will be described. In the closed forging, the portion that becomes the tip surface 10b (see FIG. 5B) of the shaft portion 10 is less liable to flow than the portion in contact with the shaft portion molding die portions 16a, 17a and the sufficiency punch 30. . However, by using the preforming material 15b having the above-described shape, even if the relief portion 20a is provided in the cavity 20 of the shaft portion molding die portions 16a and 17a, as shown in FIG. The droop of 10b can be reduced. In this way, if the sagging of the tip surface 10b of the shaft portion 10 can be reduced, the two-pod joint 1 using the trunnion 7 can be made compact and lightweight. In the preform 15b, the side surface corresponding to the shaft portion is exemplified as the flat surface 26. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and a gentle cylindrical surface or an elliptic cylindrical surface having a large curvature radius may be used.
図5(b)に示す閉塞鍛造が終了したトラニオン成形品7’の斜視図が図4(a)である。閉塞鍛造後、トラニオン成形品7’のボス部8の内部壁8aを打ち抜く。その後、トラニオン成形品7’は、外周の所定の部位(ボス部8の端面や内周面、止め輪溝21等)を旋削加工し、雌スプライン24〔図1(a)、(b)、図2参照〕をブローチ加工した後、熱処理を施す。浸炭焼入れ焼戻しにより、表面硬さはHRC58〜62程度に硬化される。熱処理後、軸部10の円筒状外周面10aを研削加工により仕上げて、完成品となる。このように閉塞鍛造後のトラニオン成形品7’と完成品7との間で軸部10には細部の違いがあるが、成形品7’と完成品7の軸部には同じ符号10を付して、説明を簡略化する。また、図4(a)のトラニオン成形品7’の軸部10の外径Dと図2に示す軸部10の外径Djとの間には、研削取り代(0.1〜0.2mm程度)の差があるが、DとDjの寸法関係は同等とみなされる。   FIG. 4A is a perspective view of the trunnion molded product 7 ′ after the closed forging shown in FIG. After the closed forging, the inner wall 8a of the boss 8 of the trunnion molded product 7 'is punched out. Thereafter, the trunnion molded product 7 ′ is formed by turning a predetermined portion of the outer periphery (the end surface and inner peripheral surface of the boss portion 8, the retaining ring groove 21 and the like), and the female spline 24 [FIG. 1 (a), (b), 2) is subjected to a heat treatment. By carburizing, quenching and tempering, the surface hardness is cured to about HRC 58 to 62. After the heat treatment, the cylindrical outer peripheral surface 10a of the shaft portion 10 is finished by grinding to obtain a finished product. As described above, there is a difference in the details of the shaft portion 10 between the trunnion molded product 7 ′ after the closed forging and the finished product 7, but the same reference numeral 10 is attached to the shaft portion of the molded product 7 ′ and the finished product 7. The description will be simplified. Further, there is a grinding allowance (0.1 to 0.2 mm) between the outer diameter D of the shaft portion 10 of the trunnion molded product 7 ′ of FIG. 4A and the outer diameter Dj of the shaft portion 10 shown in FIG. However, the dimensional relationship between D and Dj is regarded as equivalent.
軸部成形金型部16a、17aの内面の半径方向の外側端部近傍には、図5(a)に示すように段差部16b、17bが設けられている。図5(b)に示すように、閉塞鍛造が終了したトラニオン成形品7’の軸部10の先端面10bに、段差部16b、17bの形状が成形されているかどうかや成形の状態により、軸部10の充足度合いを判定するマーキングとすることができる。また、軸部10の先端面10bに形成された段差部16b、17bによる成形面は、高精度に型成形されるので、軸部10の円筒状外周面10aの研削仕上げ加工の際の位置決めに使用することができる。段差部16b、17bは円周方向の全周にわたって設けるものに限られず、円周方向の一部の必要な範囲に設けてもよい。   Step portions 16b and 17b are provided in the vicinity of the outer ends in the radial direction of the inner surfaces of the shaft molding dies 16a and 17a, as shown in FIG. As shown in FIG. 5B, depending on whether or not the shape of the stepped portions 16b and 17b is formed on the tip surface 10b of the shaft portion 10 of the trunnion molded product 7 ′ after the closed forging is finished, It can be set as the marking which determines the satisfaction degree of the part 10. FIG. In addition, since the molding surfaces formed by the stepped portions 16b and 17b formed on the tip surface 10b of the shaft portion 10 are molded with high precision, the cylindrical outer peripheral surface 10a of the shaft portion 10 is positioned during grinding finishing. Can be used. The step portions 16b and 17b are not limited to those provided over the entire circumference in the circumferential direction, and may be provided in a necessary range in a part in the circumferential direction.
図5(a)に示すように、充足パンチ30の先端面30aは、鍛造時の潤滑材を円滑に流すために滑らかな湾曲面で形成され、先端面30aと先端外径面30bは適宜のR形状で滑らかに接続されている。これにより、鍛造時に充足パンチ30により材料流量を抑制しても、材料はスムーズに流動する。また、先端外径面30bが所定の軸方向幅で形成され、この先端外径面30bの反先端側には逃げ部30cが設けられている。これにより、摩擦力が低減され、鍛造時の成形荷重や後述する充足パンチ30の分離荷重を低減することができる。また、逃げ部30cに対向する軸部成形金型部16a、17aの内面にも逃げ部を設けることができる。これにより、摩擦力を一層低減することができる。   As shown in FIG. 5 (a), the front end surface 30a of the sufficiency punch 30 is formed with a smooth curved surface to smoothly flow the lubricant during forging, and the front end surface 30a and the front end outer diameter surface 30b are appropriately formed. Smooth connection with R shape. Thereby, even if the material flow rate is suppressed by the sufficiency punch 30 during forging, the material flows smoothly. Further, the tip outer diameter surface 30b is formed with a predetermined axial width, and a relief portion 30c is provided on the opposite end side of the tip outer diameter surface 30b. Thereby, the frictional force is reduced, and the molding load at the time of forging and the separation load of the sufficiency punch 30 described later can be reduced. Also, relief portions can be provided on the inner surfaces of the shaft portion molding die portions 16a and 17a facing the relief portion 30c. Thereby, the frictional force can be further reduced.
図5(a)および図5(b)に示すように、トラニオン成形品7’が成形される間、充足パンチ30は、半径方向の所定の成形位置で位置決めされている。ここで、充足パンチ30の進退機構を図6および図7に基づいて説明する。図6は、充足パンチ30が前進し半径方向の所定の成形位置で位置決めされていて、成形が終了した状態を示す縦断面図である。図7は、成形終了後、充足パンチ30が軸部10から後退した状態を示す縦断面図である。   As shown in FIGS. 5 (a) and 5 (b), while the trunnion molded product 7 'is molded, the sufficiency punch 30 is positioned at a predetermined molding position in the radial direction. Here, the advance / retreat mechanism of the sufficiency punch 30 will be described with reference to FIGS. FIG. 6 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view showing a state where the sufficiency punch 30 has advanced and is positioned at a predetermined molding position in the radial direction, and the molding has been completed. FIG. 7 is a longitudinal sectional view showing a state in which the sufficiency punch 30 is retracted from the shaft portion 10 after the completion of molding.
具体的には、充足パンチ30の進退機構32は、ハウジング33、バネ部材34、カム31、カム受け部材35を主な構成とする。ハウジング33内に多数の皿バネ34aが積層されバネ部材34が構成され、皿バネ34aの内周孔に充足パンチ30が挿入されている。充足パンチ30のカム側の端部にはカム受け部材35が嵌合固定されている。カム受け部材35のカム面35aとカム31のカム面31aが当接し、カム31は図の上下方向に移動可能になっている。図6は、カム31が下降して皿バネ34aの付勢力に抗して充足パンチ30を前進させ、半径方向の所定の成形位置に位置決めした状態を示している。このように、カム31は、充足パンチ30の前進駆動手段と位置決め手段としての機能を有する。   Specifically, the advance / retreat mechanism 32 of the sufficiency punch 30 mainly includes a housing 33, a spring member 34, a cam 31, and a cam receiving member 35. A large number of disc springs 34 a are stacked in the housing 33 to constitute a spring member 34, and a sufficiency punch 30 is inserted into the inner peripheral hole of the disc spring 34 a. A cam receiving member 35 is fitted and fixed to the end of the sufficiency punch 30 on the cam side. The cam surface 35a of the cam receiving member 35 and the cam surface 31a of the cam 31 are in contact with each other, and the cam 31 is movable in the vertical direction in the figure. FIG. 6 shows a state in which the cam 31 is lowered to advance the sufficiency punch 30 against the biasing force of the disc spring 34a and is positioned at a predetermined molding position in the radial direction. Thus, the cam 31 functions as a forward drive means and a positioning means for the sufficiency punch 30.
前述したように、トラニオン成形品7’が成形される間、充足パンチ30は、半径方向の所定の成形位置で位置決めされている〔図5(a)、図5(b)および図6参照〕。このように成形過程では、充足パンチ30(カム受け部材35)とカム31との間には相対運動がなく、充足パンチ30(カム受け部材35)とカム31のテーパ状のカム面35a、31aは成形荷重を受けるのみとなり摺動しないため、カム面35a、31aにかじりを生じることがない。   As described above, while the trunnion molded product 7 ′ is formed, the sufficiency punch 30 is positioned at a predetermined forming position in the radial direction (see FIGS. 5A, 5B, and 6). . Thus, in the molding process, there is no relative movement between the sufficient punch 30 (cam receiving member 35) and the cam 31, and the tapered cam surfaces 35a and 31a of the sufficient punch 30 (cam receiving member 35) and the cam 31 are provided. Since only the molding load is received and does not slide, the cam surfaces 35a and 31a are not galled.
成形完了後、上ダイス16と上パンチ18が上方へ後退し、カム31が上方に移動する。カム31が上方に移動すると、図7に示すように、充足パンチ30がバネ部材34の付勢力により後退し、トラニオン成形品7’(軸部10)から分離される。前述したように、充足パンチ30の先端外径面30bの反先端側に逃げ部30cが設けられているので〔図5(a)、(b)参照〕、分離荷重を低減することができる。以上の作動により、トラニオン成形品7’が下ダイス17からノックアウト可能な状態になる。その後、下パンチ19がトラニオン成形品7’を下ダイス17からノックアウトし、閉塞鍛造工程が終了する。   After the molding is completed, the upper die 16 and the upper punch 18 retreat upward, and the cam 31 moves upward. When the cam 31 moves upward, as shown in FIG. 7, the sufficiency punch 30 is retracted by the urging force of the spring member 34, and is separated from the trunnion molded product 7 '(shaft portion 10). As described above, the relief portion 30c is provided on the opposite end side of the distal end outer diameter surface 30b of the sufficiency punch 30 (see FIGS. 5A and 5B), so that the separation load can be reduced. By the above operation, the trunnion molded product 7 ′ can be knocked out from the lower die 17. Thereafter, the lower punch 19 knocks out the trunnion molded product 7 ′ from the lower die 17, and the closed forging process is completed.
以上のように、成形過程において充足パンチとダイスやカムの間の相対運動がなく、分離荷重も低減できる金型構造のため、金型構造全体として簡素化することができ、結果として充足パンチの進退機構は、以下に示す種々の変形例が採用できる。   As described above, the mold structure can be simplified as the entire mold structure because there is no relative movement between the sufficient punch and the die or cam in the molding process, and the separation load can be reduced. Various modifications shown below can be adopted for the advance / retreat mechanism.
次に、充足パンチ30の進退機構の第1の変形例を図8に基づいて説明する。本変形例の進退機構32は、油圧シリンダ36、ピストン37、カム(図示省略)を主な構成とする。ピストン37に充足パンチ30が嵌合固定されており、ピストン37にはカム面37aが形成されている。充足パンチ30を前進させ、半径方向の所定の成形位置に位置決めする作動は、第1の実施形態の進退機構32と同様で、図示を省略したカムが下降し、ピストン37のカム面37aを押圧することにより行われる。この時、油圧シリンダ36内の油圧は減圧される。   Next, a first modification of the advance / retreat mechanism of the sufficiency punch 30 will be described with reference to FIG. The advance / retreat mechanism 32 of the present modification mainly includes a hydraulic cylinder 36, a piston 37, and a cam (not shown). A sufficient punch 30 is fitted and fixed to the piston 37, and a cam surface 37a is formed on the piston 37. The operation of moving the sufficiency punch 30 forward and positioning it at a predetermined molding position in the radial direction is the same as the advance / retreat mechanism 32 of the first embodiment, and the cam (not shown) descends and presses the cam surface 37a of the piston 37. Is done. At this time, the hydraulic pressure in the hydraulic cylinder 36 is reduced.
成形完了後、カムが上方に移動すると、図8に示すように、シリンダ36内に油圧をかけ、ピストン37、充足パンチ30が後退し、トラニオン成形品7’(軸部10)から分離される。その他の作動は、第1の実施形態と同様であるので、第1の実施形態の内容を準用し、説明を省略する。   When the cam moves upward after completion of molding, as shown in FIG. 8, hydraulic pressure is applied to the cylinder 36, and the piston 37 and the sufficiency punch 30 are retracted and separated from the trunnion molded product 7 ′ (shaft portion 10). . Since other operations are the same as those in the first embodiment, the contents of the first embodiment are applied mutatis mutandis and description thereof is omitted.
充足パンチ30の進退機構の第2の変形例を図9に基づいて説明する。本変形例の進退機構32は、ハウジング33、カム受け部材35、2種のカムを主な構成とする。カム受け部材35に充足パンチ30が嵌合固定されており、カム受け部材35は、軸方向の両端に2種のカム面35a、35bが形成されている。充足パンチ30を前進させ、半径方向の所定の成形位置に位置決めする作動は、第1の実施形態の進退機構32と同様で、図示を省略したカムが下降し、カム受け部材35のカム面35aを押圧することにより行われる。   A second modification of the advance / retreat mechanism of the sufficiency punch 30 will be described with reference to FIG. The advancing / retreating mechanism 32 of this modification mainly includes a housing 33, a cam receiving member 35, and two types of cams. The sufficient punch 30 is fitted and fixed to the cam receiving member 35, and the cam receiving member 35 is formed with two types of cam surfaces 35a and 35b at both ends in the axial direction. The operation of moving the sufficiency punch 30 forward and positioning it at a predetermined molding position in the radial direction is the same as that of the advance / retreat mechanism 32 of the first embodiment, and the cam (not shown) is lowered and the cam surface 35a of the cam receiving member 35 is lowered. This is done by pressing.
成形完了後、図示を省略したカムが上方に移動すると、図9に示すように、充足パンチ30に後退動作を行わせる第2のカム38が上昇し、この第2のカム38のカム面38aがカム受け部材35のカム面35bと当接し、カム受け部材35、充足パンチ30が後退し、トラニオン成形品7’(軸部10)から分離される。その他の作動は、第1の実施形態と同様であるので、第1の実施形態の内容を準用し、説明を省略する。   When the cam (not shown) moves upward after the molding is completed, as shown in FIG. 9, the second cam 38 that causes the sufficiency punch 30 to move backward is raised, and the cam surface 38a of the second cam 38 is raised. Comes into contact with the cam surface 35b of the cam receiving member 35, and the cam receiving member 35 and the sufficiency punch 30 are retracted and separated from the trunnion molded product 7 '(shaft portion 10). Since other operations are the same as those in the first embodiment, the contents of the first embodiment are applied mutatis mutandis and description thereof is omitted.
次に、2ポット継手用トラニオンの変形例を図10に基づいて説明する。図10も閉塞鍛造が終了したトラニオン成形品7’を示す斜視図である。このトラニオン成形品7’は、第1の実施形態のトラニオン成形品7’と比べて、軸部10の中心軸上に形成された凹部25の横断面形状が異なる。その他の構成については、第1の実施形態のトラニオン成形品7’と同じであるので、同じ機能を有する部位には同一の符号を付して、要点のみ説明する。   Next, a modified example of the two-pot joint trunnion will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 10 is also a perspective view showing the trunnion molded product 7 ′ after the closed forging. This trunnion molded product 7 ′ differs from the trunnion molded product 7 ′ of the first embodiment in the cross-sectional shape of the recess 25 formed on the central axis of the shaft portion 10. Since the other configuration is the same as that of the trunnion molded product 7 ′ of the first embodiment, portions having the same functions are denoted by the same reference numerals and only the main points will be described.
本変形例のトラニオン成形品7’に形成した凹部25の横断面形状は、円形部分25aと直線部分25bとからなる。直線部分25bは、軸部10のトルク負荷方向に配置されている。これにより、中空状の軸部10のトルク負荷方向の肉厚を増加させ、軸部10の強度が向上し、一層のコンパクト化、軽量化を図ることができる。   The cross-sectional shape of the concave portion 25 formed in the trunnion molded product 7 ′ of this modification is composed of a circular portion 25 a and a straight portion 25 b. The straight portion 25 b is disposed in the torque load direction of the shaft portion 10. As a result, the thickness of the hollow shaft portion 10 in the torque load direction can be increased, the strength of the shaft portion 10 can be improved, and further downsizing and weight reduction can be achieved.
この凹部25の横断面形状の場合も、前述した第1の実施形態と同様、軸部10の横断面積Aに対する凹部25の横断面積Bの比B/Aを0.35〜0.80とすることが好ましい。これにより、ボス部の内径部のヒケが抑制できる。さらに比B/Aを0.45〜0.75とするとより好ましい。これにより、ボス部の内径部のヒケが抑制できることに加えて、側方押出しに必要な加工荷重の増加を抑えることができ、工具寿命に対して有利となる。その他の構成や作用効果、ビレットの予備成形、閉塞鍛造工程については、第1の実施形態のトラニオン成形品および閉塞鍛造方法と同様であるので、第1の実施形態で説明した内容を全て準用し、説明を省略する。   Also in the case of the cross-sectional shape of the recess 25, the ratio B / A of the cross-sectional area B of the recess 25 to the cross-sectional area A of the shaft portion 10 is set to 0.35 to 0.80, as in the first embodiment. It is preferable. Thereby, the sink of the internal diameter part of a boss | hub part can be suppressed. Further, the ratio B / A is more preferably 0.45 to 0.75. Thereby, in addition to being able to suppress the sink of the inner diameter portion of the boss portion, it is possible to suppress an increase in processing load necessary for side extrusion, which is advantageous for the tool life. Other configurations, functions and effects, billet preforming, and closed forging process are the same as the trunnion molded product and closed forging method of the first embodiment, so all the contents described in the first embodiment apply mutatis mutandis. The description is omitted.
本発明の自在継手用トラニオンについての第2の実施形態を図13および図14に基づいて説明する。本実施形態の自在継手用トラニオンは3本の軸部を有するトリポード型等速自在継手用トラニオンである。図15(a)は、トリポード型等速自在継手の横断面図であり、図15(b)は縦断面図である。図示のように、トリポード型等速自在継手51は、外側継手部材52、内側継手部材としてのトラニオン57、転動体としての針状ころ61および球状ローラ62を主な構成とする。   A second embodiment of the universal joint trunnion of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. 13 and 14. The trunnion for universal joints of this embodiment is a trunnion for tripod type constant velocity universal joints having three shaft portions. Fig.15 (a) is a cross-sectional view of a tripod type constant velocity universal joint, and FIG.15 (b) is a longitudinal cross-sectional view. As illustrated, the tripod type constant velocity universal joint 51 mainly includes an outer joint member 52, a trunnion 57 as an inner joint member, a needle roller 61 and a spherical roller 62 as rolling elements.
外側継手部材52は筒状のカップ部53とその底部に軸部54が形成されている。カップ部53の内周には円周方向の三等分位置に軸方向に延びる3本のトラック溝55が形成され、各トラック溝55の対向する側面にローラ案内面56が形成されている。ローラ案内面56は、円筒面の一部、すなわち部分円筒面で形成されている。   The outer joint member 52 has a cylindrical cup portion 53 and a shaft portion 54 formed at the bottom thereof. Three track grooves 55 extending in the axial direction are formed on the inner circumference of the cup portion 53 at the three-way positions in the circumferential direction, and a roller guide surface 56 is formed on the opposite side surface of each track groove 55. The roller guide surface 56 is formed of a part of a cylindrical surface, that is, a partial cylindrical surface.
トラニオン57は、ボス部58と軸部60からなり、軸部60はボス部58の円周方向の三等分位置から半径方向に突出して3本形成されている。各軸部60は、円筒状外周面60aと、軸端付近に形成された環状の止め輪溝71を備えている。軸部60の円筒状外周面60aの周りに複数の針状ころ61を介して回転自在に球状ローラ62が装着されている。軸部60の円筒状外周面60aは針状ころ62の内側軌道面を形成する。球状ローラ62の内周面62aは円筒状で、針状ころ62の外側軌道面を形成する。   The trunnion 57 includes a boss portion 58 and a shaft portion 60, and three shaft portions 60 are formed so as to protrude in the radial direction from the circumferentially divided position of the boss portion 58. Each shaft portion 60 includes a cylindrical outer peripheral surface 60a and an annular retaining ring groove 71 formed near the shaft end. A spherical roller 62 is rotatably mounted around a cylindrical outer peripheral surface 60 a of the shaft portion 60 via a plurality of needle rollers 61. The cylindrical outer peripheral surface 60 a of the shaft portion 60 forms the inner raceway surface of the needle roller 62. The inner peripheral surface 62 a of the spherical roller 62 is cylindrical and forms the outer raceway surface of the needle roller 62.
軸部60の軸端付近に形成された止め輪溝71には、アウタワッシャ72を介して止め輪73が装着されている。針状ころ61は、軸部60の付根段部とアウタワッシャ72により、軸部60の軸方向の移動が規制されている。アウタワッシャ72は、軸部60の半径方向に延びた円盤部72aと、軸部60の軸線方向に延びた円筒部72bとからなる。アウタワッシャ72の円筒部72bは球状ローラ62の内周面62aより小さな外径を有し、トラニオン57の半径方向で見た円筒部72bの外側の端部72cは、球状ローラ62の内周面62aよりも大径に形成されている。したがって、球状ローラ62は、軸部60の軸線方向に移動することができ、かつ、端部72cにより脱落が防止されている。   A retaining ring 73 is attached to a retaining ring groove 71 formed in the vicinity of the shaft end of the shaft portion 60 via an outer washer 72. In the needle roller 61, the axial movement of the shaft portion 60 is restricted by the root step portion of the shaft portion 60 and the outer washer 72. The outer washer 72 includes a disk portion 72 a extending in the radial direction of the shaft portion 60 and a cylindrical portion 72 b extending in the axial direction of the shaft portion 60. The cylindrical portion 72 b of the outer washer 72 has an outer diameter smaller than the inner peripheral surface 62 a of the spherical roller 62, and the outer end portion 72 c of the cylindrical portion 72 b viewed in the radial direction of the trunnion 57 is the inner peripheral surface of the spherical roller 62. The diameter is larger than 62a. Therefore, the spherical roller 62 can move in the axial direction of the shaft portion 60 and is prevented from falling off by the end portion 72c.
トラニオン57の軸部60に回転自在に装着された球状ローラ62は、外側継手部材52のトラック溝55のローラ案内面56に回転自在に案内される。このような構造により、外側継手部材52とトラニオン57との間の相対的な軸方向変位や角度変位が吸収され、回転が等速で伝達される。   The spherical roller 62 rotatably mounted on the shaft portion 60 of the trunnion 57 is guided rotatably on the roller guide surface 56 of the track groove 55 of the outer joint member 52. With such a structure, relative axial displacement and angular displacement between the outer joint member 52 and the trunnion 57 are absorbed, and rotation is transmitted at a constant speed.
図14は、トリポード型等速自在継手51が作動角θを取ったときの状態を示す縦断面図である。図示のように、トラニオン57が傾いたとき、外側継手部材52のトラック溝55のローラ案内面56に対して傾斜した状態となる。トラニオン57に装着された球状ローラ62は、ローラ案内面56に半径方向には拘束されているので、球状ローラ62は軸部60上に配置された針状ころ61の軸方向に相対移動する。   FIG. 14 is a longitudinal sectional view showing a state when the tripod type constant velocity universal joint 51 takes the operating angle θ. As illustrated, when the trunnion 57 is tilted, the trunnion 57 is tilted with respect to the roller guide surface 56 of the track groove 55 of the outer joint member 52. Since the spherical roller 62 mounted on the trunnion 57 is restrained in the radial direction by the roller guide surface 56, the spherical roller 62 relatively moves in the axial direction of the needle roller 61 disposed on the shaft portion 60.
トラニオン57のボス部58の内周面には雌スプライン74が形成されており、この雌スプライン74に、図示は省略するが、中間シャフトの雄スプラインが嵌合され、トルク伝達可能に連結される。   A female spline 74 is formed on the inner peripheral surface of the boss portion 58 of the trunnion 57. Although not shown, the male spline of the intermediate shaft is fitted to the female spline 74 and is connected so as to transmit torque. .
本実施形態に係るトリポード型等速自在継手51も、軽量・コンパクト化を図るために、図15に示す各寸法関係を有する。中間シャフトの軸径(スプライン大径)dとローラ案内面56のPCDの比d/PCDを0.62〜0.70と大きく設定する共に、トラニオン57の軸部60の外径Djと前記軸径dとの比Dj/dを0.87〜0.93と大きく設定している。また、針状ころ長さLnと軸部60の外径Djとの比Ln/Djを0.40〜0.47と小さく、すなわち、軸部60の外径Djを軸部60の軸方向長さよりも大幅に大きく設定している。   The tripod type constant velocity universal joint 51 according to the present embodiment also has the dimensional relationships shown in FIG. 15 in order to reduce weight and size. The ratio d / PCD of the shaft diameter (spline large diameter) d of the intermediate shaft and the PCD of the roller guide surface 56 is set large as 0.62 to 0.70, and the outer diameter Dj of the shaft portion 60 of the trunnion 57 and the shaft The ratio Dj / d with the diameter d is set as large as 0.87 to 0.93. Further, the ratio Ln / Dj between the needle roller length Ln and the outer diameter Dj of the shaft portion 60 is as small as 0.40 to 0.47, that is, the outer diameter Dj of the shaft portion 60 is the axial length of the shaft portion 60. It is set significantly larger than this.
本発明の自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法についての第2の実施形態を図16および図17に基づいて説明する。図16は、鍛造前の素材を示し、図16(a)はバー材を切断したビレットを示す斜視図であり、図16(b)は図16(a)のビレットを予備成形した状態を示す斜視図である。図17は、鍛造後のトラニオン成形品を示す斜視図である。   A second embodiment of the closed forging method for a universal joint trunnion according to the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. 16 and 17. 16 shows a material before forging, FIG. 16 (a) is a perspective view showing a billet obtained by cutting a bar material, and FIG. 16 (b) shows a state where the billet of FIG. 16 (a) is preformed. It is a perspective view. FIG. 17 is a perspective view showing a trunnion molded product after forging.
図17に示すトラニオン成形品の概要を説明する。トラニオン成形品57’は、ボス部58の円周方向の三等分位置から放射状に突出する3本の軸部60を有する。軸部60には、その中心軸上に鍛造時の材料流量を抑制するための凹部75が形成されている。トラニオン成形品57’のボス部58の内部壁8aは打ち抜く。その後、トラニオン成形品57’は、外周の所定の部位(ボス部58の端面や内周面、止め輪溝等)を旋削加工し、雌スプラインをブローチ加工した後、熱処理を施す。浸炭焼入れ焼戻しにより、表面硬さはHRC58〜62程度に硬化される。熱処理後、軸部60の円筒状外周面60aを研削加工により仕上げて、完成品となる。第1の実施形態のトラニオンと同様、軸部60の円筒状外周面60aが転動体としての針状ころ61の内側軌道面を形成し、針状ころ61を介して球状ローラ62が回転自在に装着される。   An outline of the trunnion molded product shown in FIG. 17 will be described. The trunnion molded product 57 ′ has three shaft portions 60 that project radially from the circumferentially divided position of the boss portion 58. The shaft portion 60 is formed with a recess 75 on the central shaft for suppressing the material flow rate during forging. The inner wall 8a of the boss 58 of the trunnion molded product 57 'is punched out. Thereafter, the trunnion molded product 57 ′ is subjected to a heat treatment after turning a predetermined portion on the outer periphery (end surface, inner peripheral surface, retaining ring groove, etc. of the boss portion 58) and broaching the female spline. By carburizing, quenching and tempering, the surface hardness is cured to about HRC 58 to 62. After the heat treatment, the cylindrical outer peripheral surface 60a of the shaft portion 60 is finished by grinding to obtain a finished product. Similar to the trunnion of the first embodiment, the cylindrical outer peripheral surface 60 a of the shaft portion 60 forms the inner raceway surface of the needle roller 61 as a rolling element, and the spherical roller 62 is rotatable via the needle roller 61. Installed.
本実施形態の閉塞鍛造方法は、第1の実施形態に比べて、トラニオン成形品57’の軸部60が3本であることが異なり、その他の構成は、第1の実施形態と同様であるので、要点のみを説明する。図16(a)に示す円柱状のビレット15a’は、クロム鋼(SCr420)やクロムモリブデン鋼(SCM420)等の肌焼鋼からなるバー材を鍛造重量に基づいて所定長さで切断して製作する。このビレット15a’の閉塞鍛造工程の前に、予備成形工程により図16(b)に示す形状の予備成形材15b’を成形する。予備成形材15b’は、3本の軸部60に対応する側面に3つの平坦面26が形成され、両端部には、閉塞鍛造の上下パンチの膨出部が嵌合する凹部27a、27b(図示省略)が形成されている。平坦面26や凹部27a、27bの作用効果は、第1の実施形態の閉塞鍛造方法と同様である。   The closed forging method of the present embodiment is different from the first embodiment in that the number of shaft portions 60 of the trunnion molded product 57 ′ is three, and the other configuration is the same as that of the first embodiment. Only the main points will be explained. The columnar billet 15a ′ shown in FIG. 16A is manufactured by cutting a bar material made of case-hardened steel such as chromium steel (SCr420) or chromium molybdenum steel (SCM420) to a predetermined length based on the forging weight. To do. Prior to the closed forging process of the billet 15a ', a preforming material 15b' having a shape shown in FIG. The preformed material 15b ′ is formed with three flat surfaces 26 on the side surfaces corresponding to the three shaft portions 60, and recessed portions 27a and 27b (in which the bulging portions of the upper and lower punches for closed forging are fitted at both ends. (Not shown) is formed. The effects of the flat surface 26 and the recesses 27a and 27b are the same as those in the closed forging method of the first embodiment.
図17に示すように、トラニオン成形品57’の3本の軸部60の中心軸上に鍛造時の材料流量を抑制するための凹部75が形成されているが、第1の実施形態のトラニオン成形品7’の凹部25と同様、次のように設定されている。軸部60の横断面積Aに対する凹部25の横断面積Bの比B/Aを0.35〜0.80とすることが好ましい。さらに、比B/Aは0.45〜0.75とするとより好ましい。これにより、ボス部58の内径部のヒケの抑制や側方押出しに必要な加工荷重の増加を抑えることができ、工具寿命に対して有利となる。   As shown in FIG. 17, a recess 75 for suppressing the material flow rate during forging is formed on the central axis of the three shaft portions 60 of the trunnion molded product 57 ′. The trunnion of the first embodiment Similar to the concave portion 25 of the molded product 7 ′, it is set as follows. The ratio B / A of the cross-sectional area B of the recess 25 to the cross-sectional area A of the shaft part 60 is preferably 0.35 to 0.80. Further, the ratio B / A is more preferably 0.45 to 0.75. Thereby, the suppression of the sink of the internal diameter part of the boss | hub part 58 and the increase in the processing load required for side extrusion can be suppressed, and it becomes advantageous with respect to a tool life.
第1の実施形態のトラニオン成形品7’の軸部10が2本に対して、本実施形態におけるトラニオン成形品7’の軸部10は3本と異なるが、鍛造時の材料流量を抑制するという大径軸部10の1本当たりの成形性が本質的な技術課題であるので、前述した凹部75の横断面積の設定は同様となる。   In contrast to the two shaft portions 10 of the trunnion molded product 7 ′ of the first embodiment, the number of shaft portions 10 of the trunnion molded product 7 ′ of the present embodiment is different from three, but the material flow rate during forging is suppressed. Since the formability per one large-diameter shaft portion 10 is an essential technical problem, the setting of the cross-sectional area of the recess 75 described above is the same.
その他の構成や作用効果、具体的な閉塞鍛造工程については、第1の実施形態の閉塞鍛造方法と同様であるので、軸部60の本数を3本として第1の実施形態で説明した内容を全て準用し、説明を省略する。   Other configurations, functions and effects, and the specific closed forging process are the same as the closed forging method of the first embodiment. Therefore, the content described in the first embodiment with the number of shaft portions 60 being three is as follows. All are applied mutatis mutandis and description is omitted.
以上の実施形態では、トラニオンの軸部の本数を2本のものと3本のものを例示したが、これに限られず、十字軸継手の4本の軸部を有するトラニオンにも適用することができる。   In the above embodiment, the number of trunnion shaft portions is two and three. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and can be applied to a trunnion having four shaft portions of a cross joint. it can.
以上の実施形態では、凹部25、75の横断面形状として、円形のものと、円形部分と直線部分とからなるものを例示したが、これに限られず、材料流動や軸部の強度等を考慮して、楕円形や一部直線を含む円形および楕円形状とすることもできる。   In the above embodiment, as the cross-sectional shape of the recesses 25 and 75, a circular shape and a circular portion and a straight portion are exemplified. However, the shape is not limited to this, and the material flow, the strength of the shaft portion, and the like are taken into consideration. Thus, an elliptical shape, a circular shape including a partial straight line, and an elliptical shape may be used.
以上の実施形態では、ビレットとして予備成形材15b、15b’を用いて閉塞鍛造を行うことを例示したが、必ずしも予備成形材15b、15b’を用いる必要はなく、場合によっては、バー材を所定長さで切断した円柱状のビレット15a、15a’から直接閉塞鍛造を行ってもよい。   In the above embodiment, the closed forging is performed using the preforms 15b and 15b ′ as the billet. However, the preforms 15b and 15b ′ are not necessarily used. Closed forging may be performed directly from columnar billets 15a and 15a 'cut by length.
本発明は前述した実施形態に何ら限定されるものではなく、本発明の要旨を逸脱しない範囲内において、さらに種々の形態で実施し得ることは勿論のことであり、本発明の範囲は、特許請求の範囲によって示され、さらに特許請求の範囲に記載の均等の意味、および範囲内のすべての変更を含む。   The present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiments, and can of course be implemented in various forms without departing from the scope of the present invention. The scope of the present invention is not limited to patents. It includes the equivalent meanings recited in the claims and the equivalents recited in the claims, and all modifications within the scope.
1 自在継手
2、52 外側継手部材
5、55 トラック溝
6、56 ローラ案内面
7、57 トラニオン
7’、57’ トラニオン成形品
8、58 ボス部
10、60 軸部
11、61 針状ころ
12、62 球状ローラ
15a、15a’ ビレット
15b、15b’ 予備成形材
16 上ダイス
16a 軸部成形金型部
16b 段差部
17 下ダイス
17a 軸部成形金型部
17b 段差部
18 上パンチ
19 下パンチ
20 キャビティ
25、75 凹部
30 充足パンチ
32 充足パンチの進退機構
51 トリポード型等速自在継手
A 軸部の横断面積
B 凹部の横断面積
D 軸部の外径
L 軸部の軸方向長さ
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Universal joint 2,52 Outer joint member 5,55 Track groove 6,56 Roller guide surface 7,57 Trunnion 7 ', 57'Trunnion molded product 8,58 Boss part 10,60 Shaft part 11,61 Needle roller 12, 62 Spherical rollers 15a, 15a 'billets 15b, 15b' preform 16 upper die 16a shaft molding die 16b step 17 lower die 17a shaft molding die 17b step 18 upper punch 19 lower punch 20 cavity 25 , 75 Recess 30 Satisfactory punch 32 Satisfactory punch advance / retreat mechanism 51 Tripod type constant velocity universal joint A Shaft cross-sectional area B Recess cross-sectional area D Shaft outer diameter L Shaft axial length

Claims (10)

  1. ボス部に放射状に複数の軸部が形成された自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法において、
    鍛造金型は、前記トラニオンに略相当するキャビティが形成された開閉可能なダイスと、このダイスの中心軸上で相対的に移動可能に配置され、ビレットを押圧する一対の上下パンチと、前記キャビティの軸部成形金型部の中心軸上に配置され、半径方向に進退可能な充足パンチから構成され、前記ビレットを前記ダイス内に投入し、型閉めされた前記ダイスのキャビティ内に前記充足パンチが前進し前記キャビティ内に配置された状態で、前記上下パンチによりビレットを押圧することにより前記軸部およびその内部に凹部が形成されることを特徴とする自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法。
    In the closed forging method of the trunnion for universal joints in which a plurality of shaft portions are formed radially on the boss portion,
    The forging die is an openable and closable die formed with a cavity substantially corresponding to the trunnion, a pair of upper and lower punches that are arranged to be relatively movable on the central axis of the die, and press the billet, and the cavity The filling punch is disposed on the central axis of the shaft molding die portion, and is composed of a sufficiency punch capable of advancing and retreating in the radial direction. The billet is placed in the die, and the sufficiency punch is placed in the cavity of the die which is closed In a state in which the shaft is advanced and disposed in the cavity, the billet is pressed by the upper and lower punches to form the shaft portion and a recess in the interior thereof, and a closed forging method for a universal joint trunnion.
  2. 前記軸部の横断面積Aに対する凹部の横断面積Bの比B/Aを0.35〜0.80としたことを特徴とする請求項1に記載の自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法。   2. The closed forging method for a trunnion for a universal joint according to claim 1, wherein a ratio B / A of a cross-sectional area B of the concave portion to a cross-sectional area A of the shaft portion is set to 0.35 to 0.80.
  3. 前記軸部および凹部が成形される間、前記充足パンチは半径方向に位置決めされていることを特徴とする請求項1又は請求項2に記載の自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法。   The closed forging method for a trunnion for a universal joint according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the sufficiency punch is positioned in a radial direction while the shaft portion and the recess are formed.
  4. 前記軸部成形金型部の内面の半径方向外側端部近傍に段差部を設けたことを特徴とする請求項1〜3のいずれか一項に記載の自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法。   The closed forging method for a trunnion for a universal joint according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein a step portion is provided in the vicinity of the radially outer end of the inner surface of the shaft portion molding die portion.
  5. 前記凹部の横断面における形状を円形としたことを特徴とする請求項1〜4のいずれか一項に記載の自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法。   The closed forging method for a trunnion for a universal joint according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein a shape of the recess in a cross section is circular.
  6. 前記ビレットは、前成形により軸部に対応する側面が平坦面に形成されていることを特徴とする請求項1〜5のいずれか一項に記載の自在継手用トラニオンの閉塞鍛造方法。   6. The closed forging method for a trunnion for a universal joint according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the billet has a flat side surface corresponding to the shaft portion by pre-molding.
  7. 放射状に複数の軸部が形成された自在継手用トラニオンにおいて、前記トラニオンの軸部の外径が軸方向長さよりも大きく設定されており、前記軸部の中心軸上に鍛造時の材料流量を抑制するために形成された凹部を備えていることを特徴とする自在継手用トラニオン。   In the trunnion for a universal joint in which a plurality of shaft portions are radially formed, the outer diameter of the shaft portion of the trunnion is set larger than the axial length, and the material flow rate during forging is set on the central axis of the shaft portion. A trunnion for a universal joint, comprising a concave portion formed for restraining.
  8. 前記軸部の横断面積Aに対する凹部の横断面積Bの比B/Aを0.35〜0.80としたことを特徴とする請求項7に記載の自在継手用トラニオン。   The trunnion for a universal joint according to claim 7, wherein a ratio B / A of a cross-sectional area B of the concave portion to a cross-sectional area A of the shaft portion is 0.35 to 0.80.
  9. 前記自在継手が2ポッド継手であることを特徴とする請求項7又は請求項8に記載の自在継手用トラニオン。   The universal joint trunnion according to claim 7 or 8, wherein the universal joint is a two-pod joint.
  10. 前記自在継手がトリポード型等速自在継手であることを特徴とする請求項7又は請求項8に記載の自在継手用トラニオン。   The universal joint trunnion according to claim 7 or 8, wherein the universal joint is a tripod type constant velocity universal joint.
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CN111842524A (en) * 2020-08-05 2020-10-30 南昌航空大学 Extrusion forming die and method for parts with grooves

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JP2014016007A (en) * 2012-07-11 2014-01-30 Jtekt Corp Tripod type constant velocity joint and manufacturing method thereof

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